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Knowledge Management: The Essence of the Competitive Edge - tacit, C...

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Knowledge Management: The Essence of the Competitive Edge
by Moya K. Mason
Currently, no universally accepted definition of knowledge management exists, but there are some basic concepts to be explored, and considered. Simply put, knowledge management undertakes to identify what is in essence a human asset buried in the minds and hard drives of individuals working in an organization. Knowledge management also requires a system that will allow the creation of new knowledge, a dissemination system that will reach every employee, with the ability to package knowledge as value-added in products, services and systems. However, knowledge management goes far beyond the storage and manipulation of data, or even of information. There is a need for a more structured approach to transferring knowledge to decision-makers before it is needed and enabling access to information in a timely fashion. To remain competitive in the future, organizations will need to abandon their ideas of information hoarding and embrace knowledge sharing. Competitive success will be based less on how strategically physical and financial resources are allocated, and more on how strategically intellectual capital is managed -- from capturing, coding and disseminating information, to acquiring new competencies through training and development, and to re-engineering business processes. In view of these trends, and recognizing that knowledge has great potential value and because there is a corresponding failure to fully exploit it, some corporations have embarked on comprehensive knowledge management programs. Above all, companies, governments, and large corporations often do not know what they know. Knowledge management attempts to prevent problems such as lost knowledge or lost income by establishing human and technological networks capable of harnessing a company's collective expertise and experience. The move from an industrially-based economy to a knowledge or information-based one demands a top-notch knowledge management system to secure a competitive edge and a capacity for learning. An organization's ability to quickly tap into wisdom gives it a competitive edge in the marketplace. As a result, knowledge is displacing capital, natural resources, and labor as the basic economic resource. Governments know this all too well. If an organization wants to begin managing knowledge as a resource, what should it should it take into consideration? The organization needs to design and install procedures and processes to create, protect, and use known knowledge, while articulating the purpose and nature of managing knowledge as a resource and embodying it in other initiatives and programs. In addition, anyone considering a foray into the knowledge management arena needs to plan and build environments that will allow employees to feel safe to discover and release their own tacit knowledge. Knowledge management systems administer the skills and competencies that lie within an organization, and allow them to blossom by freeing people to be the best that they can be. Through allowing deep personal reflection about one's own sense of purpose and deepest aspirations, and through cultivating individual and collective responsibility for the future, goes a long way to create an organization that has the creation of knowledge as an ongoing goal. When people bring their 'grand will' instead of their 'unfree will' to authentic inquiry into the questions of where are we going and what are we here for it can breathe life into an organization. It is the key to the future of strategy in an independent world.

Two Kinds of Knowledge
There are two kinds of knowledge: tacit, which is hard to articulate, versus explicit knowledge, which

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There has been a shift from bureaucracies to networks because traditional hierarchical designs that served the industrial era are no longer flexible enough to harness an organization's full intellectual capability.S. flows of knowledge are an organization's capacity to learn. and hard to formalize. Intranets and email can help it flow through an organization. but we actually made this shift. More and more. but tacit knowledge often moves laterally through informal channels of communication. trying to become more aware of the structures that exist within their hierarchies and in the folds of their bureaucracies. as scientific formulas. companies was greater on telecommunications. The information that is passed in this way is very important because it is useful for helping people to get their work done more effectively. just as are the smokers who huddle near the entrance to the building at break time. Prince Edward Island has agreed to become the first world test site for a new Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM) developed by the U. In addition. The shift from a local and national economy to a transnational one is changing the way all organizations are doing business.moyak. copying and computer equipment than on industrial. even individual Canadian provinces have an interest in understanding the flow of knowledge within their confines. Organizations and governments can no longer rely purely upon national approaches to maintain their profitable growth.html can be expressed in words and numbers and can be easily communicated and shared in hard form. in part. and coordinated by the Institute of Island Studies. it is very important to capture tacit knowledge. What the tool does is assess Prince Edward Island's ability to compete in a knowledge economy. C. Knowledge is intangible. The new source of wealth is knowledge. How can we transfer it? By putting mechanisms of socialization. even concerned about the concept of knowledge management. around 1991.com/papers/knowledge-management.. apprenticeships. We tend to think of the mid-1990s as the transition point. Since knowledge may be an organization's only sustainable competitive advantage. A knowledge economy requires real change and