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Conventional Christian Beliefs and Experimentation with the Paranormal Author(s): F. Carson Mencken, Christopher D. Bader, Rodney Stark Source: Review of Religious Research, Vol. 50, No. 2 (Dec., 2008), pp. 194-205 Published by: Religious Research Association, Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20447561 . Accessed: 26/09/2011 14:24
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CONVENTIONAL CHRISTIAN BELIEFS AND EXPERIMENTATION WITH THE PARANORMAL
F. CARSON MENCKEN, CHRISTOPHER D. BADER, AND

RODNEY STARK BAYLORUNIVERSITY
REVIEW OF RELIGIOUS RESEARCH 2008, VOLUME 50(2): PAGES 194-205 We know fromprevious research thatsome individualswith strong,conventional Chris tian beliefs may also profess beliefs inparanormal phenomena incongruent with Christian beliefs (extrasensory perception, psychic abilities, communicating with the dead, etc.). What we don't have a full grasp on is towhat extentpeople with conven tional Christian beliefs will also experiment with these paranormal activities. It is one thing to believe inpsychic abilities, but quite another to consult a psychic. We draw upon differentperspectives in sociology of religion and present competing hypotheses about the relationship between conventional Christian beliefs and para normal experimentation. We use the 2005 Baylor Religion Survey and count regres sions to model thenumber of reported paranormal experiences. In general, conventional Christian beliefs have no direct effecton the reported number of paranormal experi ences, but, these effects are conditioned by the level of church attendance. Among thosewho attend church often, conventional Christian beliefs significantlydecrease the reported number of paranormal experiences. Among those who do not attend church, holding conventional Christian beliefs increases thenumber of reportedpara normal experiences. Implications for theoryand research are discussed.

INTRODUCTION
T here ismounting evidence that many who hold conventional Christian beliefs, such as belief in heaven, hell, God, the resurrection, are also likely to hold beliefs in the paranormal, such as extrasensory perception (ESP), astrology, and psychic abilities (see Bainbridge 2004; Laubach 2004; Orenstein 2002; Rice 2003). In thispaper we pursue thosewho hold conventional religious beliefs also report experimen tationwith the paranormal? In other words, will those who hold conventional Christian beliefs be more or less likely thanothers to experiment with non-Christian paranormal phe nomena? It is one thing to believe thatpsychic abilities are possible, but quite another to consult a psychic. The relationship between beliefs and experimentation parallels the dis tinction between orientations and actions. Merton's (1948) classic work on prejudice and discrimination shows that individuals may believe one way, yet act another. Actions are more visible thanbeliefs, and as such, are more subject to sanctions of social control.We a related topic:Will

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Conventional Christian Beliefs and Experimentation with theParanormal present competing arguments about this relationship and follow with an analysis of para

normal activities incongruent Christian with beliefs. ConventionalChristianBeliefs and theParanormal
According to Stark and Bainbridge (1987), theholding ofmajority religious beliefs rep resent a stake in conformity. Thus to theextent thatsomeone holds such conventional beliefs, he or she should find alternatives less attractive. Members of groups thatare in power will avoid practices outside of the spiritualmainstream because such beliefs aremore likely to provoke a negative response. Indeed, in a culture where thevastmajority of thepopulation isChristian, one is deviant for rejecting such beliefs. Following this line of reasoning we should expect thosewho espouse Christian beliefs to be less likely to experiment with the so-called paranormal, especially those activities incongruentwith Christian beliefs. Those who profess a strong belief inUFOs, ghosts, or who visit psychics, are viewed as deviant, superstitious, and unsophisticated (Goode 2000). Moreover, conventional Christian denom inations discourage participationwith the supernatural and theoccult (Bainbridge 2004:382; see also Glendinning 2006; MacDonald 1995; Orenstein 2002; Sherkat andWilson 1995; Sparks 2001). In sum, a person who is bound to conventional Christian beliefs should find paranormal practices risky and unattractive. Similarly, Orenstein (2002) argues thatparanormal beliefs and practices are a substitute forconventional religious beliefs and practices. Some argue thatpractitioners represent mar ginalized groups deprived of power in society-less educated, lower income, rural resi dents, women, and minorities (see Mears and Ellison 2000; Rice 2003; Wuthnow 1978). However, to the extent thatparanormal practices represent new religious movements prac may come from the corps of elites, thosewith higher levels of socioeconomic sta titioners tus (SES) whom new religious movements tend to attract (see Brown 1992; Stark 1996; Stark and Bainbridge 1985). In these cases theparanormal is a substitute for conventional

beliefs. Christian
An argument can also be made that individualswith conventional Christian beliefs should be just as likely to experiment with the paranormal as anyone else with a spiritual world view. According to this two spheres approach, conventional Christian beliefs and paranor mal beliefs (e.g. ESP, psychic abilities, astrology, etc.) are part of a larger sphere of spiri and are at odds with conventional scientific tualism.Both are based on non-hypothetical truths thinking (Bainbridge 2004; Goode 2000). On the other hand, materialists (or rationalists) stress critical thinking and rational, logical, scientific explanations of all phenomena and reject supernatural explanations. As such, rationalists are not likely to embrace spiritual beliefs, be theyChristian or paranormal (see also Krull andMcKibben 2006). Both con ventional Christian and paranormal believers have more in common with each other than with materialists and their reliance on conventional scientific standards. Since proponents of both conventional Christian and paranormal beliefs share a common orientation toward spiritualism, it is likely thatholders of one set of beliefs may also be drawn to the other (Brown 1992; Goode 2000; Rice 2002; Wuthnow 1978). Therefore, thosewith conventional Christian beliefs will be just as likely to experiment with theparanormal.

Practicing theFaith
Although conventional Christian denominations discourage paranormal beliefs, holding conventional Christian beliefs may not suffice topredict whether or not actors will experi

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Rev,iew of Religious Research ment with theparanormal. lannaconne (1992, 1995) maintains thatactors choose theirreli minimize their risk through religious portfolio diver gious activities rationally and seek to sification (Durkin and Greeley 1991; Jannaccone 1992, 1995; Stark andMcCann 1993). According to lannaccone (1995), religious firmscan manage risk inone of twoways: through collective production or through private production/diversification. In collective produc tion religious organizations set and enforce norms of behavior formembers. Those who "cross of the line" are subject to sanctions. The enforcement of norms of stigma and sacri fice vary by institutional characteristics, especially the level of tension between the collec tive and mainstream secular culture (Stark and Bainbridge 1985). The alternative to collective production is private production and portfolio diversifica tion (lannaconne 1995). Actors have access to a wide variety of religious activities. Risk is most efficiently reduced through diversification. In terms of religious portfolios, actors "hedge" by diversifying and consuming a variety of religious services. Actors do not face normative constraints from a well-organized collectivity and are free to consume a variety of religious products, practices, and services (conventional Christian, paranormal, etc.). Risk reduction in religious consumption will affect the compatibility of conventional Christian beliefs and paranormal experimentation. In contexts where stigma and sacrifice are high, therewill be low levels of compatibility between conventional Christian beliefs and paranormal experimentation. Church attendance and being a member of an Evangeli MacDonald cal church exposes one tohigher levels of stigma and sacrifice (Hammond and Hunter 1984; 1995; Sherkat andWilson 1995). Church attendance is an extremely important (negative) predictor of paranormal beliefs (see Glendinning 2006; McKinnon 2002). Going to church often reinforces the veracity and exclusiveness 2003; Rice of conventional

Christian beliefs and thedeceit of paranormal beliefs (Bainbridge 2004; Mears and Ellison 2000). Holding conventional Christian views but not practicing the faith via church atten dance leaves one less exposed to religious tension (Glendinning 2006; McKinnon 2003; Stark and Bainbridge 1985). Among those exposed to lower levels of tension (e.g., going to church less often), it is expected that they will be more likely to diversify religious port folios, and hence, engage in a greater variety of religious practices (such as experimenta tionwith the paranormal).

PREVIOUS RESEARCH ON CHRISTIAN THE PARANORMAL

BELIEFS

AND

The empirical relationship between Christian and paranormal beliefs and experimenta tion is inconclusive. A battery of studies documents a negative relationship between tradi tional (i.e. Christian) beliefs and the paranormal. Wuthnow (1978) finds that traditional religious beliefs decrease (but do not eliminate) reported experiences of extrasensory per ception ESP. Moreover, he finds thatProtestants are less likely to experience ESP thannon religious, or eastem/mystical respondents. Stark and Bainbridge (1980) find thatparanormal beliefs tend tobe strong in areas where traditionalChristianity tends to be weak. Other stud ies show a general negative relationship between traditionalChristian beliefs and paranor mal beliefs (Krull andMcKibben 2006; Sjodin 2002). On theother hand, a number of recent studies have shown that thosewith Christian super natural beliefs also tend to hold paranormal beliefs. Orenstein (2002) points out thata greater level of traditional religious belief has a strong relationshipwith greater paranormal beliefs. Rudski (2003) and Goode (2000) also suggest thatgreater traditional religiosity is associ

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Wuthnow 1978). Rudski 2003). but act another (seeMerton 1948). Although it contains questions on a variety of topics ranging from civic engagement to political tolerance. Drawing conclusions about actions from a literature based almost exclusively on beliefs is problematic in thatactorsmay believe one way. Krull andMcKibben 2006.S. The final sample size was 1. Krull and McKibbon 2006. This is a difference between orientation and actions.S. may represent a unique context within DATA AND METHODS The data used in this study are from the first(2005) wave of theBaylor Religion Sur vey (BRS) developed by theDepartment of Sociology and the Institute for the Study of Religion (ISR) at Baylor University. Rice 2003. with a few exceptions (e.1 Paranormal Experimentation measures of paranormal experiences in theBRS There are four thatare incongruent with Christian beliefs: As an adult. Still others suggest that the relationship between Christian and paranormal beliefs are nonlinear and/or con textual (see Bainbridge 2004. Furthermore.S. We summed these four items to create a count of 197 . For details about themethodology of the survey and how it compares to other national surveys. ern nation (Ingelhart and Norris 2004). actions aremore subject to informal sanc tions. a num ber of studies fail to find a linear relationship between conventional Christian and para normal or New Age beliefs (Donahue 1993.721. and Froese (2007).The BRS was administered and collected by the Gallup Organization using a mixed-mode method. While the questions of conventional Christian beliefs and the para most devout west is the United States. Mencken. Several studies are undergraduate student samples (Goode 2000. Second.First.many of theprevious studies have used sam ples with limitedgeneralizability. Hence. Rice 2002. Mears and Ellison 2000). which to pursue this question. a Ouija Visited or lived in a house or place believed Consulted board to contact a deceased The four items required yes/no responses resulting in four dichotomous measures of para normal experimentation/participation. The U. see Bader. Therefore. or psychic? (Psychic) to be haunted? (Haunted) person or spirit? (Ouija) or consulted a medium. have you ever done any of the following? * * * * Consulted Called a horoscope to get an idea about the course of your life? (Horoscope) fortune teller. Laubach 2004. Below we present threehypotheses about the relationship between Christian beliefs and paranormal experiences. Actions aremore visible and observable than attitudes and beliefs. McKinnon 2003). themajority of the fixed content of theBRS is devoted to religion items. A new analysis is needed because the existing literatureon this relationship is limited by several factors. we pursue the question with new data on paranormal experiences. Second.g. the normal are not the exclusive domain of the U. Our question pertains to paranormal exper imentation. Sparks 2001). Others are limited in geographic scope (Mears and Ellison 2000. samples. threekey studies are based on non-U.Conventional Christian Beliefs and Experimentation with theParanormal ated with greater beliefs in paranormal or supernatural phenomena. sociolog ical studies of the relationship between conventional Christian beliefs and the paranormal have focused primarily on paranormal beliefs. Glendinning 2006.

South). Higher status actors will participate in con ventional religious organizations at a greater rate because theyhave access to the rewards that these institutionsprovide. Orenstein 2002) who practice religious faith in contexts of higher levels of tension and thosewho attend church very often (Glendinning 2006. frequent exposure should reduce supernatural beliefs and experiences (lannac cone 1995). trade/technical/vocational training. Stark and Bainbridge 1987).Midwest. $35. margins of society and have loose bonds to primary groups may Those who live on the eschew conventional standards and be more inclined to experiment with the paranormal (Hirschi 1969. Orenstein 2002. some college." To the extent that thedoctrines of a religious group are at odds with supernatural beliefs or practices. Wuthnow 1978). Variables: Controls Independent The hypothesis thatconventional Christian beliefs and paranormal experimentation are incompatible is grounded in social control and marginalization theory. $150. We also con RELTRAD system of binary variables from trolfor religious traditionusing theRELTRAD 198 . Demographically. whether or not the respondent is currentlydivorced (binary).001-$150. Non-Christian beliefs should be less prevalent among Evangelical Protestants (Goode 2000. To theextent education represents development of rational/critical reasoning skills. to the extent that religious beliefs become com pensators for the lack of material success in thisworld. As Mears and Ellison (2000:295) note. $35. 9-12th no diploma. There are three religious measures in this analysis. Sparks 2001). $10. income ($10. to this on-going debate with the current analysis. marginalized groups minorities (in addition to those may include those divorced or notmarried. Mears and Ellison 2000. postgraduate work/degree).000. Orenstein 2002. $20. Moreover.000. education (highest grade completed: 8th or less. high school graduate.001 We more). The firstis how often the individual attends church ranging from 0 (never attend) to 8 (several times per week). contribute The demographic variables in this analysis include: age (in years). McKinnon 2003). and racial/ethnic with less education and income).college graduate. $50.. Sherkat andWilson 1995.000.000or $100.Socioeconomic sta tus (SES) is a good measure of stake in conformity and indeed measures of SES have neg ative effects on paranormal beliefs (Goode 2000. also control for region of the countrywith 4 binary variables (West.000. Variables: ReligiousMeasures Independent church teachings (MacDonald Previous research notes the role of church attendance in inhibiting beliefs contrary to 1995. Orenstein 2002.001-$100. West is the suppressed category. thosewho attend church more consistently will ". there should be a strongnegative relationship between education and paranormal experimentation (Krull and McKibben 2006). Hirschi 1969. Stark and Bainbridge 1985). therewill be a negative relation ship between beliefs and social class (Stark 1996.Review ofReligious Research reported paranormal experiences. Krull andMcKibben 2006..001-$50.whether or not the respondent is currently employed (binary).000. gender (1 = female). the existing literature indicates that demo We expect to graphic effects on paranormal beliefs vary considerably from study-to-study. East.001-$20.receive more frequent exposure to thedoctrines and assumptions of those groups.000 or less. A Poisson count model was used to predict the reported number of paranormal experiences. However.

Park. no religion.40% 12. Black Protestant. but he was not a messenger of God Jesuswas one of many messengers or prophets of God 8.40% 9.50% 17.90% 17. Jewish. Robinson. andWoodberry 2000): Evangelical Protestant.70% I sometimes believe in God 1. does heavenexist? Absolutely Probably not Probably not Absolutely Inyouropinion.70% comesclosesttoyour Which one statement beliefs aboutJesus? personal Jesusis a fictional character 1. the conventional Christian belief index is comprised of five items (see Table 1).70% I believe ina higher poweror cosmicforce 14.50% Jesuswas an extraordinary person.2 Third.80% I believe in with somedoubts God.24% 0.35% 0.2 Which one statement comes closest to your personal beliefs about God? Factor Loading I don't believe inanything beyondthe physical world 4. Evangelical Protestants are the suppressed category in the analysis. but 11.786 0.70% 6. which are Cell Percentages Table 1 and Factor Loadings forConventional Christian Belief Items Cronbach's 8.Conventional Christian Beliefs and Experimentation with theParanormal (see Steensland.86 75. Roman Catholic.10% Jesus but probably existed.22% 9.799 Jesusis thesonofGod Inyouropinion. Mainline Protestant.10% I haveno doubtsthat God exists 67.64% 17.30% 13.80% 0. doesGod exist? Absolutely Probably not Probably not Absolutely 199 74.80% 6. other religion.90% 4. Wilcox. doeshell exist? Absolutely Probably not Probably not Absolutely Inyouropinion. hewas notspecial 3.20% .885 66.791 55.93 Eigenvalue=4.30% 0. Regnerus. alpha= .

