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Seminar report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the



Under the guidance of



First and foremost I would like to thank the almight, who bestowed in me the patience, strength and ability to embark upon this work and carry it to its completion . It is a matter of great pride and privileage for me to have esteemed supervision of Mrs.Taslima Ahmed as seminar coordinator. I would render this acknowledgement as incomplete if I don’t mention the able guidance of Ms. Sweta pandey (seminar guide). I would always

be thankful to him for the critical analysis of my seminar. I am in debt to him for his suggestions that made be thinking. I am thankful to Mr.Umesh kumar (HOD) Electronics department for providing the internet in college premises which served as a boon in material collection .A special thank to my parents,friends all the faculty members and the non teaching staff , for their invaluable support.













Ms.Swta Pandey

Mrs.Taslima Ahmed



Chapter No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Topics Introduction PLC Architecture System Overview. Hardware Configuration Addresses Software Description. Syntax for Program How to Use PLC. Scope of Future Expansion. Applications of PLC.

Page No. 01 03 08 10 15 18 25 26 28 29

BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A Automatic Mixing System.

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Chapter 1 .

DEFINATION OF PLC . is flexible automation. With the availability of intelligent. which can pay big dividends in the long run. It requires a conscious effort on the part of plant managers to identify areas where automation can result in better deployment/utilization of human resources and savings in man-hours. a planned approach towards integrated control systems. one has to provide for flexible manufacturing process. Maintenance by plant technicians and 4. Programmable controllers offer a system with computer flexibility: 1. down time. Reduce machine down time and provide expandability for future. The most cost-effective way. Considering the varied demand and increasing competition. ROLE OF ELECTRONICS IN AUTOMATION A constant demand for better and more efficient manufacturing and process machinery has led to the requirement for higher quality and reliability in control techniques. conventional relay controlled systems. down time and improve productivity to a great extend.INTRODUCTION Simplification of engineering and precise control of manufacturing process can result in significant cost savings. Automation need not be high ended and too sophisticated. employing control systems tailored to one’s specific requirements that achieves the most attractive results. Has simplicity of operation 3. it is the phased. stepby-step effort to automate. compact solid state electronic devices. By installing efficient and user friendly industrial electronics systems for manufacturing machinery or processors. Suited to withstand the industrial environment 2. The basic idea behind these programmable controllers was to provide means to eliminate high cost associated with inflexible. one can obtain a precise. One of the latest techniques in solid state controls that offers flexible and efficient operation to the user is “PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS”. That is where Industrial electronics has been a breakthrough in the field of automation and control techniques. it has been possible to provide control systems that can reduce maintenance. reliable and prolific means for generating quality products.

It can be viewed as an industrial computer that has a central processor unit. level. Based on status sensed. The central processing unit provides the intelligence of the controller. which often uses a simple user-friendly logic. It is used to enter the application program. etc. They may be modular in nature and thus expandability and easy installation is possible. Use of PLC results in appreciable savings in Hardware and wiring cost. 5. switches etc. PLC can control a variety of devices and eliminates the need for customized controls. Programmable controllers are made of solid state components and hence provide high reliability.A Programmable controller is a solid state user programmable control system with functions to control logic. 7. input output interface and a programming device. proximity switches. pressure. Through these interfaces the processor can sense and measure physical quantities regarding a machine or process. They are flexible and changes in sequence of operation can easily be incorporated due to programmability. 4. proximity. counters and Auxiliary relays. motion. motors. etc. alarms. field devices are wired to the I/O interfaces. arithmetic data manipulation and counting capabilities. 2. memory. It accepts data. Input output interface is the communication link between field devices and the controllers. 3. It has total protections against obsolescence and has wide scope for upgradation. 6. such as. position. temperature. executes the user control program store in the memory and gives appropriate output commands to devices like solenoid valves. timing. sequencing. The presence for timers and counters has easy accessibility. Chapter 2 . the CPU issues command to output devices such as valves. Programmer unit provides the man machine interface. They are compact and occupy less space. Eliminate hardware items like Timers. BENEFITS OF PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS 1. status information from various sensing devices like limit switches.