has a built-in necessity for less information and more knowledge. and actually grow through application. and a multitude of companies are interested. Thomas Stewart. those groups that hang around the coffee machine are exchanging knowledge. and not labor. experiential. and difficult to measure. mining. dynamic. Indeed. and opportunities for face-to-face communication in place. mentorships. from a macroeconomic perspective. or financial capital. and farming equipment. http://www. and unlike most resources that deplete when used.S. For example. through communities of practice. context specific. codified procedures. virtual marketplaces and virtual organizations can be created offering benefits such as speed and agility. but rather of abundance. For example. but without it no organization can survive. the effect of location is diminished. Tacit or unarticulated knowledge is more personal.Knowledge Management: The Essence of the Competitive Edge . land. The knowledge economy differs from the traditional economy in several key respects: the economics is not of scarcity. information and knowledge can be shared. companies and industries of all types must globalize in order to maximize their profits. or universal principles. multinational corporations. Communities of practice must have their place in a comprehensive knowledge management effort. governments around the world. construction. and is generally inside the heads of individuals and teams. The Knowledge Economy Currently. They are all you really have. 2 of 12 10/14/2011 11:31 AM . because nobody is willing to question or think about the process very much. This kind of knowledge is difficult to communicate or share with others. By using appropriate technology and methods. Board of Editors of Fortune magazine has the following to say: 1991 was the crossover year when capital spending by U.tacit. National Research Council in Washington. and an a-round-the-clock global operation..

This kind of policy saves money right across the board and allows something just as valuable as money to be saved: TIME.tacit. you probably need a knowledge management system. uses. and coordinating such a strategy. The best reason for an organization to develop a knowledge management system is to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace: by turning intellectual assets into value through innovation. If you are interested in the knowledge grid. comprehensive insight.Knowledge Management: The Essence of the Competitive Edge . then appointing a CKO is one way of initiating. then knowledge management is for your organization. some organizations are now trying to use technology to capture the knowledge residing in the minds of their employees so it can be easily shared across the enterprise. reduces communication costs. The best scenario would be that. Knowledge. like total 3 of 12 10/14/2011 11:31 AM .html Do You Really Need KM? Only if your department wants to stop constantly reengineering and downsizing: talented people are assets to be developed for a global 21st century." It has four categories: "what we know we know. highly competitive world.com/papers/knowledge-management. Saving time means more work can be generated because you do not have to reinvent the wheel every time a new project is taken on. In effect. Competitive success will be based on how strategically intellectual capital is managed. They know it is no longer enough to leave critical knowledge sitting passively in the minds of individual employees in a period of radical change.. C. no one can forget that knowledge is the most important resource. and what we don't know we don't know. In this post-industrial knowledge economy. forgetting could be fatal.moyak. Instead. augmented. knowledge management is the successor to the reengineering and downsizing efforts that marked the last decade. The real differentiator for those leading companies is knowing how to use innovation to create value and ongoing growth." If you understand that reuse of knowledge saves work. what we don't know we know. synthesized. knowledge management has become the next silver bullet. What is needed is a similar mindset about the collection of intellectual assets: it belongs to everyone employed in a particular place. senior executives are recognizing that knowledge and learning represent the preeminent source of sustainable advantage in a fast-moving. where it can be accessed. and deployed for the benefit of all. and it has to be shared. Increasingly. what we know we don't know. If your organization or department is serious about implementing a knowledge management program. Capturing the knowledge residing in the minds of employees so that it can be easily shared across the enterprise. Does a KM System Need a Chief Knowledge Officer? Only if your organization is serious about implementing a knowledge management program. Knowledge when locked into systems or processes has higher inherent value than when it can 'walk out of the door' in people's heads. For many of these companies. Leveraging organizational knowledge is emerging as the solution to an increasingly fragmented and globally dispersed workplace. Economic realities and and competitive edge factors play a large role. Knowledge cultures are those in which formal attention is paid to what some academics have called the "knowledge grid. No longer should companies have to worry that employees will walk out the door with valuable knowledge that it no longer has access to. Partly as a reaction to downsizing. Workforce mobility. its creation. http://www. their learning is embedded for future use. falling educational standards. Organizations and individuals must learn rapidly and uniformly across different functions and levels of the organization. the knowledge trapped within the employee base must be leveraged to the organizational level. Although many individuals may come and go. and allows a company to take on more projects. and the rapid rate of business change mean that individuals can no longer be relied upon to provide consistent.. and innovation is the only real competitive edge when governments are moving from industrial-based economies to knowledge-intensive ones.

