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Airflow Measuring System

Using Piezometer Ring

ES-105
August 2011

INSTALLATION, OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Twin City Fan now offers an air measuring device as an
option on centrifugal fans. It is based on the principle
of a flow nozzle. The inlet cone of the fan is used as
the flow nozzle. By measuring the pressure drop through
the inlet cone, the flow can be calculated. The system
consists of a piezometer ring mounted in the throat and
a static pressure tap mounted on the face of the inlet
cone. A differential pressure transducer and a digital
display can be provided. The display must be capable
of performing the square root function in order to read
out in CFM directly. By testing fans in the laboratory,

Twin City Fan was able to determine flow coefficients for
various fan types. The flow coefficients were combined
to give the equations listed below by fan type. Based
on testing performed in Twin City Fan’s laboratory, the
accuracy of the system was determined to be +/- 5%.
The pressure drop is measured from the tap located
on the face of the funnel to the piezometer ring in the
throat. The inlet tap is connected to the high-pressure
side of the transducer and the piezometer ring is connected to the low-pressure side.

Measurement of Airflow
The equations below are accurate for flow estimation for flows from 40% to 100% of wide-open volume. According
to testing done previously at Twin City Fan, several factors affect the accuracy of this method of determining flow.
The equations below assume the following:
• There are no vanes or other obstructions in or near the inlet
• Even flow entering the funnel (no pre-swirl)
• Standard wheel to inlet cone overlap
• Accurate determination of air density at the inlet
• Free inlet (consult Twin City Fan for ducted inlet factors)

Non-Standard Density Method

Standard Density Method

One of the following equations is used to measure
the flow:

The equations can be simplified by assuming standard
density and assuming funnel dimensions match drawing
dimensions. The following tables show the factor (F) for
each fan size and type. The equation then becomes the
following:

ACFM = C1 * A * (∆P/ρ)
where: A = Actual inlet funnel throat area (square

feet) - from tables on pages 2 and 3

∆P = The differential in static pressure from

the piezometer ring and the front

pressure tap (inches w.g.)

ρ = Air density (pounds mass/cubic foot)

C1 = Value from Table 1 below

For standard air (ρ = 0.075 lb/ft3):
ACFM = F ∆P
where: F = factor from tables on pages 2 and 3

∆P = The differential in static pressure


from the piezometer ring and the


front pressure tap (inches w.g.)

Table 1: C1 Values
Product
EPFN/EPQN (Arr. 1 or 4), Sizes 122-165
EPFN/EPQN (Arr. 1 or 4), Sizes 182-982
EPF/EPQ (Arr. 3), Sizes 122-165
EPF/EPQ (Arr. 3), Sizes 182-982
MPQN, Sizes 122-165
MPQN, Sizes 182-490
APF/APQ
BC/BCS/BAF SWSI
BC/BCS/BAF DWDI
TSL
QSL
BAE-SW **
BAE-DW**
RB (Std. Inlet Bell)
HIB/RTF

C1
Free Inlet
753.06
692.03
726.39
667.52
753.06
692.03
753.06
735.42
1470.84
735.42
696.00
720.40
1440.80
913.33
727.94

C1*
Ducted Inlet
794.06
740.14
765.94
713.93
794.06
740.14
794.06
786.56
1573.12
753.56
735.83
735.80
1471.60
997.49
785.07

* Values for ducted C1 factors are based on duct
diameter matching standard inlet collar diameter.
** BAE sizes smaller than 182 use BC\BCS\BAF Factors.

©2011 Twin City Fan Companies, Ltd.

