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PROJECT REPORT ON HOW DOES ONE DECIDE THE IMPORTANCE OF ASPECTS IN OVERALL SATISFACTION, BUYING BEHAVIOR AND LOYALTY FOR METRIC CONSULTANCY LTD
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AFFLIATED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF PUNE BY MAHESH V. SANDBHOR MBA-2nd YEAR 2005-2006 OF VISHWAKARMA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Summer training project is the foundation on which the career of MBA student develops. My two months project at METRIC Consultancy has been high lightening in the professional environment of the organization. This report is the mirror of my sincere efforts. I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to DR. Arvind .Karandikar of METRIC Consultancy for giving me opportunity as summer trainee in their esteemed organization. I am also highly grateful to all my research officers at METRIC Consultancy. Their timely Inquiries about the progress of the project, critical appraisal, suggestions & motivational words continued to come throughout the course of the project for its betterment. This served to spiral my ambition to greater heights. I, take this opportunity to convey my sincere thanks to Prof. Avinash Nene, my project guide and Dr. Sharad Joshi, our mentor for providing me resourceful guidance. Last but not the least, I express my gratitude to all the members of Metric consultancy & my college who guided me in carrying out this project successfully.

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Mahesh V. Sandbhor

CONTENTS

Sr. no
1

Title Introduction Why I chose this topic Objectives of project

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3 5 6 13 23 40 58 74 82 84 88 90 92

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Company profile Overview of MOSTER Baxter s Model Gaps Model of Service Quality Observations and Calculations Charts and Interpretation Limitations and scope for study Relationship between gaps model and Baxter s model

10 11 12

Summary Bibliography Annexure

cc | www.co.com/fyp/ INTRODUCTION .troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.www.

Customers evaluation of service quality can be described as a cognitive process where customers consider the goodness/badness of different components of the service. EasyGroup No matter what you have heard from advertising agencies. Oliver. its products and service and its chosen customer. buying behavior and loyalty. Parasuraman et al. which is closely related to the customers behavioural responses (Cronin and Taylor. Chairman.Stelios Haji-Ioannou. My project is an attempt to understand the customer better by finding out which aspects affect the customer experience in the overall satisfaction. The entire energy of every organization should be focused on one thing the customer experience. Liljander and Strandvik. This is true whether you are in the public or private sector.cc | www. a wholesaler or a dealer. Furthermore no matter what you may have heard from the accountants the real aim of a business is actually to find. 1993a. 1992.. or by comparing the service performance with some predetermined standard.com/fyp/ INTRODUCTION "Your brand is created out of customer contact and the experience your Customers have of you" .co. Recent research suggests that perceived service quality and satisfaction can be seen as distinct concepts and that perceived service quality precedes satisfaction. Satisfaction. on the 2 . advertising and branding are not synonymous.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects. 1994a). grow and keep customers not to make profits.www. deliver a service or a product. Customers are where the profits come from and profits are a measure not a process. The customer experience is the whole interface between your firm. So let's strip out years of indoctrination and get to the real issue. 1995. either by evaluating the perceived service performance only. a manufacturer.

www.com/fyp/ other hand. is believed to contain an affective dimension too. without which customers responses cannot be fully accounted for.troubleshoot4free.cc | www.co. 3 .final-yearprojects.

they wouldn't miss his class for anything. 4 . value addition. In today s growing competitive market when customers have got lot of choice of the products in the market it becomes prime important for the companies to attract the customers by offering best products. teaches a class of four-year-old children. As a result.co. who is a prominent professional athlete. In fact. At Metric Consultancy they already had a model to measure customer satisfaction index known as MOSTER (MOnitoring Satisfaction To Ensure Retention). I can usually tell if frontline service providers are "totally present" during the few seconds we interact as they take my order or deal with my request. It makes a huge difference. reasonable prices.cc | www. But my fascination prompted me to analyze this process further.final-yearprojects. Metric Consultancy provided me this opportunity. They want to feel that the company representative really cares about them. Father of nation Mahatma Gandhi has said Customers are like a God. This is one of the aspects which are of outmost importance to me. buying behavior and loyalty are measured and how this process can be made better.www. The company which can fulfill the above criteria s can survive in the market for a longer time as a leader. Company has to do lot of research & survey on customer Satisfaction. He affirms their value and worth. it's often what makes or breaks the deal. One of the facet on which wanted to work was the way importance of aspects in overall satisfaction. They were in a process of testing the feasibility and upgrading their existing model by finding out whether there were other models better than MOSTER and if so how they could improve MOSTER.troubleshoot4free. Our customers are no different than these children. If they're totally present. It takes years to make a customer & takes only a second to break them. As a customer. They want to be called by name. dissatisfaction.com/fyp/ Why I chose this topic? A friend of mine. He takes a special interest in them and takes time to greet them. I sense that they really care. good after sales service. They want to climb all over him and sit in his lap.

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training and consultancy organization.final-yearprojects.co.com/fyp/ Why I chose this organization? Metric Consultancy Ltd is an independent professional market research.www. It has a global presence by the way global partners who markets their consumer satisfaction index product in their respective countries. 6 . It is one of the various organizations who work on the consumer satisfaction index study.cc | www. They have developed various models for the measurement of consumer satisfaction index.troubleshoot4free.

troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/ Objectives of the project There project objectives were as follows To find importance of aspects in overall satisfaction.cc | www.www. buying behavior and loyalty.final-yearprojects.co. 7 . To find existing model which could be used to measure these aspects.

troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.www.cc | www.com/fyp/ COMPAN Y PROFILE 8 .co.

com/fyp/ Company Profile METRIC SERVICE SPECTRUM Marketing research Customized research Syndicated research Research based on Metric s proprietary Models Training Customer interface staff Middle level managers Senior Management Consultancy Channel architecture Marketing strategies & tactics Marketing organization Direct Marketing High value consumer durables Specialty services 9 .troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.www.co.cc | www.

troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.Ltd.co. Leventer Group S DE RL DE CV Key Research & Marketing Consulmark Market Test Ltd. CBC Marketing Research & Business Consulting Diag Aid Marketing Research Research Solutions Ltd.r. Psyma Marketing Research Gmbh The Dunvegan Group PT DEKA Marketing Research Market Sciences Dimension Research Inc.www. Leventer Group S DE RL DE CV Infosearch Limited Market Support Co.com/fyp/ Company s Global Presence Country PR China PR China PR China Kenya Italy Argentina New-Zealand Portugal Bulgaria Germany Canada Indonesia Mexico USA Brazil Thailand Thailand Gulf Countries Franchisees Sino Marketing Research Ltd. Metron S.I. PAN Arab Research Center 10 .cc | www.

final-yearprojects.co.cc | www.www.troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/ Clients BPL TVS Ralli LML Daewoo TI cycles TATA steel TATA motors GlaxoSmithKline Bank of Maharashtra Larsen and Toubro Carborundum Universal Whirpool Honda Novartis BILT Thermax KSB Pumps Bajaj Tempo SPIC Ranbaxy EID parry Kinetic Mercedes Benz VSNL Swaraj Mazda TQMS Kirloskar Oil Engines L&T John Deere Honda Motorcycles and Scooters BPCL Cummins Auto Hindustan Petroleum Yamaha ICPA 11 .

Employee Satisfaction Measuring and monitoring employee satisfaction and delight.com/fyp/ METRIC s Area Of Expertise Customer Value Management Measurement & monitoring of customer satisfaction & delight Strategies for maximizing customer value.co. Managing channel satisfaction and productivity. Improving conversation at the counter. Channel Management Channel evaluation Designing channel architecture. 12 . Ethics Management.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects. Corporate social responsibilities: strategies and impact evaluation. Building customer centric organization. Social and Micro Economic Issues Planning & evaluation of public policies & developmental project. Evolving new products using Dr Kano s theory of two dimensional quality. New Products Concept testing and product positioning Promotion.www.cc | www.

Training to avoid urban bias. Product concepts and market development methods. Sales promotion strategies and tactics to overcome aversion.co. Sales Management We make it happen.www.\ 13 .troubleshoot4free. Identifying action areas.com/fyp/ Benchmarking with other industries.cc | www.final-yearprojects. Rural marketing Quantify risk aversion behavior of rural investors and consumers.

com/fyp/ MATRIX PROPRIETORY MODELS DE Matrix: Dealership Evaluation for better Channel Architecture. E-Sat: Identifies how to retain best employees. CRIDA: Credit Rating of Market Dealers. Loyalty & positive referrals.www.troubleshoot4free. MOSTER: Monitoring Satisfaction & Delight to ensure Retention. RIRA: Rural investor s risk Aversion: Measurement & Minimization.final-yearprojects. LOCATE: Locating Retail Outlets for maximizing Customer Traffic.cc | www.co. 14 .

co.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.cc | www.com/fyp/ BRIEF OVERVIEW OF MOSTER 15 .www.

com/fyp/ Brief Overview of MOSTER MOnitoring Satisfaction To Ensure Retention Delight your customers MOSTER is a robust research methodology to diagnose and quantify the path to customer delight. Split each aspect into relevant and measurable sub aspects or attributes.final-yearprojects. Customer Satisfaction Measurement The process of formal satisfaction measurement Identify the aspects responsible for Customer satisfaction. Limitations of the Traditional approach 16 . MOSTER is being used in 22 countries around the world.troubleshoot4free.gives actionable results. Respondents evaluate the company performance for attribute on a scale. Based on the models of Herzberg and Noriaki Kano. Sample selection and identification of respondents.www. MOSTER classifies attributes of your product or service into those that create delight and those that if not provided will create dissatisfaction and calculates The ability of an attribute to create satisfaction or delight How well the attribute is rated on a product or brand Sensitivity of each attribute to effect change in customer perception MOSTER . Process and analyze the data and present the finding.cc | www.co. which guarantees delight.

S.www.co. The surprising finding was " While customer satisfaction levels had increased amongst these companies. improving performance through quality efforts . 1990.final-yearprojects. more satisfied are the customers.cc | www.troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/ Traditional approach to satisfaction measurement is based on erroneous one dimensional perspective. customer retention levels had almost remained stagnant " Source: Management Practices: U. U. 0 100 Performance Less Satisfied Customer Satisfaction & Customer Retention In early '90s. Companies. The General Accounting Office of USA. 17 . The traditional approach Highly Satisfied More the company delivers on each attribute.S Congress commissioned a study* of Baldridge Award winning companies.

Delight 0 Performance 100 Must be attributes Dissatisfaction 18 .www.cc | www.com/fyp/ The MOSTER System Ushering a paradigm shift in Satisfaction Measurement A Systematic Plan for Delighting the customers Theoretical Basis of MOSTER system 4 Must Be Attribute Lower performance on these attributes causes dissatisfaction. For example: Condition of product on delivery.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free.co.

Delight 0 Performance 100 19 . For example: Product Reliability.cc | www.troubleshoot4free.www. Delight Delight attributes 0 Performance 100 Dissatisfaction Theoretical Basis of MOSTER system 6 Linear Attribute Satisfaction increases with improved performance.com/fyp/ Theoretical Basis of MOSTER system 5 Delight Attribute Higher performance of these attributes generates delight for the customer. For example: Value added service.co.final-yearprojects.

Low resolution will cause dissatisfaction. speed is really not an issue.cc | www. The class of attribute depends on ones need and his/her expectations.co. When you want to send a one liner greeting. Clarifying the core concepts 3 Class of attribute changes with time.final-yearprojects. It is important to note that the dissatisfaction and delight causing attribute are different for different market segments. For example: Internet PC with a built in modem was a delight attribute 5 years back but today it is a must be attribute.www. speed may be an delight attribute. Clarifying the core concepts . It is important to note that the dissatisfaction and delight causing attributes are different for different market segments. Condition of a product on delivery is a must be attribute for customers buying a new car.2 The class of attributes changes from one market segment to another. Consider different users of internet and their transmission speed: Another user who has an ordinary file. You are indifferent to it. Customer expectations and responses change over time. 20 . But for a customer who is buying a second hand car it can be a delight attribute. But for others it may be a delight attribute.troubleshoot4free. may be a research paper to send. What is delight generating today becomes minimum expected tomorrow. A high resolution monitor is a must be attribute for graphic designers.1 Dissatisfaction The class of attributes changes from one person to another.com/fyp/ Clarifying the core concepts .