codifying.moyak. a leader or coordinator is imperative for initiating.. The company has used knowledge management to post consistent performance gains throughout the 1990s. the strategy centers on computer hardware. Think of this as the 80-20 split: 80% of their knowledge sharing follows one strategy. In the beginning. they can coexist. that follow a codification strategy rely on employees reusing information it has already created. in the long-term the goal will see all members of the organization owning and driving the knowledge management system. Ericsson in Sweden has already embraced the idea of tracking skills and competencies throughout its organization. and helping others learn to share their unique or tacit knowledge so that an organization can raise its knowledge capabilities. performs activities that propel a knowledge management project forward. distilling. Indeed. however. the personalization strategy relies on harnessing the tacit knowledge of experts in the organization. This is called the codification strategy. Glance into the inner workings of Buckman Laboratories and you can get an idea of how knowledge can flow in every direction and how each person can become a willing participant in the program. should either focus on only one of the strategies or spin off units that do not fit the mold. where the car divisions have little to do with the credit and finance divisions. By contrast. In some companies. A growing number of firms use Intranets and online forums to spread knowledge. http://www. seeing the need for CKOs decline. Telecommunications giant L. and knowledge is carefully codified and stored in databases. deciding on software and systems (with the IT staff). so that it can be easily accessed by anyone in the organization.com/papers/knowledge-management. and even if an appointee does not have the title of Chief Knowledge Officer. Emphasizing the wrong strategy or trying to pursue both at the same time can quickly undermine a business. Competency management is one of the fastest growing areas of knowledge management. C. knowledge management would become embedded in organizations. 3. knowledge is closely tied to the person who developed it and is shared mainly through direct person-to-person contacts. different models can in fact work in each business unit.tacit. As long as your CKO has the requisite profile. What's the Strategy? There are two very different knowledge management strategies. with knowledge a source of value. and over time. It focuses on displaying information in sophisticated ways to understand labor trends and compensation.M. 20% the other. Companies. today's CKOs are discovering that knowledge management comprises a large agenda and that making substantial progress takes time. In other organizations. Knowledge Management Types 1. such as Anderson Consulting. Companies that use knowledge effectively pursue one strategy predominantly and use the second strategy to support the first. has access to the proper resources.Knowledge Management: The Essence of the Competitive Edge . The issue is sometimes complicated by two additional concerns: the existence of multiple business units and the commoditization of knowledge over time. as in gatekeepers passing information to mentees. keeping up the momentum.. Another type of KM that is attracting attention is knowledge sharing. but only in corporations where business units operate like stand-alone companies. Companies with tightly integrated business units. appointing a CKO is likely the best place to start when embarking on a knowledge management program. However. It is tempting to think that the two knowledge management models can coexist in different business units within one corporation. 2. Competitive knowledge management is yet another area of KM that blends competency 4 of 12 10/14/2011 11:31 AM .html quality management. In a company like General Motors. Therefore. and possesses success factors that work. Of course.