200 .4 The firstcolumn of data shows that church atten dance and several denomination measures have significant effects on the reported number of paranormal experiences.1%) report having visited or lived in a haunted house. but the level of significance (p=.2% had consulted a horo scope to get an idea about thedirection of their life. In con Black Protestants report37% fewer paranormal experiences thanEvangelical Protes trast. Females and those with lower incomes are significantlymore likely to reportparanormal males. With each unit experiences.1 6. For each additional unit of church attendance. There are no differences between Mainline Protestants and Evan gelical Protestants.938 and an Eigen value of 4. RESULTS Table 2 presents a frequency analysis. The conventional Christian belief index has no effect on reported paranormal experiences. The results for the control variables show some support formarginalization theory. and Evangelical Protestants. fortune teller. The hypotheses presented in the literaturereview indicate thatconventional Chris tian beliefs in and of themselves may not have an effect on the reported number of para normal experiences. Among the denomination measures.of Reviewrt Religious Research summed to create an additive index with a Cronbach's alpha score of . have you ever done any of the following? Consulted a horoscope to get an idea about the course of your life? Called or consulted a medium.3 Finally.07) does not allow for the rejec tionof thenull hypothesis. Females report 191% more paranormal experiences than increase in income. Forty-two percent of the sample report at least one of these four para normal experiences. These data show that26. tants. the reportednum ber of paranormal experiences decreases by 15%. the number of reported paranormal experiences declines by 9%.2.9%). Age also has a negative effect.9 Table 3 presents the count models. or psychic? Visited or lived in a house or place believed to be haunted? Consulted a Ouija board to contact a deceased person or spirit? % Yes 26.while education has no effect on the number of reported para normal experiences. Table 2 Paranormal Experiences N=1683 As an adult.1 19. Jews. Catholics report 30% more paranormal experiences thanEvangelical Protestants. Nineteen percent (19. Religious "nones" report22% fewer paranormal experiences than Evangelical Protestants.Those who report "other" religion report 58% more paranormal experiences than Evangelical Protestants.Two itemswith lower levels of partic ipation are visiting a psychic or other medium (14. The implication is thatconventional Christian beliefs will have a negative effect on reported paranormal experiences depending upon the level of church attendance.1% reported yes) and using an Ouija board to contact the dead (6. and 19% report two or more. we include an interaction termbetween church attendance and con ventional Christian beliefs to determine if the effectof such beliefs depends upon levels of exposure.2 14.

Long 1997).5 df=1418 0.017 0.043 -0.ol.217 *** The second column of data show the resultswhen the interactionbetween church atten model.013 * 0.026 -0.However. The substantive results dance and conventional Christian beliefs is included in the of the original model do not change.237 0.075 0.092 0.072 0.157 Attendance Church 0.441 -0.136 0.214 *** 0.089 ** 0.022 0.043 -0. with one exception: church attendance does not have a significant direct effect.104 -0.2421 None 0.012 Conventional Christian Christian Church Attendance*Conv.084 MainlineProtestant -0. showing that among those who do not attend church.268 *** 1617. the effectof conventional Christian beliefs is strongly negative.029 -0.083 0. **p<.091 Female Age Education Income Divorced No Job East Midwest South Intercept Pearson Square Chi R-Square *p<.295 0.703 -0.002 0.64 0.5The contextual effect forcon ventional Christian beliefs is positive and significant.235 0. The interaction effect is negative. Within this context of not attending church. the slope of conventional Christian beliefs decreases.012 SE 0. As church attendance increases.05. ***p<.092 ** 0. having conventional Christian beliefs has a positive effecton the num ber of reported paranormal experiences (Aiken andWest 1990.002 *** 0.311 1608.001 0.005 -0.134 0.095 0.005 -0.091 0.012 0.039 -0.011 * 0. foreach unit increase in conventional Christian beliefs the number of reported paranormal beliefs increases by 3%. Among thosewho attend church several times a week.086 0.004 ** 0.447 Protestant Black 0.186* 0.085 0.129 * 0.068 * 0.091 0.267 Catholic 0.091 0.017 0.075 0.091 0. there is a contextual effect-the effectof church atten dance when conventional Christian beliefs are fixed at zero.131 * 0.01 Beta 0.186*** 0.069 Jews -0.703 -0.239 0.068 *** 0.022 * 0.093 0.111 -0.091 0.078 0.002 0.437 0.Conventional Christian Beliefs and Experimentation with theParanormal Table 3 of Reported Paranormal Experiences Poisson Count Regression Model (n=1437) Beta Measures Religious -0.161 0. Control Variables SE 0.038 -0.002 0. In this context of high levels of church attendance.091 0.091 0.6 df=1419 0. for each 201 .045 -0.022 * 0.462 Other BeliefIndex 0.

in our first effectupon experimentationwith theparanormal. thosewho are firmbeliev ers inChristianity are just as likely to participate in paranormal activities as those who are not. It shows the predicted number of paranormal experiences for different levels of church attendance and conven tionalChristian beliefs. holding strongercon ventional Christian beliefs predicts significantly fewer reported paranormal experiences (significantly less than one. These data show that the greatest frequency of predicted paranormal experiences (1.6 1. Figure 1. on average). the number of reported paranormal experi ences declines by 9.Review of Religious Research unit increase in conventional Christian beliefs. These data show thatamong thosewho attend church very frequently. After model we do not find conventional Christian beliefs to have a suppressing all. there is a positive relationship between conventional Christian beliefs and para 202 .2%. On the leftside of this figure are thepredicted values for thosewho never attend church. PredictedNumber of Paranormal Experiences for DifferentLevels ofConventional Christian Beliefs and Church Attendance 1. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION At first glance itappears that religious beliefs have minimal impact on experimentation with paranormal activities thatare incongruentwith conventional Christian beliefs.8 0. Further.6 Below Mean MeanConventional One Std OneStd Above Mean One Std Below Mean MeanConventional One Std Above Mean Christian Chnstian Conventional Beliefs Conventional ChfistianConventional Christian Christian Christian Beliefs Conventional Beliefs Beliefs Beliefs Beliefs Never Attend Never Attend Never Attend Attend Weekly Attend Weekly Attend Weekly The information in Figure 1 summarizes this interaction effect.Among thosewho never attend church.4) is for those respondents who never attend church but are one standard deviation above the mean on conventional Christian beliefs index.2 16 1 u0. In otherwords. On the right side of Figure 1 are the data for those who attend church at least weekly. the predicted number of paranormal experiences increases directly as con ventional Christian beliefs increase.4 B1.

the interaction effect between conventional Christian beliefs and paranormal experiences ties together the various hypotheses presented in our initial discussion. We see the need for future analyses thatexamine how compatible Christian belief systems are with other forms of paranormal. Church attendance represents a formof religious commitment. Baylor Uni We would like to thank the John Tem E-mail: Carson_Mencken@Baylor. Rice finding 2002). versity. Older wealthier respondents reported the lowest levels of paranormal experiences. 1997). Since Christian denominations dis courage experimentation with the paranormal (Bainbridge 2004).7 In this analysis we examined the effects of conventional Christian beliefs on experi mentation with paranormal activities thatare incongruentwith traditionalChristian beliefs. tion forexperimentationwith theparanormal. Texas 76798-7326. The paranormal. it act to suppress beliefs in thenon-Christian paranormal. however. Carson Mencken. Lewis 1992). and sacrifice help us to under stand this relationship (lannaconne 1992. Attendance has strong negative direct effects on the number of reported paranormal activities. Education. Our findings also demonstrate support for marginalization theory as an allied explana more paranormal experiences. In sum. In such cases the line between what are ultimately two differentforms of supernatural beliefs will not be clearly drawn. In otherwords. however. Waco.edu. McKibbon weekly. experimentationwith theparanormal brings increased risk and increased potential for sanc tion. has no effect. Orenstein 2002). would be incorrect to conclude thatconventional Christian beliefs never Nevertheless. such as New Age/alternative medicine and paranormal experiences that are not necessarily inconsistentwith conventional Christian beliefs (such as crypto-zoology). the concepts of religious portfolios. 1994. The key to understanding the rela tionship between conventional Christian beliefs and paranormal experimentation is church 2003. Non-atten dees who still profess conventional Christian beliefs are in fact themost likely to experi ment with the paranormal.Conventional Christian Beliefs and Experimentation with theParanormal normal experimentation among those respondents who do not attend church. 203 . peo ple who hold strongChristian beliefs and are frequently exposed to others with similar beliefs throughhigh levels of church attendance are the least likely to engage in paranor mal activities thatare incongruentwith conventional Christian beliefs.6 Together these findings suggest thatparanormal exper imentation is not solely theprovince of elites (see Lewis 1992) but ofmarginalized actors. actors who attend church more often are embedded in a religious collective that will discourage involvementwith theparanormal. One Bear Place #97326. But it also condi tions the effects of Christian beliefs on paranormal experimentation. Females report on average-a consistent with previous literature (Mears and Ellison 2000. exposes individuals to the message. But to the extent thatconventional Chris tian beliefs are mixed with commitment to those beliefs in the formof church attendance. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Please direct all comments to F. itnot limited to this set of measures (see Goode 2000. ceteris paribus. 1995. Department of Sociology. Conventional Christian beliefs have their strongest neg ative effect on paranormal experimentation among those actors who attend church at least attendance (Glendinning 2006. Those who have Christian beliefs but attend infrequentlyare comparatively free to engage in out side experimentation. Theoretically. and also places actors under greater social control of the religious collective. stigma.

Rice 2003). Goode 2000. 2004. ed. Fox. Rationality. and Other Col lectives. New bury Park. was highly negatively cor 2We had initially included a binary variable for race (white/non-white). Albany. Tony. W 1992. Leona S. Jour Donahue. West. and Religious Portfolios. 1991. Young. it related with Black Protestant. Paranormal Beliefs: A Sociological of Evan Hammond. 1992. _. 1995. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3We had initially included a measure of Biblical literalism. California: University of California Press. Michael J. Therefore we exclude thewhite/non-white binary variable from the analysis. Journal of Political Economy 100(2):271-91. Orenstein 2002. How ever we tested an interaction effect of income and education by gender (female=l) and found no effect. Inglehart. New York: Routledge. 2007. Communes. gion measures to include in themodel. Douglas S. Iannaccone. Paul Froese. zero is not an observable value for the conventional Christian belief index so this effect is not read ily interpretable. Ronald. 2006. 25-44. ning 2006. American Character. Religious Belief. Laubach. Rationality and Society 3:178-96. In Perspectives on the New Age. 4The anti-log of the regression coefficient must be calculated REFERENCES Aiken. James R. NOTES "Afull description of theBaylor Religion Survey and its methodology can also be found at www. Durkin. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 43:381-94. and F Carson Mencken. Lawrence A. McKibbon 2002. American Piety 2005: Contents. Prospect Heights. Bader. Berkeley. Sociology of Religion 65:239-63. Goode. Phillip E. but with very mixed results (see Fox 1992. A Model of Religious Choice under Uncertainty: On Respond ing Rationally to theNon-Rational. between Religion and Paranormal Beliefs. Framework for the Scientific Study of Religion. Bainbridge. The Structure. 1969. 1993. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 45:585-95. and J. Causes of Delinquency. Methods. Rational Choice: ry and Religion: 2006. William Sims. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 46(4):447-63. This itemwas too highly correlated with other reli to compute the percent change in reported num ber of paranormal experiences (see Long 1997). _. and Selected Results from the Baylor Religion Survey. Baby Boomers. 2004. Why Strict Churches are Strong. and Stephen G. Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions.Review ofReligious Research pleton Foundation for their generous support of theBaylor Religion Survey and three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. Spiritual Experience and theConstruction of Privatized 204 . John T. McKibben. 1992. Introduction. Risk. Lewis.edu/isre ligion.Gordon Melton. On Maintaining Plausibility: The Worldview gelical College Students. Travis.. Krull and McKeller The one exception may be females who have been leaders in new religious movements (Stark 1996). 2000.. 87-96. Brown. 1991.. California: Sage Publications. Sacrifice and Stigma: Reducing Free-Riding inCults. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide.. 1984. 2004. 1997.baylor. Laurence R. pp. and Eric S. and Social Antecedents of Reported Paranormal Experiences. nal for the Scientific Study of Religion 32:177-84. Glendin 2006. and Andrew M. After theNew Age. Prevalence and Correlates of New Age Beliefs in Six Protestant Denominations. Marty. Stability. Christopher D. American Journal of Sociology 99(5): 1180-1211. John ological Analysis 53:417-31. The Social Effects of Psychism: Religion. Hirschi. and theNew Age: A Synthesis. and Pippa Norris. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 23(3):221-38. In Rational Choice Theo Summary and Assessment. _. Susan Love. 1994. 5However. 6Several other studies have explored educational effects. and Unconventional Nonmaterialist Glendinning. However. New York: State University of New York Press. Erich. Skeptical Saints and Critical Cognition: On the Relationship Krull. Archiv fur Religionspsychologie/Archive for thePsychology of Reli gion 28:269-85.. and James Davison Hunter. Illinois: Waveland Press. Economic Inquiry 33(2):285-95. ed. Greeley. Soci Involvement. Conventional Christian. pp.

The Swedes and the Paranormal. Journal for 1948 Discrimination Robert M.Conventional Christian Beliefs and Experimentation with theParanormal Lewis. 1992. Lynn D. Robert. McCann.. and J. toOrenstein. W Bradford Wilcox. Constraints. The Rise of Christianity. The Measure ofAmerican Religion: Toward Improving the State of the 318. 2002. Mark D. Social Forces 79(1):291 berry. Stark. 1996. Regnerus. Press. and John ination of Religious Switching and Apostasy. Believe It or Not: Religious and Other Paranormal Beliefs in theUnited States.2003. Approaches James R. Califor nia: Sage Publications. Daniel P. Skeptical Inquirer theNew Par Z. and theAmerican Creed. Stark. Sociology of Religion 61(3):289 314.S. McKinnon. 2000. The Religious. Jerry Park. A Theory of Religion. and Christopher G. adigm. Berkeley. William L. and Church Attendance: A Response Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 42:299-303. 1995. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 34:366-76. the Scientific Study of Religion 42(1):95-106. Market Forces and Catholic Commitment: Stark. Darren E. 2002. to the Study of theNew Age Movement. Long. Robinson. Berkeley. Exploring and Cult between Paranormal Beliefs and Religious Beliefs. Alan. Journal of Contemporary Religion 17(l):75-85. Andrew M. Experimentation inAmerican Religion. In Perspectives on theNew Age. Thousand Oaks. New Jersey: The Princeton University Press. ed. Preferences. Merton. Albany. Lewis MacDonald. Mears. 1-12. Jeffrey. Ellison. California: University of California 205 . New York: State University of New York Press. What Does a "Superstitious" General Psychology 130(4):431-45. Social Forces 75:957-82. California: University of California Press. _. Brian. Person Believe? Impressions of Participants. The Effects of Religiosity and Structural Strain on Reported Paranormal Experi ences. Tom W 2003. Religion and Paranormal Belief. Robert K. Glenn G. The Relationship 25(5):50-6. The Future of Religion: Secularization. New York: Harper & Brothers. and William Sims Bainbridge. pp. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 32:111-24. In Discrimination and National Welfare. Rice. Wuthnow. Who Buys New Age Materials? Exploring Sociodemographic. the Paranormal. and Robert D. and Choices inReligious Markets: An Exam Sherkat. Orenstein. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 41(2):301-12. New York: Peter Lang. 1987. Rodney. 2003. and James C. 2001. Steensland. 1997. Sjodin. Wood Art. Network. 1985. 2000. Formation. Revival. 1995.. 1993.Gordon Melton. Religious. Princeton. Ulf. J. James R. Rodney. and Contextual Correlates of New Age Consumption. Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables. Rodney. Maclver. Sparks. 1978. Rudski. The Journal of Wilson. ed.