It can make decisions. Memory: EPROM. much easier to change a program when a different process is required than to rewire the control system. DAC). do simple arithmetic. THE PARTS OF A PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER Programmable logic controllers (PLC) can be considered to have three parts: 1. Input/output Section The I/O section contains input modules and output modules. Thus if the switch is closed. and so on. This operation is called the fetch-execute cycle. Input/output section for communication with peripherals (ADC. and so on until task is complete. RAM. .PLC ARCHITECTURE PLCs contain three basic sections: 1.e. Analog to Digital or high power to low power). It is. convert codes. 2. it goes back to the memory for the next instruction. the outside world. it may take electricians a couple of weeks to require a pipe mill. Input section will respond to this condition by sending a digital 0 to the processor. Central processing unit (CPU). various recipes can be stored in memory and accessed when required. 3. however. 5v dc appears on input terminal. Each input device is wired to a particular input terminal on the I/O section. For example. converts this dc voltage to a digital 1 and sends it to the processor via programmable peripheral interface (PPI). The processor communicates with the outside world via input and output modules. if the switch is open. the input modules are equivalent to the signal converters (i. When the power to the system is turned on. making the program extremely flexible. store data. the processor reads the first instruction stored in memory and acts on this instruction. A PLC is basically a black box with a number of inputs from. The basic difference between this black box and a hardware logic system using IC chips or a relay controlled system. The other input terminals behave identically. All modern PLC input modules use optical devices to accomplish electrically isolated coupling between the input circuit and the processor electronics. do timing cycles. no dc voltage appears on input terminal. and a number of outputs to. When completed. Functionally. which are PROM or ROM and RAM chips. Conversely. and so on. The system operates through interaction with the processor and program memory. whereas a programmer will spend only a fraction of this time to reprogram a PLC since no wires will have to be changed. In addition. is that specific coded messages are stored in areas called program memory.

The processor needs to know the latest input conditions because the user program instructions are contingent upon those conditions. In other words. Each output device is wired to a particular output terminal on the I/O interface. power transistor or relay as the series connected load controlling device. Output image table: The output conditions are stored in the output image table. A modern PLC output module is optically isolated. That particular location is dedicated solely to the task of keeping track of the latest condition of its input terminal. I/O module are also for interfacing to other industrial levels. The I/O section’s output modules are functionally the same as the output amplifiers.The Processor The processor of a PLC holds and executes the user program. As mentioned in earlier section. every single output module has assigned to it a particular memory location is dedicated solely to the task of keeping track of the latest condition of its output module. the location within the input image table contains a binary 1(HI). thereby illuminating LED is extinguished. if the input terminal has no 5v dc power fed to it. the location contains a binary 0(LO). every single input module in the I/O section has assigned to it a particular location within the input image table. . for example. Terminal 1 to 8 are these type of O/P terminals whereas terminal D/A is Analog output terminal from processor. if output module 1 receives a digital 1 by applying 5v dc to output terminal 1. In order to carry out this job. the processor must store the most up-to-date input and output conditions. the output situation differs from the input situation with regard to the direction of information flow is from the output image table to the output modules. including 12v dc. Analog signal from these terminals is first converted to digital value via programmable peripheral interface (PPI). an individual instruction may have one outcome if a particular input is HI and a different outcome if that input is LO. which is another portion of the processor’s memory. You can directly connect any analog input to the processor via these terminals. The output image table bears the same relation to the output interface of the I/O section that while terminals are analog inputs. Thus. The input image table bears to the input modules. (a) Input image table: The input conditions are stored in the input image table. while in the input situation the information flow is from the input modules to the input image table. Of course. and uses a triac. Besides 5v dc (TTL devices). if the input terminal has 5v dc power fed to it by its input device. They receive a low power digital signal from the processor and convert it into a high power signal capable of driving an industrial load. That is. That is. which is a portion of the processor’s memory.