moyak. be content rich and navigation lean. manage regulations and copyrights. managers need to look beyond the traditional tools at their disposal. and to offer rewards and incentives. To encourage knowledge sharing. All the technology and tools in the world won't make you a knowledge-based organization if you do not establish a culture that believes in sharing. and institutionalize what has always been an informal and haphazard process. Knowledge Management Enablers Organizational requirements for leveraging intellectual capital require that attention be paid to what have been recognized as Knowledge Enablers: structures and attributes that must be in place for a successful knowledge management program. support collaboration. methodologies. It is now possible to move large volumes of information quickly. Companies must think through their technological systems to ensure they have the capabilities needed for the 21st century because technology such as Intranets and advanced collaborative software have made knowledge management possible. Technology provides the tools to help the employees and the organization to develop and apply its management capital. They need to find ways to build trust and develop fair process. research. In a sustainable knowledge managed learning organization.com/papers/knowledge-management. proposals and resumes. consultants at the firm post knowledge workplans. http://www. It's called: not reinventing the wheel logic. Access to knowledge and making sure it is available provides value.Knowledge Management: The Essence of the Competitive Edge . The challenges are to facilitate access to the right content at the right time and place. leadership is often expressed as the self-confidence to navigate the unknown waters of the future. C.html management and knowledge sharing. there needs to be a corresponding culture that values organizational behaviors and supports an environment of trust and collaboration. Historically. Buckman Laboratories' Koskiniemi reports: Successful knowledge sharing is ninety percent cultural. more training expenditures have gone to developing cognitive skills than to developing motivated creativity. To do so. some companies are creating central knowledge repositories. Arthur Andersen's Michael Stone explains it this way: Technology allows people to collect. five percent tools and five percent magic. and allow people in the organization to access all global resources.. Technological infrastructure that can link people enterprise-wide. and yet not have chaos. and provide flexibility and ease of access.. The following knowledge management enablers should be considered: Learning culture leadership is absolutely critical to liberate the creativity of teams. filter and distribute information far more rapidly than ever before. Knowledge management programs need enabling factors if there is to be any real success. To create a climate in which employees volunteer their creativity and expertise. find. Changing the culture is imperative. That means getting the gatekeepers to facilitate the flow of information rather than hoard it. Currently. A learning culture embeds a learning attitude and places value on competency development. Information technology is most effective when it converts the tacit knowledge of an individual into explicit knowledge that is then accessible by all. so that others in the organization can tap into high-level expertise on an as-needed basis. Those days are gone now. sometimes that is not what they are 5 of 12 10/14/2011 11:31 AM . Workplace culture is paramount because although management may pay lip service to the value of cooperation and its ability to facilitate organizational knowledge. the goal is to see intelligent people using innovation to create knowledge out of information. Since Arthur Andersen's Atlanta-based business consulting division established an Intranet two years ago.tacit.

through its own behavior. Others have not given it the same attention as they have given cost cutting. and allows people to use information across applications.. Some CEOs have put knowledge management at the top of their agendas. Knowledge and skills can never substitute for the motivation only an effective organizational culture can provide. IT. While corporate directives to share information and create cross-functional teams can improve knowledge management efforts. which are highest when it is coordinated with HR.in functional departments such as HR or IT.tacit. if there is to be any real success. based on incentives. and competitive strategy. Internal corporate structures are already mutating beyond recognition. and it is responsive to influences other than paychecks. and uses knowledge. and keep in mind that culture is more than just compensation. and cross-boundary processes.. and they have frequently interpreted it in narrow. Rewards and incentives signal what behaviors and outcomes are most valued by management. promotions. rigid ways. C. And do not isolate knowledge management. controls. but explicit efforts to cultivate that culture are still needed. So be careful about sending mixed signals. restructuring. and. Why KM? What's the Big Deal? 6 of 12 10/14/2011 11:31 AM . And that is why it is important to have the knowledge process facilitated by a steady development of a knowledge culture. motivation of people. it is foreign ground for most organizations.com/papers/knowledge-management.Knowledge Management: The Essence of the Competitive Edge . This means that while knowledge management does not have to be driven from the top. Individual and team learning processes must become the true driver of organizational learning. Knowledge tools. and new organizational structures will go far to create a new culture in which informed decision making is valued. Knowledge management collapses these boundaries. CKOs must understand organization structure. Since it is a bottom-up and peer-to-peer tool that seeds an organization with intellectual capital. knowledge management takes place if at all . Knowledge management programs need all enabling factors. real innovation and self-directed learning happen only at the individual and team level. and not just one or two. or international expansion. possibly more than anything. In companies where that is the case. Managers traditionally have kept a tight leash on their own department's data. An interesting representation of what is going on in business comes in the form of a quote from Paul Saffo at the Institute for the Future: It is hardly news that the corporation as we know it is headed for the scrap heap of business history. These deeply embedded cultural assumptions are significant. But companies that isolate knowledge management risk losing its benefits.moyak. In order to justify financial investments in technology. Expect Organizational Changes Not surprisingly. http://www. it does very much have to originate from the top. It should not be surprising that knowledge accumulation and sharing are not valued. Corporate boundaries are dissolving into commercial irrelevance as businesses explore entirely new modes of association and interaction. shares. team-oriented workplaces. Dissolution of boundaries is an important goal because a knowledge management system cannot work through hierarchies. There is an underlying belief that performance is really driven by "corporate stars" and that internal competition must be in place to attract these superstars since only under-performers can be found in cooperative. Management sends signals about what is important through its recruiting priorities. knowledge management blurs the line between departments and operating divisions. Management sends strong signals through its compensation policies: different roles are perceived of value according to their allocated compensation. and strong management leadership that values.html thinking.