Select delight attributes.com/fyp/ Our current understanding Performance Delight Delight Threshold Critical zones Loyal Volunteers positive word Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Will never BUY again Implementing MOSTER The Interview a. Select must have attributes b.co. 21 .www.cc | www.troubleshoot4free. Score* the must have attributes to establish lower threshold scores for each whereby purchase would not take place List of Attributes Attribute ABC c.final-yearprojects.

troubleshoot4free. What does MOSTER deliver? Divides the entire satisfaction space into three regions Dissatisfaction zone Satisfaction zone Delight Zone Delight zone Satisfaction zone The customers are located in one of the these three zones with respect to satisfaction level against each attribute.final-yearprojects. Score* the delight attributes to establish what threshold scores would be high enough on these for enticing repeat purchase.www. e. Request respondents profile/demographics Score* the specific brand or service on ALL attributes PLUS overall * all scores are between 1 to 10.com/fyp/ d.cc | www. Dissatisfaction zone Customer satisfaction zones in MOSTER system For each attribute we measure the % who Are delighted Are marginally below delight Are satisfied Are marginally dissatisfied 10 Distance from Delighted Dissatisfaction Threshold 22 Marginally below delight .co.

cc | www.com/fyp/ Are dissatisfied -10 MOSTER System: Analysis (1) 10 Calculating Sensitivity of each attribute % customers likely to change behaviour with a small change in the rating of that feature. A small change of ratings on this attribute will result in 18% moving from dissatisfied to satisfied AND 12% from satisfied to delighted= 30% Likely Impact Of Marginal Improvement 10 Figures are in % of total respondents Delighted 9 -10 10 12 18 Dissatisfied Satisfied -10 31 30 23 .www.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.co.

Sensitivity of each attribute or feature . 4.the ability of each attribute to create dissatisfaction or delight. Priorities .troubleshoot4free.co.cc | www.a combination of 3 and 4 above .com/fyp/ MOSTER System: Analysis (2) The analysis provides: 1. 3.% customers likely to change behaviour with a small change in the rating of that feature. The importance of each attribute . 2. How well is your product or service rated on all the attributes. Overall Satisfaction. How your company performs.identifies the features most likely to provide an immediate response.www. 24 .final-yearprojects. 5.

www.final-yearprojects.cc | www.co.troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/ BAXTERS MODEL 25 .

will lead to increase in perceived quality? The answer to this question contains important strategic information because it also reveals where a company s product and services are most vulnerable to quality improvements by its competitors. We would know what emphasis we should place on our service excellence. it reveals where a company s competitors may be most vulnerable to quality improvements that it might undertake. but keep up with the dynamics of these changing expectations. and then we could focus on something else. The ones we must be very concerned about are those in the first two categories. Satisfaction and Perceptions Mounting evidence tells that satisfying customers all the time and being perceived as a quality leader in a market carry significant advantages. It is even difficult to answer the following question: Which of the myriad things we could do to improve our product. it has been very difficult to determine what features. They are the ones who will get angry over something and leave us. which are fairly satisfied. We also have to identify which customers are not fully satisfied. and support activities that go with it. we can fairly accurately presume that we are doing a good job of matching products and services to the needs of our customers. We need these satisfied customers to help our companies thrive and grow. Unfortunately.www. services. is determining not only what each of our customers expects of our relationship. And they are the ones who have been looking for our replacement but haven t told us. Our challenge. Unfortunately. service. If they did. And inversely. however.com/fyp/ What do our customers want? Not all of our customers base their satisfaction levels on the same criteria. and which are very satisfied. The customers who are very satisfied must be kept the way through ongoing efforts. we would determine how to satisfy all of them all the time.cc | www.co. or the sales. 26 . For most of the part if we are running a successful business.troubleshoot4free. this does not necessarily mean that we are fully satisfying their requirements. They are the ones who will switch suppliers on a whim. innovations (or combination of these and other product and service attributes) will lead to being perceived as the quality leader.final-yearprojects.

The surveys and interviews used in investigating a 27 . mean times between failures. nice looking. that responses to such questions vary too widely to lead to an effective quality management strategy. aesthetics. The framework proposed by Dr. Garvin in his book Managing Quality is called the dimensions of quality.cc | www. easy to use. reliability. and perceived quality. or solid feel ) and the language of product developers and strategic planners (that is features mix. The dimensions have become major feature of the Baxter Healthcare Corporation s customer requirements research efforts. or modular construction ).com/fyp/ Dimensions of Quality One reason it has so difficult to define quality from the customer s perspective is that there has not been a sufficient framework from which to launch a investigation. In practice.www. providing intermediate ground between the language of customers (that is. durability.troubleshoot4free. They provide a framework for developing quality objectives. Experience has shown. conformance. serviceability. The dimensions function as a negotiating device. features.final-yearprojects. Dimensions of quality Aesthetics Perceived Quality Serviceability Performance Durability Features Conformance Reliability The dimensions create a more complete picture of quality than had been available before.co. however. These dimensions of quality include performance. David Garvin of Harvard Business School has been one of the first to address the challenge. we could simply ask purchasers in a given market what they consider to be the attributes of a quality product or service.

determines which requirements and requirement 28 . Furthermore.troubleshoot4free.com/fyp/ product s or service s market focus first on overall quality perceptions. while a mandate to improve reliability carries more specific implications. companywide quality objectives.co. since language differs from company to company. At the same time. The dimensions refer to more specific criteria than does the term quality. This research activity delineates what customers in Baxter market mean when they say This is what I all a high quality service. the dimensions can be used to represent groups of product and service attributes without necessitating a familiarity with each.www. This is why customer s requirements research activities include interviews with managers and product developers and ask questions very similar to those asked of customers.final-yearprojects. The difficulty with seeking data only from one of the dimensions is that responses often cannot be compared. Seeking data from the dimensions overcomes these difficulties. few responses are capable of responding to all of the hundred questions of specific product and service attributes. Quality evaluation based on dimensions is more useful with two groups of people: customer suppliers and senior managers. The research method. saying We must improve quality can be interpreted in various ways across a company. which is applied on a product by product or service by service basis. then proceed to the dimensions.cc | www. For example. Garvin notes that just as the customer s perceptions of quality guide their purchasing behavior in the market. management s internal quality perceptions influence strategic direction. and then lastly discuss specific product and service attributes. Customer supplier quality perceptions based on the dimensions become more specific and comparable and can be used to create a more complete picture of the ideal relationship. Senior managers gain a way of setting strategic. Customer requirement research Baxter Healthcare Corporation QLP group created customer requirement research (CRR) as a means of beginning a dialogue and identifying issues with customers and suppliers. thereby forcing respondents to provide information that is more precise and comparable. The dimensions remove the confusion caused by the many definition to the word quality and the hundreds of product and service attributes that constitute the perceived quality of a specific product or service in the market. Dr.

identify the major attributes of the product or service under investigation. This research creates a picture of ideal quality and determines where future quality improvement should take place.com/fyp/ In contrast to standard market research projects. The requirements established have companywide and strategic implications because they touch every job and function in the organization.final-yearprojects. researchers determine what managers believe the customers recognizes as quality. This research consists of a qualitative survey of about twenty purchasers or suppliers to 29 .troubleshoot4free. Internal Research External Research Analysis and Report Result Incorporation Fig. CRR includes four phases Internal research External research Analysis and report Result incorporation Internal research establishes perceptions of the company s management. It also assesses the major competitors currently in the market.co.cc | www. Customer Requirements Research External research establishes quality perceptions of purchasers and supplies in the market. These interviews grouping correlate most closely with the perception of being a quality leader. this research methodology goes beyond concerns of product design or market positioning.www. Through one hour interviews with top managers.

Defines a more active and appropriate role for senior managers in QLP. A gap between quality as defined by the company s current configuration of its product or service and that expressed as ideal by purchasers and suppliers. 2. The Bentley Pilot Experience In late 1988. The analysis and report phase examines the data collected in internal and external research and explores three potential quality gaps: 1. 4.co. A gap between the company s current offering and the quality offered by competitors. The CRR project also achieves the following objectives: 1. Bentley s investigation focused on the membrane oxygenator.final-yearprojects. The primary objective of that project was to specifically delineate what quality means to purchasers. It also includes a mail survey involving statistically significant samples of purchasers. Creates a more strategic and competitive picture of quality. Incorporating results has two implications for the company: planning and ongoing implementation of the Quality Leadership Process. The CRR consultant works with the company s planners and sets up additional strategic quality measurements. A gap between manager s perceptions of how customers and suppliers recognize quality and how customers and suppliers actually perceive it. 2. Helps direct activities to excel as a quality leader. Builds a launch point for quality function deployment (QFD) activities. 3.cc | www. 3.troubleshoot4free. The membrane oxygenator is a disposable (that is. single use) medical device used to replenish oxygen to the blood during open heart 30 . highlighting three potential gaps. as required. one of its primary product lines. Bentley Laboratories became one of the first Baxter divisions to undertake a CRR project.www.com/fyp/ establish the attributes that correlate with each quality dimension.

However. the investigation in mind. and Bentley had the second largest market share.final-yearprojects. 31 . It is important to note. Market data were sought from perfusionists. The findings contained in the report provide reliable and valuable insights into this particular market because the survey was sent to nearly every practicing purfusionist in the U. More than half a million of them were sold wordwide in1988. and nearly 90 percent said they influenced that decision. As a pilot. the investigation was limited to membrane oxgenators.troubleshoot4free. Over 50 percent of the respondents claimed to make the final decision regarding the purchase of membrane oxygenators.co. In addition. the external research was limited to U. Qualitative decisions with Bentley marketing professionals and perfusionists themselves indicated that since perfusionists have hands on contact with oxygenators. This is a expensive (approximately $350) plastic device about the size of a large household blender. to a small extent.www. their influence on the perception of quality leader is fairly high. With this objective in mind. purchasing agents also impact the purchase decision. and Walker: Customer Satisfaction Measurements of Indianapolis conducted the external research. even though cardiovascular surgeons and. one objective was to establish a capable and repeatable methodology. The final results of the Bentley study are confidential.cc | www. even though international sales comprised a significant portion of the total. The project helped to define the customer s perception of quality in terms of the membrane oxygenator by identifying the elements that created that perception. The study investigated quality at three levels: Overall perceptions of quality Dimensions of quality Specific product and service attributes David Garvin consulted extensively on the project design. though that the influence on the purchase decision does not perfect equate with influence on the perception of quality leader.S market.com/fyp/ surgery. the following tables provide a look mat the type of finding that a CRR project such as this can generate.S and the return rate was well in excess of 30 percent.

6 1 2 .6 P r o d u c t d e live r y t i m e 7 .9 In t e g r a t e d s y s t e m s 4 .4 8 .9 3 .com/fyp/ Table 1 A ve r a g e V a l u e A s s i g n e d b y B e n t l e y M a n a g e r s o f t h e E i g h t D i m e n s i o n s a n d t h e P r o d u c t a n d S e r vi c e A t t r i b u t e A s s o c i a t e d w it h e a c h D i m e n s i o n D im e n s io n P e r fo r m a n c e A ve r a g e A s s ig n e d va l u e 2 4 .5 6 .5 1 1 .6 1 0 .1 5 .1 1 5 -8 0 S a fe t y E a s e o f S e tu p L o w p rim in g In t e g r a t e d d e s i g n B io c o m p a t ib ilit y * B a s e d o n a 1 0 0 -p o in t a llo c a t io n e x e rc is e Table 2 B e n t l e y M a n a g e m e n t A s s e s s m e n t o f t h e R e l a t i v e Im p o r t a n c e o f V a r i o u s P r o d u c t s a n d S e r vic e A t t r ib u t e s t o T h e ir C u s t o m e r s A t t rib u t e P rim in g V o lu m e S e t u p t im e P r o d u c t d e live r y t im e S a le s F o rc e e x p e rt is e A ve r a g e A s s ig n e d V a lu e 1 5 .7 7 .9 2 3 .6 Range 1 5 -6 5 G H H C B A t t rib u t e s o f t h is D im e n s io n P e rc e n t a g e in c lu d in g A t t rib u t e 94 82 54 32 18 82 82 59 47 12 a s t r a n s fe r eat E xchange e m o d y n a m ic d e s ig n o n s is t e n c y io c o m p a t ib ilit y F e a t u re s 2 1 .final-yearprojects.1 1 6 .7 * B a s e d o n a 1 0 0 -p o in t a llo c a t io n e x e rc is e 32 .3 * B a s e d o n a 1 0 0 -p o in t a llo c a t io n e x e rc is e Table 3 B e n t l e y M a n a g e m e n t A s s e s s m e n t o f t h e R e l a t i v e Im p o r t a n c e o f V a r i o u s P r o d u c t s a n d S e r vic e A t t r ib u t e s t o T h e ir C u s t o m e r s A ve r a g e A s s ig n e d V a lu e * .4 8 . B y F u n c t i o n S a le s & A t t rib u t e F in a n c e R& D M a n u fa c t u r i n g M a rk e t in g P r i m i n g va lu e 1 1 .9 P ro b le m re s p o n s e t im e 6 .troubleshoot4free.co.6 8 .www.6 1 1 .3 1 1 .1 5 .cc | www.

the outcome goes to our customers. supplier. 33 . we need to answer them if we expect to achieve quality.troubleshoot4free. The next step is to expand on that meaning in order to answer the following important questions: Whose requirements are we meeting? How do we find out what those requirements are? How do we determine whether we are meeting requirements? Although these requirements can be difficult to answer. customer. This can be done by a method called Input-Process-Output (IPO) Model.final-yearprojects. inputs. procedures-and puts them through a process to produce a product or service.www. data. No matter what our job is. and customer requirements. Input-Process-Output Model The IPO model consists of seven components: input requirements. The inputs come from our suppliers. output. equipment. These components represent each phase of the work we do. which is our output.co.cc | www. each of us takes inputs-material. ` Requirements Supplier Input Process Output Requirements Customer Fig.com/fyp/ Input-Process-Output Model Knowing what is meant by requirements is a good start towards achieving quality leadership. process.