they are automatically stored at sequential locations within the user program memory. We will use the name user program memory to refer to this processor subsection. but secondly. Figure depicts the entire repetitive series of events. to several thousand. After the programming procedure is complete. the first operation is the input scan. for controlling a complex machine or process. The complete scan cycle: As long as the PLC is left in the RUN mode. Sometimes called “program scan”. Its single mission is to acquire information from the input modules and pass that information “forward” to the CPU when the instruction that the CPU is working on calls for an item of input information. As the user enters instructions. it also must be capable of passing output information “backward” to the CPU. for controlling a simple machine. Following the input scan. when the user program instruction that the CPU is working on calls for an item of output information. The output image table has a dual nature.The locations within the input and output image tables are identified by addresses. Beginning at the top of the circle representing the scan cycle. which refers to unique address of each terminal. The program executes with reference to input and output image tables and updates output image table. This sequential placement of program instructions is self-regulated by the PLC. which causes the CPU to start executing the program from beginning to end repeatedly. with no discretion needed by the human user. Before a PLC can begin controlling an industrial system. The input image table does not have its dual nature. the processor executes the user program over and over again. Central processing unit: The subsection of the processor that actually performs the program execution will be called the central processing unit (CPU) with reference to input and output image table CPU executes the user program and continuously updates the output image table. User program memory: A particular portion of the processor’s memory is used for storing the user program instructions. bringing it up to date. a human user must enter the coded instructions that make up the user program. the current status of every input module is stored in the input image table. the processor enters its user program execution. This procedure called programming the PLC. During the input scan. its first function is to receive immediate information from the CPU and pass if on to the output modules of the I/O section. the human user manually switches the PLC out to PROGRAM mode into RUN mode. The total number of instructions in the user program can range from a half dozen or so. .

However. To execute user program. the CPU can only reads from the user program memory. When the user program is executing. it can perform arithmetic. 2. (d) Data Memory: A PLC is a computer.S. Therefore the PLC must have a section of its memory set aside for keeping track of variable data. To read status of input devices. or numbers. 3. that are involved with the user program. after all. etc. the entire output image table is transferred to the output module during the output scan following the program execution. as stated earlier. The function of PLC Operating system is: 1. Naturally the numbers and data can change from one scan cycle to the next. To form and update input image table. makes supervision over entire system. numeric comparisons. never write to it. This O. . Therefore. so O. 6. Loads the user program from programming device to program memory. PLC is very easy to program. This section of memory we will call data memory.Throughout the user program execution. 5. programs are said to running in supervisory mode. counting. It can be programmed using electrical schemes with familiar relay symbols so that a plant electrician can easily access the PLC. the processor continuously keeps its output image table up to date. that data value is brought in from data memory. he will be able to program the PLC. that result is put out into data memory. (e) Operating System of PLC: The function of the operating system is to present the user with the equivalent of an extended machine or virtual machine that is easier to program than the underlying hardware. Instead. CPU can read from or write to the data memory. Due to this operating system. When the CPU is executing an instruction for which a certain data value must be known. As per the status of output image table controls the output devices. When the CPU executes an instruction that provides a numerical result. the output modules themselves are not kept continuously up to date. Thus.S. Understand that this relationship is different from the relationship between the CPU and the user program memory. Even though he does not know the assembly language or even if he may not have any familiarity with computers and electronics. To provide user-friendly functions. 4.

he transfers control from PROGRAM mode to RUN mode. Now operating system takes care of the whole system such that the whole system becomes automatic and appears as magic to users. Chapter 3 .When the user completely enters his program in user memory. In RUN mode the control of the whole system is transferred to operating system.