companies. 10. Leveraging organizational knowledge is emerging as the solution to an increasingly fragmented and globally-dispersed workplace. organizations. Learning faster means staying competitive. Sustainability of a Knowledge Management Endeavor To achieve sustainability. a future element must be ever-present. C. and they are to improve business results. 2. Gone are the days when employees could be expected to stay in one place of work forever. Therefore. reduces the loss of intellectual capital from people leaving the company. One of the major problems with governments. To expect ongoing knowledge creation. and are truly interested in what direction the organization is taking. One thing for certain is that when questions. Organizations that do provide a goal to reach in the future can provide great incentive for a KM initiative. it must have some relevance to the future you are creating. people need to have awareness of the whole and understand the direction in which an organization is going. Future studies must be figured into an organization's overall knowledge management system because to sustain a commitment over the course of months and years. As well. 5. Effective leveraging lies within an organization's capacity for rethinking and recreating. and private citizens is that they have no concept of the future and never think about its ramifications. and to develop networks of committed people 7 of 12 10/14/2011 11:31 AM . rather than the futures we get. levels of education have surely risen and good employees no longer have to stay where they find the organizational and leadership structure lacking. 7. and help to create the future we want. It helps you keep your employees longer and thereby.html There are so many reasons for instituting a knowledge management-intensive learning organization. The challenge of organizational strategy and purpose is to revitalize and rethink the organization's business focus. corporations.Knowledge Management: The Essence of the Competitive Edge . There is an increase in employee satisfaction due to greater personal development and empowerment.moyak. to enhance personal results. 3. Here are just a few: 1. Saves money by not reinventing the wheel for each new project. and learning how to harness the learning capabilities that lead to innovation. at a keystroke. it can be a very powerful force because it is essential for co-evolving the futures we want. 6. 9. big questions (questions that matter to the future of an organization) are asked and explored. Where are we going? What are we here for? People need awareness of the whole. and that saves time. there must be a focus on learning. Knowledge Management must somehow be connected to future studies for at least one significant reason and that is because to have a knowledge management system. An organization does not have to reinvent the wheel each time a new project comes along. 8. Knowledge Management and Future Planning Scenario thinking can help us to see the blind spots. You can learn faster with KM. http://www. and figure out where it is heading. Provides workers with a more democratic place to work by allowing everyone access to knowledge. it presupposes the ongoing creation of new knowledge.tacit.com/papers/knowledge-management.. Reduces costs by decreasing and achieving economies of scale in obtaining information from external providers.. There are three fundamental processes that sustain profound changes such as the introduction of a comprehensive knowledge management system. 4. KM software and technological infrastructures allow for global access to an organization's knowledge. Increases productivity by making knowledge available more quickly and easily.

