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# Chapter

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Introduction to FEA and ANSYS
Learning Objectives
After completing this chapter, you will be able to: • Understand the basic concepts and general working of FEA. • Understand how FEA helps ANSYS to solve the problems. • Understand the advantages and limitations of FEA. • Understand the types of analysis. • Understand the important terms and definitions in FEA. • Start a new file using the ANSYS Product Launcher window. • Understand the ANSYS Output Window. • Understand the Graphical User Interface (GUI) of ANSYS. • Set the analysis preferences and units. • Learn about the database and files in ANSYS. • Learn about saving, resuming, and clearing database.

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ANSYS for Designers

INTRODUCTION TO FEA
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The finite element analysis (FEA) is a computing technique that is used to obtain approximate solutions to the boundary value problems in engineering. It uses a numerical technique called the finite element method (FEM) to solve boundary value problems. FEA involves a computer model of a design that is loaded and analyzed for specific results. The finite element analysis was first developed by Richard Courant in 1943. He used the Ritz method of numerical analysis and minimization of variational calculus for getting approximate solutions to vibration systems. Later, the academic and industrial researchers created the finite element method for structural analysis. The concept of FEA can be explained with a small example of measuring the perimeter of a circle. To measure the perimeter of a circle without using the conventional formula, divide the circle into equal segments, as shown in Figure 1-1. Next, join the start point and endpoint of each of these segments by straight line. Now, you can very easily measure the length of straight line, and thus, the perimeter of the circle.

Figure 1-1 The Circle divided into equal small segments If you divide the circle into four segments only, you will not get accurate results. For accuracy, divide the circle into more number of segments. However, with more segments, the effort required will be more. The same concept applies to FEA also, and therefore, there is always a compromise between accuracy and speed while using this method. This makes it an approximate method. The FEA was first developed to be used in the aerospace and nuclear industries, where the safety of structures is critical. Nowadays, the simplest of the products rely on the FEA for design evaluation. The FEA simulates the loading conditions of a design and determines the design response in those conditions. The design is modeled using the discrete building blocks called elements. Each element has some equations that describe how it responds to certain loads. The sum of the response of all the elements in the model gives the total response of the design.

General Working of FEA
Better knowledge of FEA will help you build more accurate models. It will also help you understand the backend working of ANSYS. A simple model is discussed here to give you a brief overview of working of FEA.

Introduction to FEA and ANSYS

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Figure 1-2 Representation of a two-spring assembly To develop a model that can predict the state of this spring assembly, you can use the linear spring equation given below: F = KX If you use the spring parameters defined above and assume a state of equilibrium, the following equations can be written for the state of each endpoint: F1 - X1K1 + (X2 - X1)K2 = 0 F2 - (X2 - X1)K2 = 0 Therefore, F1 = (K1 + K2)X1 + (-K2)X2 F2 = (-K2)X1 + K2X2 If the set of equation is written in matrix form, the above set of equations will be modified as follows: F1 F2 = K1 + K2 -K2 -K2 K2 X1 X2

In the above mathematical model, if the spring constants (K1 and K2) are known and forces (F1 and F2) are defined, then you can determine the resulting deformed shape (X1 and X2). Alternatively, if the spring constants (K1 and K2) are known and the deformed shapes (X1 and X2) are defined, then the resulting forces (F1 and F2) can be determined. This type of spring system may be complicated to define, but they involve most of the key terminologies used in FEA. These FEA terminologies are listed next.

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Figure 1-2 shows a spring assembly that represents a simple two-spring element model. These two springs are connected in series and one of the springs is fixed at the left most endpoint, refer to Figure 1-2. The stiffness of the springs is represented by spring constants K1 and K2. The endpoints of each spring is restricted to the displacement or the translation in the X direction only. The change in position from the undeformed state of each endpoint can be defined by the variables X1 and X2. The forces acting on each endpoint of the springs are represented by F1 and F2.

1-4 1. Stiffness Matrix 2. Degrees of Freedom 3. Boundary Conditions

ANSYS for Designers

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These terminologies are discussed next.