4. 0v to 10v (one channel). 4mA to 20mA (one channel). System consist of following main sections: (1) The CPU: The CPU uses the 89c51 microcontroller. It also provides 8 analog inputs with following ranges: 1. It allows the processor to communicate with the outside world. 8k EEPROM that can be used as program memory.0592Mhz. which operates at 11. –5v to +5v (one channel).SYSTEM OVERVIEW This low cost PLC system was designed to satisfy hunger of Automation of Indian Industry and also helps beginners as well as development engineers to get into Automation field. 2. 8k RAM that can be used as program memory as well as data memory. (4) Serial Communication: . The timer provides maximum of 255sec delay and the counter provides maximum of 255 counts. 3. (2) Input/output Section: This part of system is on separate board connected to processor via cable. It is also called Data Acquisition System (DAS). 0v to 5v (five channel). It has 8k RAM. (3) Timer/Counter: The system has 2 timers or 2 counters or 1 timer and 1 counter. This part of system provides 4 digital inputs consisting of 2 dc and 2 ac. 4 digital outputs consisting of 2 dc and 2 ac each. which can be used as data memory.

The user can write program in user friendly language. (5) Programming Device: This system uses personal computer (PC) as programming device. Chip ICL232 is used as communication interface between RS-232 standard and TTL logic. (6) Power Supply Unit: This system provides +12v and -12v with maximum 2amps and +5v with maximum of 1amps. The programming devices (PC) converts this user friendly language program into machine understandable language and transmit it to the PLC board via serial communication.The system uses RS-232 serial data standard. .

program memory. The CPU can write program codes in and read program codes from this memory. Timer T1 is used to set baud rate for serial communication in program mode. Memory: The system consist of four types of memory: a. It has also two 16 bits timer/counter namely T0 and T1 which are used for timer and counter applications. This memory is used to store the operating system. This memory has address from 2000h to 3fffh. Programmable Peripheral Interface(PPI): Here two 8255 are used as PPI. The addresses for the 8255 used to control ADC and DAC are: Port A: 6000h . which is used as. One is used to control the ADC and DAC. In our system this pin is permanently connected with +5v so external program memory is accessed only when the address is beyond 0fffh. 4k of EEPROM which is internal to 89c51 microcontroller. b. 8k of RAM which is used as data memory. It can only be accessed when the external access pin of controller is connected to +5v. while other is used for Input/output interface. The subroutines. are stored here. 2. 8k of RAM which is used as data memory as well as program memory. Microcontroller: Here we are using 89c51 microcontroller. 3. d. which is used for serial communication having interface with ICL232 chip.Chapter 4 HARDWARE CONFIGURATION 1. This memory has location from 4000h to 5fffh. The CPU can read data from and write data into this memory. which has one full duplex serial data receiver/transmitter. 8k of EEPROM. which are helpful in executing the main program. c. It has address from 0000h to 0fffh. This memory has address from 0000h to 1fffh.

Analog to Digital Converter(ADC): Here ADC0809 is used as an 8 bit ADC. 5. So we have to give negative pulse by pin PB4 to pin OE to give Output Enable.Port B: 6001h Port C: 6002h Control Word: 6003h The addresses for the 8255 used for Input/output interfaces are: Port A: 8000h Port B: 8001h Port C: 8002h Control Word: 8003h 4. 8255 whose addresses are 6xxxh is used to give control signals to this ADC. The port pins of 8255 are connected with the control pins of ADC as shown below: 8255 Pins PB0 PB1 PB2 PB3 PB4 PC7 ADC Pins ADD0 (A) ADD1 (B) ADD2 (C) STC (Start of Conversion) OE (Output Enable) EOC (End of Conversion) Note: Here PB4 is connected to OE pin of ADC through NOT Gate. Digital to Analog Converter (DAC): . This ADC is used to convert the real world analog data into digital form.

Indicators: a. Switches and Indicators: Switches: a. Reset Switch.Here the only control signal is “Start of Conversion”. The UART is working in serial communication mode 1. which is connected with PC0 of 8255 having address 6xxxh. This particular part of the system is idle in our application. So the timer T1 is used to set the baud rate. Fault LED(red. Digital Input: . For converting the digital data to analog form first make PC0 low and then put digital data on port0 of 89c51. green. but it is kept for future expansion. Serial Communication: Here in-built transmitter/receiver of 89c51 is used for serial communication in conjunction with chip ICL232. Run mode LED(green) e. yellow) 8. b. Now make PC0 high. Here the transmitter/receiver is of asynchronous type (UART). The baud rate is set to 2400. So the data is communicated byte by byte. Program mode LED(orange) d. Program/Run mode Switch. Power ON/OFF LED(red) b. orange. 6. Power ON/OFF switch. c. 7. Reset LED(red) c.