American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize. http://www. preserve and extend access to Hispania.jstor. 1. researchers. pp. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. Practice and Performance (Mar. and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive.jstor.org. use. please contact support@jstor.. 2008).jstor. 73-92 Published by: American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese Stable URL: http://www. Accessed: 26/09/2011 14:25 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use.org/page/info/about/policies/terms. and students discover.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars.org/stable/20063625 . Vol. No.Spanish Teachers' Beliefs and Practices on Computers in the Classroom Author(s): Anne Cummings Source: Hispania. For more information about JSTOR. available at . Spanish Language Teaching and Learning: Policy. http://www.org . 91.

practices. theproject director for the national standards. Further. In response to criticism that pre-service teachers do not know enough about technology (Albee 2003. In the standards for teachers. Recent trends in World Languages Standards for the National learning experience itself (1998:32). technology is viewed as more than just an instructional tool (ISTE/NCATE 2003). Along with other partners. how frequently theyuse it and forwhat ends. Anne in the Classroom" 91. much Key Words: Teachers Mehlinger programs 1996). more information is needed on theiruse of technology. are rapidly changing this situation. Further. technology in the classroom. Similarly. The skills and report strong In recent years. Because teachers play such a significant role in the educational process of change. administratively beliefs. now be outdated due to the ephemeral nature of technology. InstructionalResources. teachers. on a regular basis and are also reporting some pedagogical use respondents' knowingly plan their use of computers to emphasize particular language beliefs about the potential of computers for language learning. in the Board of Professional Teaching Standards (2001). These initiatives document the growing importance of technology in the educational process. Finally. currently22 states require a technology component in their teacher-education (Milken Family Foundation 2000). Leaders want to increase the quality and amount of technology instruction that teachers receive. This study surveyed 340 K-12 Spanish teachers about their use of and beliefs about computers that included questions related to administrative and pedagogic uses of computers as well as beliefs about computers.NCATE 1997). describes technology as "an integral part of the curricular weave. research has established that teachers' beliefs may be one of the most effective influences on practices. computers. an aspect of learning that crosses all standards and goal areas and thatmust become part of the "Spanish . Standard IX. and for transforming learning environments. Moursund and Bielefeldt 1999.Spanish Teachers' Beliefs and Practices on Computers in theClassroom Anne Cummings Eau Claire University ofWisconsin Abstract: nation's research has shown that technology is not being used in the majority of the these findings have often failed to include foreign-language teachers and may However. similar policy is directed towards practicing teachers and students in the schools. The survey found that Spanish teachers are using computers classrooms. For example. In the past.1 (2008): 73-92 professional development. it isviewed as ameans forassessment. teacher-education programs recognize a responsibility to develop technology use in the classroom (Willis and often promote or inhibit successful implementation of technology into the schools (Cooperman 1998). teacher development. They decide who uses technology. the foreign language field has not overlooked the importance of technology. Additionally. more states are requiring technology preparation for a teaching license (The Milken Family Foundation 2000). states: Teachers' Beliefs and Practices on Computers Hispania Cummings. Phillips. teachers' use (or lack of use) of technology could have been accounted for largely in terms of theirknowledge or lack of knowledge about computers. technological literacy is gaining a presence in statepolicies and teacher education programs. however. The ISTE developed theNational Educational Technology Standards (NETS) for both students and teachers. some researchers are even re conceptualizing the framework for teacher knowledge to include technological pedagogical content knowledge (Mishra and Koehler 2006).

Levet. development. it learner autonomy. are among the least likely to be making computers a regular part of their instructionalpractice" (3).Becker. Stepp Greany 2002. 1999). reading and writing" (12). To date. in a recentmeta-analysis investigating the effects of CALL on language learning. Levy 1997. Warschauer. Hanson-Smith 2000. Technology is interwoven in World-Language students to novice and expert teachers. the central question becomes why focus on Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)? A number of recentbooks thatdescribe CALL effectiveness seem tohighlight the role ofCALL indeveloping linguisticproficiency and communicative competence in second classrooms.Warschauer andKern 2000. and theories" (39). major questions remain about the use of technology in language The assumption in these policy initiatives is that technology can be effective for language learning. social studies.74 H?spanla 91March 2008 "Accomplished teachers expand their base of instructional resources by using technology to support sound teaching practices and to offer students opportunities to explore important ideas. foreign-language teachers were the only group to report no assignments thatused a computer twenty or more times a year.). andWong (1999) reported that "Math teachers. CALL has also been described as valuable to address diverse learning styles by offeringmultiple modes to learners and through its ability to provide a connection to enhance cultural literacy (Furstenberg. This study explores the currentuse of technology in the Spanish-language classroom and the beliefs behind using or not using technology. presentation. thedata from the survey provides perspective. Only 4% of foreign-language teachers reported frequent use of word-processing Computer use in language classrooms has been little investigated. among others). Foreign Language Teacher Use ofTechnology surveying fourth through twelfthgrade teachers.Liu. Browne 2004. Thus. Shetzer andMeloni 2000. Further. The following review of literature will explore the current context. as well as a growing body of evidence as to the effectiveness of CALL. Graham. Although limited in United States and highlight number. The following research questions guided this study: (a) How are Spanish teachers fourth throughttwelfthgrade teachers (Becker et al. Further. the studies portray computer use almost tenyears ago in the two concerns. In an analysis of high-school teachers only. Felix (2005) presents a body of research "that suggests positive effects on vocabulary development. satisfaction and self-confidence (Chapelle 2001. Ravitz. present research thataffirmsCALL's potential impact on language learning. Only a few studies have been conducted to determine in-service Spanish teacher use of technology. Moore. Foreign-language teachers reported that 38% of their students use technology in their classes. In one of these studies using computers administratively and pedagogically? (b)What do Spanish teachers report they believe about thepedagogical benefit of learning language with a computer and about computer technology in general? The article highlights the impact of technology use in K-12 Spanish teachers' classrooms. English. no teachers reported frequent studentuse (10 ormore lessons) with graphics. 63% of foreign language teachers revealed that they are not using computers with students in the classroom. compared to an average of 62% among all other areas (science. Despite numerous guidelines and initiatives. little is known about actual practices in the classroom and even less is known about teachers' beliefs about technology (Borg 2003). and Maillet 2001. Although foreign-language teacherswere the smallest group sampled (N=49). and use of foreign-language teacher use of technology in today's schools. spreadsheets. Fotos and motivation. etc. English. and Lee 2002). multimedia or e-mail. has been observed that CALL encourages language learning (Fotos and Browne 2004). In fact. foreign-language teachers integrated technology into the classroom less than other subjects according to a 1998 national survey of . This meta-analysis. standards from concepts. Compared to teachers of other subjects. coupled with others of this type (Kulik 2003 . along with foreign language teachers. Unlike all other subject teachers. Warschauer and Healy 1998).

This productivity included emailing newsletters. including e-mail and the Internet. teachers are using technologies for professional administrative tasks. theymay be making considerably greater administrative use of technology. taking attendance.. Past surveys of computer use have not been sensitive to these administrative uses of technology. making handouts.] Teacher behavior is substantially influenced and even determined by teachers' thoughtprocesses" (Clark and Peterson. grading and colleagues. why. On the one hand. interacting with primary was one of the less-frequentlyperformed tasks. Almost 60% said theyuse little to no tech nology.On theother hand. planning and decision-making of teachers constitute a large part of thepsychological context of . and corresponding with parents. writing handouts Similar to the study above. computer use isnot finding its way intoactual language A instruction. Lemmon (2002) also reported thatelementary teachers (N=170) were using technology for professional productivity. closer look at teachers' beliefs about technology could help explain thisdisparity.While the case may be that teachers are not using computers in their classrooms. Within this notion of teacher cognition. believe. Therefore. the teacher education field has widely acknowledged that "The thinking. CD-ROMs and the found a similar lack of technology use when Spanish teacherswere asked ifthey Gebel (2000) use email or the Internet in their teaching of reading. and only 6% reported high use of these technologies. two skills that are seen as growing skills in the twenty-first century. also found evidence to support low usage of computers in foreign-language classrooms when investigating how teachers used the Internet in teaching of culture in the foreign-language classroom. teachersmay feel comfortable operating a computer. When these teacherswere asked why colleagues theyuse computers. preparing parent professional research (51). Only a few teachersmentioned how the Internetcould provide more readings for students. This dimension of teaching is defined as what teachers know. Conversely.Beliefs and Practices on Computers in the Classroom 75 World Wide Web (15). Today. teachers report that theyare not using much technology. and think (Borg 2003). where and forwhat purpose teachersmake Spanish teachers' beliefs about computersmay be one factor thatcould provide insight into the use (or lack of use) of computers for pedagogical and administrative tasks performed by teachers. 73% reported thatcomputers allow them to createmore effectivematerials. creating presentations for parents. teachersmay be using technology behind the scenes. 1986: 255). Saving timewas also stated as a very importantreason (70%) (381). Second. many foreign-language teachersmay not know how to use computers to teach in their subjects. researchers are attempting to understand how.. the underlying conclusion from past studies is that teachers are simply not using com puters in the classroom. Most teachers surveyed felt very positive about using a computer for professional tasks. Morales. Teachers use technology for daily adminstrative tasks such as grading. An examination intowhy they use technology administratively and forwhat purpose needs to be made more visible. Teachers spend much of theirday planning and pre paring to teach. Although Spanish teachers' use of technology has not been investigated for almost ten years. [. Beliefs and taking attendance. First. programs. and Carel (1998). such as calculating grades. Chiero (1999) investigated the professional use of computers by 142 secondary public-school teachers. She found thatalmost 75% of teachers used a computer two to three times aweek and almost 50% used itdaily (380). Creating instructional materials was the use of the computer followed by administrative tasks (380). The authors concluded that teachers were minimally using technology in the classroom. teaching. however. Moore. Administrative Use of Technology A frequently overlooked use of technology is for managerial purposes.

Feyten.and do" (314). In one of the first models of a framework by Borko. This unobser vable dimension requires that teachers report theirbeliefs. Some researchers speculate that this is due to the technology. Beliefs hold thekey tounder standing daily teacher decision-making. Teachers come to theirclassrooms with preconceived beliefs about language learning and using a computer in an instructional task. others attest thatCALL is not as sophisticated models above. carefully weighting information in lightof theirown beliefs about teaching and the task demands" (158). The problem is that they are just that. research suggests that views on the one hand. materials). Nutta. Pajares (1992) summarizes this difficultyby stating thatbeliefs "must be inferredfromwhat people say. perceptions and beliefs about learning and technology are As outlined in the salient components of teacher decision-making. Teachers' beliefs. In this model. The authors define these beliefs as related to the goals of education. both components of the task. and English as a Second Language teacher beliefs and technology. which is risky because self-reported beliefs may not always conform to the respondent's reality. All teachers hold beliefs about their teaching. On the other hand. along with perceptions of the task and second-language theoretical knowledge. Russo. among other factors. includes the role of context in theprocess. Student information. in a study of Spanish. On the to develop.76 Hispania 91March 2008 decisions in the classroom. The belief in pedagogical value of computers is confirmed by Lam (2000). The nature of these beliefs can provide insight into theuse of computers (or lack thereof) in the language classroom. Pedagogical Beliefs about theLanguage-Learning Process technology and not to fear of using technology (Lam 2000. relate to the pedagogical benefit of . Richardson 1996). 1979).beliefs about presents three and thenature of the task are considered to informpreinstructional decision-making.Borko et al. also influence the decision-making process (Borko et al. A more recent framework of teacher decision-making. both teacher characteris context factors are seen as elements thatcontribute to both planning and implementation tics and of decisions.2001:915). Meros. Interestingly. content. are included in the teacher characteristics. make instructionaljudgments and Teachers' beliefs are seen "as filters through [which they] decisions" (Johnson 1999:33). These models establish the underlying importance of two factors in preinstructional decisions: beliefs about learning and perceptions about the instructional task (goals. Further. developed by Smith (1996). inferred. These beliefs are reflected in the classroom and "drive everyday classroom practice within local contexts" (Richardson and Placier. main areas thatfactor intoa teacher's decision. (1979) state that theirfindings "indicate that teachers actually do make complex decisions. It is therefore important to understand what beliefs are and how they may affect computer use by teachers. In addition. fact that technology has yet to prove itspedagogical potential in the classroom (Garrett 1991. language-learning potential of technology vary among language teachers. Beliefs. however. They also hold beliefs about learning. thegoals of the instructional task and the subject matter. and Yoshii2002). because beliefs are unobservable. in general. these concerns. Despite these concerns. Her or resistance to a respondents (N=10) reported that lack of computer use is not due to fear but ratherpersonal conviction. researchers are now calling forbeliefs to become an importantfocus of educational inquiry (Borg 2003. concerns research and resources in language-learning continue for learning the language and meeting high expectations interferewith the desire to use technology.and ultimately might not reflect true cognition. and Shavelson (1979) preinstructional decision-making. Pajares 1992. teaching and how to best suit their learners' needs. This model presents teaching as a decision-making process where the teacher becomes actively involved indecisions about teaching and student learning. French. intend. Cone.have been identified in the literature as making a significant contribution to preinstructional decisions. Beliefs are a messy construct. as teachers need it to be (Fraser Salaberry 2001). education.Norwood.

what they know. These participants pre-pilot interviews. the otherweb-based version (see Appendix A. an examination of the format of existing technology instrumentssuch as theTeaching. teach with or without technology when they enter their classroom. (1) This study addresses the missing knowledge base suggested by Freeman and Richards tomore fullyunderstand the nature of computer use in the Spanish-language classroom. 1999.The instrument Gebel 2000. an opportunity toparticipate. As Freeman and Richards (1996) state: We need to know more about language teachers: what they do. and responses for the survey. The second concern is that technology has not met the high language-learning expectations of teachers (Fraser 1993). The Present Study Participants and Procedures This study used a survey to answer questions about Spanish teachers' use of and beliefs about computers in the K-12 context. Dissemination There were three different methods utilized to distribute surveys and collect data in this . are skeptical of the day when computer advances will enable artificial intelligence thatreacts to user input. Levy 1997). spread untilmeasurable benefits can be seen not only for students but also for teachers" (3)." however. not resistance. teaching. Two main issues arise regarding the effects or pedagogical benefit of technology in lan guage-learning. The researchers added "even among the teachers who expressed uncertainty about the use of computers. how they think. (2002) concur with Lam (2000) that there is little opposition to technology. these teacherswere either not sure about the effects orwere rathercautious about their use" (302). Many who wait for "intelligent CALL. Seventy-five percent of the teachers interviewed (N=22) reported that computers were a good idea for language-learning (Nutta et al 2002). allowed the researcher to script answers to was constructed aftera review of existing surveys (Becker et al the survey items. regardless of computer ability. and should not. Learning and Computing survey (Becker et al 1999) and theCALL survey (Levy 1997) was reviewed to ensure that the instrument looked professional. therewas no teacher who was opposed to theiruse. Chen ( 1996) argues "adoption ofCAI and CALL approaches will not. behind the documented lack of use are intertwined in teachers' beliefs about means to Most teachers have deep-seated beliefs ofwhat it technology. Regardless of the reason. Two identical versions of the surveywere developed: one paper-based.on Computers in the Classroom 77 CALL does notmeet the instructionalneeds of teachers (Raschio 1993) and stillothers report that and Raymond 2003). and how that are learned through formal teacher education and informal and those thinking processes knowledge experience on the job. and conversations with teachers. how they think about their classroom practice. arguments found in the literature. Reasons learning concerns. The value of computers in language-learning has yet to prove itself to some teachers. Spanish elementary teachers in their studywere not resistant to the idea of CALL. After careful planning. and how they learn. The first is that some teacherswant to seemeasurable evidence of learning from a computer. the decision to not use technology is driven by Beliefs and Practices Nutta et al. as suggested byD?rnyei (2003). Specifically. questions. Pre-planning of the survey began with interviews of target inorder topre-determine categories. and learning. These two versions were created inorder toprovide all teachers. Finally. Cummings 2005). the online and paper surveyswere pilot tested twice. we need to understand more about how language teachers conceive of what they do: what they know about language teaching.

