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Introduction, Basic Definitions and General Principles of Ventilation

Problem: Find the static pressure of a hood if the velocity pressure is 3.2 "of water and the coefficient of entry is 0.96. Solution: Ce = (VP / SP)1/2 where Ce is coefficient of entry, VP is velocity pressure, SP is static pressure. SP = VP / Ce² = 3.2 / 0.96² = 3.47 ”of water

Problem: If the static pressure is 2.56 "of water and the coefficient of entry is 0.92, what is the velocity pressure ? Solution: VP = SP * Ce² = 2.56 * 0.92² = 2.17 ”of water

Problem: The velocity pressure in the duct is 3.15 "of water. What is the velocity in the duct ? Solution: V = 4005 (VP)1/2 where V is velocity in fpm,

Q = 1.VP is the velocity pressure in inch of water. V = 4005 (3. A is cross-sectional area. calculate the velocity in the pipe in fpm. .3 fpm Problem: Calculate the velocity in m/s.5 m² * 4000 fpm = 64583. Solution: V = Q / A = (350 m³/s) / (25 ft²) = 29664.5 sqm.15)1/2 = 7108.20 cm of water. V is velocity.17 fpm Problem: If the velocity in the duct is 4000 fpm and the area of the duct is 1. what is the flow rate in the duct ? Solution: Q=A*V where Q is flow rate. when the velocity pressure in a hood is 2. Solution: V = 4005 (VP)1/2 where V is velocity in fpm.46 cfm Problem: The rate of flow in a pipe is 350 cum/s and the area of the pipe is 25 sqft.

VP = 2.866)1/2 = 3727. VP is velocity pressure in inch of water. Assume that air is flowing through a black iron duct.011 Using Wright’s equation. . Compare your results using Wright's equation. Velocity = 4000 fpm Assume L = 100 ft VP = (Velocity in fpm / 4005)2 = 0.74 (4000 / 1000)1.331.22 where V is duct velocity in fpm.VP is the velocity pressure in inch of water.9 / D1. V = 4005 (0.866” of water. h = 2.29” of water Using Darcy-Weisbach equation.74 (V / 1000)1.20 cm of water = 0. Solution: Surface Roughness for black iron: 0. friction factor f = 0.33” = 0.02 fpm = 18. D is diameter in inches.9 / 54.94 m/s Problem: Calculate the friction factor for problem 6 using Moody's diagram.00015 Relative Roughness for diameter of 54.33” .998” of water. D is diameter in inches. h = 12 * (f / D) * L * VP where f is friction factor.0000028 Value of VD (velocity in ft/s * diameter in inch) = 3622 From Moody Diagram (Refer to diagram in textbook). L is length in ft. friction loss h is given by h = 2.22 = 0. D = 54.

No a b c d Shape of Duct Circle Triangle Square Rectangle Area (ft²) 0. At the end of a long straight run the centerline velocity is measured to be 9 m/sec. Estimate the average velocity and mass flow rate of the air assuming standard conditions for the air.6 m diameter circular duct.3 inches Hg.83 Problem: Fill in the blanks.93 Q (cfm) 196 5000 12501 1600 Dimensions Diameter = 6” Base=10”.013 Problem: Compute the density correction factor for 800 F and 25.Height=20” Side = 20” Side 1=10”.Height=20” Side = 20” Side 1=10”. Solution: Density correction factor = (P / Pstd) * (Tstd / T) = (25. Sr. No a b c d Solution: Sr. f = 0.3 / 29.196 0.694 2.Side 2=6” Shape of Duct Circle Triangle Square Rectangle Area (ft²) Velocity (fpm) 1000 4500 1600 Q (cfm) 5000 Dimensions Diameter = 6” Base=10”.611 4500 3836.778 0.417 Velocity (fpm) 1000 7204. .92) * (530 / 540) = 0.Side 2=6” Problem: Air flows in a 0.Solving Darcy-Weisbach equation.

D = Diameter in microns. Average velocity.1 fpm For glass particles.80 Solution: Vs = 0. Vs = 0.62 cfm Problem: Determine the settling velocity of the following particles: Saw dust: D = 35 microns Specific gravity = 0.8 * 10² = 0.0052 * SG * D² where. Q = V * Area = 6 * (π/4 * 0. Vs = Settling velocity in fpm. SCFM = 7000 * 530 / (300 + 460) = 4882 cfm .Solution: Assuming a parabolic velocity distribution inside the duct. average velocity is 2/3 of centerline velocity.94 fpm Glass particles: D= 10 microns Specific gravity = 1.696 m³/s = 3593.6²) = 1. For saw dust. Vs = 0. V = 2/3 * 9 = 6 m/s Mass flow rate.0052 * 0.8 * 35² = 5. Ts = Standard temperature in R. and Ta = Actual temperature in R So. SG = Specific gravity.0052 * 1.8 Problem: Determine the scfm of an air stream measured at 7000 cfm and 300oF. Solution: SCFM = ACFM * Ts / Ta where.