4. Optocoupler Isolation. 0v t0 3v-0v 2.HIGH 3.5v to 5v-24v 3.DC Input: We have two digital DC inputs with following specifications: 1. Digital Outputs: DC outputs: We here have two DC outputs with following specification: 1. 0. AC Input: We have two digital AC inputs with following specifications: 1. 20v to 25v-HIGH 3. 9. 0v to 10v-LOW 2. Optocoupler Isolation. 0v to 5v – LOW 2. 3. Optocoupler Isolation.5amp output current. 4. 47hz to 63hz frequency. 20v to 25v. AC outputs: .

3. . 4. Optocoupler Isolation. Relay with12v.We have two relays as AC outputs with following specification: 1.relay OFF 2. 4ohm.relay ON 3. 0v to 3v.5v to 5v.

Chapter 5 ADDRESSES AC Output: Output Relay 1(Normally Open) Relay 2(Normally Open) Relay 1(Normally Close) Relay 2(Normally Close) DC Output: Output Out 1(Normally Open) Out 2(Normally Open) Out 1 (Normally Close) Out 2 (Normally Close) AC Input: Input In 1(Normally Open) In 2(Normally Open) In 1(Normally Close) In 2(Normally Close) Address 04 05 24 25 Address 02 03 22 23 Address 00 01 20 21 .

DC Input: Input In 1(Normally Open) In 2(Normally Open) In 1(Normally Close) In 2(Normally close) Analog Input: Input In 1(Normally Open) In 2(Normally Open) In 3(Normally Open) In 4(Normally Open) In 5(Normally Open) In 6(Normally Open) In 7(Normally Open) In 8(Normally Open) In 1(Normally Close) In 2(Normally Close) In 3(Normally Close) In 4(Normally Close) In 5(Normally Close) In 6(Normally Close) In 7(Normally Close) In 8(Normally Close) Address 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f Address 06 07 26 27 .

Here normally OFF means when timer/counter is running this remains low and when count of timer/counter reaches it becomes high. either counter 0 with address 00 or timer o with address 00. Reverse is the case for normally ON.e. .Counter/Timer: Counter/Timer Counter 0/Timer 0 (Normally OFF) Counter 1/Timer 1 (Normally OFF) Counter 0/Timer 0 (Normally ON) Counter 1/Timer 1 (Normally ON) Address 00 01 02 03 Note: The timer and counter has same address because at a time we can use only one of them i.

Chapter 6 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION This chapter explains how to program the PLC. I represent INPUT and 04 represent ADDRESS of INPUT. 3. Graph 5: Graph 5 describes the structure of sequence control systems. Method of Representation: The following methods of representation are possible to program PLC. It describes how to write a program. We must write the program in a specific programming language and according to some specific rules so that the programmable controller can understand it. Writing a Program: A control program specifies a series of operations that tell the programmable controller how it has to control a system. For example. Control System Flowchart(CSF): CSF represents logic operations with graphics symbols. In our system we are using Statement List (STL) Language. 1. . a control program might be the series of operations that tell the PLC how to use open loop control or close loop control for a specific system. how the program is structured and representation of the programming language. A statement has the following format: A I 04 Where A represents AND operation. Ladder Diagram(LAD): LAD graphically represents control functions with circuit diagram symbols. 2. Statement List (STL): STL represents the program as a sequence of operation mnemonics. 4.

OPERAND AREAS: I U T C A O = E Inputs Outputs Timer Counter AND Operation OR Operation Equals End of Program .