An overwhelming 52. Participants were given one month to complete the survey and were sent one reminder via study.D. degree. 500 surveyswere mailed tomembers of theAmerican Council of theTeaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) who listed themselves as Spanish teachers on themembership roster. The most common administrative uses with a computer are: taking attendance. teachers report high weekly usage of the computer for administrative tasks. Respondents are also frequently using computers to take attendance. in suburban areas (63%). or are not using these programs at all make handouts for students.3% have a computer at As previously mentioned. Demographics The respondents were comprised of a majority of female (85%) and non-native speakers of Spanish (77%) that represented 45 states in theUnited States.4%. One-hundred of e-mail. In fact. Two-hundred and thirty-eightsurveys were returnedwith 39 being completed via the online form and 199 returned inpaper form. During their time on the computer.9% of teachers reportednot having a computer in theirclassroom and 97%) reported at least one computer lab in their school. The firstwas an Advanced Placement week-long workshop where participants were selected by theEducational Testing Service to grade AP Spanish exams.78 Hispania 91March 2008 these surveyswere returned. reported thattheyuse gogical computers more for administrative purposes. One-hundred and fifty surveyswere lefton information tables throughout theweek with a drop box. the following research questions guided this study: (a) How are Spanish teachers using computers administratively and pedagogically? (b) What do Spanish teachers report theybelieve about the pedagogical benefit of learning language with a computer and about computer technology in general? Administrative Use whether theyuse technologymore forpeda When participants were asked to simply report or administrative reasons. the majority of respondents tended to come from largeprograms (83. According toGillham (2000).7%). generally high schools (80. Only 2 surveyswere returned from thisweb site.5%.7%). over teachers and the total response rate for this study a 50% returnrate is considered a good return. an online version of the surveywas placed as a linkoff the American Association of Spanish Teachers and Portuguese (AATSP) Georgia website. the sample demonstrates heterogeneity as well.2%o). 68. Not only were the respondents experienced. 97. Although the sample does seem homogeneous in regards to some factors. the total sample was 340 Spanish was 52. making handouts for students and recording or calculating grades. 63. Second. A littleover 16% of teachers reported using computers administratively over 10 hours a week. over half of the respondents were also home and used the computer daily (75. There is a good combination of teachers in regard towhat level they are teaching and which state they teach in. the respondents revealed an aging teaching population with close to 60% of respondents having more than 16 years of experience. Spanish teachers report various uses of administrative technologies.3%. The percentages suggest that teachers are either taking attendance via computer almost daily. Further. Finally. Finally.8% report recording or calculating grades almost daily and another 23. In addition. The majority of respondents (over 55%) use computers 3 to 5 hours a week moving toward 6-8 hours for administrative needs. Results educated with aMasters or Ph. In termsof accessibility. the majority of Spanish teachers.1%). Teachers are also frequentlyusing computers to . With all data collection methods taken intoconsideration.3% weekly.A total of (34. 8.

6 41.4 17. Finally. 88% of teachers report using the Internet in their classroom for at least one lesson during courses and 26. spreadsheets and digital images are all minimally used by some teachers. assigned to use CD-ROMs (20.8 78.8 3.2 43. the Internet and presentation software (see Table 1). Based on the data. 61.2%). the Internet. To explore pedagogical uses.9 9.9 14 25. digital video.7 (Item A5) 10+ lessons 3 to 9 lessons The Internet for research The Internet to read online materials .2 20. Many Spanish teachers indicate using computers themselves in the classroom.9 21.2 4. MS presentation software. read online materials with the Internet (27. CD-ROMs (21.1%) indicating 10 ormore lessons.9%). It remains to be seen. it is also interesting to note that teachers report frequently assigning these same technologies to their students. Another popular task among teachers is looking for teaching resources. As noted above.2 11.9 17. Teachers seem to be favoringMicrosoft Word and the Internetfor theirown use.4% of teachers.58.6 to Computers 1 to 2 lessons o/o o/o 0/o 31.5 27. 1 to 2 lessons.5% of respondents reported that they make handouts weekly or almost daily.9 84. Over 90% of teachers assign the Internet for research at least one lesson a course and approximately 80%) of teachers assign word-processed compositions at least one lesson a course. 3 to 9 lessons. use presentation software (34.7 10.5%) and presen tation software (21. either The least-common administrative tasks or those taskswhere over 50% of respondents report no use of technology are for thedevelopment of an electronic teaching portfolio. and use digital images (25.9% of teachers assign presentation soft to students at least one lesson a course. 58.9%).9 15.4%o). Number of Lessons that Students N Tasks (340 total) Word-processing compositions 337 337 337 CD-ROMs 333 E-mail 336 Digital337 images Presentation software 338 336 Digital video Spreadsheets or database programs 334 Table Were No 1 Assigned lessons 0/o 21. ware Students are occasionally.4 39.6% of teachers use the Internet during class inmore than ten lessons.2 29.5%). students are frequently assigned to use word-processing software. reported that they are required to calculate/record grades and to take at tendance with a computer.7%).9 19.8 3. E-mail.4 34.2 12.3 3. e-mail (20.8 24. student information.7%) while teaching. whether teachers are using computers for pedagogical reasons. however.8 52. Almost 97% of teachers look for teaching resources with the Internet. Many of themore popular tasks are required by a majority of schools.1 20.6 .9 56. A large percentage. participants were asked to describe technologies that theyuse were frequently used technologies.7 9." to some extent during a school year. Pedagogical Use teachers reported "no lessons" when asked if they use digital video (64.5 59. A quarter of respondents are required to correspond with parents and submit work-related forms such as transportation requests.6%) or spreadsheets (67. personal absences and at-risk professional or "realia. while teaching.9 20. Teachers moderately use. posting student assignments to theweb and incorporating digital cameras and scanners.8 1. CD-ROMs. Over Microsoft Word all.Word-processing and the Internet was used most by teacherswith 39. Word.on Computers in the Classroom Beliefs and Practices 79 88. Spanish teachers are using computers invarying degrees for administrative uses.

6 32.4%).7 21.9 13.writing. Table Skills Tasks n Focused on with Specific 2 Technologies Writing (Item Listening A6) Reading Culture Teachers indicated pedagogical purposes for each technology.0 14. To explore this use more deeply. with 26.3 89. Teachers could select any and all language skills that applied to each tech to help students learn grammar as well as nology.4 (%) 49. writing (43. vocabulary.7%) and writing (89.6 34.6 72. Teachers report strong beliefs about the potential for computers in language learning.9 36. In fact.7 70 51. and 40. Another popular technology.6 (%) 17.3 63.8 32.An overwhelming 87.8 (%) 31.6 28.5 53.3 24.6 8. Computers are reported to be moderately beneficial for learning grammar (43. computers are seen as most beneficial for learning and teaching culture.5 29.4 25.0 33. One of themost popular was used by 307 of 340 teachers.reading and culture (see Table 3).2 37.Microsoft Word is used by teachers for grammar (63.3 29.7% reporting that computers are slightly beneficial for speaking.4 181 50. According to Spanish teachers. computers are extremely beneficial for culture (69%) and reading (47.1 28.80 Hispania 91March 2008 The previous data suggest that students are assigned to use computers occasionally.6% of teachers feel thatcomputers are not at all beneficial for culture and only 2.9 60.7 15. processing software.7 33.9 (%) 87.2% reporting not at all beneficial. listening (31%).8 190 CD-ROMs Presentation software Digital images 140 133 E-mail Digital video 83 57 20.3 80 71 Spreadsheets Beliefs Concerning Pedagogical Benefits of Learning Language with a Computer To explore teachers' beliefs about technology. thatuse the Internetuse itfor culture.5%) and to a lesser extent.0 27.9 25. Computers are not seen to be as beneficial for speaking.1%) feel that computers are not beneficial at all for reading.3 68. the Internet.8 60.4%).Microsoft Word or word Computer Speaking Grammar Vocabulary (%) The Internet Microsoft Word 307 265 48.9%). 63. Only 0.3 3.5 63. vocabulary (60. .6%).9 52.6 20.4 (%) 66. a large percentage. listening. For example.Additionally. was the second-most used technology by teachers with 265 of 340 teachers.7 30.3%).6 47.6 25. teachers were asked which technologies are used forwhich particular learning objectives. a teachermay use CD-ROMs culture. It is interesting to note that teach technology (as seen inTable 2) is viewed to have its own particular strengthand weakness.3 30.8 53.3 24.8 23. speaking. teachers were asked to respond to how beneficial computerswere for learninggrammar.5 11. vocabulary (42.5 14.3% of teachers technologies.4 4.1 38.8 9.9 (%) 7.8%> of teachers use the Internet to focus on reading abilities.

1 2. for instance as seen inFigure 1.teachers were asked to specify the role of computers in language learning on a scale from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 6 (Strongly agree).1 16.8% of respondents slightlyagree (25.8 26.93.7 35.4 29.6 13 336 334 336 333 335 335 332 0.5 23 22.8 16. teachers feel positive about thepedagogical potential of computers for learning Spanish. agree (46. .9 43. and trust when using These questions were weighted on a scale from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 6 (Strongly computers.Beliefs Benefits and Practices of Computers Not at all on Computers Table 3 Learning for Language in the Classroom (Item Bl) Extremely beneficial 81 Skills (%) Culture Reading Vocabulary Beneficial Slightly Moderately beneficial (%) 2.6 2. agree).4 4. This set of questions addressed issues of reliability.7 36. Beliefs about the potential of technology can I feelthat leama foreign computers helpa student language 50 40 30 20 strongly disagree disagree agree slightly disagree slightly agree agree strongly Beliefs about theReliability of Computers Respondents were finally asked whether or not they believe in the computer as a piece of hardware.2 (%) 69 47.5%) thatcomputers can help students learna foreign language.9%) or strongly agree It is clear that teachers believe in thecomputer for some learninggoals.1 40.5 31 43. Figure 1 in language learning (n=335) In general.5 4.7 13. inorder to explore this area further.6 20.2% of teachers reporting that they strongly agree that students need to learn computers for the twenty-first century.7 (%) 27.7 33. confidence.2 12.4%). therefore. Another strong response was with 12. The respondents have strong responses on thepositive end of the scale.3 38.2 Writing Listening Grammar Speaking (21.8 42.

6%). It is still true thatvaluable software. a strongmajority of teachers believe that computers are moderately to ex when using a computer to take attendance (63. average. Word processing programs. agreed (45. Pedagogical Similar to administrative usage. this study reported that culture was not only one of themost targeted skills with technology but that it is also supported by multiple computer technologies. Similarly. These percentages suggest thatover 60% of schools have grading and attendance systems inplace for teachers.5% of teachers in the current study report thattheirprimary use of com puters is administrative. in 1999.1% strongly agreeing. 71. Pedagogic use seems to have increased since reported by Becker et al. In fact. reading and culture.Becker et al ( 1999) reported that 84% of foreign-language teachers did not have a computer in their classroom (9). Teachers are very likely touse computers foradministrative tasks inorder tohelp manage.1% perform this taskweekly or daily). teachers trustcomputers as seen by 10. the analysis of thedata suggests that teacher use of compu ters forpedagogic purposes is beginning to change.3%) or strongly agreed (28. Findings from this study suggest that teachers do have computer access with only 8. In contrast. Participants also felt positive about their confidence using computers and theunpredictable nature of technology. 61.Computers are tremelybeneficial for learninggrammar.7% agreeing and 11.82 H?spanla 91March 2008 The responses lean toward the positive side of the scale.Additionally. teachers reveal that theybelieve in thepedagogical potential of compu ters with over 93.1%) that theirexperiences with computers have been positive. The advantages of using a computer forgrades are thepowerful tools available tohelp teachers sum. not reported to be as beneficial in regard to improving speaking skills. This is obviously the case forusing a computer to submit and calculate grades (76. this subset reflects that teachers report feeling comfortable around the technology and feeling confident about their use. and chart grades. create.4% of teachers reported that they are required by theirschool to calculate or record If such requirements are in place.2%) slightly agreeing. This is also seen Teachers affirm that they are not resistant to using computers due to issues of hardware or reliability. For instance. the Internetand presentation software are still reported seems to be helpful programs in the foreign-language classroom. communicate and submit information. has not as changed. teachersmust have access to computers. 97% of teachers report that theyhave at least one computer laboratory in their school.9%) of Spanish teachers reporting that they do not have a computer in their classroom. Discussion Administrative Use Findings from this study suggest that computers have become routine tools for helping teachers accomplish day-to-day tasks. 46. inagreement withMoore et al (1998). With increased access and requirements. in some ways fairlynoticeably. Similarly. where only 38%) of foreign-language teachers (grades 4-12) reported using computers with students in their . This finding is supported by Chiero's study (1999) where 75% ofK-12 teachers reported using a computer for professional reasons two to three times a week (380). computers are no longer only for student learning. 92%) of respondents slightly agreed ( 18. vocabulary. The advantage of an online attendance program is reporting truancyquickly and easily. What has changed is the reported pedagogic use of computers. Finally. Overall. In fact. It is also still true that culture one of the main reasons touse computers in the classroom. Use grades and take attendance with a computer.4% perform this task almost daily). as reported by Becker et al's survey of Spanish teachers in 1999. Further. listening.8% agreeing to some degree that computers can help students learn a foreign language.