The Customer Supplier Chain Process flow for meeting customer requirements Here is a good example that Erica Meshii.www. Bank sends paycheck to payroll Payroll receives paycheck Employee receives paycheck Payroll sends check to employee Supplier Customer Fig.com/fyp/ By applying the IPO model to the work we do. developed to demonstrate how customer s requirements can be met. We can also analyze the impact each component has on the others to determine if what we producewhether a product a product or service-is meeting our customer s requirements. Defining requirements 34 . The example concerns an emergency room of a mid sized hospital in the Northwest that was in the initial stages of implementing the Quality Leadership Program. we can start to develop answers to the three questions we asked earlier.cc | www.troubleshoot4free. program manager for the Quality Leadership Process at Baxter.final-yearprojects. Employee sends time card Supervisor receives time card Supervisor sends time card to Payroll receives payroll time card Payroll sends employee paycheck data to bank Bank receives the data.co.

and who the suppliers were. To begin their analysis of admitting a non critical patient. it also encourages open communication among team members. therefore. As a result of their interviews. in detail. a team was formed to determine what services the emergency room provided. they developed an input-process-output model to help them identify the customers of the process and those customer s requirements. it is important not to fall into the trap.www. they assured themselves of providing a customer focused service.cc | www. They also decided that they would look at their admitting procedure for critical and non critical patients separately. not the way we think it should be done or the way the procedure manual says it should be done. improvements are realized immediately just by developing a common understanding. By defining customer requirements first and then establishing supplier requirements. they began conducting selected interviews of both the internal and external customers. They decided to start their improvement efforts by reviewing.troubleshoot4free. Having identified the customers. (See fig).final-yearprojects.com/fyp/ Before beginning any improvement projects in the emergency room. The customer in this case was nursing. which felt that the admitting process was cause of multiple problems that affected the level of patient care the hospital delivered. what their admitting procedure was. Having identified customer requirements. organizations are often tempted to skip this step. The development of a graphic representation of a graphic representation of a process shows us where steps are out of sequence and where steps can be eliminated. It also allows us to Build a common understanding Identify key steps in the process 35 . In some cases.co. be a waste of time to develop a diagram. A process flow diagram represents the way the process is actually done. The team began looking at the process of admitting a non critical patient into the emergency room. using a set of requirements dimensions. However. they discovered that their admitting procedure was failing to meet many of their customer s requirements. Developing the process flow diagram as a team not only enhances understanding of the process. who their suppliers would be for that input. Next. since most people feel that they know the process and that it would. who the customers were of these services. and what their requirements they needed to establish with their suppliers. they jointly developed a process flow diagram that depicted the process as it existed (see fig). they were able to then focus on what input they would need to meet those requirements.

troubleshoot4free. Emergency department process flow diagram 36 .www.final-yearprojects. Procedure Comprehensive form System up Customer Nursing Patient Output Requirements Timely Paperwork Delay-free admittance Accurate information Consistent information Available nursing staff Available room Inputs Patient Information Hosp.co.cc | www. System Process Admitting Non clinical Patient Output Patient admitted Fig. Input-process-output model: admitting a non critical emergency room patient Begin Patient arrives in ER Pt checks in with desk clerk ER admission clerk available No Yes Yes Nurse available Pt waits Pt signs paperwork System available No Yes Yes Admission clerk gives paperwork to nurse No Nurse available No Pt waits Nurse puts pt in room ER admission clerk enters pt data on computer Pt name called Pt waits in waiting room End Fig. Management Nurse Input Requirements Complete Information Accurate Information Timely information Open patient room Standard Hosp. Procedure Patient room Forms Hosp.com/fyp/ Identify areas where measurement should be established Supplier Patient Hosp.

It also identifies when the patient signs the paperwork. The admission clerk maintains this log. The reception clerk maintains a log.final-yearprojects. Time patient signs paperwork 11:30 a. and then collected and summarized.m. Log1 identifies the time the patient arrives. Date 11/26/90 11/26/90 11/26/90 Patient Name Sam Jones Susan Anderson Ken Bishop Time patient name called 11:20 a. and they also knew there had been some complaints about time delays.www.m.m. 11:20 a.m. 11:50 a.co. Nursing maintains this log. 11:21 a. 11:45 a.m.m.troubleshoot4free. 37 .m. 12:00 a. Date 11/26/90 11/26/90 11/26/90 Patient Name Sam Jones Susan Anderson Ken Bishop Time patient name called 11:05 a. Since they knew what the timeliness of the admitting process was an important component in the delivery of quality service. 11:30 a.m. A histogram was developed for each area measured to show time in minutes it took to complete the admitting paperwork. which is their measure of when the paperwork is complete. Thus.m. 11:25 a.m. 11:40 a. they designed a series of logs to be completed at each identified critical step.m.m. Log3 identifies the time nursing obtains the paperwork. 11:30 a. Time patient signs paperwork 11:30 a.com/fyp/ Collecting and organizing data The hospital team decided to implement some measurements at several steps they perceived a key.m. as well as the time nursing puts the patient in an examining room.m. Date 11/26/90 11/26/90 11/26/90 Patient Name Sam Jones Susan Anderson Ken Bishop Time of arrival 11:00 a. Log2 identifies what time the admission clerk calls the patient s name to begin taking patient information.cc | www.m. 12:00 a. they wanted to gather data could help them focus on areas where they could improve. These logs were maintained for one week.

troubleshoot4free.cc | www. the team determined that it would focus on completing admitting paperwork within five minutes of the patient s arrival.co. Improvement opportunity 1 Improve rate of room availability 2 Improve rate of nurse availability 3 Improve speed of paperwork completion Support organizational objectives? Of value to customer? Can i/we implement it? Does it have a deadline? When is it? No Estimated savings(price of non conformance) and gains Increase patient retention Increase nursing retention Save time spent tracking down paperwork Estimated implementation costs (1-10)* Other Yes Yes No 9 --- Yes Yes Yes and No No 8 --- Yes Yes Yes No 4.final-yearprojects. this information could be interpreted in more than one way.com/fyp/ The histogram measured the time it took to complete admitting paperwork. which lead to delays in admission as well as delays in nursing being able to complete the patients charts. Expected Outcome: Paperwork should be completed within five minutes of patient s arrival.5 --- Fig. This causes delays in ordering labs and X rays. the IPO model. However. Improvement opportunity selection matrix Using the information gathered on the improvement opportunity selection matrix. 38 .www. the preliminary measurements taken. Each would produce a different picture of the admitting process. and the customer complaints previously received were all taken into consideration when the team developed a list of improvement opportunities using the improvement opportunity selection matrix. Listing and Prioritizing Improvement Opportunities The customer interviews. process flow diagram. They developed the following improvement objective: Current Situation: Ten percent of the time there is a delay in paperwork being completed.

At this point. Over a one week period they kept logs that indicated the reason for the delays that occurred. 140. the team had a very clear understanding of where to focus their effort.co. they compiled their data and displayed it on the Pareto chart.cc | www. People Environment Not available Procedures Patient Filling out admission form Confusing Admission clerk Busy with another patient Not available Too long Admission form Not available Patient Information Not available Printer Backed up Down Admission paperwork not completed within five minutes of patient s arrival Computer Down Supplies Information Equipment Not available Fig. Analyzing and Selecting Most Significant Root Cause Once the team had identified the improvement opportunity and had defined their improvement objective.com/fyp/ Measurements: Logs will be maintained by emergency room staff that will show time elapsed from the arrival to paperwork completion. Out of 200 occurrences of paperwork not completed within their targeted time frame of five minutes. they decided to turn once again to measurement. which was developed during brainstorming session. Rather than guessing or making decisions based on which because they felt was the most significant one. 39 . At the end of the week.www. Fishbone diagram: causes for delays in admission paperwork Having identified this list of potential causes they wanted to determine which of these causes to work on. or 70 percent. it was time to look at why they weren t currently meeting their goal. The tool they used for this was the fishbone diagram.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects. occurred because the admission clerk was busy or not available.

The team determined they would concentrate their efforts on cross training other emergency room personnel to assist with the completion of the admission paperwork.www. To do this they developed a solution selection matrix. Force-field analysis: completion of admission paperwork Selecting the best solution Following this analysis. By laying out the data in this way. they were able to identify several potential solutions.co.troubleshoot4free. 40 . This time they used a force field analysis to help them identify several potential solutions.final-yearprojects. Admission clerk is busy answering phones Admission clerk is helping another patient Admission clerk is on a break Admission clerk busy Incoming phone calls to be directed to information desk Train Schedule backup volunteers to help with Cross train other E/R personnel to help admission admission desk process Fig. they were able to easily identify which solution they should focus on.com/fyp/ Generating Potential Solutions The team gathered once again for another brainstorming session.cc | www. The next step was to select the solution they felt would be the most effective.

and building an indestructible barrier to competitive strategies.co.www.final-yearprojects. We then expand our opportunity to elevate the number of very satisfied customers.troubleshoot4free. the targeted start and finish dates for each. and expected result. the team determined it would continue to gather data on logs and display the data on Gantt frequency charts. We also have a better reading on how many of our customers are not really satisfied.com/fyp/ Implementing Solutions It was now time to lay out a method for implementing their solution. increasing our market share. Possible Solutions Incoming calls directed to info desk Train volunteers to help with admission process Cross-train other E/R personnel to help admission clerk Schedule backup Cost to implement* Med Savings and gains Low Chances of success Low Percentage** of Root Cause removed Low Med Med High Med Med Med High High Low Low Med Med * Insert actual cost to implement if available ** Insert actual % of root cause if measurements have been taken 41 . the personnel who would be responsible for each task. and are very satisfied. thereby improving our competitive position. They identified the task that would need doing. In this case. are fairly satisfied. we make a commitment to strengthening our customer relationship and keeping up with the dynamics of their changing requirements. Tracking effectiveness It is critical to establish ongoing measurement to ascertain the effect of the implemented solution.cc | www. Customer requirements can be met Once we accept the challenge of meeting our customer s expectations 100 percent of the time.

co.com/fyp/ Fig. Solution Selection Matrix: completion of admission paperwork Department Name: Emergency Room (all shifts) What (task or activity) 1 Cross-train other shifts 2 Develop schedule for backup for other shifts 3 Implement schedule/plan Who Admission clerks and other ER staff When(start/finish) Within 3 weeks Expected results Individual cross trained in admitting process Schedules developed for all shifts Plan put in place Same Within 3 weeks Same 4th week Fig. Final implementation plan: completion of admission paperwork 42 .troubleshoot4free.cc | www.www.final-yearprojects.

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GAPS MODEL OF SERVICE QUALITY

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GAPS MODEL OF SERVICE QUALITY THE CUSTOMER GAP The central focus of the gaps model is the customer gap, the difference between customer expectations and perceptions. Expectations are the reference point s customers have coming in to a service experience; perceptions reflect the service as actually received. The idea is that firms will want to close this gap-between what is expected and what is received-to satisfy their customers and build long-term relationships with them. To close this all-important customer gap, the model suggests that four other gaps-the provider gaps-need to be closed. THE PROVIDER GAPS The provider gaps are the underlying causes behind the customer gap: Gap 1 - Not knowing what customers expect. Gap 2 - Not selecting the right service designs and standards. Gap 3 - Not delivering to the service standards. Gap 4 - Not matching performance to promises. The primary cause in many firms for not meeting customer s expectations is that the firm lacks accurate understanding of exactly what those expectations are. A gap exists (gap1) between company perceptions of customer expectations and customers actually expect. Even if the firm does not clearly understand its customer s expectations, there still may be problem if that understanding is not translated into customer driven service design and standards (gap2). Once service designs and standards are in place, it would seem the firm is well on its way to delivering high quality services. This is true, but still not enough. There must be systems, processes, and people in place to ensure that service delivery actually matches (or is even better than) the designs and standards in place (gap3). Finally, with everything in place to effectively meet or exceed customer expectations, the firm must ensure that what is promised to customers matches what is delivered (gap4).

