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**By the end of the course, you would have understood:
**

• • • • • • • Basic signal analysis (mostly continuous-time) Basic system analysis (also mostly continuous systems) Time-domain analysis (including convolution) Laplace Transform and transfer functions Fourier Series (revision) and Fourier Transform Sampling Theorem and signal reconstructions Basic z-transform

**E 2.5 Signals & Linear Systems
**

Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London

**URL: www.ee.ic.ac.uk/pcheung/ E-mail: p.cheung@ic.ac.uk
**

PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 1 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 2

**About the course
**

! ! ! ! ! !

A demonstration …..

! !

Lectures - around 9 weeks (15-17 hours) Problem Classes – 1 hr per week Official Hours – 2 hrs per week (taken by Dr Naylor) Assessment – 100% examination in June Handouts in the form of PowerPoint slides Text Book

• B.P. Lathi, “Linear Systems and Signals”, 2nd Ed., Oxford University Press (~£36)

This is what you will be able to do in your 3rd year (helped by this course) You will be able to design and implement a NOISE CANCELLING system

PYKC Jan-7-10

E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems

Lecture 1 Slide 3

PYKC Jan-7-10

E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems

Lecture 1 Slide 4

ac.Examples of signals (1) ! Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal (or brainwave) Lecture 1 Basics about Signals (Lathi 1.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 8 .5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 7 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.uk/pcheung/ E-mail: p.uk PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.5) Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London URL: www.cheung@imperial.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 6 Examples of signals (2) ! Examples of signals (3) ! Stock Market data as signal (time series) Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) data as 2-dimensional signal PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.ac.ee.imperial.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 5 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.1-1.

5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 9 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2. generalize for a complex valued signal to: ! Energy must be finite.Size of a Signal x(t) (1) ! Size of a Signal x(t) (2) ! Measured by signal energy Ex: If amplitude of x(t) does not ! 0 when t ! ".1 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems L1.5 Signals & Linear Systems L1.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 11 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.1 Lecture 1 Slide 12 .2. which means Lathi Section 1.1 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.1 Lecture 1 Slide 10 Size of a Signal x(t) (3) ! Useful Signal Operations –Time Shifting (1) ! Signal with finite energy (zero power) Signal may be delayed by time T: ! or advanced by time T: ! Signal with finite power (infinite energy) ! (t – T) = x (t) L1.1 L1. need to measure power Px instead: ! Generalize for a complex valued signal to: ! Again.

2.2. Analogue and digital signals 3. For example. Deterministic and probabilistic signals 6. Energy and power signals 5.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 14 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.3) to obtain x (2t .5 Signals & Linear Systems L1. Continuous-time and discrete-time signals 2. the signal x(2t .2 We can combine these three operations. • Alternately. L1.Useful Signal Operations –Time Scaling (2) ! Useful Signal Operations –Time Reversal (3) ! Signal may be compressed in time (by a factor of 2): Signal may be reflected about the vertical axis (i.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 13 PYKC Jan-7-10 Signals Classification (1) ! Signal Classification (2) – Continuous vs Discrete Continuous-time Signals may be classified into: 1.6) can be obtained in two ways. Even and Odd signals ! ! Discrete-time L1. Periodic and aperiodic signals 4. • Delay x(t) by 6 to obtain x(t .e.6).5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 15 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.6). then delay this signal by 3 (replace t with t . Causal and non-causal 7. time reversed): ! or expanded in time (by a factor of 2): ! ! ! Same as recording played back at twice and half the speed respectively L1. time-compress x (t) by factor 2 to obtain x (2t). and then time-compress this signal by factor 2 (replace t with 2t) to obtain x (2t .3 E2.3 Lecture 1 Slide 16 .6).3 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.

Analogue. continuous ! Signal Classification (4) – Periodic vs Aperiodic A signal x(t) is said to be periodic if for some positive constant To Analogue.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 20 . discrete Digital.5 Signals & Linear Systems L1.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 19 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.3 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.3 Lecture 1 Slide 18 Signal Classification (5) – Deterministic vs Random Deterministic Signal Classification (6) – Causal vs Non-causal Causal Non-causal Random L1.Signal Classification (3) – Analogue vs Digital Digital.3 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2. continuous ! The smallest value of To that satisfies the periodicity condition of this equation is the fundamental period of x(t). discrete L1.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 17 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.

e.Signal Classification (7) – Even vs Odd ! Signal Models (1) – Unit Step Function u(t) Step function defined by: Even ! Odd ! ! Useful to describe a signal that begins at t = 0 (i.2 Lecture 1 Slide 24 .4. causal signal). For example.1 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.1 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 23 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.4.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 22 Signal Models (2) – Pulse signal ! Signal Models (3) – Unit Impulse Function #(t) ! A pulse signal can be presented by two step functions: First defined by Dirac as: Unit Impulse Approximation of an Impulse L1.4. The causal for of this exponential can be described as: L1.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 21 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2. the signal represents an everlasting exponential that starts at t = -".5 Signals & Linear Systems L1.

2 L1.Signal Models (4) – Unit Impulse Function #(t) ! ! Multiplying a function $(t) by an Impulse ! May use functions other than a rectangular pulse.4.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 27 .5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 28 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems L1. Here are three example functions: Note that the area under the pulse function must be unity Since impulse is non-zero only at t = 0. and the parameter s is a complex variable given by: ! ! ! This is the same as “sampling” $(t) at t = 0. L1.2 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2. we get: Exponential Triangular Gaussian ! We can generalise this for t = T: L1.4.2 Lecture 1 Slide 26 Sampling Property of Unit Impulse Function ! The Exponential Function est (1) ! Since we have: It follows that: This exponential function is very important in signals & systems.4. we just multiple $(t) with ! This is called the “sampling or sifting property” of the impulse. If we want to sample $(t) at t = T.3 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.4.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 25 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2. and $(t) at t = 0 is $(0).

3 Lecture 1 Slide 31 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.5 Lecture 1 Slide 32 .5 Signals & Linear Systems s on x-axis L1. which has a real frequency of & Therefore the complex variable s = " + j# is the complex frequency The function est can be used to describe a very large class of signals and functions.5 Signals & Linear Systems L1.3 Lecture 1 Slide 30 The Complex Frequency Plane s = " + j# +j# The s-plane ! Even and Odd functions (1) A real function xe(t) is said to be an even function of t if s on y-axis s on right of y-axis -" s on left of y-axis +" ! A real function xo(t) is said to be an odd function of t if -j# PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems L1. Here are a number of example: L1.4.3 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2. then we have the function .4.4.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 29 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.The Exponential Function est (2) ! ! ! The Exponential Function est (2) If % = 0.

5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 35 .5 Lecture 1 Slide 34 Relating this lecture to other courses ! ! The first part of this lecture on signals has been covered in this lecture was covered in the 1st year Communications course (lectures 1-3) This is mostly an introductory and revision lecture PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 33 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.Even and Odd functions (2) ! Even and Odd functions (3) ! Even and odd functions have the following properties: • Even x Odd = Odd • Odd x Odd = Even • Even x Even = Even Consider the causal exponential function ! Every signal x(t) can be expressed as a sum of even and odd components because: L1.5 PYKC Jan-7-10 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems L1.

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