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ANNE I Stuart ruled from 1702 to 1714. Sophia’s son, George Hannover, was crowned as George I, a far descendant from James I. in 1707, the ACT OF UNION is passed, and England and Scotland now became Great Britain. AUGUSTAN LITERATURE The name “Augustan” came from the Augustan period of Rome, the period where both, Rome and England, lived a peaceful period after a civil war; besides, socially speaking, there is a time of economic prosperity. This commercial expansion and political peace made the authors call themselves AUGUSTAN AUTHORS, being Alexander Pope and J. Swift the most important. They copied and emulated the roman classic authors. These authors were led by the ideas of harmony, balance and order; the main principles that ruled aver the world. They considered that good literature should be based in showing how good the author knows the rules and the techniques for literature, and not in being genius or creative. They also considered that literature should teach something, that is why they made the satyr their favorite genre (DOCERE ET DELECTARE). They should show what was wrong and propose something good (The Rape of the Lock, by Alexander Pope). ? Page 6: Alexander Pope, Windsor Forest THE ENLIGHTENMENT These facts about literature previously mentioned (harmony, balance, teaching...) are the main facts of the period known as the Enlightenment, these features are now connected with science and politics, apart from literature. Charles II created the ROYAL SOCIETY in the 17th century. This society, which was an experimental science institution grew importance in this enlightened century. New empirical ideas promoted experimental science, which is, to base the elemental laws in scientifically demonstrated facts, and not the other way around. Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics became the main sciences to understand the world, and Theology and that stuff are left aside. Isaac Newton is the main empirical scientist, and John Locke, the main empirical philosopher. When this ideas from the Enlightenment were applied to culture and art, NEOCLASICISM was born. ? Page 5: John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government THE BOURGEOISIE The middle-class gained political power after the Glorious Revolution, and the House of Commons got more influence in political issues. The Bourgeoisie didn't like the aristocrat ways of entertainment, so they created their own literary art, more appropriate with their business life. The NOVEL would become the main middle-class genre. The first novel ever written in English is Robinson Crusoe, by Daniel Defoe (1719). Defoe belong to the middle-class, but had a rather adventurous life. He had been a merchant, and intelligence agent and a journalist. He was a dissenter: a religion kind of half way between Anglicanism and Puritanism. He also wrote Moll Flanders.

and the figure of the Prime Minister. as an autobiography of the hard lives of individual experiences. They were in favor of the Stuart succession. and tolerated other religions. is plain. there is a development of political parties. the figure of the PRIME MINISTER. Robinson Crusoe is an allegory of all human existence: reaping. the teaching is aimed to the middle-class. and so did the Whigs.STYLE: His novels are written in first person. These parties are the WHIGS and the TORIES. backed by the Scottish Tories. the Stuart family died in poverty in the Continent. crafting and trading. as this part was never anglicized). 1st Rising: 1715. and the Parliament to gain power. a moral conclusion that can be extracted from the life of the protagonist. as if this people had really existed. had to turn away. because this dynasty was Scottish and was beloved there. POLITICS UP TO 1750 -ANNE I STUART (1702-1714) -GEORGE I HANNOVER (1714-1727) -GEORGE II HANNOVER (1727-1760) -GEORGE III HANNOVER (1760-1820) In this century. started to grew importance. The Prime Minister was the leader of the king's minister council. shepherding. But the English Government did not like this idea. -TORIES: Conservative faction who defended a strong monarchy and the Church of England. who respected monarchy power. They are aimed to teach something. and Whigs backed the Duke of Manmouth. This political opinion identified Tories as a conservative group. farming. and Whigs supported the power of the Parliament. During the -WHIGS: Favored a dual government between the King and the Parliament. Bonnie Prince Charles. He leaded the executive power and ruled the country along with the . They are realistic: the language is not elaborated. who was sailing to Scotland. The Scottish defeated the English several time. George I and George II felt more comfortable with the Whigs. not to all society. The backed tradition and favored the great nobility and the economic power of the king. Tories backed King Charles and James. After this. as the talked language. and they almost had the war. There were two JACOBITE RISINGS in Scotland (Highlands and North-East. These groups where originated in Charles II’s succession. in favor of the young pretender BONNIE PRINCE CHARLES. hunting. in favor of James Francis Edward Stuart (son of James II) 2nd Rising: 1745. but their army was finally defeated at CULLODEN MOOR. As the English would get a new king. From now on. where it was massively followed. even though he had the last word in decisions. they would stay with the Stuarts and become independent again. because these Whigs backed the Hannover family over the Stuarts and James Francis Edward. In contrast to Augustan Literature. SCOTLAND JACOBITISM AGAINST THE HANNOVERS: Several rebellions in favor of the Stuart family (James Francis Edward and Bonnie Prince Charles) occurred in Scotland. They were kind of more liberal and progressive.