Stiffness Matrix
In the previous equation, the following part represents the stiffness matrix (K): K1 + K2 -K2 -K2 K2

This matrix is relatively simple because it comprises only one pair of springs, but it turns complex when the number of springs increases.

Degrees of Freedom
Degrees of freedom is defined as the ability of a node to translate or transmit the load. In the previous example, you are only concerned with the displacement and forces. By making one endpoint fixed, one degree of freedom for displacement is removed from the three possible degrees of freedom. So, now the model has two degrees of freedom. The number of degrees of freedom in a model determine the number of equations required to solve the mathematical model.

Boundary Conditions
The boundary conditions are used to eliminate the unknowns in the system. A set of equations that is solvable is meaningless without the input. In the previous example, the boundary condition was X0 = 0, and the input forces were F1 and F2. In either ways, the displacements could have been specified in place of forces as boundary conditions and the mathematical model could have been solved for the forces. In other words, the boundary conditions help you reduce or eliminate unknowns in the system. Note The solutions generated using FEA are always approximate. The FEA technique needs the finite element model (FEM) for its final solution as it does not use the solid model. FEM consists of nodes, keypoints, elements, real constants, material properties, loading, and boundary conditions.

Nodes, Elements, and Element Shapes
Before proceeding further, you must be familiar with the concepts of nodes, elements, and element shapes. These concepts are discussed next.

Nodes
An independent entity in space is called a node. Nodes are similar to the points in geometry and represent the corner points of an element. The element shape can be changed by moving the nodes in space. The shape of a node is shown in Figure 1-3.

cadcim. For www.com Evaluation Copy. Note In this chapter. therefore it requires a minimum of three or four nodes to define it. and volume) of an element depends on the nodes with which it is made. The shape (area. Figure 1-3 A node and an element Element Shapes The following are the basic shapes of the elements: Point Element A point element is in the form of a point and therefore has only one node. Line Element A line element has the shape of a line or curve. length. An element shape is specified by nodes.cadcim. The elements with node at the mid of the edges are called quadratic or second order elements. The element that does not have a node at the middle of the edge of the element is called a linear element. The detailed description about element types and their usage is given in Chapter 4. Some area elements are shown in Figure 1-5. Figure 1-4 shows some line elements. Copy. For information visit www. Do not reproduce. There can be higher order elements that have additional nodes (at the middle of the edge of the element). Figure 1-4 The line elements Area Element An area element has the shape of a quadrilateral or a triangle. therefore a minimum of two nodes are required to define it. only the basic introduction of element shapes has been covered.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-5 Elements Element is an entity into which the system under study is divided.com . An element (triangular shaped) is shown in Figure 1-3.

wedge (6 nodes). Electrical analysis 10. Do not reproduce. Structural interaction with fluid flows 3. For www. Analysis of shock 4. . Buckling problems 12.com Figure 1-5 The area elements Volume Element A volume element has the shape of a hexahedron (8 nodes).1-6 ANSYS for Designers Copy. Mass diffusion 11. Some of the volume elements are shown in Figure 1-6. For information visit www. tetrahedron (4 nodes). you need to follow certain steps. Crash simulations 8. or a pyramid (5 nodes). Thermal analysis 6. These steps are given next. Dynamic analysis 13. Fluid flows 9.cadcim.com Evaluation Copy. Structural strength design 2. Vibrations 7. It is used in the following areas: 1. Acoustics 5.cadcim. Figure 1-6 The volume elements Areas for Application of FEA FEA is a very important tool for designing. Coupled analysis General Procedure of Conducting Finite Element Analysis To conduct the finite element analysis. Electromagnetic analysis 14.

refer to Figure 1-7.cadcim. The input data will be preprocessed for the output data and preprocessor will generate the Copy. 2. Following are the input data that needs to be given to the preprocessor: 1. the general process of finite element analysis is divided into three main phases. For www. Apply material properties and boundary conditions. solution. Loadings and boundary conditions. preprocessor. Type of analysis (structural or thermal. Define the element type. Assemble the element equations. 8. 4. 5. static or dynamic. Material properties. Derive the element matrices and equations. For information visit www. Do not reproduce. and linear or nonlinear) Element type. Meshed model.com Evaluation Copy. 7.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1. 4. Set the type of analysis to be used. 3. Geometric model.cadcim. 9. 7. 5. Interpret the results.com . Create the model. and postprocessor. Real constants. 6. Solve the unknown quantities at nodes. 1-7 FEA through ANSYS In ANSYS. Figure 1-7 FEA through ANSYS Preprocessor The preprocessor is a program that processes the input data to produce the output that is used as input to the subsequent phase (solution). 6. 2. 3. Divide the given problem into nodes and elements (mesh the model).