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Customer
Expected Service Customer gap

Perceived Service

Gap 1 Gap 3

Service delivery
Gap 4 Customer-driven service designs and standards Gap 2 Company perceptions pf consumer expectations Company

External communications to customers

Fig. Gaps Model of Service Quality CLOSING THE CUSTOMERS GAP In a broad sense, the gaps model says that a service marketer must first close the customer gap, between customer perceptions and expectations. To do so, the provider must close the four provider gaps, or discrepancies within the organization that inhibit delivery of service. The gaps model focuses on strategies and processes that firms can employ to drive service excellence.

SERVICES: SEARCH VERSUS EXPERIENCE VERSUS CREDENCE PROPERTIES? One framework for isolating differences in evaluation processes between goods and services is a classification of properties of offering. This can be done in three major ways.

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fit. hardness. clothing and furniture.co.final-yearprojects. and jewelry are high in search qualities because attributes can be completely determined and evaluated before purchase. includes characteristics that the consumer may find impossible to evaluate even after purchase and consumption.cc | www.www. These include taste and wearability. and smell. attributes that a consumer can discerned only after purchase or during consumption. even after have been prescribed and produced by the seller. Few consumers possess medical or mechanical skills sufficient to evaluate whether these services are necessary or are performed properly. price. These include color. style. Goods and services such as vacations and restaurant meals are high in experience qualities because their attributes cannot be known or assessed until they have been purchased and are being consumed. 46 . Credence qualities. Examples of offering high in credence qualities are appendix operations and brake relining on automobiles. Goods such as automobiles. feel.com/fyp/ Search qualities Experience qualities Credence qualities Search qualities. Experience qualities.troubleshoot4free. attributes that a customer can determine before purchasing a product.

final-yearprojects. 47 Auto repair Furniture Child care Root Canal Houses Vacations Hair cuts Clothing Jewelry . whereas most services fall to the right of the continuum.troubleshoot4free.cc | www. or credence qualities along a continuum of evaluation ranging from easy to evaluate to difficult to evaluate. Continuum of Evaluation for Different Types of Products Fig arrays goods and services high in search. Goods and services high in credence qualities are most difficult to evaluate because the consumer may be unaware of or may lack sufficient knowledge to appraise whether the offerings satisfy given wants or needs even after consumption (right end of continuum). Goods and services high in experience qualities are more difficult to evaluate because they must be purchased and consumed before assessment is possible (center of continuum). experience.co.www.com/fyp/ Most goods Most services Easy to evaluate Medical Diagnosis Television repair Automobiles Restaurant meals Legal Services Difficult to evaluate High in search qualities High in experience qualities High in credence qualities Fig. The major premise is that most goods fall to the left of the continuum. Goods high in search qualities are the easiest to evaluate (left end of the continuum).

Desired service is a blend of what the customer believes can be and should be . Employees affect the service outcome. Services cannot be readily displayed or communicated. consumption consumption Customers affect each other. The highest can be termed as desired service: the level of service the customer hopes to receive the wished for level of performance.troubleshoot4free. Service quality depends on many uncontrollable factors. For example. Services cannot be returned or resold.co. The level of expectation can vary widely depending on the reference point the customer holds. Decentralization may be essential.final-yearprojects. Standardized Heterogeneous Service delivery and customer satisfaction depend on employee actions. Services cannot be patented. Mass production is difficult. What are your expectations of the service? In all you want the office 48 .cc | www. There is no sure knowledge that the service delivered matches what was planned and promoted. Services Intangible Meaning and type of Service Expectations To say that expectations are reference points against which service delivery is compared is only the beginning. Production Simultaneous Customers participate in and affect the separate from production and transaction.www. Nonperishable Perishable It is difficult to synchronize supply and demand with services.com/fyp/ Services are different Goods Tangible Resulting Implications Services cannot be inventoried. Pricing is difficult. you will engage the services of your college placement office when you are ready to graduate.

com/fyp/ to find you a job the right job in the right place for the right salary because that is what you hope and wish for. Within fast food restaurants. fast food restaurants and airport restaurants. The desired service expectation for an expensive restaurant. We call the threshold level of acceptable service adequate service the level of service the customer will accept. having experienced consistent service at McDonald s over time and somewhat inconsistent service at Burger King. However. and fine food. 49 .www. usually involves elegant surroundings. on the other hand. The extent to which customers recognize and are willing to accept this variation is called the zone of tolerance.final-yearprojects. The Zone of Tolerance As we know that services are heterogeneous from the above discussion in that the performance may vary across providers.cc | www. candlelight. desired service expectations seem to be the same for service providers within industry categories or subcategories that are viewed as similar by customers. a customer may hold a higher expectation for McDonald s than for Burger King. on the other hand. Customers typically hold similar desired expectations across categories of service. gracious employees. ethnic restaurants. In this situation and in general. convenient. may vary for different firms within a category or subcategory.troubleshoot4free. If service drops below adequate service the minimum level considered acceptable customers will be frustrated and their satisfaction with the company will be undermined. A customer s desired service expectation for fast food restaurants is quick. and even with the same service employee. customers hope to achieve their services desires but recognize that this is not always possible. across employees and the same provider. Among subcategories of restaurants are expensive restaurants. The adequate service expectation level. you probably also see that the economy may constrain the availability of ideal job openings in companies and not all companies you may be interested in have a relationship with your placement office. but these categories are not as broad as whole industries. In essence.co. tasty food in a clean sitting. If the service performance exceeds desired service customers will be very pleased and probably quite surprised as well.

www.co. customers tend to be less tolerant of poor service. customers are likely to be less willing to relax these expectations than those for less important factors. In general.cc | www. and also hold a constrained range for the length of acceptable wait times. which means that they have higher expectations for this factor. very busy customers would likely always be pressed for time. requiring a tighter range of service from providers. whereas other customers allow a greater range of service. the zone of tolerance decreases because the adequate service level shifts upward. Dual Customer Expectation Levels & Zone of Tolerance Different customers possess different Zones of Tolerance Some customers have narrow zones of tolerance. When prices increase. An individual customer s zone of tolerance increases or decreases depending upon number of factors.com/fyp/ Desired Service Zone of Tolerance Adequate Service Fig. the narrower the zone of tolerance is likely to be. The more important the factor. desire short waiting times in general. In addition to the higher expectations for the most important service dimensions and attributes. Zone of Tolerance Vary for Service Dimensions: Customer s tolerance zones also vary for different service attributes or dimensions. customers are likely to be less tolerant about unreliable service (broken promises or service errors) than other service deficiency.troubleshoot4free. 50 . For example. including company controlled factors such as price. making zone of tolerance for the most important service dimension smaller and the desired and adequate service levels higher. In this case.final-yearprojects.

and functional. A niece from a big family who is planning a 90th birthday party for a favorite aunt is representing the entire family in selecting a restaurant for the celebration.www. social. stable factors that lead the customer to a heightened sensitivity to service.troubleshoot4free. One of the most important of these factors can be called derived service expectations. which occur when customer expectations are derived by another person or group of people. psychological. In general.cc | www. and Zeithaml (1993) FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS OF SERVICE Sources of Desired Service Expectations Personal needs. Enduring service intensifiers are individual.final-yearprojects. Berry. those states or conditions essential to the physical or psychological well being of the customer. including physical. are pivotal factors that shape what we desire in service. Another enduring service intensifier is personal service philosophy the customer s underlying generic attitude about the meaning of service and the proper product of service providers. Zone of Tolerance For Different Service Dimensions Source: Parasuraman. the customers who are 51 . Her needs are driven by the derived expectations from the other family members.com/fyp/ Level of Expe ctatio n Desired Service Adequate Service Zone of Tolerance Zone of Tolerance Adequate Service Adequate Service Most important factors Least important factors Fig.co. Personal needs can fall into many categories.

com/fyp/ themselves in service businesses or have worked for them in the past seem to have especially strong service philosophies.cc | www. Enduring service intensifiers EXPECTED SERVICE Desired Service Personal needs Zone of Tolerance Adequate Service Fig.co.www.final-yearprojects. Factors that Influence Adequate Service 52 .troubleshoot4free. Factors That Influence Desired Service Sources of Adequate Service Expectations Transitory service intensifiers Desired Service Perceived service alternatives Self-perceived service role Zone of Tolerance Situational factors Adequate Service Predicted Service Fig.

their levels of adequate service are higher than those of customers who believe it is not possible to get better service elsewhere.final-yearprojects.cc | www.www. For example. consists of temporary. Situational factors are service performance conditions that customers view as beyond the control of the service provider. Personal emergency situations in which service is urgently needed (such as a accident and the need of the automobile insurance or a breakdown in office equipment during a busy period) raise the level of responsiveness required and considered acceptable. where personal emergencies such as serious automobile accidents would likely intensify customer service expectations of insurance companies.co. If customers have multiple service providers to choose from. is the level of service customers believe they are likely to get. Perceived service alternatives are other providers from whom the customer can obtain service. Customer s self-perceived service role are the customers perceptions of the degree to which customers exert an influence on the level of service they receive. A customer who is very explicit with a waiter about how rare he wants his steak cooked in a restaurant will probably be more dissatisfied if the meat comes to the table overcooked than a customer who does not articulate the degree of doneness expected. 53 .com/fyp/ Transitory service intensifiers. catastrophes that affect a large number of people at one time(tornadoes or earthquakes) may lower service expectations because customers might realize that insurers are inundated with demands for their services. your predicted service expectations about the length of time you will spend in the waiting room the next time you visit your doctor will likely be expressed in terms of the number of minutes or hours you have spent in the waiting room this time. individual factors that make a customer more aware of the need for service. Predicted service performance implies some objective calculation of the probability of performance or estimate of anticipated service performance level. usually short-term. Predicted service. or if they can provide the service for themselves (such as lawn care or personal grooming).troubleshoot4free. For example.

troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects. Implicit service promises are service related cues other than explicit promises that lead to inferences about what the service should and will be like. The statements are personal when they are communicated by salespeople or service or repair personnel.www. These quality cues are dominated by price and the tangibles associated with the service. In general.co. Factors that Influence Desired and Predicted Service Explicit service promises are personal and non personal statements about the service made by the organization to the customers.com/fyp/ Sources of both Desired and Predicted Service Expectations Perceived service alternatives Desired Service Perceived service alternatives Zone of Tolerance Perceived service alternatives Adequate Service Perceived service alternatives Perceived service alternatives Fig. and other written publications. Explicit promises are one of the few influences on expectations that are completely in the control of the service provider. they are non personal when they come from advertising.cc | www. brochures. 54 . the more a customer will expect from the service. higher the price and the more impressive the tangibles.

friends family) are word of mouth sources that can affect the levels of desired and predicted service. Experts (including Consumer Reports. Evidence of Service (from customer point of view) 55 .co. Past experience. Word of mouth tends to be more important in services that are difficult to evaluate before purchase and direct experience of them. A survey was carried to measure three service dimensions Café Staff People Café Service Proces s Physical evidence Café Fig. you probably compare each stay in a particular hotel with all previous stays in that hotel. These personal and sometimes non personal statements made by the parties other than the organization convey to customers what the service will be like and influence both predicted and desired service. the customer s previous exposure to service that is relevant to the focal service.www. Practical implementation of GAPS MODEL Implementation of the Gaps Model was done by selecting a prominent service industry like the coffee industry.troubleshoot4free.cc | www. Café Coffee Day and Barista. We assume that there are two major players in the coffee industry viz. is another force in shaping predictions and desires.final-yearprojects.com/fyp/ Word of mouth communication in shaping expectations of service is well documented. For example.

com/fyp/ Because services are intangible. the desired level that they expected. Receiving what is ordered 2. Zone of Tolerance = Desired . We take the key attributes of these dimensions and measure them. and the perceived service level (the level of service that the café would provides) on the scale 1(low) to 9(high). The space between the desired and the minimum scores is called the zone of tolerance.cc | www.Minimum 56 . To understand the gap scores. it helps to envision the three number scores for each question as points on a single line. The three major categories of evidence as experienced by the customer: People.final-yearprojects. customers are searching for evidence of every interaction they have with the organization. Time of receiving order High My Desired Service Level is Low High My Perceived Service Level is Low High 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Each question therefore has three sets of score associated with it: one for minimum service. For example When it comes to receiving what is ordered . Please rate every item in all the three columns by darkening to mark your rating When it comes to My Minimum Service Level is Low Service 1. Process and Physical Evidence. These categorize together represent the service and provide the evidence that tangibilizes the offering.troubleshoot4free. The customers are asked to mark the minimum level of service that they would find acceptable. as well as an open ended comment box where the customers can submit their feedback on the café.co. The survey includes 19 core questions.www. one for desired service and third for perceived service.

cc | www.troubleshoot4free. is calculated by subtracting the minimum score from the perceived score. For this example the gap score is positive since the perceived score is above the minimum score. is calculated by subtracting the desired score from the perceived score on any given question.com/fyp/ There are two types of gaps measured by this survey.final-yearprojects.co.Perceived Second is the service adequacy gap score. Ser vice Super ior it y = Desir ed . the gap score is negative because the user s perceptions of service quality are below their desired score. Service Adequacy = Perceived . First is the service superiority gap score. In this example.Minimum 57 .www.