STATEMENT LIST (STL) PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE: In our system STL supports the following operations: AND OR TIMER COUNTER AND Operation: The AND operation scans to see if various conditions are satisfied simultaneously. Circuit Diagram: Output U 01 is “1” when all two inputs are “1”. The Output is “0” if atleast one input is “0”. I 04 I 05 U 01 Representation in Ladder Diagram: Representation in STL: A I 04 A I 05 = U 01 I 04 I 05 U 01 .

U 01 Representation in STL: O I 04 O I 05 = U 01 Representation in Ladder Diagram: I 04 U 01 I 05 Representation in STL: O I 04 .OR Operation: The OR operation scans to see if one of two conditions has been satisfied. Output U 01 is “0” when all inputs are “0” simultaneously. Circuit Diagram: Output U 01 is “1” when at-least one of the I 04 I 05 Input is “1”.

O A O O = I 05 I 06 I 07 U 01 AND before OR Operation: Output U 01 is “1” when at-least one AND condition has been satisfied. Representation in STL: A A O A A = I 04 I 05 I 06 I 07 U 01 Circuit Diagram: Ladder Diagram: I 04 I 05 . Output U 01 is “0” when neither of the two AND conditions has been satisfied.

I 04 I 06 U 01 I 05 I 07 U 01 I 06 I 07 Timer Operation: Representation in STL: A A = O O = I 04 I 05 T 00 10 I 05 T 00 U 01 If both inputs I 04 and I 05 are “1” then only timer T 00 is activated. The count 10 after T 00 in third instruction specifies that the timer should continue till 10 seconds. This is for timer 0 if we use timer 1 then T 01 will remain “0” during the timer run and normally ON T 03 will remain “1” during timer run. If we specify T 02 which is normally ON then the output U 01 is “1” if I 05 is “1” or during timer is running. Counter Operation: Representation in STL: A I 04 A I 05 . O T 00 specifies that the output U 01 is “1” only if I 05 is “1” or the count of timer has reached 0.

. A I 04 right.= O O = C 00 10 I 06 C 00 U 01 If both the inputs I 04 and I 05 are “1” then only counter 0 is activated. Same applies for counter in normally ON and normally OFF mode as in case of timer. The output U 01 becomes “1” if input I 06 is “1” or count of the counter becomes 0. Operand must be in upper case. 10 in third instruction represent the count of the counter. Chapter 7 SYNTAX FOR PROGRAM 1.

wrong. 4. 3. . AI 04 wrong. AI 04 wrong. Always specify hex number in lower case. A I 04 right. = T 00 ff = T 00 255 right. Clear out all the previously written instruction from the file before writing instruction for another application.Ai 04 wrong. = T 00 0a = T 00 0A right. Specify the count of counter and delay of timer in hex. 5. A I 04 wrong. Always leave only one space between operand. Always end your program with ‘E’. Chapter 8 HOW TO USE PLC  Write program in STL language in file ‘PLC’ on PC using NORTON EDITOR (Do not give any extension to the PLC file). AI04 wrong. A I04 wrong. wrong. 2. Do not keep any line spacing between two instructions .

i. If blown then replace it. .e. TROUBLESHOOTING  If “POWER ON” LED (red) is OFF after switch ON the power.  If FAULT LED (red) is ON then “A” or “O” operand might have been missing in start of instruction. A I 05 A I 04 U 01  If FAULT LED (yellow) is ON then the TIMER/COUNTER is specified other than ‘00’ or ‘01’. TURBO C). A I 05 A 05 Correct it in the control program and again load the program. check the FUSE. A I 04 I 04 Correct it in the control program and again load the program. switch the PLC in PROGRAM mode. Confirm the GREEN LED indicating the RUN mode is ON.  Wait till the SUCCESSFULLY”. Now PLC is ready for receiving the control program written on PC. message “PROGRAM IS TRANSMITTED  Switch the PLC in RUN mode by changing the switch on RUN mode and then press RESET switch. If it is ON. i.e. i. Confirm that the RED LED indicating the PROGRAM mode is ON.e. Switch on the PLC and confirm whether the power indicator LED ON or not.  Execute the program named “PLC” on PC in TC directory (i.e.  If FAULT LED (saffron) is ON then “=” operand might be missing in instruction.  If FAULT LED (green) is ON then “I” or “C” or “T” or “U” operand might have been missing in instruction.  If one of the four FAULT LEDs is ON then check the reason and again load whole of the program and repeat the above mentioned procedure.