and a good analytical/designing skill. The FEA software generates the element matrices. A careful planning is the key to a successful analysis. In other words. refer to Figure 1-7. The graphical output gives the detailed information about the required result data. anything that can be converted into a mathematical equation can be simulated using the FEA techniques. Postprocessor The output from the solution phase (result data files) is in the numerical form and consists of nodal values of the field variable and its derivatives.cadcim. Therefore. These files are further used by the subsequent phase (postprocessor) to review and analyze the results through the graphic display and tabular listings. refer to Figure 1-7. the most popular principle of GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out) applies to FEA. 3. Flexibility and accuracy of the tool. Nowadays. the CAE / FEA software can simulate the performance of most of the systems. computes nodal values and derivatives. 2.com Solution phase is completely automatic. Do not reproduce.com Evaluation Copy. These data files will be used by the subsequent phase (solution). For www. he should also have a fair knowledge of advantages and limitations of the FEA software being used. refer to Figure 1-7. Some of the most popular and . Effective Utilization of FEA Some prerequisites for effective utilization of FEA from engineers and FEA software are discussed next. However. The postprocessor processes the result data and displays them in graphical form to check or analyze the result. For example. Besides this. Software The FEA software should be selected based on the following considerations: 1. Hardware configuration of your system. and stores the result data in files. FEA Software There are variety of commercial FEA software packages available in market. Some companies also develop their own customized version of commercial software to meet their requirements provided by the commercial software. The postprocessor phase is automatic and generates the graphical output in the form specified by the user. Therefore. Thermodynamics (for thermal analysis). in structural analysis. Heat Transfer. Engineers An engineer who wants to work with this tool should have sound knowledge of Strength of Materials (for structural analysis). no software has the capability to meet the complete analysis requirements of a design.cadcim. some firms use one or more CAE software depending on their requirements. Analysis type to be performed.1-8 ANSYS for Designers data files automatically with the help of users. Solution Copy. the output is nodal displacement and stress in the elements. For information visit www. you should be very careful while giving/accepting the inputs for analysis. Usually.

and competitive designs. These assumptions are not comprehensive.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS commercially available FEA software are as follows: 1. make sure to use only those assumptions that apply to the analysis under consideration. 6. Adina 3. For information visit www. 4. 5. The results give solutions but not remedies. will consume a lot of time and.cadcim. So. 6. KEY ASSUMPTIONS IN FEA There are four basic assumptions that affect the quality of the solution and must be considered for finite element analysis. FEA packages are costly. It helps optimize the design. 4. more computer space and time are required. thereby. MSC/Dytran 11. Moreover. Qualified personnel are required to perform the analysis. Abaqus 4. NISA 8. but cover a wide variety of situations applicable to the problem.com Evaluation Copy. in some cases. Features such as bolts. It is used to simulate the designs that are not suitable to prototype testing such as surgical implants (artificial knees). This may lead to approximation and errors in the result obtained. It provides approximate solutions. For more accurate result. saving the cost and time involved in performing design testing. Copy. Ls-Dyna 10. Limitations 1. 5. may be impossible to do. Hypermesh 5. Cosmos 7. It gives graphical representation of the result of analysis. NX Nastran 6. welded joints.cadcim. The finite element modeling and analysis are performed by the preprocessor phase and the solution phase. Variables such as stress. which if done manually. 2. ANSYS 2. It reduces the amount of prototype testing. 3. do all the following assumptions apply to all the situations. and so on cannot be accommodated to the model. 2. by no means. Star-CD 1-9 Advantages and Limitations of FEA Software Following are the advantages and limitations of FEA software: Advantages 1. 3.com . temperature can be measured at any desired point in the model. Do not reproduce. Marc 9. high quality. 7. For www. It helps you create more reliable.

