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Optical Networking And Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM

This paper deals with the twin concepts of optical networking and dense wavelength division multiplexing. The paper talks about the various optical network architectures and the various components of an all-optical network like Optical Amplifiers, Optical Add/Drop Multiplexors, Optical Splitters etc. Important optical networking concepts like wavelength routing and wavelength conversion are explained in detail. Finally this paper deals with industry related issues like the gap between research and the industry, current and projected market for optical networking & DWDM equipment and future direction of research in this field.

Introduction 1.1 Optical Networking 1.2 Network Classification 2. DWDM ARCHITECTURE 5.4 Synchronization 2. MARKET SCOPE AND COMPANY PROFILE .Table of Contents: 1.2 IP over DWDM 6.1 Optical Transmission Principles 2.2 Optical Layer and Higher Layer Interface 5.1 Efficient Routing Algorithms 7. OPTICAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE 4.5 Security 3. WAVELENGTH CONVERSION IN OPTICAL NETWORKS 7.1 Wavelength Conversion related Algorithms 8. DWDM SYSTEM 2.2 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing 2.3 Optical Amplifiers 2.1 ATM over DWDM 5. DWDM COMPONENTS 4. WAVELENGTH ROUTING IN OPTICAL NETWORKS 6.1 Virtual Topology 4.

----1stgeneration networks use copper-based or microwave technologies e. The optical layer whose standards are being developed.1. grooming. will ideally be transparent to the SONET layer. the reduced availability of fibers became a big problem for the network providers. It is possible to classify networks into three generations depending on the physical-level technology employed. these copper links or microwave links with optical fibers. the tremendous bandwidth of DWDM and innovative networking software to spawn a variety of optical transport. a very crucial milestone is being reached in network evolution. a new and probably. However. switching and management related products. providing restoration. So in essence a lot of network elements will be eliminated and there will be a reduction of electrical equipment. The existing SONET/SDH network architecture is best suited for voice traffic rather than today’s high-speed data traffic. and provisioning of individual wavelengths instead of electrical SONET signals. -----In second generation networks. Before the introduction of optical networks. Such a network will bring intelligence and scalability to the optical domain by combining the intelligence and functional capability of SONET/SDH. INTRODUCTION One of the major issues in the networking industry today is tremendous demand for more and more bandwidth. with the development of optical networks and the use of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology. and restoration at the wavelength level as well as wavelength-based services.g Ethernet. 1.1 Optical Networking Optical networks are high-capacity telecommunications networks based on optical technologies and component that provide routing. these networks still perform the switching of . The origin of optical networks is linked to Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) which arose to provide additional capacity on existing fibers. To upgrade the system to handle this kind of traffic is very expensive and hence the need for the development of an intelligent all-optical network. However. satellites etc. performance monitoring.

So each fiber have a set of parallel optical channels each using slightly different light wavelengths. receivers. 1. DWDM SYSTEM As mentioned earlier. 2. Erbium-doped fiber Amplifiers. over the optical layer. This has resulted in the onset of tremendous amount of bandwidth availability. They do both the transmission and the switching of data in the optical domain. DWDM multiplexors and DWDM demultiplexors. For in the electronic domain though the transmission of data is done in the optical domain.third generation networks that employ Wavelength Division Multiplexing technology. It employs light wavelengths to transmit data parallelby-bit or serial-by-character. optical layer provides the only means for carriers to integrate the diverse technologies of their existing networks into one physical infrastructure.1 . video-IP. optical networks use Dense Wavelength Multiplexing as the underlying carrier. Fig 1 gives the structure of a typical DWDM system. with the use of DWDM it is not necessary for the ATM signal to be multiplexed up to the SONET rate to be carried on the DWDM network. It involves the process of multiplexing many different wavelength signals onto a single fiber. Finally we have the---. ATM and SONET/SDH respectively. Hence carriers can quickly introduce ATM or IP without having to deploy an overlay network for multiplexing.2 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing(DWDM) Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) is a fiber-optic transmission technique. Further the use of non-overlapping channels allows each channel to operate at peak speeds. The most important components of any DWDM system are transmitters. DWDM is a very crucial component of optical networks that will allow the transmission of data: voice. Fig. Hence with the development of WDM technology. though a carrier might be operating both ATM and SONET networks.

The concepts of optical fiber transmission. in turn reduces the capacity or transmission bandwidth. using an electrical receiver to extract if from the network and inspecting for errors. 2.cis. n Optical Networking And Dense Wavelength Division http://www. These factors have been discussed briefly in this sections that follow. Signal Direction An optical fiber helps transmit signal in both directions.1.html (3 of 20) [2/7/2000 10:39:52 AM] Bi-directional: The channels in the DWDM fiber are split into two separate bands.ohio-state. but. loss control.1THz. all optical header replacement. It is similar to a simplex case. Optical Transmission Principles The DWDM system has an important photonic layer. Both factors ultimately restrict the number of unique wavelengths passing through the amplifier. which is responsible for transmission of the optical data through the network. n Signal Trace The procedure of detecting if a signal reaches the correct destination at the other end. This removes the need for the second fiber. . Some basic principles. The receiver the reports the signal trace to the transmitter. are explained in this section. a corresponding difference is introduced in the wavelength of each signal. These are necessary for the proper operation of the system. amplifiers. network topology. Channel Spacing The minimum frequency separation between two different signals multiplexed in known as the Channel spacing. a DWDM system can be implemented in two ways: Unidirectional: All wavelengths travel in the same direction within the fiber. Since the wavelength of operation is inversely proportional to the frequency. It can be achieved by plugging in extra information on a wavelength. Taking into consideration the above two one for each direction. This calls in for laying one another parallel fiber for supporting transmission on the other side. concerning the optical transmission. the international bodies have established a spacing of 100GHz to be the worldwide standard for DWDM. The factors controlling channel spacing are the optical amplifier’s bandwidth and the capability of the receiver in identifying two close wavelengths sets the lower bound on the channel spacing. This means that the frequency of each signal is less than the rest by atleast 0. This helps follow the light signal through the whole network. synchronization and physical layer security play a major role in deciding the throughput of the network. Based on this feature.