Commentary Much of the confusion and disappointment concerning knowledge management stems from confusion between information and knowledge since not even KM experts link knowledge to action. an organization cannot expect profound and sustained change. (Once there is intellectual understanding there can be emotional engagement. hierarchies. once employees are forced to let go of the existing conventional wisdom of the organization. and emotionally-engaged. they must be prepared to develop new mental models for thinking about their workplaces and new ways to reach across internal and external boundaries.moyak.Knowledge Management: The Essence of the Competitive Edge .com/papers/knowledge-management. They learn to understand just how much they are worth. which literally supports learning and knowledge for everyone. Such informal networks are almost always superior to hierarchical channels for spreading new innovations because these informal networks already exist." In this day of bottom line focus. it is truly liberating to discover that the two can be aligned rather than in opposition. http://www. and how their own attitudes and perceptions contribute to the "pushback. There is no 8 of 12 10/14/2011 11:31 AM . For significant change to lead to sustainability. For those who have gone from a run-of-the-mill organization to one. This will lead to greater business results by eliminating wasteful practices. leading to sustained action. And. and understanding how they dramatically influence the way we operate in our own lives. very few people would not want to become part of a network where there is excitement. perseverance. real change can never be implemented. "People seek joy in work. Without active internal communities of practice. all in a positive feedback loop. and commitment. there will be no development of systematic strategies for sustaining profound change. and because there is a strong element of credibility with people whom we know.html who like where they work and what they are doing. and stars are the order of the day! For organizations to attain sustainability for their KM efforts. they can be innovative and creative. and what they can give to the workplace.) The enhancement of personal results is often the first source of reinforcing energy for sustaining deep change. Until there is realization and a focus on openness.tacit. This is hard work. They become intellectuallystimulated. designing new approaches and learning to learn faster.. it is inherently satisfying to work in a network of committed people. unearthing deeply held belief structures and generalizations. Mental Models must be managed because they do prevent new and powerful insights and organizational practices from becoming implemented. particularly because the pull of sustainable development as an aspiration may bring diverse groups of people together in collaborations that require breaking down old boundaries and hierarchies. experimenting with new ideas requires help and time to think in a safe context. innovation. W. Communities of practice can be geared so that people continually learn to help each other. And mental models need to be examined. experimentation. energized. and bring about the development of new business practices that lead to better results. The limits that block organizational learning initiatives have a great deal to do with the mental models embedded in the culture of an organization. when employees often assume that personal needs are subservient to the organization's needs. hierarchical control must be put aside. For example: hoarders. Given the choice.. Edwards Deming used to say. The diffusion of innovative practices needs informal networks through which new ideas can spread in and across organizations. For a knowledge management effort to work. Managers need to surrender control in order for learning capabilities to be enhanced. As Dr. C. The process begins with self. feel transformed. However.reflection. it must be understood that no progress is sustainable unless innovators learn to understand why the system is pushing back." Until they see this. The emergence and development of informal networks must be supported so that people can share their tacit knowledge and help one another.

and then call it knowledge. Vol. No. organize. 9 of 12 10/14/2011 11:31 AM . hire for diversity. 1. and it is accessible at a fast rate of speed. No. One of the key challenges of the knowledge-based economy will to foster innovation. People are investing in systems to capture. Network World.moyak.. C. p. But knowledge.com/papers/knowledge-management. knowledge cannot be diffused. 28. Improved diffusion of knowledge will not happen simply because the CEO says it should. 33. 4. or because management buys new information technology hardware. 1998. Debra M. http://www. Jul/Aug 1996. Let them explore their own limits. September 22. No. When there is negativity and unrealistic expectations in the workplace. Research Technology Management. p. November 16. Jim. by definition. Summer 1996. 15.tacit. with internal learning communities in place that offer psychological safety and trust. Bair. Knowledge only diffuses when there are learning processes whereby human beings develop new capacities for effective action. Bontis. Effective organizational learning infrastructure will need to augment the natural workings of the informal communities of practice that already exist. Ivey Business Quarterly.. National Research and Societal Considerations What Does a Chief Knowledge Officer Do? Acknowledged Works Amidon. The Challenge of Fifth Generation R&D. 46. give them enough time to reflect on what they know so they can give back to the organization. Much of the interest in knowledge management comes from the problem of diffusing innovative practices within an organization. 40. Networking in 2005: Its Only Limitations May Be the Boundaries of Imagination. A Little Knowledge is a Dangerous Thing. and arrogant people who believe they know everything. Wherever it is needed. Science and Technology. Information technology. The only way to accomplish that goal is to build an infrastructure that is not dependent upon traditional hierarchies because they do not encourage the dissemination of knowledge. and disseminate information.Knowledge Management: The Essence of the Competitive Edge . No. Vol. Gerry. if you want to build an organization for the 21st Century. Anderson. 32. Lack of communication within an organization made evident by continually reinventing the same wheel is one sure sign that the knowledge base is not being utilized and built upon. while critical for enabling the spread of information. Knowledge Management: The Era of Shared Ideas. Vol. Butters.html clarity. 51. There's a Price on Your Head: Managing Intellectual Capital Strategically. 39. p. 1997. Nick. it is accessible. p. 1. p. Vol. cannot capture and store knowledge. Howard. And remember. cannot be converted into an object and given from one person to another. collaborate with each other. Forbes. and most importantly. curiosity and allow your employees to grow beyond their wildest dreams. January 1998. Telecommunications. How do you know you have a good system in place? When information is widely disseminated throughout the organization. 60. You may be surprised to find out just how much expertise your company already has in place. 4. No. 1. 39. Related Papers Future Scenarios: The Art of Storytelling Avatar Technology Science and Technology Foresight Web Conference BioSystemics Knowledge Manager's Synthesis Report Geostrategics Synthesis Report Scenario Planning. Vol. Only people can do that.