Assumptions Related to Boundary Conditions 1.cadcim. welding. corrosives. Stress behavior outside the area of interest is not important. No compensation will be made to account for the effect of chemicals. 4. Structural analysis 2. Do not reproduce. so the geometric simplifications in those areas will not affect the outcome.com Assumptions Related to Material Properties 1. Fluid flow analysis . Copy. The effects of relative humidity or water absorption on material used will be neglected. All simulations will assume room temperature. The component is free from surface imperfections that can produce stress risers. The variation in mass due to the suppressed features is negligible. 5.com Evaluation Copy. 4. 3. will be considered infinite or rigid. Loads on the threaded portion of the parts is supposed to be evenly distributed among the engaged threads. Local behavior at the corners. Displacement values will be small so that a linear solution is valid. 3. 2. For information visit www. 3. wears or other factors that may have an impact on the long term structural integrity. it is understood that either the stress levels exceeding the yield point or excessive displacement will cause a component failure. therefore so that any reaction or input from the adjacent features are neglected. All interfacing components will be assumed rigid. 2. TYPES OF ANALYSIS The following types of analysis can be performed in FEA software: 1. joints. 2. 5.1-10 ANSYS for Designers Assumptions Related to Geometry 1. Decorative external features will be assumed insignificant for the stiffness and performance of the part and will be omitted from the model. Material properties will remain in the linear region and nonlinear behavior of the material property cannot be accepted. 5. and intersection of geometries is of primary interest. The failure of fasteners will not be considered. therefore no special modeling of these areas is required. 4. All the welds between the components will be considered ideal and continuous. 6. radially or axially. orientation. Frictional loss in the system is considered to be negligible. Displacements will be small so that the magnitude. preloading on bolts. For example. 2. The portion of the structure being studied is assumed a separate part from the rest of the system. 4. Only internal fillets in the area of interest will be included in the solution.cadcim. unless otherwise specified. 3. Assumptions Related to Fasteners 1. and distribution of the load remains constant throughout the process of deformation. Thermal analysis 3. or other manufacturing or assembly processes will be neglected. Residual stresses due to fabrication. Stiffness of bearings. 6. For www. Material properties are not affected by the load rate.

For information visit www. Coupled field analysis 1-11 Structural Analysis In structural analysis. not suddenly. Inertia and damping effects are ignored in structural analysis. In structural analysis.cadcim. Electromagnetic field analysis 5. Figure 1-8 Types of structural analysis Static Analysis In static analysis. the system is known as a nonlinear system. it is assumed that the load or field conditions are applied gradually. first the nodal degrees of freedom (displacement) are calculated and then the stress. 3.com Evaluation Copy.com . Nonlinear systems include large deformation. strains. 1. 5. Do not reproduce. For www.cadcim. and reaction forces are calculated from the nodal displacements. If the elements of matrix [K] are a function of [X]. K = Stiffness Matrix X = Displacement Matrix F = Load Matrix The above equation is called the force balance equation for the linear system. The system under analysis can be linear or nonlinear. 4. Displacements Copy. plasticity. the load or field conditions do not vary with respect to time and therefore. The loadings that can be applied in a static analysis include: 1. 2.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 4. the following matrices are solved: [K] x [X ]= [F] Where. The classification of the structural analysis is shown in Figure 1-8. creep and so on. Externally applied forces and pressures Steady-state inertial forces (such as gravity or rotational velocity) Imposed (non-zero) displacements Temperatures (for thermal strain) Fluences (for nuclear swelling) The outputs that can be expected from a FEA software given next.