Question also shows a positive superiority gap. perceived and desired mean scores for each question may be mapped as single points on a line. In this question you can see that there is a positive service adequacy gap.www. In this case. On the radar chart these lines each representing one question are laid out like spokes on a wheel. Radar Chart Radar chart are the helpful way to summarize the 19 questions and the three scales. and the differences are shaded accordingly.cc | www. scores from individual user surveys are combined to form one set of aggregate survey data.final-yearprojects. with differences between them highlighted in color. This question illustrates negative gap scores.troubleshoot4free. since the user s perception of service quality is above the minimum level. negative service adequacy gap score indicates that user perceptions of service quality fall below their minimum acceptable level.com/fyp/ User s perception of service quality does not always fall between minimum and desired . where users indicate that their perceived level of service quality is greater than the desired level of service quality. To create a radar chart. 58 .co. The minimum.

co. differences are highlighted in color: red indicates areas where the perceived scores is less than the minimum score.com/fyp/ For each survey question. desired and the perceived scores. as well as mean scores for the service adequacy and service superiority gaps.cc | www. Also the total radar chart comprising of the both the Café Coffee Day and Barista will show what is the users perception of service quality of the total coffee service industry (our assumption which states that Café Coffee Day and Barista cover the total coffee service industry). for Café Coffee Day and Barista you can have overall understanding between the service quality of the two coffee shops.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects. blue is where perceived scores are greater than minimum scores. Mean scores are mapped as points on a single line and the areas between scores are highlighted. Areas between each of the mean scores on the radar chart are color coded to highlight the differences. 59 . This process is repeated for each individual item. On the Radar chart. the chart has the minimum. By looking at the radar chart as the whole.www.

troubleshoot4free.cc | www.final-yearprojects.www.co.com/fyp/ OBSERVATION S AN D CALCULATIONS 60 .

service level is 6 5 7 1 7 7 7 6 7 6 7 6 5 7 7 9 9 4 4 7 5 5 5 5 5 149 5.08 Adequacy gap 2 1 -2 2 -4 -4 -4 1 -2 0 0 1 1 0 2 -3 -2 3 1 -1 3 2 3 2 2 7 0.24 Sr.2 (2)Time of receiving order My Desired service level is 9 5 6 2 8 8 7 4 8 8 9 8 6 9 9 9 9 8 9 7 8 8 9 8 8 189 7.56 My Perceived level is 6 3 8 2 4 3 6 7 6 8 8 7 6 7 9 6 7 8 5 5 8 7 7 8 7 158 6.28 61 .32 My Perceived level is 8 6 5 3 3 3 3 7 5 6 7 7 6 7 9 6 7 7 5 6 8 7 8 7 7 156 6.com/fyp/ Café Coffee Day Observations Service (1)Receiving what is ordered My Min.96 Adequacy gap 1 -1 -2 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 3 0 3 -2 0 -2 0 -3 3 -1 2 1 3 2 3 14 0.24 Adequacy gap -2 -2 3 0 -3 -3 -1 3 -1 0 -1 0 2 1 1 -3 -2 0 1 -2 3 2 2 3 2 3 0. service level is 8 5 5 2 7 6 7 4 7 8 9 7 4 6 8 9 9 8 4 7 5 5 5 5 5 155 6.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free.cc | www.56 Superiority Gap -3 -2 2 0 -4 -5 -1 3 -2 0 -1 -1 0 -2 0 -3 -2 0 -4 -2 0 -1 -2 0 -1 -31 -1.www.8 My Perceived level is 6 3 3 5 8 8 6 7 8 8 7 6 7 7 9 7 9 6 9 5 7 6 8 8 8 171 6.28 My Desired service level is 7 6 6 5 8 8 7 5 8 8 9 6 7 9 9 9 9 9 8 7 9 9 9 9 9 195 7.96 (3)Time of getting serviced My Desired service level is 6 6 7 4 8 8 6 7 7 6 8 7 7 9 9 9 9 6 8 7 8 7 8 8 8 183 7. no Superiority Gap -1 -3 -3 0 0 0 -1 2 0 0 -2 0 0 -2 0 -2 0 -3 1 -2 -2 -3 -1 -1 -1 -24 -0. service level is 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean 5 4 5 5 7 7 6 5 8 8 4 6 4 9 9 9 9 9 6 6 5 5 5 6 5 157 6.12 Superiority Gap 2 0 -2 -1 -5 -5 -3 0 -2 0 -1 0 -1 -2 0 -3 -2 1 -3 -1 0 0 0 -1 -1 -27 -1.84 My Min.co.32 My Min.

16 Adequacy gap -2 1 -2 0 -1 0 0 -1 2 1 2 0 1 -2 0 0 -1 3 -1 -6 3 2 3 2 2 6 0.44 My Desired service level is 9 6 7 7 7 7 7 6 8 8 9 8 8 9 8 9 8 7 7 9 9 8 8 9 8 196 7.16 My Desired service level is 9 8 7 8 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 5 8 9 3 9 9 8 9 7 8 8 9 7 9 193 7. service level is 9 6 7 8 6 6 7 6 7 7 6 7 6 9 3 9 7 4 7 9 5 5 5 5 5 161 6.68 Superiority Gap -2 1 -2 1 -2 -1 0 -1 1 0 -1 -1 -1 -2 -5 0 -2 0 -1 -6 -1 -1 0 -2 -1 -29 -1.24 My Perceived level is 8 5 1 8 4 4 7 7 9 8 8 5 7 8 6 7 5 8 3 7 8 6 6 7 6 158 6.cc | www.www.com/fyp/ Café Coffee Day Observations Café (6)Café Merchandise My Min.84 (7)Ambience My Min.04 My Min. service level is 7 5 7 7 6 6 7 6 7 8 6 6 6 9 2 9 6 5 6 7 5 6 5 5 5 154 6.72 (8)Music Sr.44 My Perceived level is 7 7 5 8 5 6 7 5 9 8 8 7 7 7 3 9 6 7 6 3 8 7 8 7 7 167 6. no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean My Perceived level is 8 6 3 5 6 6 5 6 8 8 7 6 5 3 4 8 6 7 5 3 7 6 7 8 7 150 6 Superiority Gap 1 1 -4 -1 -2 -2 -1 -1 1 0 -2 -1 -1 0 -4 0 -2 0 -3 -1 -2 -3 -2 -1 -2 -26 -1. service level is 6 5 7 4 7 6 5 7 7 8 3 7 5 3 4 8 6 5 6 4 5 5 5 6 5 139 5.56 My Desired service level is 7 5 7 6 8 8 6 7 7 8 9 7 6 3 8 8 8 7 8 4 9 9 9 9 9 176 7.04 Adequacy gap 2 1 -4 1 -1 0 0 -1 1 0 4 -1 0 0 0 0 0 2 -1 -1 2 1 2 2 2 11 0.32 Superiority Gap -1 -3 -6 0 -2 -3 0 -1 1 0 -1 0 -1 -1 3 -2 -4 0 -6 0 0 -2 -3 0 -3 -35 -1.final-yearprojects.co.troubleshoot4free.16 62 .4 Adequacy gap 1 0 -6 1 -2 -2 0 1 2 0 2 -1 1 -1 4 -2 -1 3 -3 0 3 0 1 2 1 4 0.

co. service level is 8 7 7 2 6 5 5 5 1 8 6 7 3 9 6 8 6 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 139 5.com/fyp/ Café Coffee Day Observations Café (9)Time My Desired service level is 8 7 7 4 8 7 5 8 4 8 8 7 7 9 7 8 7 7 7 5 8 8 8 8 8 178 7.8 My Min.troubleshoot4free.72 Adequacy gap -2 0 -2 1 0 1 0 3 5 0 1 -1 2 0 0 0 -1 3 3 0 1 2 2 1 2 20 0.52 63 .cc | www.76 My Perceived level is 8 5 4 8 6 6 6 8 4 9 7 7 9 8 7 4 3 8 4 5 7 6 6 6 6 157 6.www.08 (10)Value for money My Desired service level is 8 7 6 7 8 8 6 8 1 9 8 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 9 9 9 8 9 189 7.56 My Perceived level is 6 7 5 3 6 6 5 8 6 8 7 6 5 9 6 8 5 8 7 5 6 7 7 6 7 159 6.36 Superiority Gap -2 0 -2 -1 -2 -1 0 0 2 0 -1 -1 -2 0 -1 0 -2 1 0 0 -2 -1 -1 -2 -1 -19 -0. no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean My Min.56 Sr.28 Adequacy gap 4 0 -2 2 -1 -1 0 1 3 0 0 -1 3 0 -1 -4 -2 2 -1 1 1 1 -1 0 1 13 0.final-yearprojects.28 Superiority Gap 0 -2 -2 1 -2 -2 0 0 3 0 -1 -1 0 0 -1 -4 -5 0 -4 1 -2 -3 -3 -2 -3 -32 -1. service level is 4 5 6 6 7 7 6 7 1 9 7 8 6 8 8 8 5 6 5 4 6 5 7 6 5 144 5.

co.68 Adequacy gap 1 -1 -1 -1 1 0 0 2 3 0 3 0 2 0 1 1 1 1 -2 0 3 2 2 2 2 22 0.32 My Desired service level is 7 6 7 8 8 8 8 8 6 9 4 8 6 8 8 9 8 8 7 9 8 8 8 8 8 190 7.no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean My Perceived level is 6 7 5 8 6 7 8 9 5 7 6 7 7 8 9 9 7 5 7 9 8 7 7 7 7 182 7.68 Superiority Gap 0 -1 -1 -1 0 -2 0 1 0 0 1 0 -5 0 1 2 -2 0 -5 0 0 -1 -1 -1 -2 -17 -0.84 Adequacy gap -1 -1 -2 0 0 2 0 2 3 1 1 -1 3 0 2 0 -2 3 0 0 3 2 2 2 2 21 0.28 Superiority Gap -1 1 -2 0 -2 -1 0 1 -1 -2 2 -1 1 0 1 0 -1 -3 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -8 -0.8 (!2)Other Customers My Desired service level is 6 7 7 7 7 8 6 7 6 7 6 7 8 8 7 6 9 8 7 9 8 8 8 8 9 184 7.6 My Min. service level is 7 6 7 8 7 5 8 7 2 7 4 8 3 7 8 9 7 6 7 9 6 5 5 5 5 158 6.troubleshoot4free.96 My Desired service level is 7 6 7 8 8 8 6 8 7 9 8 8 9 8 7 8 9 7 7 5 8 8 8 8 9 191 7. service level is 7 5 7 8 6 5 6 6 1 7 6 8 6 8 7 8 7 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 149 5.88 My Perceived level is 6 4 5 8 6 7 6 8 4 8 7 7 9 8 9 8 5 8 6 5 8 7 7 7 7 170 6.final-yearprojects. service level is 5 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 3 7 4 7 1 8 7 7 6 7 4 9 5 5 5 5 5 145 5.36 My Min.32 Adequacy gap -1 1 -2 0 -1 2 0 2 3 0 2 -1 4 1 1 0 0 -1 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 24 0.cc | www.96 My Perceived level is 6 6 6 6 7 6 6 8 6 7 7 7 3 8 8 8 7 8 2 9 8 7 7 7 7 167 6.www.64 (!3)Overall Café Sr.com/fyp/ Café Coffee Day Observations Café (11)Location My Min.84 64 .8 Superiority Gap -1 -2 -2 0 -2 -1 0 0 -3 -1 -1 -1 0 0 2 0 -4 1 -1 0 0 -1 -1 -1 -2 -21 -0.

troubleshoot4free.52 Sr.32 My Desired service level is 9 7 7 8 8 7 8 8 6 7 5 8 7 8 8 7 6 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 189 7. service level is 9 6 7 7 7 5 7 6 6 7 5 7 6 8 7 7 6 6 5 8 5 5 5 5 5 158 6.84 65 .56 Adequacy gap -1 1 -2 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 0 1 -1 1 -1 -1 2 0 0 3 3 2 3 2 17 0.44 My Desired service level is 8 7 7 9 7 8 6 8 6 9 6 9 7 9 8 9 8 8 7 7 9 9 9 9 9 198 7.com/fyp/ Café Coffee Day Observations Café Staff (14)Courteousness My Min.68 Adequacy gap -1 -1 -4 1 -1 1 0 1 -1 0 0 -3 -1 0 -2 -1 0 3 -2 0 2 2 2 2 1 21 0.68 My Perceived level is 5 4 3 6 6 6 5 8 6 7 5 6 5 7 5 6 7 8 3 6 7 7 7 7 6 171 6.6 Superiority Gap -3 -1 -4 0 -1 -2 -1 0 -2 -1 0 -2 0 0 1 -3 -4 -1 -1 1 -2 -2 -2 -1 -2 -33 -1.final-yearprojects. service level is 6 5 7 5 7 5 5 7 7 7 5 9 6 7 7 7 7 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 150 6 (16)Rate of giving individual attention My Desired service level is 6 6 7 6 8 8 5 8 7 7 8 9 9 7 8 8 7 5 9 6 9 8 9 9 9 188 7. service level is 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean 7 5 7 9 6 6 5 6 5 9 5 9 6 9 8 9 6 6 6 7 5 5 5 5 5 161 6.cc | www.92 My Min.56 (15)Dressing My Min.co.no My Perceived level is 5 6 3 9 6 6 5 8 4 8 6 7 7 9 9 6 4 7 6 8 7 7 7 8 7 165 6.32 Adequacy gap -2 1 -4 0 0 0 0 2 -1 -1 1 -2 1 0 1 -3 -2 1 0 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 0.84 Superiority Gap -1 -2 -4 0 -2 -2 0 0 -1 0 -3 -3 -4 0 -3 -2 0 3 -6 0 -2 -1 -2 -2 -3 -17 -0.16 My Perceived level is 8 7 5 7 7 7 7 8 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 6 5 8 5 8 8 8 7 8 7 175 7 Superiority Gap -1 0 -2 -1 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 2 -1 0 -1 0 -1 -1 0 -4 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 -14 -0.www.