2) and the protection segment of the fiber together handle the large data burst of the computer network. Other elements in . Until the development of EDFAs the passive star configuration was the most popular configuration due to its superior power budget. Ring Topology vs Mesh Topology A ring topology is preferable owing to many of its capabilities. This reduces the load on the router and removes the need for buffering Single-Hop Networks vs Multi-hop Networks Multi-wavelength networks can be also classified as single-hop networks and multi-hop networks. Networks are simple and have natural multicasting capabilities. Unlike a mesh network. with the advent of EDFAs. Basically a signal received on one port is split and broadcast to all ports. This is done through the use of different wavelengths to interconnect each node. The working segment (Refer to Fig. Broadcast-and-select networks: It is based on a passive star coupler device connected to several nodes in a star topology. The Optical Cross Connect (OXC) help pass on traffic between each of the rings. The rings also have better resilience and restoration than meshes. The ring topology besides serving as a standby link helps share the load. Although the physical topology of a DWDM system might be that of a ring. A Path-in-Lambda architecture for connecting all-optical networks is under development. the logical traffic distribution topology can be arbitrary.2. In single-hop networks. the expense of laying out the links is reduced in the ring. a mesh. There is no conversion to electronic form in any of the intermediate nodes. the data stream travels from source to destination as a light stream. the ring network works out much better after overcoming its power budget problems. Generally used in high speed LANs or MANs. because the number of links increases only as a linear progression. What makes the ring network better is its superior resilience. star based or linear bus based on the connection between the various nodes. Two examples of a single-hop networks are the broadcast-and-select and the wavelength-routed architecture. However.2 Network classification A network can be physically structured in the form of either a ring.

the effects of dispersion and attenuation are significant. which would help in amplifying signals at regular intervals. Also. each node has access to only a small number of the wavelength channels used in the network. However. it has been noticed that in long-haul networks. The element erbium (Er68) boosts the power of wavelengths and eliminates the need for regeneration. This led to development of the Erbium-doped fiber Amplifiers (EDFA). the production of optical amplifiers became important. Two examples of actual multihop systems on which packet switching has been implemented experimentally are Starnet (developed by Optical Communication Research Laboratory at Stanford University) and Teranet (developed by Columbia University). Fixed wavelength transmitters and receivers are used for this purpose with a minimum of atleast a single wavelength transmitter and a single wavelength receiver tuned to different wavelengths. n Wavelength routed networks: The key element here is the wavelength-selective switching subsystem. EDFAs are as the name says. at each intermediate node electronic switching of packets take place. are silica based optical fibers that are doped with erbium. There are again two types of wavelength switching. Traditionally it has been used for terrestrial and under-sea purposes. Towards that end. What this means is that a signal cannot maintain its integrity over really long distances without having to be amplified.3 Optical Amplifiers Researchers are working on managing traffic optically rather than first converting it to electronic signals. Wavelength routing is explained in more detail in section [6.this type of network are tunable receivers and fixed transmitters or fixed receivers and tunable transmitters. With the development of EDFA we have basically almost rendered ‘Wavelength Regenerators’ redundant.] In multi-hop networks. It is the optical amplifier that has made . This type of network requires atleast one intermediate node for a packet to reach the destination. Wavelength path switching involves dynamic signal switching from one path to another by changing WDM routing while wavelength conversion the reuse of the same wavelength in some other part of the network as long as both lightpaths don’t use it on the same fiber. 2. It is this doping that achieves the conversion of a passive fiber to an active one.

n .8-1. This results in the Interchannel crosstalk becoming a very important issue at this point. Also typically what happens is that with the need to place as many wavelengths (channels) as possible in a single fiber. A similar product is Lucent’s Bell Labs of an "Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier (UWOA) that can amplify upto 100 wavelengh channels as they travel along a single optical fiber and has a usable bandwidth of 80nm. This bandwidth spans the 1530-1565nm channel (C-band) and also the long wavelength channels beyond 1565-1620nm(L-band). the most important feature of the DBFA is its bandwidth => 1528nm-1610nm.6nm). So this led to the development of Silica Erbium fiber-based Dual-band fiber amplifier (DBFA). It became imperative that the amplifier's bandwidth had to be increased while eliminating crosstalk. The first is in the range of the EDFA and the second one is what is known as Extended band fiber amplifier (EBFA). However. These fibers are similar to the EDFAs and have been able to generate terabit transmission successfully. Hence that implies very less utilizations. The usable bandwidth by using EDFAs is about 30nm (1530nm1560nm).WDM economically feasible. The DBFA has two sub-band amplifiers. However. attenuation is minimum in the range of 1500nm –1600nm. Saturation is the state where output remains constant even though input level keeps increasing. It has been shown that this EBFA has several attractive features compared to the traditional EDFA. n Low Noise: EBFAs exhibit lower noise than EDFAs Therefore. the distance between two channels is very small (0.: Flat Gain: EBFAs achieve a flat gain over a range of wide range (35nm) as compared to the EDFAs n Slow Saturation: EBFAs reach saturation slower than the EDFAs. the 1590-nm EBFA represents a huge leap in meeting the ever-increasing demands of high-capacity fiber-optic transmission systems.

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