cadcim. 4. 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis It is used to calculate the response of the structure to arbitrary time varying loads.cadcim. The dynamic load includes oscillating loads. Natural frequencies Mode shapes Displacements Strains Stresses Reaction forces . M = Mass Matrix K = Stiffness Matrix X = Displacement Matrix For the system with external load: [M] x Double Derivative of [X] + [K] x [X]= [F] Where. Reaction forces ANSYS for Designers Copy. The outputs that can be expected from a software are: 1. Harmonic Analysis It is used to calculate the response of the structure to harmonically time varying loads. impacts. The assumption here is that the load or field conditions are applied suddenly. Do not reproduce. 2. The dynamic analysis is classified into the following three main categories: Model Analysis It is used to calculate the natural frequency and mode shape of a structure.com Evaluation Copy. By solving the above set of equations. 3. For www. collisions.1-12 2. K = Stiffness Matrix X = Displacement Matrix F = Load Matrix The above equations are called the force balance equations for a dynamic system. Strains 3. In dynamic analysis. Stresses 4. The load types applied in a dynamic analysis are the same as that for the static analysis. the following matrices are solved: For the system without any external load: [M] x Double Derivative of [X] + [K] x [X]= 0 Where. the load or field conditions do vary with time. The system can be linear or nonlinear. For information visit www. you will be able to extract the natural frequencies of a system. 6. and random loads.com Dynamic Analysis In dynamic analysis.

com Evaluation Copy. steady-state and transient. You can perform two types of thermal analysis. and so on. Fluid Flow Analysis This analysis is used to determine the flow distribution and temperature of a fluid. the system is studied under steady thermal loads with respect to time. Velocities Pressures Temperatures Film coefficients Copy. 4. 2. ANSYS/ FLOWTRAN program is used to simulate the laminar and turbulent flow.cadcim. 3.cadcim. 2.com This is an extension of the modal analysis and is used to calculate the stress and strain due to the response of the spectrum (random vibrations). 1-13 Spectrum Analysis Buckling Analysis This type of analysis is used to calculate the buckling load and the buckling mode shape. Thermal distribution Amount of heat loss or gain Thermal gradients Thermal fluxes All the primary heat transfer modes such as conduction. and radiation can be simulated. The outputs that can be expected from the fluid flow analysis are: 1. For such structures. 3.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS All the outputs mentioned here can be obtained with respect to time. the system is studied under varying thermal loads with respect to time. Transient Thermal Analysis In this analysis. compressible and electronic packaging. convection. Thermal Analysis Thermal analysis is used to determine the temperature distribution and related thermal quantities such as: 1. Do not reproduce. . Steady State Thermal Analysis In this analysis. For www. automotive design. the buckling load becomes a critical design factor. For information visit www. Slender structures and structures with slender part loaded in the axial direction buckle under relatively small loads. Explicit Dynamic Analysis This type of structural analysis is available only in the ANSYS LS-Dyna program and is used to calculate fast solutions for large deformation dynamics and complex contact problems. 4.

Stress is calculated as load per unit area. This resistance is offered by the material by the virtue of its strength. Strength When a material is subjected to an external load. For www. p = F/A Where. Load The external force acting on a body is called the load.cadcim. you may first require to study the thermal characteristics of the component and then the effect of the thermal heating on the structural stability. Do not reproduce. Therefore. Transient analysis Coupled Field Analysis This type of analysis considers the mutual interaction between two or more fields. The stress is induced in the body while the load is being applied on the body. you need a program that can solve both the physical problems by combining them.1-14 ANSYS for Designers Electromagnetic Field Analysis This type of analysis is used to determine the magnetic fields in electromagnetic devices. Stress The force of resistance offered by a body against the deformation is called stress. .cadcim. For information visit www. if a component is bent into different shapes using one of the metal forming processes and then subjected to heating. This is called as the coupled field analysis. the system undergoes a deformation. Harmonic analysis 3. It is impossible to solve the fields separately because they are interdependent. the thermal characteristics of the component will depend on the new shape of the component and therefore the shape of the component has to be predicted through structural simulations first.com Evaluation Copy. For example. Static analysis 2. p = Stress in N/mm2 F = Applied Force in Newton A = Cross-Sectional Area in mm2 The material can undergo various types of stresses and that are discussed next. Alternatively. Inturn the material will offer a resistance against this deformation. The types of electromagnetic analyses are: Copy. IMPORTANT TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Some of the important terms and definitions used in FEA are discussed next.com 1. if a component is exposed to heat.