Knowledge Management: The Well-Connected Business. Donlon. Chief Executive. January 25. 4. p. No. p. Robert J. p. pp. Vol. 10. Darling. Vol. 1999. No. July/August 1997. Computing Canada. 9. Business and Economic Review. 1999. The Knowledge Chain. Knowledge Managers Need Business Savvy. Kim. No. Marcia. Q&A: Lotus Bangs the Knowledge Management Drum. No.tacit. No. Network World. and Thomas Tierney. Harvard Business Review. Vital Speeches of the Day. Earl. Ellen M. 75.com/papers/knowledge-management. Wired. Lapp. October 1998. No.Knowledge Management: The Essence of the Competitive Edge ... Proto-Gizmos: Artifact Projections From 2005. 65-75. What is a Chief Knowledge Officer? Sloan Management Review. May 4. 36. No. Storing. Supply Management. Paul. 26. Vol. No. No. No. Chan. 24. Greengard. 2. Ellen M. 1999. 9. p. 17. Laton. January 25. 77. 106. Daydreams. 44. September 1. 29-38. Vol. Hiebeler. 4. 4. p. Fraone. Vol. Harvard Business Review. November 1998. Chief Executive. 11. Benchmarking: Knowledge Management. 25. Barb. No. Morten T. (1996). 22. Haapaniemi. What's Your Strategy for Managing Knowledge? Harvard Business Review. No. Samuel. March 5. 33. No. Michael J. Kelly. 3. 1997. February 1. March/April 1996. p. Vol. Computerworld. October 1996. p. The Age of Heretics. Vol. 2. Strategy & Leadership. 38. Supplement: Technology and the CEO: Nightmares. P. p. 1999. 1998. National Research Council of Canada. 1. pp. Vol. 4. 693. In Defining a Decade: Envisioning CSTB's Second 10 Years. Electronic Business. p. 3. Macleod. Outsourced Knowledge Management is One Option. 62. 4. p. 24. David. Knapp. 10 of 12 10/14/2011 11:31 AM . Shaping and Sharing Collective Wisdom. 76.. We've Got Too Much Information and Not Enough Knowledge. Workforce. Vol. Industry Week. 24. The Road to Wellville. and Ian A Scott. and Dana Gardner. No. p. Unique Challenges: Computing and Telecommunications in a Knowledge Economy.moyak. Gina. February 4. Sarah. Vol. J. July/September 1998. July/August 1998. March 1. Solutions. W. Winter 1999. 10. Cliffe. Fair Process: Managing in the Knowledge Economy. 4. 2. Fitzloff. 1996. March/April 1999. New York: Currency Doubleday. 21. 82-88. 40. Art. http://www. C. The Knowledge Organization: A Journey Worth Taking. No. MacDonald. Getting Smart About Knowledge Management. McNamara. Vol. Peter. McCartney. Hansen. p. Vol. Kleiner. Vol. 1999 Vol. 77. Emily. 22. Vol. and Renée Mauborgne. Nitin Nohria. Harnessing Knowledge. Michele S. pp. Web Opens Enterprise Portals. InfoWorld.html Cole-Gomolski. 247. 40. Knowledge Management. 4. Kevin. 1998.. 30.

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