You are on page 1of 8

# Introduction, Basic Definitions and General Principles of Ventilation

Problem: Find the static pressure of a hood if the velocity pressure is 3.2 "of water and the coefficient of entry is 0.96. Solution: Ce = (VP / SP)1/2 where Ce is coefficient of entry, VP is velocity pressure, SP is static pressure. SP = VP / Ce² = 3.2 / 0.96² = 3.47 ”of water

Problem: If the static pressure is 2.56 "of water and the coefficient of entry is 0.92, what is the velocity pressure ? Solution: VP = SP * Ce² = 2.56 * 0.92² = 2.17 ”of water

Problem: The velocity pressure in the duct is 3.15 "of water. What is the velocity in the duct ? Solution: V = 4005 (VP)1/2 where V is velocity in fpm,

Q = 1.VP is the velocity pressure in inch of water. V = 4005 (3. A is cross-sectional area. calculate the velocity in the pipe in fpm. .3 fpm Problem: Calculate the velocity in m/s.5 m² * 4000 fpm = 64583. Solution: V = Q / A = (350 m³/s) / (25 ft²) = 29664.5 sqm.15)1/2 = 7108.20 cm of water. V is velocity.17 fpm Problem: If the velocity in the duct is 4000 fpm and the area of the duct is 1. what is the flow rate in the duct ? Solution: Q=A*V where Q is flow rate. when the velocity pressure in a hood is 2. Solution: V = 4005 (VP)1/2 where V is velocity in fpm.46 cfm Problem: The rate of flow in a pipe is 350 cum/s and the area of the pipe is 25 sqft.

VP = 2.866)1/2 = 3727. VP is velocity pressure in inch of water. Assume that air is flowing through a black iron duct.011 Using Wright’s equation. . Compare your results using Wright's equation. Velocity = 4000 fpm Assume L = 100 ft VP = (Velocity in fpm / 4005)2 = 0.74 (4000 / 1000)1.331.22 where V is duct velocity in fpm.VP is the velocity pressure in inch of water.9 / D1. V = 4005 (0.866” of water. h = 2.29” of water Using Darcy-Weisbach equation.74 (V / 1000)1.20 cm of water = 0. Solution: Surface Roughness for black iron: 0. friction factor f = 0.33” = 0.02 fpm = 18. D is diameter in inches.9 / 54.94 m/s Problem: Calculate the friction factor for problem 6 using Moody's diagram.00015 Relative Roughness for diameter of 54.33” .998” of water. D is diameter in inches. h = 12 * (f / D) * L * VP where f is friction factor.0000028 Value of VD (velocity in ft/s * diameter in inch) = 3622 From Moody Diagram (Refer to diagram in textbook). L is length in ft. friction loss h is given by h = 2.22 = 0. D = 54.

No a b c d Shape of Duct Circle Triangle Square Rectangle Area (ft²) 0. At the end of a long straight run the centerline velocity is measured to be 9 m/sec. Estimate the average velocity and mass flow rate of the air assuming standard conditions for the air.6 m diameter circular duct.3 inches Hg.83 Problem: Fill in the blanks.93 Q (cfm) 196 5000 12501 1600 Dimensions Diameter = 6” Base=10”.013 Problem: Compute the density correction factor for 800 F and 25.Height=20” Side = 20” Side 1=10”.Height=20” Side = 20” Side 1=10”. Solution: Density correction factor = (P / Pstd) * (Tstd / T) = (25. Sr. No a b c d Solution: Sr. f = 0.3 / 29.196 0.694 2.Side 2=6” Shape of Duct Circle Triangle Square Rectangle Area (ft²) Velocity (fpm) 1000 4500 1600 Q (cfm) 5000 Dimensions Diameter = 6” Base=10”.611 4500 3836.778 0.417 Velocity (fpm) 1000 7204. .92) * (530 / 540) = 0.Side 2=6” Problem: Air flows in a 0.Solving Darcy-Weisbach equation.

D = Diameter in microns. Average velocity.1 fpm For glass particles.80 Solution: Vs = 0. Vs = 0.62 cfm Problem: Determine the settling velocity of the following particles: Saw dust: D = 35 microns Specific gravity = 0.8 * 10² = 0.0052 * SG * D² where. Q = V * Area = 6 * (π/4 * 0. Vs = Settling velocity in fpm. SCFM = 7000 * 530 / (300 + 460) = 4882 cfm .Solution: Assuming a parabolic velocity distribution inside the duct. average velocity is 2/3 of centerline velocity.94 fpm Glass particles: D= 10 microns Specific gravity = 1.696 m³/s = 3593.6²) = 1. For saw dust. Vs = 0. V = 2/3 * 9 = 6 m/s Mass flow rate.0052 * 0.8 * 35² = 5. Ts = Standard temperature in R. and Ta = Actual temperature in R So. SG = Specific gravity.0052 * 1.8 Problem: Determine the scfm of an air stream measured at 7000 cfm and 300oF. Solution: SCFM = ACFM * Ts / Ta where.