96 Adequacy gap -1 1 -4 2 0 0 0 2 -5 0 0 -2 1 0 -2 -4 -4 3 1 0 1 0 3 2 1 -5 -0. service level is 8 5 7 4 6 6 6 6 8 3 6 8 6 8 7 9 6 4 4 9 5 6 5 5 5 152 6.final-yearprojects.68 My Perceived level is 6 6 5 6 6 6 6 8 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 5 5 7 4 6 7 7 7 7 7 156 6.2 Adequacy gap 4 1 -2 0 0 1 -1 2 -4 -1 1 -1 2 0 1 -3 -1 3 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 14 0.24 Superiority Gap 2 0 -2 -1 -1 0 -2 0 -4 -1 -2 -1 -2 -1 1 -3 -2 -1 -2 -1 -1 -1 -2 -1 -2 -30 -1.cc | www.84 (18)Dependability on handling user service problems My Desired service level is 4 6 7 7 7 6 8 8 9 6 8 8 9 8 7 8 7 8 6 7 8 8 9 8 9 186 7.76 Superiority Gap 1 -2 -2 0 -1 0 -1 0 -4 -1 0 -1 -2 0 -1 -4 -3 0 -4 0 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -29 -1. service level is 8 6 7 7 6 6 7 6 9 7 6 8 6 8 8 9 5 6 5 7 5 5 5 5 5 162 6.92 Sr.88 Superiority Gap -1 -1 -4 -1 -1 -2 -1 0 -5 -4 -2 -2 -2 0 -2 -4 -6 -1 -3 0 -2 -1 -1 0 -3 -49 -1.08 My Perceived level is 7 6 3 6 6 6 6 8 3 3 6 6 7 8 5 5 2 7 5 9 6 6 8 7 6 147 5.44 (19)Overall Café Staff My Desired service level is 8 7 7 7 7 7 6 8 9 9 7 8 9 9 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 198 7. service level is 2 5 7 6 6 5 7 6 9 6 5 8 5 7 7 8 6 4 2 6 5 5 5 5 5 142 5.2 My Min.co.troubleshoot4free.www. no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean My Min.16 Adequacy gap 1 -1 -2 0 0 1 -2 2 -4 1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -4 1 2 -1 1 3 2 2 2 2 7 0.48 My Perceived level is 9 5 5 7 6 7 5 8 5 8 7 7 7 9 7 5 6 8 4 8 8 7 7 7 7 169 6.28 66 .56 My Min.com/fyp/ Café Coffee Day Observations Café Staff (17)Readiness to respond to questions My Desired service level is 8 7 7 7 7 8 7 8 8 7 8 8 9 8 7 9 8 8 8 9 8 7 9 7 9 196 7.

troubleshoot4free.28 Adequacy gap -1 3 -6 3 1 -1 0 0 -2 2 0 2 1 3 0 2 0 1 -2 0 4 4 0 0 2 14 0.36 Sr. service level is 5 4 9 4 6 7 8 9 9 4 8 5 5 5 8 7 7 8 6 8 4 4 6 6 5 159 6.com/fyp/ Barista Observations Service (1)Receiving what is ordered My Min.08 Superiority Gap -1 -1 4 -1 0 0 0 0 -3 -4 -2 -2 -2 -1 -6 0 -2 1 -3 -3 -2 -5 -3 -4 1 -31 -1.36 Adequacy gap 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 -4 -2 -1 0 1 2 0 0 0 -2 -2 1 2 -2 0 0 2 2 0.04 67 . no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean Superiority Gap -3 2 -6 -1 -1 -1 0 0 -2 -2 0 -2 -3 -1 -1 0 -2 0 -4 0 0 0 -3 -3 1 -32 -1.cc | www.56 Superiority Gap 1 0 1 -1 0 0 1 0 -4 -6 -1 -2 -2 -1 -2 1 -2 -2 -4 -1 -1 -4 -3 -2 0 -34 -1.final-yearprojects. service level is 7 5 4 5 6 7 6 7 8 3 9 6 6 6 5 9 8 8 8 8 5 6 6 6 6 158 6.2 My Perceived level is 4 7 3 7 7 6 8 9 7 6 8 7 6 8 8 9 7 9 4 8 8 8 6 6 7 173 6.6 My Perceived level is 7 6 8 8 7 7 7 7 5 5 7 6 6 7 3 8 7 9 6 6 6 3 6 5 7 159 6.www. service level is 7 7 7 6 7 5 6 7 9 5 9 7 6 5 6 9 7 8 6 7 5 6 6 7 4 164 6.co.24 Adequacy gap 0 1 4 3 1 0 1 0 -3 2 -2 0 0 1 -2 -1 -1 1 -2 -2 1 -3 0 -1 1 1 0.92 My Min.32 (3)Time of getting serviced My Desired service level is 8 7 4 9 7 7 7 7 8 9 9 8 8 8 9 8 9 8 9 9 8 8 9 9 6 190 7.36 My Desired service level is 7 5 9 8 8 7 8 9 9 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 9 9 6 205 8.64 My Min.56 (2)Time of receiving order My Desired service level is 7 9 7 8 8 6 5 7 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 9 8 8 9 8 8 9 9 6 200 8 My Perceived level is 8 9 8 7 8 6 6 7 5 3 8 7 7 7 6 9 7 6 4 8 7 4 6 7 6 166 6.

2 My Desired service level is 8 9 4 8 8 6 8 7 9 9 8 7 7 8 8 9 9 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 6 200 8 My Perceived level is 8 9 7 7 8 6 8 8 6 5 9 7 7 7 3 8 7 8 6 6 6 3 6 7 7 169 6.cc | www.56 Superiority Gap 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -2 -4 -3 -1 -1 -1 -5 -1 -2 -1 -4 -1 -3 -6 -3 -2 1 -40 -1.www. service level is 8 9 2 7 6 6 8 7 8 1 8 5 5 5 8 9 6 6 8 7 4 5 6 7 4 155 6.6 Adequacy gap 0 1 0 -1 2 0 0 0 -2 1 -4 2 2 2 -4 -1 0 1 -3 1 2 -3 -1 0 2 -3 -0.24 Adequacy gap 0 0 5 0 2 0 0 1 -2 4 1 2 2 2 -5 -1 1 2 -2 -1 2 -2 0 0 3 14 0.12 68 . no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean Superiority Gap 0 0 3 -1 0 0 0 1 -3 -4 1 0 0 -1 -5 -1 -2 0 -3 -3 -3 -6 -3 -2 1 -31 -1.76 My Desired service level is 8 9 6 8 8 6 8 7 9 9 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 6 206 8.co.76 My Min. service level is 8 8 6 8 6 6 8 7 9 4 9 5 5 5 8 9 7 7 8 7 4 6 7 7 5 169 6.24 (5)Overall Service My Perceived level is 8 9 6 7 8 6 8 7 7 5 5 7 7 7 4 8 7 8 5 8 6 3 6 7 7 166 6.final-yearprojects.com/fyp/ Barista Observations Service (4)Time of getting the bill My Min.64 Sr.troubleshoot4free.

04 My Desired service level is 9 9 8 8 8 7 7 9 9 9 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 7 213 8.92 My Desired service level is 8 9 6 6 8 8 7 9 9 9 8 9 7 8 9 8 9 9 8 8 8 9 9 9 8 205 8.co.cc | www. service level is 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean 9 5 8 8 6 6 6 5 8 3 8 6 5 6 6 8 7 8 7 7 4 5 8 7 5 164 6.72 Adequacy gap -1 0 1 -1 1 0 0 -3 -4 -5 -1 -1 2 3 -4 0 0 0 -4 0 4 1 0 1 0 -11 -0.2 My Perceived level is 7 7 7 6 7 8 7 5 5 4 7 6 7 8 4 8 7 7 4 6 8 6 7 8 6 162 6.52 Superiority Gap -1 2 0 -1 -2 0 0 -2 -1 -5 0 -1 -2 -1 -4 -2 -3 -4 -2 0 -3 -1 -1 -1 -1 -39 -1. service level is 6 9 8 8 6 7 7 8 9 5 9 6 5 6 9 8 8 8 8 7 4 5 8 7 5 176 7.84 Superiority Gap 0 0 -1 -1 -2 0 -2 -2 -1 -3 0 -1 -2 0 -5 -1 -4 -4 -4 -2 0 -4 -1 -1 -1 -42 -1.56 My Desired service level is 9 5 8 8 8 6 6 7 8 9 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 9 9 9 8 7 202 8.com/fyp/ Barista Observations Café (6)Café Merchandise My Min.troubleshoot4free.68 Adequacy gap 3 0 -1 -1 0 0 -2 -1 -1 1 0 1 2 2 -5 -1 -3 -3 -3 0 5 0 0 1 1 -5 -0.08 My Min.44 69 .04 My Perceived level is 9 9 7 7 6 7 5 7 8 6 9 7 7 8 4 7 5 5 5 7 9 5 8 8 6 171 6. service level is 8 7 6 7 6 8 7 8 9 9 8 7 5 5 8 8 7 7 8 6 4 5 7 7 6 173 6.56 Adequacy gap -1 2 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 1 -1 1 2 2 -1 -1 -1 -3 0 1 2 3 0 0 1 -1 -0.52 (7)Ambience My Min.2 (8)Music Sr.www.48 Superiority Gap -1 -2 1 0 -1 0 0 -4 -4 -5 -1 -3 0 0 -5 0 -2 -2 -4 -2 0 -3 -2 -1 -2 -43 -1.final-yearprojects. no My Perceived level is 8 7 8 7 6 6 6 5 7 4 7 7 7 8 5 7 6 5 7 8 6 8 8 7 6 163 6.