3%). Computers are becoming ubiquitous and integrated into Beliefs about thePedagogical Benefit of Computers In this study. students are assigned to use computers for at least one project with the following technologies: presentation software (58. Although teachers tend to agree that computers are helpful in language-learning. it is clear that teachers tend to agree thatdigital video supports the learning of culture. Teachers report specific rationales behind the assignments. 93. thefindings from this study suggest that the amount of pedagogic use is increasing.6%). speaking (7.3%).9%). It also may imply Beliefs and Practices son per course.5%). they do not believe thatcomputers are equally helpful forall language skills. The Internet The Internet.Mathews 1996. technology.5%). Teachers are using more than the InternetandMS Word. using presentation software (65.on Computers in the Classroom 83 classes (6). and purpose. During at least one les most popular technology. These findings suggest that teachers believe in thepotential of computers.Nutta et al (2002) found that 75% of Spanish teachers thought computers were a good idea for language-learning (298). 71% of them use it to support culture. providing appropriate learningmaterials and providing sufficiently sophisticated features to learn Spanish. The findings suggest that teachers believe in the pedagogical benefit of computers in language When asked directly. teachers seem to feel that there is more than one way touse particular technolo most likely depends on the needs of the students. In sum. writing (31. vocabulary (49. listening (17. Teachers are beginning to experimentwith different usage increasing. respondents seem to be actively deciding which specific computer technologies supportwhich particular language skills. Similarly. although equipped with computers. Teachers in this study also reported positive beliefs about computers in regard to preparing students for the twenty-first century.which implies that schools are beginning to offer multiple technologies. The thoughtfuluse of computers perhaps reflects the understanding that it is the instructional objective and not the technology that should be the priority in the classroom. Similarly. it is interesting to note that the assignment of these computer that teachers find these programs good startingplaces for the integration of computers in the classroom. Respondents tend to agree that some computer technologies target specific language skills. In this study.2%). For instance. Beginning with what is already known is a comfortable startingpoint. for those teacherswho use digital video. however. But a variety of other technologies are also being assigned to students. Current use of computers shows that language classrooms are indeed progressing with the fabric of our nation's educational infrastructure. The increase inusage since 1999 documents thepervasive ness of particular technologies. For instance. supportsmany skills. style of teaching.Although this study did not investigate society's overall usage of computers. the respondents report showing digital video in class (35. the was reportedby teachers tobe used to learngrammar (48. There seem tobe many ways to use technology in the learning of Spanish. and even digital images (55%) and CD-ROMs (62.for example. what the assignments entail. in society.Milken Family Foundation 1998. The assignment of the Internetand word-processing are still quite popular.2%).5%). Usage technologies is not haphazard. over three-quarters of respondents report using the Internet and MS Word at least once during a course. teachers are not using the technology (Becker et al 1999.3%). such as the InternetandMS Word.8% of teachers agree to some extent that computers can help learning. the investigation into teachers' beliefs is both informativeand revealing.4%) and even digital video (21. the learning of . e-mail (43. This finding stands in contrast to reports from five years ago that implied. teachers assign multiple technologies to their students. Further.8%). Not only is computer but it is also diversifying. In sum.Moore et al 1998). students learn a foreign language. For example. gies. reading (63. This increased use suggests thatnot only are both students and teachers using computers but that they are also experimenting with diverse tech nologies. In addition.8%) and culture (87.

Graham and Lee 2002) or perhaps that teachers do not yet feel that computers can replace oral communication with a per son. Technophobia seems to be subsiding and teachers are reportingpositive beliefs about computers. Department of Education 2004).Moore. Almost 98%) of respondents reportowning a home computer and 75. Students need to be prepared technologically to enter the twenty-first century and schools are a large part of this process (U.84 H?spanla 91March 2008 extremely beneficial for learning to speak.4% agree to some extent) but they also trust computers (84% agree to some extent). it is not known why computers were believed to be only slightlybeneficial for these two skills. the link between beliefs and practice supports the slow computer revolution in the Spanish classroom. The gradual adoption of computers is . also changes. The reported decline in technophobia could perhaps be explained by the integrationof technology in teacher-education programs. as noted by Michael Fullan who states "Change is a process. Implications The link between technology and school reform is often made during discussions on educational change. These findings imply that theremay not be enough software programs for the development of listening and speaking (Liu. As teachers' beliefs about computers change. Today. perhaps ithas begun. Other researchers are a critical component to technological change (Windschitl and Sahl beliefs about computers 2002). positive beliefs coupled with increased and diverse pedagogical use reflect changes in classroom computer use. This was reflected in research such as Rosen and Weil's study (1995) that a primary concern for elementary and secondary teachers was working with the actual technology. Teachers' beliefs are thought to influence their instructionaldecisions.S. Thus. will take changes in the history and context of educational practice to create sig First. an over whelming 92%) of respondents reported that theyagree to some extent that theirexperiences with computers have been positive. however. Or second. usage This change is gradual. (2002) thatteachers are not afraid of using the computers. These findings are inagreementwith Lam (2000) andNutta et al. culture is believed to be well-supported by computers. Thus. the findings from this study suggest that teachers believe in computers and do not fear them. As seen in the findings from this study. more and more teachers will change their concur that teachers' practices and become serious users of computers" (179). findings from this studydo not imply thata technological revolution has occurred. not an event" (2001:52). Exposure to computers at home and work could build comfort and reduce technology worries. How may still be speculative. that it and nificant change.7% use theirhome computer daily. Findings from this study suggest that technology use is changing and thatperhaps a slow revolution is beginning in Spanish-language classrooms. From this study. in-services and society as a whole. technophobia was regularlymentioned. the slow-revolution explanation states that"as the infrastructure teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning evolve. These beliefs have the potential to affect instructional decision-making. Almost 70% of respondents believe that computers are extremely beneficial for learning culturewhile only 13% believe thatcomputers are Beliefs about Computers Almost a decade ago. however. In fact. Spanish teachers report positive beliefs about thepotential for computers in language-learning and computers themselves. Not only do teachers believe themselves to be confident users of technology (78. Teachers seem to feel positively about using the actual computer. Listening and speaking were two skills thatteachers reportare not as well supported by com puters for language-learning. technology will factor into educational reform Some authors like Cuban (2001) posit two explanations related to technological change.

Due to the popularity of Spanish in theK-12 schools and the amount of computer software available to Spanish language-learners. Finally. It would be interestingto further understand how computers are used by teachers in the . Requirements to use computers only further support exposure to a computer. AATSP orAP. grammar and vocabulary. Investigations in theK-12 schools is lacking in current research. Teachers who may be more inclined toward professional development.writing. the findings indicate that schools are requiring teachers to use computers on a daily basis for attendance and grade calculation. There is no reported fear of tech nology or technophobia. teachers' beliefs support the slow revolution. the findings may not generalize to languages other than Spanish. either ACTFL. Second. butmore specifically this impact inK-12 environments. but reporting they nology in the language classroom. the instrument is also limited in that the results are reported and not observed. Today's Spanish teachers seem optimistic about the potential for technology. computer. Almost 92% of teachers reporthaving a computer in theirclassroom and 97% reporthaving a computer laboratory available to them. thegeneralizations made may not be applicable to computer use and related beliefs in other languages. Because beliefs can influence classroom practices. what they "believe" should be believed. At home. Not only is research on the impact of computers on education needed. Recommendations forFuture Research The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current knowledge on computers in education.Beliefs home use of computers. Technology in the form of phonographs.3% of respondents report that they own a home computer. 97. This optimism carries thepotential for increased use of computer tech Limitations The primary interpretive limitation of this studywas the representation of the sample. This gradual adoptive process has been the case with technological breakthroughs throughout the history of language learning. however. Not only are teachers optimistic. beliefs about computers in language-learning are clearly established. and because the beliefs in this study support computers. about theireffectiveness (Roby 2004). pedagogic and is not the first time that language classrooms have dealt with the adoption of technology. Teachers report increased use of computerswhile at the same time reporting positive beliefs about computers. many of these technologies ended on sour notes and with doubts learning. specifically in regard to the learning of culture. This they are also in daily contactwith computers at school. Spanish teachers tend to believe in the potential of computers for language-learning. These beliefs support the adoption of the computer by lessening worries that technology may fail and building confidence about the pedagogical potential ofCALL. the majority of teachers (75. audio tapes and videodiscs was eventually welcomed as were other devices that supported language With time. teachers also report to believe in computers as trustworthyand reliable machines. The revolution seems to be fueled and maintained by various supporting factors. Finally. typically join professional organizations In addition. The computer revolutionmay notmeet this same fate. Future research is needed to keep this database current and accurate in order to monitor the impact (or lack thereof) of computers in education. In this investigation. and Practices on Computers in the Classroom 85 occurring in the schools as seen through respondents' increased administrative. teachers have high access to computers.7%) seem tobe active users of their use theircomputer daily. In fact. the findings imply that there is indeed a link between beliefs and practice. The 340 respondentswere allmembers of an association. Not only are teachers exposed to computers at home. Itwould Respondents may feel that they should report be impossible to ascertain whether or not the participants were candid. First. reading.

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Dissertation Abstracts International 61. Joyce. Washington (2002). Zena. and Peggy Placier. "Technology and Teaching Culture: Results of a State Moore.1-3: Survey of Foreign Language in a Digital Age?" Moursund. 2007 VA: <http:// Kulik. Milken ?. Approved (2001)." Journal 16. in Action. (2000). L. Punya. on Teaching. ERIC Document Reproduction 120. and Shinwoong Lee. Norwood. 6 December 2003 <http://cnets. Getting Challenge. 1996. Learning Technology Technology. <http://www. Bill.3: James.06 (2000): 2238.pdf>. 63. Min.htm>. Virgina. on Education (1998). (1992). Ed.org/ standard/new%20program%20standards/iste%202002. Johnson.html>. 6 (1997). of Teacher Technology Needs in Fifty-Five Southeastern Idaho School Mathews. (2000).1: and Practices 75-98. A Language. David. Educational Computing (1996).org/ Technology (2003). 28 August 2003 2003 publications/publications. "Technology Richardson. World Languages Other Than English. Review of Educational 62: 307-32.6: 1017-54.ed. 7.09: 3072.C." and Sheila Carel." CALICO Journal 109-28. to Speakers of Other Languages. Buttery. Effects of Using Instructional Technology Evaluation Studies Say (No. (2001). VA: vs. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan." San Antonio: of the National Rural Education Paper presented at the Annual Meeting Association in San Antonio. Betsy Morales. National Technology Plan. John Sikula. The Pennsylvania State U. 75. 390-420. (1997). . publications.ncate. Richardson. Developing Alexandria. Policy Counts. Beliefs and Practices for Teaching Reading in a Second Survey of Spanish Teachers' Dissertation. T.nbpts.gov/Technology/ D." Journal of Technology Use on Technology in Education Research 34. 2003 <http://www.3: 293-306. "Teacher Change. M. on Computers in the Classroom 87 (2000). Washington in the Service of Foreign Language Learning: The Case of the Language Roby. Standards. and Robert Raymond. Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Understanding Lemmon.org/sreports/ J. 2002.003). and J. Task Force on Technology and Teacher Education. Virginia. a Questionnaire. Doctoral Gillham. Guyton. "Media for theMessage: Technology's 25-36. (2002)." Hispania 86. and E. "Technological Pedagogical Teachers College Record 108. 16 October Guidelines.org/publications/ work for Teacher 154>.1: 88-96. 15. PI0446. Michael.htm>. October Service ED 402 11-14. (2000). Survey of Teacher Attitudes Regarding Doctoral Dissertation. (1999). Hanson-Smith." Handbook of Research on Teacher Education. Boston: Heinle/ITP. Language Teaching: Reasoning in Colleges and Universities: What Controlled (2003). Nutta. TX. Eds. "Teachers' Beliefs and Educational Pajares. the Integration of Computer into Elementary (2002). The U of Iowa. 3: 250-73.1: in the Standards. "Exploring New Frontiers: What Do in Elementary School?" Foreign Language Annals Computers Contribute to Teaching Foreign Languages 35. and Technology 6 December Standards. 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Take attendance. e. Computer Experience in Human Behavior 11. "Computer Availability. and Michelle (1995). Post student assignments on the Internet. Computers Among Public School Teachers. Deborah Binnie. Cambridge. (1996).. Buttery.g. Teaching Language Warschauer. and Technophobia Weil. f.1: 165-205. and Howard Research on Teacher 1029. TESOL. forms (e. Record or calculate grades. and Type of Computer activities? Use (Please select) Almost Do not use Occasionally Weekly a a a o a a a a a a a or D a a a Daily Inwhich of these ways do you use computers for administrative I use computers to: a. Cambridge UP." Handbook (1996). On average. (1998). New York: Macmillan. (2000). Mahwah. Implications A in An Overview. D a a A2. Laboratory." Teacher Learning Smith. M.ed. i.Write lesson plans or notes. either professional "realia". Warschauer. Lan-guage Salaberry. The Interplay of Teacher Beliefs. David Communications and Technology.. 84. UK. Journal Research AppendixA Survey (Cummings 2005) Section A: Frequency Al. c. "Toward A New Golden Age In American Education?How Department of Education. Learning Modern 537-54. b. how many hours a week do you use a computer for administrative needs (Please select one) I?J less than 1 hour LJ 6 to (as illustrated inAl)? 8 hours LJ LI 1 to 2 hours 9 to10hours I?I 3 to 5 hours I?I more than 10 hours . k. UK: Cambridge UP. 31: 57-71. Internet for English Teaching. Donald Freeman and Jack Richards. d. Submit work-related personal absences. Heidi Shetzer. of Technology for Second Language and Teaching: "The Use (2001). Larry.gse. U. for the New Millennium.pdf>. etc.S.uci.4: Journal Language Retrospective. Eds. Mark. at-risk student info.gov/about/offices/list/os/technology/plan/2004/plan.)..edu/markw/overview. and Kurt Sahl.. Correspond with parents. Incorporate digital cameras or scanners when preparing for class. Education. "Computers Learning: 28 October 2003 <http://www. Mehlinger. Mark. Use and in a Laptop Computer School: of Technology Institutional Culture." Handbook Research Rafael." American Educational Windschitl." and Deborah and Language Mark. <http://www. 39. Mark. VA: Jerry. T. Network-Based Language Teaching: Concepts and Practice.html>. "Information Technology of Ed. h. Willis. 978 "Tracing Teachers' Social Dynamics.Build an electronic teaching portfolio. Students Are Revolutionizing National Education net. "Teacher Decision-Making Teaching. j. Learning 6. and Christine Meloni. Guyton. eds.Make handouts for students." Learning and Technology Language the Inter (2004). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Jonita. and Teacher Education. (2000). Cambridge. Alexandria. Healey. the Law and Today's Expectations. g.1: 165-80. Warschauer. and Richard Kern." Jonassen. Exchange computer files with a colleague. (2002). Look for teaching resources. Stepp-Greany. John Sikula. and E." in the Adult ESL Classroom.1: 9-31. Rosen." Technology 8 January 2005 Plan.88 HisDania 91 March on 2008 on Educational Ed. on Language in a Technological "Student Perceptions Environment: (2002). transportation requests.

video. web QQ | | Q A5. For each row. (Please select) No lessons lto2 lessons 3 to 9 lessons 10+ lessons orother). to online PJ Q LJ Q Q | Q | Q Q LJ LJ Q [ Q | | | | | e. Spreadsheets database [J h. Presentation software PowerPoint).g. i. Digital QQ g. CD-ROMs (textbook-related Q LJ LJ LJ b. Word Microsoft Q LILIQLILILI LI QQ ? Q QQ Q QQQQQ . please think about a typical course thatyou have taught and indicate in how many your students were assigned to use computers. (Please select) No to 2 1 3 to 9 lessons lessons lessons lessons 10+ lessons or a. d.Q Q Q c. Internet.) lessons A4. Which LJ LJ LJ LJ LJ LJ Calculate and Practices on Computers in the Classroom 89 of the following activities are required grades by your school to be done with computers? (Select all that apply) Take attendance Correspond with parents Post student assignments on the Internet Build an electronic teaching portfolio Submit work-related forms (e. Digital images). Digital Q or h. Presentation A6. LJLJLJLJ etc. a. etc.Q | | | | | (e. h. (Select all that apply... web b.The Internet. Digital images.Q | or programs. d.Microsoft Word | tables. (textbook-related b. Digital images.. CD-ROMs. Q skills (e.g.Spreadsheets. scanners. Word processing compositions. E-mail. c.). please think about a typical course that you have taught and indicate in how many you used computers while teaching. at-risk student info. please indicate which skills you focus on when using the computer technology listed. etc. Q f. Spanish dictionary. The Internet readteacher-selected materials. For the following. e. f.g. The DO a. digital cameras.E-mail. dE-mail. accents..TheInternet for research. QD Q f. personal absences.). Q Q Q Q\~\ | Q | | | | | | | | | | | | | images (e. scanners.g.Beliefs A3.CD-ROMs other). if any) Check the you use CD-ROMs first box if Do Grammar Culture Vocabulary Speaking Writing Listening Reading not use D G Q G Q Q ? Q ? software.. spell-check. transportation requests.. e.Spreadsheets database programs.g.. g..g. Showdigital video witha computer. digital cameras. Presentation Software PowerPoint). | [ I I | | II I | images (e. c. (e. video. I g. For example: to help students learn grammar skills. For the following.