reads hex codes from memory location one by one. After this it updates all the O/P. The Flow chart of the ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE program is given below: Chapter 9 SCOPE FOR FUTURE EXPANSION ♦ At present in our system we have 4 digital inputs and 4 digital outputs which are interfaced with CPU through port C of 8255 having address 8xxxh. A I 04 A I 05 = T 02 0a Correct it and load the control program once mor SOFTWARE ANALYSIS The higher-level language program on PC side converts the control program written in STL language into specific hex codes and transmits these codes to the PLC. Now it runs the program and performs operation on the status bit directed as user program. As soon as we put the PLC in RUN mod. which is stored in EEPROM internal to the controller. It compares the code read from the memory location with the predefined hex code and executes the instruction with accordance to it.i. The codes are stored in RAM location in PLC. it reads the status of all the I/P. . It stores the status in bit addressable memory location as ‘1’ or ‘0’ depends upon the status. The lower-level language program.e. It stores the result in another bit addressable memory location which are corresponds to the O/P.

LVDT etc. By using these ports we can expand digital inputs and outputs upto 8 digital inputs and outputs. ♦ Interfacing of DAC is provided on the PLC board. Chapter 10 APPLICATIONS OF PLC . ♦ We can construct signal-conditioning circuit so we can directly connect the transducers like PT100. ♦ We can further construct PID controller module which can be switched ON or OFF by this PLC so we can control systems using continuous controller in digital fashion. One of these slots can be used for RAM and another one can be used for EEPROM. ♦ Two memory slots of 8k each are not in present use. which can be interfaced with PLC. thermocouple. ♦ We can also design stepper motor controller. which can be used to give an analog output. ♦ Using chip 8279 we can provide keyboard and display facility on PLC board.The port A and port B are not presently taken in use. Using these slots we can get more 8k of DATA memory using RAM and more 8k of PROGRAM memory using EEPROM.

In automation of brick moulding press in refractories. Automation for wagon loaders. enunciators. auxiliary contacts are integral parts of all industries. 2. ON-OFF switches. It also monitors the conditions necessary for safe running of the equipment and trips the equipment whenever any abnormality in the system is detected. In automation of bulk material handling system at ports. For chemical plants process control automation. 7.In the present industrial world. is achieved by PLC. The areas where PLC is used maximum are as follows: 1. PLC controls the total system. 11. etc are controlled by the PLCs. 9. In automation for galvanizing unit. indicators.. a flexible system that can be controlled by user at site is preferred. counter contact etc. 6. The above said controlling elements (normally called as inputs of PLCs) and controlled elements (called as outputs of PLCs) exist abundantly in any industry. A PLC ensures that equipment cannot be started unless all the permissive conditions for safe start have seen established. outputs. it is difficult to define where a PLC cannot be used. 8. The PLC can be programmed to function as an energy management system for boiler control for maximum efficiency and safety. requiring time of event based decisions is controlled by PLCs. As such. time and effort and hence easy operation in plants and laboratories. The drive to the solenoid valves. 10. used without disturbing its connection to external world. In automation of blender reclaimers 5. 3. These inputs. The batch processes in chemical. In large process plants PLCs are being increasingly used for automatic start up and shut down of critical equipment. 4. whose logic can be modified but still. Proper application of a PLC begins with conversion of information into convenient parameters to save money. Utilizing the industrial sensors such as limit switches. food and paper industries which are sequential in nature. In automation for a ship unloader. counters. Systems. timers. For blast furnace charging controls in steel plants. motors. cement. . timer contact.