76 My Desired service level is 9 9 5 8 7 7 6 9 9 8 6 9 9 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 9 9 8 8 205 8.com/fyp/ Barista Observations Café (9)Time My Desired service level is 8 5 7 7 6 7 5 9 9 5 6 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 9 9 9 8 194 7.www. service level is 3 6 5 8 6 7 6 8 9 5 5 5 6 5 8 8 9 7 8 7 8 5 6 6 6 162 6.2 (10)Value for money Sr.72 Adequacy gap 4 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 0 -2 -5 -4 1 2 0 1 -7 0 -3 -3 -4 -1 -1 -1 1 2 -1 -25 -1 70 .28 Superiority Gap 0 -1 -1 0 -1 0 0 -3 0 -1 0 -1 -2 -1 -7 -1 -2 -3 -3 0 0 -5 -2 -2 -1 -37 -1. no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean My Min.co.cc | www.48 Adequacy gap 3 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -2 0 -1 0 1 0 2 -6 0 -1 -1 -2 1 2 -1 1 1 2 -2 -0.troubleshoot4free.08 My Min. service level is 5 4 7 7 5 7 5 8 9 5 6 6 6 5 8 8 8 7 8 7 6 5 6 6 5 159 6.48 My Perceived level is 7 5 4 7 5 7 6 6 4 1 6 7 6 6 1 8 6 4 4 6 7 4 7 8 5 137 5.final-yearprojects.36 My Perceived level is 8 4 6 7 5 7 5 6 9 4 6 7 6 7 2 8 7 6 6 8 8 4 7 7 7 157 6.48 Superiority Gap -2 -4 -1 -1 -2 0 0 -3 -5 -7 0 -2 -3 -2 -8 -1 -3 -5 -5 -3 -1 -5 -2 0 -3 -68 -2.

final-yearprojects.56 Adequacy gap -1 0 0 -1 1 0 1 -1 -1 2 -2 2 2 2 -5 -1 0 -3 -5 2 3 -1 -1 0 0 -7 -0.64 My Min.64 Superiority Gap -1 2 0 -1 -1 0 -1 1 0 -3 0 -1 0 -1 -2 -2 -1 -6 -1 0 0 -5 -1 -1 0 -29 0 Adequacy gap -1 2 0 -1 1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 -1 -1 0 -5 -1 1 3 -1 2 0 1 3 0 My Perceived level is 5 6 8 6 7 7 7 6 9 4 9 8 7 8 4 7 8 5 4 7 7 5 7 8 7 166 6.64 My Min.64 Superiority Gap -3 0 1 -1 -1 0 0 1 0 -5 0 0 0 0 -5 -2 -1 -4 -5 -1 -1 -4 -2 1 1 -31 0 Adequacy gap -3 1 1 -1 1 0 2 3 0 -5 0 3 2 3 -4 0 0 -2 -5 1 2 0 1 1 3 6 0 My Perceived level is 8 8 6 6 7 7 8 6 8 6 4 7 7 7 4 7 8 5 4 8 8 4 7 7 6 163 6.64 My Desired service level is 7 7 7 8 7 8 7 5 9 9 9 8 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 9 9 8 5 202 6.8 My Desired service level is 9 8 6 7 7 7 8 9 9 8 5 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 9 9 8 8 202 8.64 (12)Other Customers My Desired service level is 8 6 7 7 8 7 7 5 9 9 9 8 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 9 9 7 6 197 6. service level is 7 7 7 8 5 8 7 6 9 6 9 6 5 5 8 8 8 8 9 7 5 5 6 7 4 170 6. service level is 8 5 7 7 6 7 5 3 9 9 9 5 5 5 8 7 8 7 9 6 5 5 6 7 4 160 6.www. service level is 9 8 6 7 6 7 7 7 9 4 6 5 5 5 9 8 8 8 9 6 5 5 8 7 6 170 6.52 Superiority Gap -1 0 0 -1 0 0 0 -3 -1 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -5 -2 -1 -4 -5 0 0 -5 -2 -1 -2 -39 -1.co.cc | www.troubleshoot4free.28 71 .08 (!3)Overall Café Sr.no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean My Perceived level is 6 9 7 7 6 8 6 6 9 6 9 7 7 7 7 7 8 3 8 8 8 4 8 7 5 173 6.com/fyp/ Barista Observations Café (11)Location My Min.

service level Perceived Superiority level is is Gap 1 7 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean 7 4 8 5 5 7 7 8 8 8 5 5 5 9 8 8 6 7 5 5 4 8 6 5 160 6.56 0 1 0 0 0 0 -1 -2 -3 -1 -1 0 -1 -4 -1 -2 -2 -4 -1 -3 -3 -2 0 1 -31 -1.08 8 7 8 6 5 7 7 7 5 6 8 7 7 3 8 8 7 5 8 8 2 5 7 6 163 6.16 72 .www.com/fyp/ Barista Observations Café Staff (14)Courteousness Sr.16 (16)Rate of giving individual attention My Desired service level is 8 7 3 9 7 7 6 8 9 9 6 9 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 9 8 8 200 8 My Perceived Superiority level is Gap 7 -1 5 2 7 6 7 6 7 6 3 6 7 8 8 2 8 9 6 4 8 8 1 6 6 7 150 6 -2 -1 -2 -1 0 0 -1 -3 -6 0 -2 0 -1 -7 -1 0 -3 -5 -1 -1 -7 -3 -2 -1 -50 -2 Adequacy gap -1 -2 -1 -2 1 0 1 2 -3 -2 1 2 2 3 -7 0 1 0 -2 2 4 -3 -2 0 2 -4 -0.2 My Desired service level is 8 7 7 8 7 6 7 8 9 8 7 8 7 8 8 9 9 8 9 9 8 8 9 8 5 195 7.co.8 (15)Dressing My Perceived Superiority Adequacy level is Gap gap 6 -2 1 7 8 8 7 6 7 7 7 5 6 7 7 7 4 8 7 6 5 8 5 5 7 8 6 164 6.24 1 1 0 1 0 0 3 -2 1 -1 2 1 2 -3 0 -1 0 -1 2 1 1 -1 0 1 9 0. service level is 8 7 3 9 5 7 5 5 9 5 5 5 6 5 9 8 8 6 6 6 4 4 8 6 5 154 6.36 My Min.final-yearprojects.12 My Min. service level is 5 6 7 8 6 6 7 4 9 4 7 5 6 5 7 8 8 6 6 6 4 4 8 8 5 155 6.cc | www.52 0 0 0 -1 0 0 -2 -1 -4 -2 0 -2 -2 -6 -1 -1 -1 -4 -1 0 -6 -4 -1 -1 -39 -1.4 8 7 8 7 5 7 9 8 9 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 8 9 9 8 8 9 8 7 202 8.no My My Min.56 Adequacy gap 1 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 -1 -3 -2 3 2 2 -6 0 0 1 -2 3 3 -2 -3 1 1 3 0.troubleshoot4free.

28 73 .24 Superiority Gap 0 0 1 0 -2 0 0 -1 -1 -1 0 -2 -2 0 -5 -1 -2 -3 -5 -2 -3 -5 -4 -4 -1 -45 -1.2 My Perceived level is 7 5 7 7 7 7 6 7 6 7 6 8 7 7 4 7 7 6 5 7 6 3 5 6 6 156 6.04 My Min.final-yearprojects.08 (19) Overall Café Staff My Desired service level is 8 6 6 8 7 7 7 8 9 9 5 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 9 8 8 198 7. no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Mean My Min.16 My Perceived level is 5 8 7 7 5 8 4 7 8 8 6 7 7 8 4 8 7 6 4 7 5 3 5 5 7 156 6.84 Adequacy gap -1 -1 0 -1 1 0 0 0 -3 3 1 3 2 2 -3 -1 -1 -1 0 1 1 -1 -1 0 1 1 0. service level is 8 6 7 8 6 7 6 7 9 4 5 5 5 5 7 8 8 7 5 6 5 4 6 6 5 155 6.08 My Min.44 Superiority Gap 0 2 -1 -1 -1 0 0 -1 -2 -3 0 -1 -1 -1 -6 -1 -1 -3 -4 0 0 -5 -4 -2 -1 -37 -1.04 (18)Dependability on handling user service problems My Desired service level is 8 7 8 8 8 7 6 8 9 7 6 9 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 9 9 8 202 8.co.92 Sr.cc | www.8 Adequacy gap 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 -1 2 1 2 2 3 -5 0 -1 0 -1 1 0 -1 -1 -3 2 2 0. service level is 5 7 6 7 5 8 4 7 9 6 5 5 5 5 9 8 8 6 5 6 5 4 6 8 5 154 6.com/fyp/ Barista Observations Café Staff (17)Readiness to respond to questions My Desired service level is 5 8 6 7 7 8 4 8 9 9 6 9 9 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 9 9 8 201 8.48 Adequac y gap 3 1 -1 -1 0 0 0 1 -2 0 0 2 2 2 -5 0 -1 -2 -1 2 4 -1 -3 -1 2 7 0.www.24 Superiority Gap -1 -2 -1 -1 -1 0 0 -1 -3 0 0 -1 -1 -1 -4 -2 -2 -3 -4 -2 -2 -5 -4 -3 -2 -46 -1.16 My Perceived level is 8 8 5 7 6 7 7 7 7 6 5 7 7 7 3 8 8 6 5 8 8 3 5 6 7 161 6.troubleshoot4free. service level is 5 7 6 8 6 7 7 6 9 6 5 5 5 5 8 8 9 8 6 6 4 4 8 7 5 154 6.

8 -1.84 5.68 6.56 0.28 -0.2 0.96 7.44 6.4 6.16 0.28 * Number in red for adequacy score indicate immediate attention is required at these attributes * Number in green for superiority gap indicates that score is below desired hence negative but within zone of tolerance.92 7.72 -1.84 6.84 7.84 7.4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Merchandise Ambience Music Time Value for money Location Other customers Overall café Café Staff 6.08 7.12 0.68 -1.co.32 6.8 0.64 6.68 -0.32 6 6.88 0.24 5.44 6. 74 .52 7.28 6.68 0.16 -1.www.4 -0.48 7.56 7.84 7.16 0.56 5.2 -1.68 6.76 -1.56 7.68 6.2 5.28 8.28 7.32 -0.84 0.84 14 15 16 17 18 19 Courteousness Dressing Rate of giving individual attention Readiness to respond to questions Dependability on handling user service problems Overall café staff 6.32 -0.56 0.96 0.96 -1.56 -0.68 6.96 -1.8 7.72 6.56 0.6 7.36 6.28 0.16 0.44 7.12 7.56 -1.08 -1.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.24 0.96 5.cc | www.24 6.08 6.36 7.6 7 6.52 -0.88 6.32 0.32 5.08 5.52 0.24 -1.32 6.8 5.16 5.32 7.16 -1.44 6.84 -0.76 6.56 7.92 6. No Service Attribute Minimum Desired Perceived Superiority Adequacy Mean Mean Mean Gap Gap 1 2 3 4 5 Receiving what is ordered Time of receiving order Time of getting served Time of getting the bill Overall service Café 6.28 6.com/fyp/ Café Coffee Day Calculations Sr.24 0.72 7.

48 -2.2 8 7.64 6.56 -1.24 -1.52 8.04 0.16 8.2 -0.6 8 8.92 6.2 8.04 0.16 6.56 7.24 -0.44 -0.56 6.24 -1.56 6 6.64 6.08 0.52 6.16 -1.08 7.48 6.36 6.36 6.final-yearprojects.32 6.co.28 14 15 16 17 18 19 Courteousness Dressing Rate of giving individual attention Readiness to respond to questions Dependability on handling user service problems Overall café staff 6.08 6.24 6.68 -1.12 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Merchandise Ambience Music Time Value for money Location Other customers Overall café Café Staff 6.72 -1.www.08 7.76 8.84 6.16 6.2 6.08 0.92 6.24 6.52 6.64 -1.84 -1.48 6.56 -0.8 8 8.2 6.36 6.16 0.28 5.troubleshoot4free.48 6.24 6.08 7.36 -0.56 0.76 6.92 6. 75 .4 6.2 -1.08 -1 0.12 0.2 7.52 -1.04 8.24 -2 -1.36 -1.6 0.72 -1.44 -1.08 8. No Service Attribute Minimum Desired Perceived Superiority Adequacy Mean Mean Mean Gap Gap 1 2 3 4 5 Receiving what is ordered Time of receiving order Time of getting served Time of getting the bill Overall service Café 6.04 -0.56 -0.56 -1.76 8.cc | www.92 6.8 6.8 -1.4 6.com/fyp/ Barista Calculations Sr.8 8.48 0.04 6.2 6.28 * Number in red for adequacy score indicate immediate attention is required at these attributes * Number in green for superiority gap indicates that score is below desired hence negative but within zone of tolerance.12 0.84 8.28 -1.

troubleshoot4free.co.com/fyp/ CHARTS AND INTERPRETATION 76 .final-yearprojects.www.cc | www.

troubleshoot4free.co. radial lines indicates the attributes.final-yearprojects.www. while the circular lines indicate the scale (0-10) 77 .cc | www.com/fyp/ Café Coffee Day Attributes 1 Receiving what is ordered 2 Time of receiving order 3 Time of getting served 4 Time of getting the bill 5 Overall Service 6 Merchandise 7 Ambience 8 Music 9 Time 10 Value for money 11 Location 12 Other Customers 13 Overall Café 14 Courteousness 15 Dressing 16 Rate of giving individual attention 17 Readiness to respond to questions 18 Dependability on handling user service problems 19 Overall Café Staff Desired mean Minimum mean Perceived mean 1 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 10 8 6 4 2 0 7 5 6 2 3 4 Radar Chart: In Radar chart.

co. while the circular lines indicate the scale (0-10) 78 .final-yearprojects.www.com/fyp/ Barista Attributes 1 Receiving what is ordered 2 Time of receiving order 3 Time of getting served 4 Time of getting the bill 5 Overall Service 6 Merchandise 7 Ambience 8 Music 9 Time 10 Value for money 11 Location 12 Other Customers 13 Overall Café 14 Courteousness 15 Dressing 16 Rate of giving individual attention 17 Readiness to respond to questions 18 Dependability on handling user service problems 19 Overall Café Staff Desired mean Minimum mean Perceived mean 1 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 10 8 6 4 2 0 7 5 6 2 3 4 Radar Chart: In Radar chart radial lines indicates the attributes.cc | www.troubleshoot4free.

while the circular lines indicate the scale (0-10) 79 .cc | www.www. radial lines indicates the attributes.com/fyp/ Total Coffee Industry Attributes 1 Receiving what is ordered 2 Time of receiving order 3 Time of getting served 4 Time of getting the bill 5 Overall Service 6 Merchandise 7 Ambience 8 Music 9 Time 10 Value for money 11 Location 12 Other Customers 13 Overall Café 14 Courteousness 15 Dressing 16 Rate of giving individual attention 17 Readiness to respond to questions 18 Dependability on handling user service problems 19 Overall Café Staff Desired mean Minimum mean Perceived mean 1 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 Radar Chart: In Radar chart.co.troubleshoot4free.final-yearprojects.