0015 mmHg. online calculator at http://hyperphysics.gsu.html#c4 Problem: Estimate the maximum concentration of mercury vapor that can exist in air at a high altitude where pressure is around 500mm mercury column. Solution: Maximum concentration of mercury vapor at a pressure of 500mm Hg = 0. Vapor pressure of mercury = 0. Solution: Dew point with temperature of 90 F and relative humidity of 50 % = 68 F Figure 5-18 (Psychrometric Chart).phy-astr.14 ft² = 14130 cfm . 22nd Edition.Problem: Determine the dew point temperature when the dry bulb temperature is 90oF and the relative humidity is 50%.0015 / 500 = 3 * 10-6 = 3 ppm Problem: The transport velocity is 4500 fpm and the duct is 2'.14 ft ² Required air flow = V * A = 4500 fpm * 3. Also. What air flow is needed? Solution: Area of duct. “Industrial Ventilation: A manual of Recommended Practices”.edu/hbase/kinetic/relhum. A = π * 2² / 4 = 3.

25" of H2O.92] * [(460 + 70) / (460 + 50)] = 0. Re = Reynolds number. df = [P / Pstd] * [(460 + Tstd) / (460 + T)] where. T in F. the static head is 0.9 + (k / 3. f ≈ 0. Solution: Churchill’s equation is given by f = 8 [ (8 / Re)12 + (A + B)-3/2 ]1/12 (37530 / Re)16 . Compute the volume and mass flow rates for a 1.Problem: Calculate the friction factor using Churchill equation for an air flow with Reynolds number equal to 2 x 107. V = 1096 √ (VP / ρ) = 1096 √ (0. f = 0. The velocity head as indicated by an inclined gauge is 0. the air temperature is 50 oF.0104 Moody Diagram: Re = 2 * 107.0005 ft) with D = 12”.88 fpm Volume flow rate. barometric pressure is 27" of Hg. Relative Roughness = k / D = 0.457 ln[ (7 / Re)0.48 lbm/min . df = [27 / 29. State your assumptions. k = Surface roughness in ft. Q = V * A = 2921.938 Corrected density. B= where. f = friction factor. D = Duct diameter in inches Given: Re = 2 * 107 Assuming Galvanized metal duct (k = 0. P in “Hg. Compare your results obtained from Moody diagram.07035 lbm/ft³ Velocity. Solution: Density correction factor. ρ = df * ρstd = 0.000042.5" of H2 O.7D) ] }16 .92 “Hg.075 lbm/ft³ = 0.938 * 0. A = { -2.0106 Problem: A pitot tube is installed in an air duct centerline.88 * (π * 1.5 / 0.07035 lbm/ft³ = 232. Pstd = 29.2' diameter duct. Tstd = 70 F.57 cfm * 0.57 cfm Mass flow rate = Q * ρ = 3304.2² / 4) = 3304.07035) = 2921.

At the end of a long straight run the centerline velocity is measured to be 20m/s.75 lbm/min Problem: A wet bulb psychomotor is inserted in a 12" diameter insulated air duct.61 fpm * (π * 3² / 4) ft² * 0. Solution: Assuming Average velocity = 0.075 lbm/ft³ = 1669. The thermometers are unshielded and have a diameter of about 0. Determine the moisture content of the air. The dry bulb thermometer indicates 70o F while the wet bulb reading is 50oF. 22nd Ed.2".8 * Vcenterline = 0. IV Manual..8 * 20 m/s = 16 m/s = 3149. The volume flow rate of the air is 500 cfm and it is thoroughly mixed. 5-18. Vaverage = 0. ACGIH): Dry Bulb Temperature = 70 F Relative Humidity = 20 % Wet Bulb Temperature = 50 F Specific Humidity = 22 grains/lb .8 Centerline velocity. Solution: From Psychrometric chart (Fig. Estimate the average velocity and mass flow rate of the air assuming standard conditions for the air.61 fpm Mass flow rate = Vaverage * A * ρstd = 3149.Problem: Air flows in a 3 ft diameter circular duct.

3/90..:.419055088619 .9090.70..8.9 3905503152  \$4:943 '".04.

  2 .

8 .

932.04. 19  152  !74-02 .9090..:.

957088:703.04.907  \$4:943 '  '! .8 0390.44/8  .241.

04.93152  .  070'8.

-.7.0#4:3088147-.743  #0.9319.78143 974:.241.907  '    !74-02 .0#4:3088147/...9.'!890.:.9.04.743/:.947147574-02:8344/ 8/.704:7708:98:8379 806:.9431...909017.907  '!  .9 425.04.957088:7033.2090741    '.41.907  41.:041' ..943  \$4:943 \$:71.2 88:209.

943 17.8 /.03-   '.23909-44 17..2 #010794/.  74244/.9431.7.9471   &8379 806:.2090733.9434888.7.

  .

04.93152  8/.9.   070'8/:.08      .2090733.

  .

06:.943     1.7.. 08-.    41.907  &83.

957088:7033.08  8039319  '!8.2090733.907     '04.9 152 88:20 19 '! '04.41..04.93152.947  8/.9431.   '!  0701817.