in fact. After several fights between Great Britain and France. In 1774. whose inhabitants were not English citizens. in order to invest in the new gained territories and in order keep a strong army presence to preserve Canada against rebellions and the French army. SIR ROBERT WALPOLE. culture. and these new techniques. they passed the QUEBEC ACT. Great Britain had a problem. George III considered that this war was "for" the colonies. Great Britain defeated France and they got several French colonies there (Canada). but as a consequence of the French defeat. The EAST INDIA COMPANY controlled economically the British trading situations. After the war. made possible the AGRICULTURE REVOLUTION and the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. money was needed. BRITISH COLONIES He had a war with France: THE SEVEN YEARS WAR (1756-1763). In 1792 we have the first war between France and a coalition of European States. GEORGE III GEORGE III ruled for 60 years. As the native Indian princes kept fighting among them. who established a client-kingship system to economically explode the subcontinent. was the first Prime Minister and the main figure of government between 1722 and 1742. In 1779. promoted by the king. rising taxes. convicts were sent to live in Australia. which recognized the French language. French possessions in India and French trading posts there passed to England control. After him. The reasons of this war were mere colonies affairs. although the King always had the last word. the Treaty of Amiens is signed in 1802.Parliament. establishing a colony there. who belonged to a family of tradesmen. he encouraged a trading economy. In 1763. . This war was fought in America. he had an interesting in farming (Farmer George) and promoted new developments in techniques on farming: applied sciences were applied for agriculture. a Whig. Captain Cook navigated Australia and New Zeeland. with the French population in Montreal. In 1788. FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE NAPOLEONIC WARS 1789-1815 There were intellectuals backing the revolution (Mary Wollenstonecraft) and others backing the British monarchy (Edmund Burke). The French started defeating the countries and making them abandon the wars. These both facts divided the English colonies in two groups: population groups (America and Canada) and mere economic "territories" (India and stuff). so they made the American British colonies pay for the war. the next Prime Minister is William Pitt. religion (Catholicism) and law. Great Britain started sending more and more troops to control the situation. As a consequence of this defeat. the English defeated him in Egypt.

the rural economy stayed. the South was industrialized and the North remained rural. England decided not to participate in any European war. allowing Catholic landlords to vote (although not being MPs). changing the wealth from the South to there. Great Britain considered that the best solution to the Irish conflict was to unify the country: in 1800. In Scotland. and the Irish Parliament joined with the British Parliament. In Ireland. -New means of transport: They controlled the sea. In 1793 penal laws against Catholics were relaxed. The industrial areas attracted people. together with a system of channels. The war finished in 1814 without a clear winner. Belfast and the Northern Ireland became the industrial zone. Feed roads. . In the Highlands. -Colonies: they provided cheap raw materials and new markets.This gave France the complete control in Europe and Great Britain controlled the seas. Since Britain controlled the seas. After he escaped from Elba. Northern-Midlands of England became the more industrialized areas. The first step of the industrial revolution arrives to United Kingdom in the late 18th century. From 1815. as new machinery was needed). THE IRISH QUESTION In 1782 the Irish Parliament was permitted to pass their own laws. which experimented a great growth. The river transport to get products to the sea. In 1812. United States decided to go to war against Great Britain. These new industries made a lot of people migrate from the countries to the towns. social problems such as hacinamiento and exploitation (no laws regulated the jobs). The cause of this war was the trading that United States made with Europe during the war (especially with France). England decided to block the trades between United States and Europe. Because of this block. France closed the European ports to choke Great Britain economically. The split of the French army in two and the low temperatures in Russia finally made France to surrender. -They also had plenty of raw materials in the isle too. He was exiled to Santa Elena where he died. After this war. This wasn't successful. But the Catholic Irish were never happy with this. and the flag also changed. the war between United States and Great Britain started. France and Russia signed and alliance to control the whole continent. The new state was called the United Kingdom. In 1812. Protestants in Ireland created in 1795 the FIRST PROTESTANT ORANGE SOCIETY to defend their rights over the Catholics. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Causes: -Improvement of sciences and techniques applied to farming (this also boosted industry. the great hegemony of Great Britain started. In Wales. his army was finally defeated by Wellington in Waterloo (Belgium). In 1803 the war started again. reorganizing its demography. Russia broke the alliance with France and turned into his enemy. the Act of Union was passed. Glasgow became the center of economy. so continuous struggles will occur until the Irish independence in 1921. In 1807. Slums appeared in cities and with them. -Rise of the population: development of medicine: mortality rate decreases.

It was Nature. that was man’s proper setting: man needed the help of Nature to fulfill himself. JEREMY BENTHAM was the main philosopher. The rebelled against the “greatest number” and advocated to the personal feeling. a movement which evocated the “ego” feelings. Utilitarians advocated philistinism: indifference and hostility to every cultural or aesthetic refinement. push pin is as good as poetry”. They took Rousseau’s ideas of The Good Savage. where everything could be explained through science and the experience. According to the Romanticists. his central principles were: -The happiness of the greatest number is the measure of the right and wrong. -The Romantic poets turned to Nature. -Rebellion against the material stuff and their “common sense”. They also pretended to be different and original. Nature was independent of man (man doesn’t control Nature. way. Nature was also emphasized in front of the mechanic towns. rather than society. non-corrupted ? Page 11: William Wordsworth. The development of the business also carried a change of the middle-class education. ? Page 12: Jane Austen. Bentham: “Quality of pleasure being equal. in a natural. . STYLE It’s very simple. Daffodils. no restriction of employment of women and children. the own author was the one identified with his poetical voice. meaning that the human being is good in its natural state. The most important philosopher was ADAM SMITH and his book Wealth of Nations. [not the Neoclassical Nature]). They pretend to write as they talk. society is alienating and the origin of corruption and violence. which established that the politics should keep out from the economical affairs. -Pain and pleasure are sovereign masters of man’s conduct (material things). Pride and Prejudice. It is an extreme part of Empiricism. where he talked about the division of labour (where each one is specialized in one task) and the lessez-faire theory. ROMANTICISM It was the reaction to all this thinking. UTILITARIANISM Utilitarians were very empirical and mechanical. more practical and aimed to business (education based on facts).In this development in industries. -Reaction against Empiricism and Utilitarianism emphasizing imagination and originality.