Please indicate how beneficial you believe Not?t all computers are for learning beneficial O a the following: Extremely beneficial a a Slightly Moderately beneficial a a a a.90 Hispania 91March 2008 (while teaching) or administrative reasons (behind-the-scenes A7. a I don't know D a Bll. It is difficult tomaintain working on computers. 5* 3" 6S O CTO 9 as* 5S <re5- ^ SK CZ) ere ereo <*?> S B2. I feel that computers can help students learn a foreign language. a B12. a B7. it concerns me that I have to use so much English to explain what to do. a a a a B5. Vocabulary. Writing. f. b. a . Speaking. My experiences with computers have been a positive. c.. Grammar.. g. d. a a a a a a D a Section B continued a Please mark your response for each statement based on the scale below. Students need to learn computers for the 21st century. a a B13. Reading. students' attention while a .1 B4.1 worry thatmy students will use Internet resources such as online translators to do their tasks for them. B8. B6. Do you use computers more for pedagogical (Select one") (Select one) management)? preparation and managements? LJ ADMINISTRATIVE LJ PEDAGOGICAL Section B: Beliefs about technology in the classroom Bl. a a a a a a BIO. a a B9. While using computers with my class. I am hesitant to use computers because what to do if something goes wrong. The Internet is a better foreign language resource thanmy school's library. Culture. Computers are not sophisticated enough to teach a a language skills. e. It is easy to integrate computers intomy regular lesson plans.1 am not the type to do well with computers am confident when using computers. Listening. a a D a a a B3.

. What LJ BA/BSminor LJ BA/BSmajor MA Q Ph. What is your gender? LI Male LlYes LI 36-45 C2. How many computers are in your classroom? LJ Zero LJ One totwo LJ Threeto ten a Eleven or more C10." or a a a a o a a a a a B15. There are appropriate cultural materials on the World Wide Web formeaningful learning.D level(s) of Spanish are you presently teaching? (Select all that apply) LJ 1st year C7. How many foreign language teachers are currently in your school building? LJOne LJ Two I?I Threetofive LJ Six toeight Nine or more C9. What is the highest degree that you hold in Spanish? (Select one) LjNone C6. B16. Planning a lesson that uses computers involves more work than planning a lesson without computers. How many years of experience do you have teaching Spanish? LJ 1-3 years LJ 4-10 years LJ (Select one) 11-15 years LJ 16 or more years C5. How I?I Never LJno often do you use your home computer? LJ Rarely a Monthly Weekly Daily ..Beliefs and Practices on Computers in the Classroom 91 B14. Zero LJ One to two LJ Three or more Do you have a computer at home? LJ Yes C12. Computers are too unpredictable-they the software doesn't work right. a a a B19. Which of the following describes your age? 25 LI under LI 26 -35 D 46-55 C4. The value of computers in learning a foreign language is overrated./Ed.1 trust computers. a a a a LJ Female Section C: Demographics Cl. a classroom of students on computers is B18. Are you a native speaker of Spanish? LJNo over 55 C3.. Managing more difficult thanmanaging a classroom of students without computers.D. "crash. How many computer labs are in your school? LJ Cll. B17. What grade-level(s) LJ 2nd year LJ 3rd LJ year 4thyear l?l 5thyear or above are you currently teaching? (Select all that apply) LJ Elementary lJ Middle School LJ High School C8.

Please write in the state where you are currently teaching_ you like to receive the results of this survey? please provide your email. school. How would you describe LJ Suburban LJ Urban C14. Anne Cummings. Would IfYES Yes Yes I?INo to C15. or home address I Rural C15. Thank you for your participation! Please return the survey in the envelope provided.92 Hispania 91 March 2008 the location of your school? C13. The University of Iowa ? 2004 .

For more information about JSTOR.Language Use in the Classroom: Understanding the Relationship between Perceptions. http://www. and Verbal Communication Author(s): Gregory L. 92. 3 (September 2009).org. Thompson Source: Hispania.jstor.jstor. and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive.org/page/info/about/policies/terms. No. 537-549 Published by: American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese Stable URL: http://www. please contact support@jstor. and students discover. pp. American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize. http://www. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars.jstor. preserve and extend access to Hispania. Beliefs. researchers. Vol.org/stable/40648417 . Accessed: 26/09/2011 14:23 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use. use. available at .org .

this studyundertakes discoverwhat relationships to exist. Theauthor by will werethecase regardless whether notitis true.iftheteaching is occurring notmatch the that does their beliefs then this likely negatively is to influence language their acquisition. Spanish. Due to thepotential influence thebeliefs. quesaboutdifferent tionnaires and observation.their in willreflect wayofthinking spite possible that of research training thecontrary. and aspectsof languagelearning through Argyris Schön(1974) propose notion reverse the of in of causality theanalysis people's beliefs. Davis (2003) declares. Gregory Thompson Florida University Central of betweeninstructors' students' Abstract:This articleaddressesthe relationship and and perceptions beliefsabout first and actualclassroom language(LI) and target language(TL) use in the Spanishforeign languageclassroom use. the between "Language Use in the Classroom:Understanding Relationship Beliefs. and to Students in function much sameway. teachers languages learned certain way. "suchactionsare nevertheless prompted a deep-rooted by that be or belief Thusteachers' beliefs about maynever articulated madeexplicit.3 (2009): 537-549 . deep-rooted Thompson. and Beliefs.and VerbalCommunication" Perceptions.GregoryL.and pedagogical decisionsin theclassroom. to then (207). Becauseofthefact and are that "Espoused in whatis stated a belief as thestatement. teaching. These data were gathered bothquestionnaires video-recordings classroomteaching. use of the maynotresult actualbehavior supporting both and an whetherrelationa questionnaires observations provide excellent todetermine way between whatis said andclassroom behavior. They as their beliefs proposethatpeople shouldbe observed to how theyact and thendetermine based on the observed behavior rather thanon whattheysay theybelieve. perceptions. and of This studyanalyzeshow accurateand utilizing reliablestudents teachers in predicting and are how muchLI and TL are beingemployed the classroomand in LI whether their beliefsregarding and TL are manifested how theyuse language. Hispania 92.student input Introduction in is aspectto consider understanding important languagelearning therole that beliefs perceptions and aboutlearning inlanguage and play acquisition actuallanguage use. "Thatpeople'sbeliefs instrumentalinfluencing are in their behavior a truism: is and of 'definition thesituation'" peopleactonthebasisofperceptions their continues stating ifpeopleperceive that somesituation be a reality. in professed Key Words: beliefs.Pedagogy LanguageUse in theClassroom: the between Understanding Relationship Perceptions. beliefs beliefs-in-action notalwaysthesame"(208). VerbalCommunication L.Davis affirms. of or in Thisis also true they behaveas ifthat If and believethat are a behavior teaching learning. shipexists that beliefs a greater had than influence theteachers' knowPajares(1992) found teachers' classroom lessonplans. of moreworkis neededto understand which beliefs bothstudents teachers and havethat wouldimpede in somewaylimit or their language Someofthewaystodetermine beliefs learners teachers through the of and is acquisition. ledgeon their Williams Burden and this that teachers believe (1997) againsupport declaring eventhough may that their actionsare spontaneous.languageuse. Given the lack of research and and theirteachers their to correlating perceptions beliefsof both students classroomlanguageuse.

and that as Kinchin any (2004a) de"Forstudents be abletomaximize to their learning. working them maybe them. German. dology they Muchresearch beendoneinvestigating thedifference has both between teachers' stuand dents'viewsaboutlearning wellas theimportance developing greater as of a between dialogue students teachers tohowtomitigate differences mayexist. (301). 999. to to and that haveabouthow possibility adaptall teaching thebeliefs understanding students are becausethey.538 willpervade a how languages learned are their classroom actions morethan particular methoaretoldto adoptorcourse bookthey follow" (57). to conducted Kinchin(2004a). also that rolesofteachers the of as but the and quiry students beginning becomeless exclusive excluding eachother" are to and of (49). taken-for-granted beliefs aboutwhat constitutes learning. 60% oftheSpanish German that a was principallymatter translation English theTL. One of the suggesting with language concerns the classroom that is are madebytheteachers many assumptions often inregards the and ( to classroom culture. researchers thevoiceoflearners been Harland al. theresearch has beenconducted dateandthat educational that to the is notaligned to product theneeds of theconsumer. coursetheprocessis notunidirectional. background theteacher. . Davis (2003) concludes. language learning.2002). Thiswillbe partly determined their teachers' by by Inthe beliefs" there a growing is oftheimclassroom. implicit epistemological recognition of voice. in shefound 40% ofthestudents herstudy itwas possible becomefluent a foreign that felt in to in over and students felt language twoyearsor less. are Horwitz perceptions common several that wouldbe detri(1988) identified misconceptions amongstudents shefelt In mental their to of of and French. and languages in this author usedthetendimensions language of and learning Lightbown Spada (1993) todiscoveranydifferences similarities and between teachers' students' and beliefs. Kinchin. it is nota practical However. herstudy 241 students Spanish. they ofwhatis expected them their of teacher. Rudduck Flutter. thestudy conducted with18 teachers 97 students. (2001) declares the et that voiceofthelearner beenlargely has absent from neglected. practice" In herstudy university of students' abouthowlanguages learned. perspectives them be insightful. nothavethetraining languages learned of severalstudies intostudent have found Nevertheless. intelligent. (DanielsandPerry. to and whentalking aboutteaching and measured.MacBeath.Fielding view:"There a senseinwhich is not (2001) sums this portance thestudents' up the forbidden ofteaching learning becoming legitimate area and is a focus enof only previously from standpoint students well as teachers. Cortazzi Jin 1999) support bysaying "behaviour this that inthe classroom setwithin is frameworksexpectations. a of from to learning foreign language Horwitz that that attrition occursinFL programs inpart goes ontopropose thelarge-scale may be due to unrealistic beliefs goals that and students haveandofwhich their instructors not are aware. abouthowtoteachandlearn. whileexperienced do or consumers. constructive 1 2003 and 2004b. at in Davis (2003) investigated teachers students theMacao Polytechnic and Institute China to determine whether notteachers' students' or and beliefs coincided noton howthey or perIn ceivedthat werelearned. learning and "It be Veugelers de Kat. needtohaveanappreciation own clares. howlanguage are and relates broader to issuesofthe teaching nature purpose education" and of (169). some secondary school student According research by in atbeingaskedtocomment teaching learning. wouldperhaps a braveor foolish teacher didnotaccommodate student who such with and on Of belief. 2000. what textbooks for. whether howto and good askquestions.Additionally. who in thiscase are thestudents. author The found that students teachers and on of and disagreed 60% of thesedimensions language learning in case thestudents believed morestrongly these in much of than every aspects language learning 2009 Hispania 92 September .A greater of beliefs wouldhelptheteachers address concerns to understandingthese any or misconceptions students that as mayhave thatcause themto feelunsuccessful language learners. teachers to own mayneed to be prepared altertheir valuesandbeliefs abouteffective (217). on and participants London"expressed surprise that thisis something outside their of usual schoolexperience" (309). of valuesand attitudes. In spite theaforementioned of other find has findings.

they (283). Also. manifested classroom language Levine(2003) highlights stating needfor study withactual and and students' instructors' that would"compare perceptions attitudes directly fills gap verbal behavior" observation classroom of (356). and teachers students declaring in order modify somestudies ownattitudes beliefs and neededtobe awareoftheir Though regarding learning. (2002) TL that their teachers' andL 1use" (211).the following (TL) use in the classroom. their In review theliterature theuse of of on havereceived learning language found "Fewstudies that havefocused LI Turnbull Arnett and the andTL intheclassroom. of. beliefs about their naire perceptions intheclassroom. and teachers that to students' attitudes beliefs. ResearchQuestions on while providing valuable information beliefs and The aforementioned research. and perceptions are how of use. this someofthepreliminary stantiate findings. perspectives beliefs therelationship minimal attention.Horwitz1988) found onwhat learners about feel ( wouldseemto haveobviousrelevance to beliefs aboutlanguage students' learning "Although with commitment successin. All oftheparticipants. includedeightinstructors The participants Participants. (207). expectations haveremained their classes.for total 16 different randomly Spanish a and instructors classeswith totalof270 students. failsto further investigate thesebeliefs perceptions language a this the in use. teachers students.From division. againrequire can are into and beliefs influence howthese beliefs correlated action howthese learning. also in "Thejuxtaroleis important influencing student behavior: howtheteachers' understanding someilluminating useful and of and of may insights position thebeliefs teachers students offer and behaviours into theirthinking languageteachingand language processes regarding and students' beliefsinfluence behaviour teachers' Beliefsdo affect and. and of two native ofEnglish native weredivided into groups: tors speakers Spanish speakers up the 1 this four two the levelsofSpanish 02 and202. learning.and satisfaction of theunderstanding student to. data three Sixteen classeswerevideo-recorded times consisted twodifferent of phases. .Language Use in the Classroom 539 to able Thesediscrepancies moreresearch be better to understand their teachers. orderto better language wereproposed: research questions correand aboutlanguage and learning perceptions beliefs (i) How do teachers' students' latetoactualLI andTL use intheclassroom? to and believein regards theroleof theLI and TL in the (ii) Whatdo teachers students classroom? language Spanish foreign Methodology at of The the Thedataweregathered during Fall 2005 semester theUniversity Arizona. fromSpanish 102 (first-year. from 202 andeight second semester Spanish) inwhich instrucall basedon a stratified random Theinstructors chosen were sample Spanish). is to many thegapsandsubof much research still needed fill haveexplored areaofinquiry. and on between student usageandtarget Additionally. relatively unexplored" language but the not the Davis (2003) highlights importance onlyofconsidering student beliefs.a fortiori. L their about 1 andTL use ofL 1 andTL use intheclassroom. learning" language the of between and (2003) further support opening a dialogue Kozminsky Kozminsky Finally. secondsemester instructors Spanish (second-year. classeswhere instructeaching was of and classeswhere instructor a native the of tor was a native speaker speaker English four a of from Spanish102 andSpanish both were chosen 202.1) gathering a and both the 2) completed questionduring semester. Thepresent study this bycontributing correlate actualLI and target into of to a greater understanding how beliefsand perceptions In addresstheseissues.