907  .    41.

  152 2.

8 .

3.4770..9431.9431.\$4..947147 ..7.3/ 3.06:. 08-.943 1   !74-02 425:9090/0389.08  \$4:943 0389.4770.947 !.

!89/   %89/.

%    .

     .

04.97:390.0390730 . 2/.38  \$7  4 . - .7.7/:.43897.9820.8:70/94-02.20907. - .     !74-02 390-.9 99003/41.:. /  !74-02 71483. / \$4:943 \$7  4 .

0.30 70.9.70 #0.12     2038438 .3/2.04.3/.9090.12   .43/943814790.30 70.7  \$.5041 :.0 %7.80 09  \$/0  \$/0 \$/0  .07.9.80 09    \$/0    \$/0 \$/0  \$.0 %7..9.5041 :.20907    .80.88:2389.9 152    " .7 .904190.9 152           " 2038438 .30 \$6:. 19       '04. 892.30 \$6:.20907  .7/.88147.70 #0.9 7.9 7. 19             '04.

.04.-4.9 .9 8.7.04.9/897-:943 38/0 90/:.0.\$4:943 88:23. .5.07.

04.04.0.9 '.41.0390730 .07.9  .

 2.

90 "' 70.8 .88147.  .

    2 .

7438  478..04.3/ 4  \$4:943 \$ %8.12  !74-02 09072309080993../:89.7438 \$50.7438 2.7.04.1.3.220./:89 '8      152 47.9 .8 ..8:70/.1.12.1241.885.9  \$50.9  .2090732.79.7.9  \$4:943 '8  \$   070 '8\$0993.08 2.7.9419014435.79.08 '8      152  !74-02 0907230908.93152  \$\$50.1.08 \$.78970.79.885.

9:703# .9:703# \$4 \$   .%.7/902507.9:.3/.902507. 070 %8\$9.3/%..

12 .    .

42203/0/ !7.0 :2/98   \$4:943 054399902507..9:7041 ..9.08 3//943  84 4330.:.9 995.3/9070.79  3/:897. !74-02 090723090/05439902507.41#0.3:.'039.3/70.9:700390/7-:-902507..9432.742097.9.9:708 4..947.0:2/941  :70  !8.9.

.

8 5 .897 8: 0/:.50758.

80.-.

309.

:7.9.:7 22  \$4:943 .43..30893.90902.70:2 92.43.94341207.0397..  !74-02 892.9.57088:7041 22  .547.99:/007057088:708.74:3/ 22207.0397.7.2:2.9.94341207.54757088:70 41207.4:23 '. .5479..:7.:7.2:2.

04.385479.3/90/:.   552  !74-02 %097.98 152.7148300/0/ \$4:943 70.9   .9.98 .41/:.

714'  152  19  . 19  #06:70/.12  .

 806:.06:.:.704:7708:984-9.9438..909017..3.!74-02 .2  \$4:943 :7. 94  425.30/174244//.7149#034/83:2-0706:.9431.7.947:83:7.943147.03- 1 .

#0  .

#0       .

 .

 (    3 .

#0    .

9.  (<  070 117./:.20907 33.9/.03#0   88:23.074:3088319 :.9  19 9 1   44/.9431.30/209.0#4:3088.7.08 .2#0   #0...947 #0#034/83:2-07 \$:71...

4770.  /.3.20907/:.904:7..9:708 4 -.947 /1!.0.3/ 2.  1     !74-02 59499:-08389.04.4:20.0/3.9..30/.908147.7 902507.90.57088:70841 425:9090.88:259438  \$4:943 0389.88147.9431.90/ -.9 \$9./8 41 90.83/.33./.742097.7/:.9.0390730 %0.:08 41 9089.

!89/(    %89/ .

   % ( 070 !89/   %89/  !3  %3  /1.

 (     .

    (  4770.90//0389 Ý/1 Ý89/   -2.

19   -2.

9 '   '!.19  '04.

Ý    .

    152 '4:20147.90 "'       .

90" Ý  .88147.12   -2.12 .   .

19  -2.

23 .

0390730.8:70/94-0 2.04.19/.:.9 8 20. !74-02 71483.20907.7/:.43897.9 99003/41.7.97:390.

9090..0390730   2.88 147.88:23 89..07.07.3/ 2.8 892.9  '.04.7  \$4:943 88:23.07.0.7.04.9 0390730.3/.04.0.0  '.9.904190.43/943814790.7/.

82.

0  89/ 152    .07.88147..8 152 .90'.

 19   -2.

19   -2.

/3 8 4 %090724209078.3/ .0 .38.9:70  #0..12..2090738:.4249478380790/3.7/:.9.9 %0.7  \$4:943 742!8.3/989474:20/ %0/7-:-90724209073/.9041 90.908 4090 09-:-70.79    '.0:2/9 \$50.:2/97.4:20147.-4:9   0907230902489:70..90/.70 :380/0/.3:..4390394190.9:70 09:-%02507.1./.742097.78 ./.2090741.23  !74-02 09-:-58. 3//   7:-%02507.

-  .