0015 mmHg. online calculator at http://hyperphysics.gsu.html#c4 Problem: Estimate the maximum concentration of mercury vapor that can exist in air at a high altitude where pressure is around 500mm mercury column. Solution: Maximum concentration of mercury vapor at a pressure of 500mm Hg = 0. Vapor pressure of mercury = 0. Solution: Dew point with temperature of 90 F and relative humidity of 50 % = 68 F Figure 5-18 (Psychrometric Chart).phy-astr.14 ft² = 14130 cfm . 22nd Edition.Problem: Determine the dew point temperature when the dry bulb temperature is 90oF and the relative humidity is 50%.0015 / 500 = 3 * 10-6 = 3 ppm Problem: The transport velocity is 4500 fpm and the duct is 2'.14 ft ² Required air flow = V * A = 4500 fpm * 3. Also. What air flow is needed? Solution: Area of duct. “Industrial Ventilation: A manual of Recommended Practices”.edu/hbase/kinetic/relhum. A = π * 2² / 4 = 3.

25" of H2O.92] * [(460 + 70) / (460 + 50)] = 0. Re = Reynolds number. df = [P / Pstd] * [(460 + Tstd) / (460 + T)] where. T in F. the static head is 0.9 + (k / 3. f ≈ 0. Solution: Churchill’s equation is given by f = 8 [ (8 / Re)12 + (A + B)-3/2 ]1/12 (37530 / Re)16 . Compute the volume and mass flow rates for a 1.Problem: Calculate the friction factor using Churchill equation for an air flow with Reynolds number equal to 2 x 107. V = 1096 √ (VP / ρ) = 1096 √ (0. f = 0. The velocity head as indicated by an inclined gauge is 0. the air temperature is 50 oF.0104 Moody Diagram: Re = 2 * 107.0005 ft) with D = 12”.88 fpm Volume flow rate. barometric pressure is 27" of Hg. Relative Roughness = k / D = 0.457 ln[ (7 / Re)0.48 lbm/min . df = [27 / 29. State your assumptions. k = Surface roughness in ft. Q = V * A = 2921.938 Corrected density. B= where. f = friction factor. D = Duct diameter in inches Given: Re = 2 * 107 Assuming Galvanized metal duct (k = 0. P in “Hg. Compare your results obtained from Moody diagram.07035 lbm/ft³ Velocity. Solution: Density correction factor. ρ = df * ρstd = 0.000042.5" of H2 O.7D) ] }16 .92 “Hg.075 lbm/ft³ = 0.938 * 0. A = { -2.0106 Problem: A pitot tube is installed in an air duct centerline.88 * (π * 1.5 / 0.07035 lbm/ft³ = 232. Pstd = 29.2' diameter duct. Tstd = 70 F.57 cfm * 0.57 cfm Mass flow rate = Q * ρ = 3304.2² / 4) = 3304.07035) = 2921.

At the end of a long straight run the centerline velocity is measured to be 20m/s.75 lbm/min Problem: A wet bulb psychomotor is inserted in a 12" diameter insulated air duct.61 fpm * (π * 3² / 4) ft² * 0. Solution: Assuming Average velocity = 0.075 lbm/ft³ = 1669. The thermometers are unshielded and have a diameter of about 0. Determine the moisture content of the air. The dry bulb thermometer indicates 70o F while the wet bulb reading is 50oF. 22nd Ed.2".8 * Vcenterline = 0. IV Manual..8 * 20 m/s = 16 m/s = 3149. The volume flow rate of the air is 500 cfm and it is thoroughly mixed. 5-18. Vaverage = 0. ACGIH): Dry Bulb Temperature = 70 F Relative Humidity = 20 % Wet Bulb Temperature = 50 F Specific Humidity = 22 grains/lb .8 Centerline velocity. Solution: From Psychrometric chart (Fig. Estimate the average velocity and mass flow rate of the air assuming standard conditions for the air.61 fpm Mass flow rate = Vaverage * A * ρstd = 3149.Problem: Air flows in a 3 ft diameter circular duct.

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