individually as a class.094. These settings involving weredesigned a scaleof0% to 100%andthe on checked boxthat the most questions participants reflected range the considered for in class for each accurately they appropriate language usage The secondpartof the questionnaire a Likert-type was scale from one particular question. composition during making Classes wererecorded from back of theroomin order be outof thelineof sight the the to of students as tomakethecamera ofa distraction. agreement ordisagreement a statement with to on according somepoint thescale. tothefact multiple tionof thestudents whilein pairsand/or smallgroups was notdone. tothefact both students so less Due that the and teachers werebeing itis possible their oftheL 1 andTL werealtered that use observed. were were this In unaware tothe as multiple they ofthestudy. of beliefs use regarding Spanish in theclassroom 2009 Hispania 92 September . had new questionsthatneeded to be including answeredforthis study. Spanish102 andSpanish classeswere50-minute classes.the researcher Using the PearsonCorrelation parametric analyzedthe data to measure different the between use oftheLI (English themajority for of relationships perceived thestudents) Spanish and thestudents instructors.028) to their of (r perception Spanishuse.Additionally. language of The was from questionnaire a the questionnaire adapted developed Levine(2003) tofit population by and goals thatthe researcher established. After third final the and of recording theclasses.all students andteacher Appendix 1weregiven questionnaire a their and (see A) regarding beliefs perceptions aboutLI and TL use in theclassroom. and including Thelanguagequestionnaire.Thiswas doneinorder insure the on to that instructor conducting morestandard was a class as opposedto showing movieor writing a a theentire therecording sucha class uselessfor of thisstudy. use their . to where participants the couldexpress their (strongly disagree) five (strongly agree).540 The 202 Video-Recordings. instructors informed advance The were in that researcher the wouldbe recording a givenday.629. The instructor video-recorded was the class period whilelecturing in all and during entire interactions thestudents. ofthestudents' with both and all interactions theinstructor recorded.547. students with were The werealso recorded their in group due that students talking thesametime.009) with Additionally.729). hour.responded on and as to (target language) by thelanguage and use the questionnaire actual as measured during three (see recordings Table 1). the observations donetominimize fact.The first was thirteen for and elicited their oflanguage intheclassroom use questions thestudents teachers perception indifferent and different activities within classroom the environment.The questionnaire dividedintotwo parts.with eachclassbeing video-recorded a total three of times thecourse thesemester a total of for during of48 classesand40 hours classroom of instruction.All of thestudent and teacher interactions transcribed their were in in to the of entirety order determine percentages LI andTL usage. p = . meaning theteachers' that significant (r of perception theirstudents' Spanishuse in the classroomwas not validatedwithactual observational An analysis theteachers' data. knewonlythat student teacher and interactions being were specific purpose They observed. p = . had over their level of Also.andfor of analysis thelanguage usage. however. The instructors' of students' of Spanish actualSpanish bythestudents use and use perception their showedno statistically correlation = . transcripwere at the work. addition.p = . giventhattheresearcher no authority theteachers. significant No in difference use oftheLI andTL anxiety was observed acrossobservations. should havebeenoverly not elevated. Thistableshowsthat instructors' the oftheir use positively correlated = perception Spanish (r their actualSpanish intheclassroom. actualEnglish use had a negative correlation = -. Resultsand Discussion of data.All ofthespeechwas transcribed exactly as itwas spoken in errors pronunciation grammar. however. questionnaires askedstudents teachers The also and to not beliefs aboutthemosteffective for to analyze onlytheir way learners acquirelistening probut evaluate what in to ownLI andTL use ficiency also tocarefully they perceived regard their intheclassroom wellas thelanguage oftheother as use members theclassroom.

significant = . possibledisconnect the beliefs aboutteachers' correlation = .002) between Spanish in (r perception their negative strong thatthestudents able to accurately are actualEnglishuse.285 p = .providing againevidence would appearto be at classroom does notalwaysmaterialize least in thesedata.000) between Spanish (r perception their negative that In this a strong correlation use andtheir instructors' ofEnglish.237 p = .376 Actual Student EnglishUse in the Classroom r = -.009* Actual Teacher EnglishUse in the Classroom r = -.913) was found use and between teachers' the beliefs aboutEnglish intheclassroom that whatteachers believeshouldoccurin the actualrecorded data. more students' perception was from their instructor lessEnglish usedintheclassroom them.528.230 r = .629 p = .318 p = .024) between students Spanish (r significant in instructor the of use and use in theclassroom theamount actualSpanish bytheir particular between the a correlation= -. the students with interactions theirinstructors may have includedtheir in The did and of they spent groups in pairactivities.2 (r negative Finally.547 p = .859).500 r = .p = .151 p = . meaning and their theclassroom use their English intheclassroom.094 p = .271 p = .035)between Thestudents' showed positive (r perception also showeda strong their teachers'Spanishuse and actual Spanishuse.030 p = . p = . strong use The use and oftheteachers' ofSpanish thestudents' ofEnglish. their data a correlation= .023* r = -. so were recorded.781. correlation notfound use.however.707.284 r = .028* Actual Student SpanishUse in the Classroom r = .804 r = .665 r = .034 p = . shouldbe noted.118 p = .182 p = .160 p = . signifies negative showed no in their use. the by Spanish they perceived the use was whencomparing students' of Spanishin the this However.940 .554 r = . students havea perception thetimethat use their of correlation = -.913.Language Use in the Classroom 541 use that was correlation to actualSpanish found there no statistically significant compared their = .020 p = . correlation behavior the nostatistically andactual observed (r Similarly.565 p = . use and own Spanish classroom their providing The results also showeda betweenstatedbeliefsand actualbehavior. instance.This result the of mentioned studieswhichhighlighted importance to manyof thepreviously contrary and beliefs behavior.577 r = -. The students of their of teachers' use correlation = -.p = .048.310 r = .561.048 p = . perceive use between students' beliefs aboutSpanish in the correlations No statistically significant further evidence a of andEnglish werefound. to that use classroom signifying less English didnotcorrelate moreSpanish Table 1 Pearson Product Correlations of Teachers' and Students' Actual Spanish and English Use with Their Perceptions and Beliefs about Language Use Actual Teacher SpanishUse in the Classroom Teachers' Perceptionof Their Own SpanishUse Teachers' Perceptionof Their Students' SpanishUse Teachers'Beliefs about Teacher SpanishUse Teachers'Beliefs about Student SpanishUse r = .859 r = .p = . p = .p = . accurate predicating instructors' are English Thestudents they relatively use their of own Spanish andtheir correlation between perception their statistically significant thatonlythe students' It actual Spanishuse in the classroom.030.913 r = -.729 r = -.000)was also found classroom.meaning a there a negligible that was between their stated beliefs (r relationship in classroom. p = .

to quizzes. other and students should onlySpanish use information. I believe thattotal immersion Spanish classes is best).24 I believe the moreSpanish thatstudents in theclassuse room.All of thesequestions definitive statements the regarding exclusiveuse of Spanishin theclassroom.38 . Thesequestions useda Likert-type from to five. discusscoursepolicies. scale one withone beingstrongly and fivebeingstrongly disagree made agree. Questionnaire differences were found Many statistically significant between perceptions beliefs theSpanish102andSpanish instructors between the and of 202 and thestudents' teachers' and beliefs perceptions LI andTL use in theclassroom.024* r = -.000* r = . on Additionally.164 r = -. results the 202 the showed significance of a level p<.632 p = . 202 instructors the use was better thestudents learn. and bothduring and between activities. that the entire timethey in theclassroom are with boththeinstructor classmates.5 I believe thatthereare no situations whichEnglish in shouldbe used in the classroom(i. greatly regarding differences found 6 ofthe12 (50%) questions Table2 and were on Statistically significant (see Table 3).076 p = .486 p = .707 p = . the better in theywill be at communicating Spanish.533 r = -.05 level (2-tailed).781 p = .561 p = .01* 0.781 r = -. 4. 3. and administrative attendance. Usinga twosamplet-test measure to whether significant a difference overall existed between Spanish102andSpanish instructors.The instructorstheSpanish102 and Spanish202 levels also differed their beliefsaboutusingtheLI and TL..63 I believe thatin orderto reallymaster/acquire Spanish.913 p = . all thequestionsexcept the believedthat moreexclusive of Spanish question #20.056 r = -. Spanish believed that moreexclusive of Spanish use was neededintheclassroom.e.002* 0.54 3 0. all of the On in questions the resulting a statistically 202 instructors significant difference.366 p = . Thequestions askedabout instructors' that the beliefs about andTL use intheclassroom LI werequestions 14-21 (see Table 2).035* r = -.009* r = .and other assignments. The in to are 202 instructors significantly also differed questions Spanish on about their beliefs lanregarding for guageuse in theclassroom specific uses. for to The mostsalient differences regards teaching thoseof question14 and 15.516 r = .209 * Correlation is significant the 0.528 p = . in 2. at Data Comparison.175 p = . The 202 instructors believedthat language more Spanishis neededto discusstests.804 r = -. TABLE 2 Spanish 102 and 202 Instructors' Beliefs about Language Use in the Classroom # 14 15 16 Questions Spanish 102 Spanish 202 P-value Average Average p * .068 p = .364 r = -.112 p = .169 p = .553 p = . and of Instructors' to Beliefs at according LanguageLevel.243 p = .680 r = -.05 5 4.02. students mustuse Spanish exclusivelyin the classroom.332 p = .002* Students' Beliefs about Student SpanishUse Students' Beliefs about Teacher SpanishUse r = .542 Students' Perceptionof Their Teachers' SpanishUse Students' Perceptionof Their Own SpanishUse 2009 Hispania 92 September r = .026* r = -.000* r = .

2 and 3 = too much amount.98 0. Theywereaskednotonlytoassesstheir (see usage of students a three-point with1 = on scale and but ownusageofSpanish English. I believe thatI use English in the classroom. for which use bythestudents.Whenmeasuring Students Beliefs aboutTL use in the beliefs of theSpanish102 and Spanish202 students' overallsignificance the were the classroom. Key: 1 = too little.05 Average 2. and otherassignments.31 1.88 3 and otheradministrative policies.46 and betweenactivities. 25 I believe thatmy students use English in the classroom. = agree. inthe "I believethat use I was question which #23 states. their with appear proficiency.00. = theright amount. classmatesbothduring 4 1 = strongly 2 = disagree.75 2 1. = neutral.46 quizzes.The Spanish Spanish with language greater the and additional 202 students. also that their were wheredifferences 2 and 3 = too much. = the right ' the to aboutTL andLI Use According LanguageLevel.79 0.54 in the classroom.06).02* 0.77 1. regardless how muchSpanishstudents should use Spanish at all times choose to use.Not surprisingly. However.5 3. I believe thatmy students use Spanish in the classroom.andinstructor oftheTL regardless students' be usage. 2 1 I believe thatstudents should use only Spanish the entire and timetheyare in the classroomwithboththe instructor 3. reporting Spanish202 instructors their belief about their use the almost instructors scored regarding exactly sameonthequestions use and their students' of Spanish. 18 I believe thatonly Spanish shouldbe used to discuss tests. differences notstatistically significant = . students (p should 202 felt Spanish The on 5 ofthe12questions.45 0. of 2 0 I believe that. 2.The onlyquestion too little. 19 I believe thatonly Spanish shouldbe used to discuss course information. TABLE 3 Spanish 102 and 202 Instructors' Beliefs about Language Use in the Classroom # 22 23 24 Questions Spanish 102 Spanish 202 P-value Average p £ . that believedthatthey instructors indicated they a Spanish102 averagescorebeing2. their beliefs questions on purposes specific concerning Spanish of use should used. . Spanish students that differed significantly in differed on The202 students than 102students every the be usedmore significantly question.04* 0.04* 0. groups instructors of the indicating right that students used too little their Spanishin theclassroom. Key: 17 543 0. with scoreof2 believed both of amount TL usage.46 0.06 andtheSpanish202 scorebeing2. experience more see in more interested beingexposedtotheTL whilethelowerlevelstudents theneedfor in use ofEnglish theclassroom.22 I believe thatI use Spanish in the classroom.92 grammar usage of the Spanishclass.The averagescoresof the of Spanishin the classroom withthe of used theright amount Spanish.75 4.31 2. the instructor 3. English statistically significant amount of marked closetotheright BoththeSpanish102and202 instructors classroom. 1.63 2.31 2." using and 1 a little much the too with intheclassroom theSpanish 02 instructors reporting using English Both groupsof usingtoo little Englishin theclassroom.06 2. attendance.Language Use in the Classroom I believe thatonly Spanish shouldbe used to learnabout and 2.69 0.75 3.05* own and theself-evaluation their of beliefs 22-25 askedabouttheinstructors' Questions oftheLI andTL intheclassroom Table 3).and 5 = strongly 3 agree disagree.

the instructor timesin the classroom. TABLE 5 Spanish 102 Students' and Spanish 202 Students' Beliefs on Language Use in the Classroom # Questions Spanish 102 Spanish 202 P-value Students' p ¿ .10 0.25 0. of theright were instructors that also found their 2 amount. . = the right 22 . students The ofusagebytheir had scoreof2.61 information. = neutral.Bothgroups Spanishin the average 1 of of with classroom the102 average 1. butalso theamount of wereusingtheright to or gards whether notthey close to instructors usingvery were that found their instructors. attendance. should use only Spanish the entire 2 1 I believe thatstudents 3.36 quizzes.91 1. 2.04with = the of hadanaverage They right scoreof 1. score 2.79 should use Spanish at all choose to use. better theywill be at communicating Spanish. I believe thattotal in immersion Spanish classes is best).002* 0. students in 16 I believe thatthereare no situations whichEnglish 2. regardless how muchSpanishstudents 3.544 TABLE 4 Spanish 102 Students' and Spanish 202 Students' Beliefs on Language Use in the Classroom # 14 Questions Spanish 102 Spanish 202 P-value Students' p <.02* 0..42 shouldbe used in the classroom(i.03* 2009 Hispania 92 September use in the I believe the more Spanish thatstudents 4.02* 0.40 0.Bothclassesbelievedthat their they study ranged withthe 102 students' muchEnglishin theclassroom averageof 2. and otherassignments. 18 I believe thatonly Spanish shouldbe used to discuss tests. classmatesbothduring 4 2 3 agree disagree. 17 I believe thatonly Spanish shouldbe used to learnabout 2.73 0. 25 I believe thatI use English in the classroom. 15 I believe thatin orderto reallymaster/acquire Spanish.41 with3 = too much.44 and the202 students' that used too little found they of 2.54 2.54and202 average 1.44 2.05 Students' Average Average 0. These Spanish that found themajority and the results (71%) of by support work Duff Polio (1990 & 1994)that in even instructor though use of the are students pleasedwith amount target language of their used too from that 10%-100% of thetime.89 1.91 andthe The amount English. and 3 = too much 2 amount. = disagree.41 and grammar usage of the Spanishclass.05 Students' Average Average 2.64 I believe thatmy instructoruses Spanish in the classroom.30 in the classroom.51 4.56with = toolittle Table4 and (see Table5).69 2. Key: 1 = too little.35 mustuse Spanish exclusivelyin the classroom.87 0.e.14 2. of 20 I believe that.26 and 2. = agree.89 with = right (see Table 5). 10 andthe202 students The 102students an average amount Spanish.22 and otheradministrative policies. 23 I believe thatmy instructoruses English in the classroom.99 timetheyare in the classroomwithboththe instructor and betweenactivities.04 1.005* 0.41 0.60 3. 3.10 1. 19 I believe thatonly Spanish shouldbe used to discuss course 2. 24 I believe thatI use Spanish in the classroom. Spanish102hadan average of closetotheright using 2 amount had 202 students an averagescoreof 1.48 2. 2.56 0.56 2.and 5 = strongly Key: 1 = strongly in much similar rein the were 22-25 were Theresults questions of very revealing that results amount theLI andTL.54 2.