If the attributes for which the mean perceived scores are below the mean minimum scores can be improved then there is a greater chance for the café to at least retain these customers.cc | www. Also if you have look at the radar chart it is found that the mean perceived score for none of the attribute has crossed the mean desired score. 80 .www. this means that there is a scope for improvement for the café to improve the service quality on all the three dimensions.co.troubleshoot4free. The attributes for which the mean perceived score falls in between mean desired and mean minimum are in fact not a reason to worry since the customers can tolerate the amount of service quality received but if efforts are made to increase the service quality above the mean desired score along with consistency in service may cause delight in the customers and hence be loyal customers spreading positive word of mouth. The attributes like attribute no 17 should be taken extra care off since it may be cause of dissatisfaction for some customers which would not mind to switch to the café s competitors. This can be done by having a look at open ended questions (comment box) and designing the service (service blueprinting) so as to plug the gaps.final-yearprojects.com/fyp/ Interpretation and suggestions from the charts: For Café Coffee Day From the Radar chart it is clear that the mean perceived score for attribute number 17 (Readiness to respond to questions) is below the mean minimum score this means that this attribute needs immediate attention from the café staff since this attribute may be cause of dissatisfaction and hence should be taken care of.

9. this means that there is a scope for improvement for the café to improve the service quality on all the three dimensions. 13(Overall cafe) and16 (Rate of giving individual attention) is below the mean minimum score this means that this attribute needs immediate attention from the café staff since this attribute may be cause of dissatisfaction and hence should be taken care of. Some comments from customers regarding FOR CAFÉ COFFEE DAY People More attention should be paid to older age people Staff should be ready to face dissatisfied customers. 10(Value for money). If the attributes for which the mean perceived scores are below the mean minimum scores can be improved then there is a greater chance for the café to at least retain these customers.co. This can be done by having a look at open ended questions (comment box) and designing the service (service blueprinting) so as to plug the gaps. 7. The attributes like attribute no 5. 9(Time). 8(Music).www. The attributes for which the mean perceived score falls in between mean desired and mean minimum are in fact not a reason to worry since the customers can tolerate the amount of service quality received but if efforts are made to increase the service quality above the mean desired score along with consistency in service may cause delight in the customers and hence be loyal customers spreading positive word of mouth.cc | www.final-yearprojects. 8.com/fyp/ For Barista From the Radar chart it is clear that the mean perceived score for attribute number 5 (Overall Service).troubleshoot4free. 10. Also if you have look at the radar chart it is found that the mean perceived score for none of the attribute has crossed the mean desired score. Process 81 . 13 and16 should be taken extra care off since it may be cause of dissatisfaction for some customers which would not mind to switch to the café s competitors. 7(Ambience).

Problem of parking should be solved. Air conditioning equipment should be in working condition. Physical Evidence More sitting arrangements should be made. More variety of music should be there.www.cc | www. Should have smoking and non smoking areas. Books should be made available. Price Prices should be reduced. Self service should not be there. Music too loud. Music should not be too loud.final-yearprojects.co. Service should be made more prompt. Should have smoking and non smoking zones. 82 .com/fyp/ Bill should be received faster.troubleshoot4free. FOR BARISTA People Need to give more personal attention to the customers. Physical Evidence Parking must be provided. Process Late service. Staff should welcome the customers by a smile. More sitting arrangements should be provided. Price Reasonable pricing should be adopted.

4 and is same for attribute no.24 0.56 2 0.12 15 0.68 2. For the overall staff factor the mean perceived score of Barista and Café Coffee Day is above the minimum score which indicates that both Café Coffee Day and Barista are at par regarding the cafe staff.12 6 0.28 0. More comparison in detail can be made if we compare each attribute of Barista and Café Coffee Day by calculating the superiority and adequacy gaps From the tables it can be seen that Service superiority score for Café Coffee Day is greater than that of Barista for all the attributes except for attribute number 4 &17.00 17 1.08 18 0.co. Also the Service Adequacy score for Café Coffee Day is greater than that of Barista for all the attributes except for attribute no.56 14 1.80 18 1. 1 & 19.08 10 0.com/fyp/ Comparison between Café Coffee Day and Barista Service Superiority score Att.68 0.84 0.20 13 .28 From the Radar charts it is clear that the service quality of the Café Coffee Day is much better than that of Barista.56 1.16 1.96 0.16 12 0.20 8 0.16 1.08 3 0.28 2 1.16 0. For the overall service factor the mean perceived score of Barista is below the minimum score while that of Café Coffee Day is well above the minimum score which indicates that overall service of Café Coffee Day is better than that of Barista.12 12 0.88 0.08 1.56 5 0.16 0.44 9 0.04 4 0.80 0.72 9 0.56 1.12 0.84 0.40 0.16 17 0. No CCD Barista 1 0.04 7 0.52 1.48 Service Adequacy score Att.28 2.36 16 0.24 13 0.96 1.24 5 1.40 1. 83 .68 1.28 0.68 8 1. For the overall Café factor the mean perceived score of Barista is below the minimum score while that of Café Coffee Day is well above the minimum score which indicates that the overall café experience of Café Coffee Day is better than that of Barista.20 0.04 19 0.16 1.72 11 0.20 1.24 16 0.56 0.56 0.84 19 1.32 1.00 11 0.48 10 1.24 1.840 1.cc | www.final-yearprojects.56 15 0.72 1.28 14 0.www. No CCD Barista 1 0.36 3 1.96 1.56 1.32 1.troubleshoot4free.32 0.24 4 1.60 6 1.24 0.56 7 1.

com/fyp/ LIMITATIONS AND SCOPE FOR FURTHER STUDY 84 .www.co.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free.cc | www.

Gap between the external customers and internal customers should ideally be zero (the perception of the external customer matches with that of the internal customer) but if a gap exists then those aspects are the ones that required to be studied and steps to be taken to reduce the gap.cc | www. The sample size is selected by the method of The project was done for the Pune city only.final-yearprojects. The perceptions of the service quality of the internal customers (provider and employees) should also be measured by modifying the questionnaire.com/fyp/ Limitations of the survey This survey was conducted only for the external customers hence the exact between the perceptions of the internal customers (provider) and the external customers which should be bridged cannot be established. More accuracy could be there if it is increased.co.troubleshoot4free. Consumer buying behavior needs to be studied while implementing the change. Scope for further study The survey for internal customers can be carried out by slightly modifying the questionnaire. 85 . Sample size of the survey was 25.www.

final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free.co.com/fyp/ RELATION SH IP BETWEEN GAPS MODEL AN D BAXTER S MODEL 86 .www.cc | www.

people (employees.cc | www. and how these two statements are integrated into the order taking process? 3. customers) tend to omit details of the service with which they are not familiar.final-yearprojects. There is natural (and mistaken) tendency to assume that because all people have gone to a fast food restaurant. Baxter s model offers some unique advantages 1. 2.co.www. Both models also say that the service quality is one of the important factor which affect the customer satisfaction apart from product quality. how interactive system works. price.troubleshoot4free. In fact. Baxter s model is itself a useful tool for reducing the Gap between the customer and the provider on which the gaps model of service quality focuses. In describing service. Words are simply inadequate to describe a whole complex service system. Any one person describing a service in words will be biased by personal experiences and degree of exposure to service. For example: to say that portfolio management means buying and selling stocks is like describing the space shuttle as something that flies. personal factors and situational factors. Errors due to subjectivity are reduced. But would that person be able to describe how the monthly statements are created. Gaps model gives the basic framework while the Baxter s model tells us how to improve the service with the help of Quality function deployment and by service blueprinting. 87 .com/fyp/ Relation between Gaps model and Baxter s model Both GAPS model and Baxter s model are used to provide the basic framework for improving the service delivery and maintaining the quality of service delivered required for satisfying the consumers. managers. Errors due to incompleteness are reduced. Errors due to oversimplication are reduced. For example: A person might do a fairly incredible job of describing how a discount stock brokerage service takes orders from customers. they all understand what that service is.

4. Unless flexibility is further defined. Providing what the customers expect. Apart from the advantages of the Baxter s model.www. Helps in matching performances with promises. 2. We categorize some services where these models could be applied from major innovations to minor style changes. Start up businesses consists of new services for a market that is already served by existing products that meet the same generic needs.troubleshoot4free. when the organization may be attempting to design services never before experienced by the customer. Errors due to biased interpretation are reduced.co. front line employees. It is critical that all involved (managers. the employee is likely to interpret the word differently from the manager. For example: a supervisor or manager may suggest to a frontline service employee that the employee should try to be more flexible in providing service to the customer.cc | www. and behind scenes support staff i. Major innovations are new services for market as yet undefined. All these risks become very apparent in the new service development process. quick. 3. No two people will define responsive. it can be said that Employee satisfaction + Customer satisfaction = Sustained profitability.final-yearprojects. Helps in delivering according to service standards. For a service that already exists. Both make an attempt to satisfy the internal customers (employees) and the external customers.e internal customers) be working on customer (external customer) needs and expectations. Providing the right service quality designs and standards. any attempt to improve it will also suffer unless everyone has a shared vision of the service and associated issues. Hence. or flexible in exactly the same way.com/fyp/ 4. 88 . Gaps model also helps in 1.

troubleshoot4free. 89 . Service line extensions represents augmentations for the existing service line. such as a restaurant adding new menu items. Service improvements represents perhaps the most common type of service innovation. changing the color scheme of a restaurant.www. an airline offering new routes etc. faster execution of service process etc. although they are highly visible. website redesign etc.co.final-yearprojects.com/fyp/ New services for the currently served market represent attempt to offer existing customers of the organization a service not previously available from the company (may be available from other companies). Style changes represent the most modest innovations.cc | www. For example. For example.

co.final-yearprojects.troubleshoot4free.cc | www.www.com/fyp/ SUMMARY 90 .

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Summary Baxter s Model gives the systematic procedure of how to determine the important aspects of the service and it also gives the method how to determine these aspects and improve the service quality. It also says that improvement in quality is the most important in the service delivery process. This quality can be achieved if various aspects of quality (Dimensions of quality) are attained. These in turn could be achieved by involving external and internal customers and by the way of continuous improvement. Gaps Model of Service Quality gives a insight in understanding the customer expectations and perceptions. It says that there are basically two types of gaps one is on the customer side and other on the provider side (4 gaps). For closing the gaps on the customer side it is necessary to plug the 4 gaps on the provider side. For plugging the gaps the aspects which are rated below the minimum service level are given more importance so that the customer from the dissatisfied zone moves to the zone of tolerance and he is at least retained. For the aspects which are rated between the zone of tolerance, these aspects should also be improved so that the perception of the customer about service quality moves above the desired service level and the customer feels more satisfied and becomes loyal spreading positive word of mouth.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Bibliography Literature 1. Customer Retention Through Quality Leadership: The Baxter Approach By Deborah G. Fliehman David D. Auld 2. Services Marketing (3rd edition) By Valarie A. Ziethaml Mary Jo Bitner 3. Metric Consultancy Data Base 4. http://www.arl.org/libqual/ 5. http://www.metricconsultancy.com

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final-yearprojects.co.troubleshoot4free.cc | www.www.com/fyp/ ANNEXURE 94 .

Courteousness 2. Time of getting served 4. Time of getting the bill Overall Service Cafe 1.com/fyp/ Questionnaire Café Name: Café Coffee Day Barista Age: 15-25 25-35 35-45 45 & above No of times you visit the café: ___________________________________________ Please rate every item in all the three columns by circling to mark your rating When it comes to My Minimum Service Level is Low Service 1 Receiving what is ordered 2. Dressing 3. Music 4. Time 5.cc | www.troubleshoot4free.www.co. Time of receiving order 3. Value for money 6. Readiness to respond to questions 5. Ambience 3. Rate of giving individual attention 4.final-yearprojects. Merchandise 2. Dependability on handling user service problems Overall Café staff High My Desired Service Level is Low High My Perceived Service Level is Low High 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 12 1 2 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Any improvement you would like to suggest 95 . Other customers Overall Café Café Staff 1. Location 7.