42 12669.03 24593.81 2116.216 2.04 Size 121 141 161 181 201 221 251 281 321 351 391 441 491 551 631 711 791 2 Size A 0.540 14.07 5757.885 3.02 A 0.79 28128.85 2884.39 4275.325 0.71 6157.865 1.239 0.71 22994.50 25334.11 19004.42 4543.48 3303.23 3577.06 19815.24 44789.32 11238.16 4143.285 5.19 3141.91 2380.84 9086.957 2.46 15495.721 0.31 4648.865 1.10 5771.41 31188.439 0.19 3419.63 27346.52 90279.376 7.198 6.41 2825.73 7747.67 4792.32 2729.96 1697.55 6002.06 3779.83 13958.21 2263.92 2185.76 45139.39 3174.53 12307.11 17.198 6.362 2.61 1131.54 120199.885 3.05 49283.04 EPFN/EPQN Free Inlet F 944.22 37890.39 2108.40 1518.93 3285.41 3873.05 5384.79 17130.52 DWDI Ducted Inlet F 1373.04 1544.362 2.02 6093.59 41897.73 11916.58 3492.77 5254.50 3734.31 7938.79 20948.074 1.56 7797.81 3388.88 17544.06 1936.26 5255.074 1.12 29160.702 0.99 12692.54 14.00 7468.04 6167.84 182 200 222 245 270 300 330 365 402 445 490 542 600 660 730 807 890 982 SWSI Free Inlet F 1896.98 8920.86 25333.591 0.82 13673.30 9425.20 1587.79 1395.62 9430.03 6342.344 0.88 37901.10 4353.58 2883.69 16621.68 2979.582 1.434 11.01 8555.62 18861.69 9514.582 1.71 24372.68 25346.75 12565.99 10295.Table 2: EPF/EPQ (Arrangement 3) and EPFN/EPQN (Arrangement 1 & 4) Size 122 150 165 182 200 222 245 270 300 330 365 402 445 490 542 600 660 730 EPF/EPQ Free Inlet F 911.98 23014.67 Table 5: QSL EPFN/EPQN Ducted Inlet F 996.84 EPF/EPQ Ducted Inlet F 961.58 2071.36 2198.97 9426.38 4966.62 7290.91 31005.50 5147.85 7747.957 2.97 4124.434 11.99 2321.09 3490.325 0.10 41877.02 36623.582 1.82 60712.28 1626.362 2.552 0.510 4.92 1206.434 11.26 3985.75 1305.53 30083.460 4.02 3083.89 12426.01 112384.930 Twin City Engineering Supplement ES-105 .69 4161.66 11506.32 25958.01 1867.74 19685.15 18466.55 27931.864 11.36 50693.16 11271.334 5.394 0.00 2508.865 1.300 1.11 17.62 15178.50 20165.21 8869.16 11790.36 43610.24 8495.25 14881.00 56192.94 A 0.23 24816.31 9430.09 40131.28 6342.71 A 0.31 22543.57 34261.26 1948.376 7.63 46081.198 6.865 1.68 14048.13 7751.16 2324.87 872.46 1163.79 32515.97 DWDI Free Inlet F 3793.807 3.083 1.90 6499.27 1337.23 2324.92 3395.99 4248.01 16111.797 9.07 23025.37 30991.285 5.22 4550.486 0.376 7.300 1.70 3492.00 SWSI Ducted Inlet F 686.80 1757.42 92209.28 21454.110 17.285 5.16 Table 6: TSL Table 3: BC/BCS/BAF Size 150 165 182 200 222 245 270 300 330 365 402 445 490 542 600 660 730 Free Inlet F 1832.11 Size A 0.86 13567.721 0.486 0.38 6783.36 10889.434 11.02 Ducted Inlet F 894.344 0.94 18853.510 4.75 46106.59 16573.79 4250.16 5766.09 98566.73 61983.54 14.02 3997.12 25699.08 9233.21 1936.92 9150.56 1879.789 8.61 2275.797 9.99 11507.64 14928.76 2902.44 46079.82 62010.08 1601.82 30836.58 1821.46 5257.582 1.41 2610.15 2322.62 4247.957 2.82 5650.95 8139.074 1.50 41020.75 110113.75 10082.03 9486.49 20949.63 5258.58 2791.721 0.95 6213.36 17131.16 11580.00 50668.885 3.376 7.31 7589.62 22394.28 29856.21 46104.87 92158.88 55056.84 21072.21 13.376 7.53 5289.54 105 122 135 150 165 182 200 222 245 270 300 330 365 402 445 490 542 600 660 730 807 890 982 SWSI Free Inlet F 641.85 A 0.71 31753.45 5052.61 74233.21 6346.36 1272.92 2378.52 4973.61 4945.721 0.97 2799.38 6839.51 7520.84 4020.26 2035.06 24615.93 4250.55 10508.21 1305.957 2.92 11513.92 DWDI Ducted Inlet F 3874.04 6983.27 60099.03 4770.23 7032.412 6.08 1601.49 37911.08 33147.53 27096.86 27914.11 17.80 2713.885 3.93 122 150 165 182 200 222 245 270 300 330 365 402 445 490 542 600 660 730 807 890 Free Inlet F 872.82 30989.47 49632.582 1.58 2337.77 13965.39 7751.92 35859.53 18668.68 1464.86 34242.58 13550.43 13957.30 37116.67 3856.362 2.434 11.41 10444.16 6985.49 16772.82 7331.510 4.80 8286.510 4.552 0.510 4.865 1.07 1227.24 13966.57 17121.160 20.92 1206.24 25496.23 11170.98 33544.60 38825.75 75802.375 1.25 47217.02 3491.81 3168.70 29327.12 5101.52 23839.01 6383.865 1.58 1929.40 9658.51 933.99 6346.198 6.06 54192.96 13210.01 81074.285 5.362 2.797 9.02 15691.23 37910.957 2.92 13135.41 30356.40 1518.05 20938.74 1745.54 25347.797 9.27 16204.36 1272.98 10032.01 18311.09 1587.16 (Sizes smaller than 182 use Table 3: BC\BCS\BAF) SWSI Ducted Inlet F 1937.16 17231.05 2885.75 19702.94 31006.92 6424.300 1.26 15502.83 56233.95 20937.16 66294.21 5968.80 15541.54 14.198 6.721 0.21 7719.98 4643.300 1.38 8322.90 1058.46 75820.20 1983.69 2483.66 Table 7: BAE-SW/BAE-DW Size Table 4: APF/APQ Free Inlet F 944.55 10827.439 0.92 Ducted Inlet F 1937.16 5619.14 2955.60 3513.66 14302.16 20.91 10515.00 40537.743 2.01 DWDI Free Inlet F 1283.14 2885.285 5.53 11512.05 12685.67 Ducted Inlet F 996.62 20326.58 8500.22 38058.074 1.25 20510.38 2617.41 23975.66 112467.43 17121.074 1.885 3.300 1.591 0.797 9.58 2254.