e. 18 I believe thatonly Spanish shouldbe used to discuss tests. attendance. Addiwas aboutlanguage beliefs learning.00* 0. 17 I believe thatonly Spanish shouldbe used to learnabout 2.05 Language Use in the Classroom 545 use in the I believe the more Spanish thatstudents 4. aboutlanguage that on that should usedintheclassroom all ofthequestions be belief more one. 19 I believe thatonly Spanish shouldbe used to discuss 2.94 quizzes.81 classroom.00* in wereusingtoolittle felt the On question both 24. 15 I believe thatin orderto reallymaster/acquire Spanish. Spanish theclassgroups that students Boththestudents that wereusingless than their students. should use only Spanish the entire 2 1 I believe thatstudents 3.47 shouldbe used in the classroom(i..the better theywill be at communicating in Spanish. 2. though in more with their instrucwas dealt with students difference found Spanish theclassroom using and students all times.69 2.47 and otheradministrative course policies. statistically significant (p differences individual on outof12) regarding beliefs there weresignificant (3 questions tionally. and otherassignments. = neutral.even except Spanish Thequestions where significant a were notall ofthedifferences statistically significant. provides variation was a deal ofindividual with instructors' ofTL use eventhough great the level pleased felt too was and the found Table 7).42 4.94 3. exclusive of Spanishby teacher in theclassroom.06 0.75 2. The instructors a stronger had use werefound between thesetwogroups. regardless how muchSpanishstudents 3.44 2.17 0. the at and the use torand classmates.34 0. I believe thattotal in immersion Spanish classes is best).04 should use Spanish at all choose to use. students in 16 I believe thatthereare no situations whichEnglish 2.53 0.50 and grammar usage of the Spanishclass. classmatesbothduring 4 2 3 agree Key: 1 = strongly disagree. students theinstructors that much English (see the eventhough results the showedthat students used in theclassroom thestudents by being about 23% ofthetime. of 2 0 I believe that. the instructor timesin the classroom. believed they but room theinstructors that the of the andinstructors almost samescoreregarding amount Spanish theinstructors gave evidence that students generally are Thisresult further wereusingin theclassroom. When Beliefs SpanishInstructors Students and whether overall an difference existed between Spanish the instructors' students' measuring a difference found = . = disagree. wereusing Two of theothers that students the amount English of questions statistical of of use the that addressed notion theamount language intheclassroom approached significance.93 0. employed English .and 5 = strongly 14 0.16 and 4. In addition.56 2.' and ' aboutLI and TL Use in theClassroom.26 0.02).06 timetheyare in the classroomwithboththe instructor and betweenactivities.69 3.54 mustuse Spanish exclusivelyin the classroom. = agree. information. 3. TABLE 6 Spanish Instructors' and Students' Beliefs on Language Use in the Classroom # Questions Spanish Instructors' Average Spanish Students' Average P-value p ¿ .

ofdifferences greater actual were than Nevertheless. thegoal of a program to lessentheuse of Englishin the is in the found thisstudy would support as students that classroom.57 2. correlation perceivemore use bytheinstructor areless likely use English.41 P-value p s . I 24 I believethat (mystudents) use Spanishin the classroom. 3 = toomuch Key: 1 = toolittle. 23 I believethat instructor use(s) (I) my English in theclassroom. theteachers thestudents TL in thestudents' use ofthelanguage theclassroom eventhough students the could accuracy howmuch used. both wereunableto predict Surprisingly.84 0. fact negative and instructors' use intheclassroom thestudents' use merits morestudy to as Spanish English If thecause of thiscorrelation. instructorsthisstudy The in exposure approached eachlevelwith different a in the and philosophy regarding roleofEnglish Spanish theclassroom.08 1. giventhat previous had this the room mainly but to analyzed datathrough use ofa questionnaire. Whilea correlation notimply does classroom. 2 and amount.this measured. Whencomparing teachers' students' the and there differences perceptions.08 0.69 2.06 0. The questionremains accurately language if unanswered to whatadditional as factors anyare students teachers and intoaccount taking TL oftheamount student use.06 1. instructor go around classwhilethestudents wereinpairsandsmall-groups answer to so thismaybe the questions.19 2. lowerlevelstudents instructors use andperceive The and that both in more theL 1 is needed theclassroom of when with classroom administration especially dealing The levelstudents instructors and and grammar. Further is are and study neededas towhyinstructors students able to TL assess instructor use but not students' use.05 0. to Spanish they on Giventhat classlevelhassuchan impact thebeliefs both students teachers the of the and an interesting as to theorigin thisdistinction. hadfailed correlate with of these results actualdata. I in 25 I believe that (mystudents) use English the classroom. Thisis a salient studies language intheclassinto use English finding. weresignificant found class levelsregarding between student teacher and as well as beliefs about perceptions use intheclassroom.The results thisstudy for of provide support thevalidity using to TL of and the of self-reports students teachers determine quantity teacher andLI use in the and withany classroom.Regarding lackofability explain student the to the predict English they Spanish to that couldbe due inpart thefact thelanguage inpairsandsmall-groups not use was use. that sucha strong correlation the exists between perception the the of causation. of whenconsidering perceptions in Thestudents both at levelswerekeenly awareoftheir instructors' behavior the linguistic in ownlanguage andthis was reflected their use.546 TABLE 7 and Students'Beliefson Language Use in the Classroom Spanish Instructors' # Questions Spanish Spanish Instructors' Students' Average Average 2 2. higher moretheneedof appearto appreciate in moreextensive to Spanish theclassroom.01* 2009 Hispania 92 September 22 I believethat instructor use(s) (I) Spanish my in theclassroom. Whilethequestionnaire asked students abouttheir own use and their specifically classmates' ofSpanish use whenspeaking with their the the did instructor. dataanalysis of A was runto presents question whether individual the and education theinstructors correlate of contributed to experiences different amounts LI andTL use intheclassroom theonlycontributing found of and was factor theclass levelbeingtaught.86 1. cause ofthediscrepancy. = theright Conclusions correlations were foundbetweenthe students' and instructors' Statistically significant of use and perception Spanishand English by theinstructor theactualobserved Spanishand use. language perceptions .

" and Research in Higher Education 17.and Nina Spada.Patricia. regards statedstrong beliefs regarding while teachersand students English and Spanish in the with didnotcorrelate actuallanguage behavior a disconnect between classroom. and Anxiety: Reportof a Questionnaire Study. "Student Veugelers. Denise. London: Routledge. Forumfor Promoting 3-19 Education.(1999). Students'Views on Teaching.. NOTES was included. is to was at it whether students' the beliefsabout languageuse in the classroom were shapedby their to impossible determine instructor timeor whether instructors' over the was judged based on pre-existing languageuse in the classroom beliefsaboutlanguageusage.3: 301-12.Glenn. and Kathyrn (2003). "The Beliefs about Language Learningof BeginningUniversity ForeignLanguage Modern Language Journal72. Cambridge to Daniels. and Lixian Jin. and Ewoud de Kat." Ed.Lewes.(1997). Schools Must Speak for Themselves:The Case for School Evaluation. addition. "ApplyingLearner-Centered Principlesin Teacher Education. they signifying and beliefs linguistic and needtobe further thetwo. Editorial.2: 207-16. Cortazzi. Evaluation Davis." 42: 102-08. (2003)."AnnualReviewof AppliedLinguistics 204-18. In conclusion. According Children. and Instructor Beliefsand Attitudes aboutTargetLanguageUse. The Key Stage 3 Phase of the Northern Ireland Curriculum CohortStudy. "Investigating Research 46.Michael. FirstLanguage Levine. and Donald Schön.Elliot. "Psychologyfor Language Teachers: A Social Constructivist New York: Cambridge UP." Theoryinto Practice 42. Rudduck. "Teachers' and Students'Beliefs Regarding Aspectsof Language Learning. Francisco: Jossey-Bass."The ModernLanguage Journal87: 343-64.'"CambridgeJournalof Education 30: 75-89. Review Pajares. Turnbull. Lightbown.The student containedthe same questions questionnaire •Only the teachers'questionnaire to their withonly slightchangesbeingmade to the wording reflect pointof view." . (2000). (2004b). The Art of EducationalEvaluation. (2002). (2003).Martin. (2001).(2003). (2001).Student teacher behaviors studied be able to withlanguageacquisition to modify beliefsthatare inconsistent theories and to existing reinforce thosebehaviors thattendto lead towardgreater and eventuallanguage learning acquisition. "Pupil Participation Pupil Perspective: 'Carvinga New Orderof Experience. (1988). Theoryin Practice: Increasing ProfessionalEffectiveness.Marion. and CharlenePolio. "Student Use.1: 50-54. Comprehensive Fielding. Language Use in the Classroom 547 WORKS CITED San Argyis. "Achievinga Shared Understanding the Learners'Role through of Teacher StudentDialogue. (2004a).(2003).3: 283-94. Harland. Miles. Approach. "How Much ForeignLanguage is There in the ForeignLanguage Duff. Horwitz. Eli Hinkel.Ely. MacBeath.Jean. John.(Special issue. Kozminsky.Frank. (2002). "Studentvoice") 43: 49-50." Students'Beliefs about Their Preferred Role as Learners. "'Learner-Centered' Theoryinto Practice Perry. Adrian. "Teachers' Beliefs and EducationalResearch:Cleaningup a Messy Construct. "ImprovingMotivation throughDialogue.and Mary Ashworth. and Jean. 22: Second. . 2It is important note thatbecause the questionnaire administered the end of the semester.differences whenanalyzed observed statistically. and Lea Kozminsky. "Teachers' Use of the Target Language and First Languages in Classrooms. (1990).Slough: NFER. Eisner. (1993). Oxford:OxfordUP. Helen Moor."Educational Kinchin. and Deborah Kalkman. UK: Falmer." Educational Leadership 61. study helpedto highlight differences existbetween this has the that native instructors Spanishand nativeSpanish-speaking of instructors in English-speaking especially tothebelief to theimportance exclusive oftheTL with as of use In students." of EducationalResearch 62: 307-32. Kay Kinder.Cambridge: UP.(1999)." Education Today 54: 28-30. (1974). Pierre. John.Culturein Second Language Teachingand Learning.2: 127-32.(1992). Williams. Classroom?"The Modern Language Journal74: 154-66.and JuliaFlutter. and Katie Arnett. How Languages are Learned. Students."Journalof School Leadership12: 97-108.Ian.Chris.and RobertBurden. (1985).and Foreign-Language Voice in School Leadership:Promoting Dialogue about Wiel. "Cultural Mirrors: Materialsand Methodsin the EFL classroom.Elaine. Patsy.

of the timewe spenddiscussing 21-40% [ ] 41-60% [ ] 61-80% [ ] 81-100% [ ] 0-20% [ ] I use Spanish to communicate with students about administrative information (course policies. better use theywill be at communicating in Spanish. 9. I use Spanish to communicate with my studentsabout 0-20% [ ] 21-40% [ ] 41-60% [ ] 61-80% [ with me about My studentsuse Spanish to communicate of the time.etc. no translation) Spanish about in for of the time. 8. My students of the time. ] 81-100% [ ] of the time. students classroom.g. understandwhat I am sayingin Spanishabout 21-40% [ ] 41-60% [ ] 61-80% [ ] 81-100% [ ] 0-20% [ ] 12. 21-40% [ ] 41-60% [ ] 61-80% [ ] 81-100% [ ] 0-20% [ ] I use Spanish to communicate with students outside of class time (e. 0-20% [ ] 21-40% [ ] 41-60% [ ] 61-80% [ ] 81-100% [ ] I use Spanish to communicate with students about tests. beforeor afterclass.Unless otherwise yourown feelings regarding languageteaching specified. theyswitch English as to witha particular soon as theyare through about of the time.e. I believe thattotal immersion Spanish classes is best).in the hall. describesyour current Instructions:Mark the answerthat most accurately Spanish language classroomand and languageuse in the classroom.) about of the time.. history. limit your responses to your in class behavior. While students working are withpartnersor groups in my Spanishclass. 2.548 2009 Hispania 92 September Teachers' APPENDIX A Language Questionnaire Please print class time. 3. 12 3 4 5 Strongly disgree Strongly agree in 15. of the time 5. 0-20% [ ] 21-40% [ ] 41-60% [ ] 61-80% [ ] 81-100% [ ] with each other about of the time. 6. I believethatthere no situations whichEnglish shouldbe used in the classroom are (i. in 12 4 3 5 Strongly disgree Strongly agree . activity 0-20% [ ] 21-40% [ ] 41-60% [ ] 61-80% [ ] 81-100% [ ] 1 1. 4 12 3 5 Strongly disgree Strongly agree the 13.and customs of the of the time we spend on these activities. 7.and section#: (e... I believethemoreSpanishthatstudents in theclassroom. 4. Span 102 9:00-9:50am Section21) yourcoursenumber. about clarify 0-20% [ ] 21-40% [ ] 41-60% [ ] 61-80% [ ] 81-100% [ ] describes Instructions: Mark the answerthatmostaccurately yourbeliefs about Spanishand Englishusage in the languageclassroom.. My studentsuse Spanish to communicate 0-20% [ ] 21-40% [ ] 41-60% [ ] 61-80% [ ] 81-100% [ ] I use Spanish to give directions activitiesexclusively(i. 12 3 4 5 Strongly disgree Strongly agree in 14.) about announcements. 0-20% [ ] 21-40% [ ] 41-60% [ ] 61-80% [ ] 81-100% [ ] 10. of the timewe spend discussing these. 1. officehours. quizzes and other assignmentsabout these. When my students not understandwhat I am sayingin Spanish. I believethatin orderto reallymaster/acquire mustuse Spanish exclusively the Spanish. etc. 0-20% [ ] 21-40% [ ] 41-60% [ ] 61-80% [ ] 81-100% [ ] I use Spanish to communicate withinactivitiesabout the culture. theyrequestthatI repeator do of the time.g.e. Spanish-speakingworld about 0-20% [ ] 21-40% [ ] 41-60% [ ] 61-80% [ ] 81-100% [ ] I use Spanish to communicate with students about grammar and usage about or on we spendon discussing working these. deadlines.

theright amount [ ] of too much [ ] the 25. of the never [ ] at thebeginning theterm [ ] regularly throughout term [ ] themwith 27. theright amount [ ] of too much [ ] English in the classroom. 12 4 3 5 Strongly disgree Strongly agree 18. theright amount [ ] of too much [ ] Spanish in the classroom. I believe thatonly Spanish shouldbe used to discusstests. I believe that only Spanish should be used to discuss course policies. the instructor should use Spanish at all times in the classroom. the second mostimportant (3) being the third (2) Previous teachingexperience Spanish department policies Personalbeliefs about teaching/learning Teacher training Pedagogical theories Teaching Method or Approach Limited English proficiency Other-Explain in 2 8 . and 12 4 3 5 Strongly disgree Strongly agree 17. administrative 12 4 3 5 Strongly disgree Strongly agree 19.quizzes. I believe thatI use too little [ ] 23. Markall of the situations whichyou feel some English shouldbe used To practiceEnglish Classroom administration Translation unknownvocabulary of Grammarinstruction Lack of comprehension material of Classroom management use Respondto students' of English To establishempathy/solidarity class with Other-Explain . I believe thatmy studentsuse too little [ ] 24. 12 4 3 5 Strongly disgree Strongly agree 21.Language Use in the Classroom 549 16. I have made my expectations regarding use of Spanish in the classroomexplicitby discussing themwith students. Pick the top 3 reasonswhyyou use Spanish in the classroomand rankthemby ranking and mostimportant. I have spent class time workingthrough discussingcommunicativestrategiesthat will help in studentscommunicate Spanish. I believe thatonly Spanish shouldbe used to learnaboutgrammar usage in the Spanishclass.regardless how much Spanish students of choose to use. amount [ ] too much [ ] theright of English in the classroom. I believe thatstudents shoulduse only Spanish the entire timetheyare in the classroomwithboth the instructor fellowstudents and bothduring and betweenactivities. 12 4 3 5 Strongly disgree Strongly agree 20. at thebeginning theterm [ ] regularly of the never [ ] throughout term [ ] or 26. attendance. (1) beingthe mostimportant. and otherassignments. I believe thatI use too little [ ] 22. and other information. I believe thatmy studentsuse too little [ ] Spanish in the classroom. I believe that.