23. Applications can thus be extended from monitoring to supervision. 20. 22. control and management. In automation of machine tools and transfer lines. 25. Process visualization for mining application. 18.12. . petrochemical. refineries. In automation system for the printing industry. 17. steel. In Dairy automation and food processing. 13. fertilizer. 19. It can be used extensively to replace conventional relay controls in power stations. 16. 21. commissioning or normal use. Thus PLC is ideal for application where plant machine interlock requirements are finalized at a later stage and need changes during engineering trial runs. 27. In automation of container transfer crane. In automation of a rock phosphate drying and grinding system. In fuel oil processing plants and water classification plants. chemical industries etc. 14. 24. 15. As stored programmed automation unit for the operation of diesel generator sets. In plastic moulding process. In Mixing operations and automation of packaging plants. Modernization of boiler and turbogenerator set. 26. Criteria display system for power station. For a highly modernized pulp paper factory. In automation of High-speed elevators. To control the conveyor/classifying system. In compressed air plants and gas handling plants. cement.

 JOB DEN OTTER. OPERATION. as small telephone exchange etc. With the capability of functioning as local controllers in distributed control systems. In India every process industry is replacing relay control systems by PLCs and will go for PFCs in near future. It is extremely difficult to forecast the rate and form of progress of PLCs. In the near future every flats and offices may possess PFCs to control room temperature. INTERFACING AND PROGRAMMING.FUTURE OF PLCs The PLC offers a compromise between advance control techniques and present day technology. it is useful and cost effective for medium sized control systems. BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS. A further development of PLCs leads to the development of programmable function controller (PFC) is compatible to PCs and directly controls the desired functions. . PLCs will retain their application in large process plants. (2) IBM PC AND CLONES  GOVINDRAJALU. but there is strong evidence that development is both rapid and cumulative. Though a PLC is not designed to replace a computer. as elevator controller. maintain water tank levels.


switch 1 shuts off the solenoid valve A and start agitator to mix the liquid. As. tank begins to fill. After the tank has been emptied. Switch 2 closes. solenoid valve B is energized to drain the liquid. solenoid valve A is energized and a batch of liquid is entered in tank. Float switch 1 detects the upper limit of liquid of liquid level and Float switch 2 detects the lower limit of liquid. When the tank is full. When the Agitator turn off. float switch 2 opens and solenoid B shuts off. The Agitator mixes the liquid for 30 seconds and shuts off. The Addresses of I/P and O/P are given below. DEVICE ADDRESS .Float switch 1 Valve B Float switch 2 Problem: In figure when START button is pressed.

NO Stop Switch Start Switch Float Switch 1 Float Switch 2 Valve A Valve B Agitator Motor Control Relay I 04 I 05 I 06 I 07 U 00 U 01 U 02 U 03 NC I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 U 20 U 21 U 22 U 23 The ladder diagram of this system is given below. .

I 04 I 05 O 03 O 03 I 06 O 03 I 07 O 00 O 00 T 00 I 06 O 03 O 01 30 sec EN DN DN I 06 O 02 I 07 DN O 01 O 01 Program in STL language: A I 04 A O I 05 .

When start switch is pressed and the liquid level is below float switch 1 the valve A is opened and it is closed when level touches the float switch 1. In second rung the NC contact of float switch 1 and NO contact of control relay is in series with valve A. . In third rung the normally open contact of float switch 1is connected in series with timer so when liquid level reaches to float switch 1. So when the start switch is pressed control relay is activated.The NC contact of float switch 2 is latched by the NO contact of valve A so valve A does not opened as soon as the level falls below the float switch 1 level and remain close till the tank is fully emptied. The stop switch is normally close type where as start switch is normally open type. The start switch is push to on type so normally on contact of control relay is used to latch.O U 03 = U 03 A I 26 A U 03 A O I 27 O U 00 = U 00 A I 06 A U 03 A U 21 = T 00 1f A T 02 A I 06 = U 02 A I 07 A O T 00 O U 01 = U 01 E Explanation of Ladder Diagram: In first rung the stop switch is connected in series with start switch to activate the control relay. the timer is started.