59 6278.65 2102. 5.13 1520. and 0-20. 2.249 0.95 2. 7.10 13044.721 2478.000 CFM.92 1206.76 2902. This maximum should be the greater of normal.22 7669. so the 0-10 inch pressure transducer is acceptable.42 16946.g.21 11.11 11944.39 70034.59 6984.376 22352.32 0.228 Transducer Sizing for Piezometer Ring Selecting a pressure transducer with the appropriate range is critical in order to get accurate measurements using the piezometer ring.62 7290.362 2. 3 Example: Company XYZ has a size 270 BC SWSI fan to be installed with design conditions of 12. 6. Since most transducers list accuracy as a percent of full scale. if the range selected is too high.43 56595.887 1.93 6. it was determined that 12.26 1948.50 46970.865 1.35 1.58 1821.97 2295. Twin City Engineering Supplement ES-105 .61 4945. Find the formula for calculating the actual flow rate from page 1 of this document for the corresponding size and type of fan being used.91 20725.64 Ducted Inlet F 448.581 4.71 43007.38 5.04 2956.316 9.16 9338. for this flow rate the transducer model is the 0-10 inches w.82 21144.21 5968. What size transducer should be used? 1.04 36222.797 27044.865 3077.16 11580. 2. Otherwise.344 0.885 3.957 6770.39 5103.123 0.53 5289.39 13824.300 4534.Table 8: MPQN Size 122 150 165 182 200 222 245 270 300 330 365 402 445 490 Free Inlet F 944.510 4. model. Select the pressure transducer with the smallest range that includes the pressure drop calculated in Step 3.66 37530.96 3957. and standard density. a 10% safety factor should be plenty for this application 7. If the maximum flow rate from Step 5 is less than the result. Therefore.66 1.80 2713.34 64125. 3.630 0.43 30020.552 0.60 3513. The following steps are for sizing the pressure transducer for use with the piezometer ring flow measurement system: 1.198 180 200 220 240 270 300 330 360 400 450 490 540 600 660 730 800 Free Inlet F 1917.57 5200.187 1. Now take the maximum range from the pressure transducer selected in Step 4 and use that to calculate the maximum flow rate that could be measured with this transducer. and/or emergency conditions.92 2185.53 25076.g.861 12.074 1.000 CFM will be used for the calculations. maximum.285 14909.001 10.06 8553.70 3456.896 15.16 A Size 0.98 inches w.201 18276. Multiply the maximum flow rate from Step 1 by the safety factor.33 4.29 2297.541 40476.80 7831.69 Table 10: Industrial Ducted Inlet A F 2067.538 19.77)^2 = 7.01 6383.792 3.885 10071.90 24399.05 5573. the following formula is obtained: ∆P = (ACFM/4247.67 16277.74 3229. From step 1.469 5.07 14904. bump up the transducer to the next largest size.55 10827.97 2853.805 7. the transducer from Step 4 should be used. 4.39 4275.120 Size 905 907 909 911 913 915 917 919 921 923 926 929 933 937 941 945 949 954 960 Free Inlet F 410.77 1392.93 3285.074 3727.582 5608.76 0.77 * (∆P) for standard density Note that if the density was other than standard air. there is risk of damaging the instrument and/or getting inaccurate readings or no reading at all. which corresponds to the following flow rate: ACFM = 4247. For the pressure transducer models being considered.43 19360. Determine the maximum flow rate in CFM that the fan is expected to produce.36 1272.02 3997. After speaking to the design engineer.08 1601.93 26647.69 30676. this can have a significant impact on the accuracy of the flow measurement. By rearranging the formula in Step 2. the ranges are 0-3.348 2.000 CFM.58 2337.16 14.513 12284.77 * (10) = 13433 CFM 6. Since 12. ∆P = (12000/4247.43 4322.530 1.45 10169.45 51820. 0-10.58 A 0. This is less than 13433 CFM.92 13135. 12000 CFM * 1.03 9486.34 6394. 12. The maximum for this transducer is 10 inches.917 2.285 5.78 9311.27 39560.47 11390.582 1.000 CFM is the actual maximum and most of the time the fan will be running closer to 10.05 2. Therefore. 5.68 14048.11 4204.300 1.22 905.1 = 13200 CFM.37 3.957 2.21 8869.g.439 0.40 828. Determine an acceptable safety factor for sizing the transducer.000 CFM at 5 inches w.434 33084.40 1518. Calculate the pressure drop corresponding to the maximum flow rate determined in Step 1. 4.721 0.77)^2 so.55 1.75 32786. the formula would be different. 3.362 8271. 0-6.000 CFM is the maximum and normal operating conditions are 10. The calculation for this fan type and size is: ACFM = 4247.418 0.01 Table 9: HIB/RTF Ducted Inlet F 996.74 1.11 7.75 9.56 7797. If the range is too low.

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