compressive. the strain is called plastic strain. namely. If the metal remains distorted. on application of force parallel to that plane. or G. the strain is called elastic strain. For www. and it is denoted by E. Shear Stress = Shear resistance (R) / Shear area (A) Strain When a body is subjected to a load (force).Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-15 Tensile Stress If the resistance offered by the body is against the increase in length. the body is said to be under tensile stress. This ratio is called Shear modulus.cadcim. This ratio is called Young’s modulus. Compressive stress is just the reverse of tensile stress. Copy. If the stress is within the elastic limit. the ratio of intensity of tensile or compressive stress to the corresponding strain is constant. or shear strain. within the elastic limit. Hooke’s Law It states that the stress is directly proportional to the strain. N. Stress / Strain = Constant (within the elastic limit) Young’s Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity In case of axial loading. its length will change. Do not reproduce.com Compressive Stress . the body is said to be under compressive stress.cadcim. E = p/e Shear Modulus or Modulus of Rigidity In case of shear loading. the material will return to its original shape and dimension. tensile. If the resistance offered by the body is against the decrease in length. and it is denoted by C. The ratio of the change in length to the original length of the member is called strain. Ultimate Strength The maximum stress that the material withstands when subjected to an applied load is called its ultimate strength. when the external stress is removed. The strain can be of three types. Strain (e) = Change in Length (dl) / Original Length (l) Elastic Limit The maximum stress that can be applied to a material without producing permanent deformation is known as the elastic limit of the material. the ratio of shear stress to the corresponding shear strain is constant. Shear Stress Shear stress exists when two materials tend to slide across each other in any typical plane of shear. For information visit www. If the body returns to its original shape on removing the load.com Evaluation Copy.

All the engineering materials are grouped into three categories that are discussed next. Do not reproduce. the deformation is permanent. For most of the metals. Isotropic Material In case of Isotropic materials. and rigid. plastic. the ratio of the direct stresses to the corresponding volumetric strain is found to be a constant for a given material. the ultimate stress should be divided by a ‘factor of safety’. which means that it has same material properties in all directions. At a constant stress and temperature. and the ratio dφ/φ is called the lateral strain. After this period and after a certain amount of deformation.cadcim.com Lateral Strain If a cylindrical rod is subjected to an axial tensile load. Poisson’s Ratio The ratio of lateral strain to the longitudinal strain is constant. However. A rigid material does not undergo any deformation when subjected to an external load. The rate of creep is highly dependent on both the stress and the temperature.com Evaluation Copy. the longitudinal stress will not only produce a strain in its own direction. . For www. but will also produce a lateral strain. This ratio is called the bulk modulus and is denoted by K. It is necessary that the design stress should be well below the elastic limit and to achieve this condition. thereby causing fracture in the material. within the elastic limit. the rate of creep increases. Classification of Materials Materials are classified into three main categories: elastic. the material properties do not vary with direction. In short. the length (l) of the rod will increase (dl) and the diameter (φ) of the rod will decrease (dφ). many materials continue to deform but at a slow rate. This behavior of materials is called creep. when the deformation is within a certain limit. In case of elastic materials.cadcim. plastic. the value of the ‘m’ lies between 3 and 4. In plastic materials. This ratio is called the Poisson’s ratio and is denoted by 1/m. Creep At elevated temperatures and constant stress or load. no material is perfectly elastic.1-16 ANSYS for Designers Factor of Safety The ratio of the ultimate strength to the estimated maximum stress in ordinary use (design stress) is known as factor of saftey. or rigid. The material properties are defined by Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The structural member are designed such that they remain in the elastic conditions under the action of working loads. Copy. in actual practice. For information visit www. The ratio dl/l is called the longitudinal strain or linear strain. the deformation disappears on the removal of load. Poisson’s ratio = Lateral Strain / Longitudinal Strain = 1/m Bulk Modulus If a body is subjected to equal stresses along the three mutually perpendicular directions. the rate of creep is approximately constant for a long period of time.

5. capable of supporting 1024x768 High Color (16-bit). 2. If you are a new user of this software package. or Windows XP x64 on it. INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS Welcome to the world of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) with ANSYS. Inc. You can perform a variety of tasks ranging from Finite Element Analysis to complete Product Optimization Analysis using ANSYS. Memory: 512 MB of RAM is the minimum requirement for all applications. 6. The following is the list of analyses that you can perform using ANSYS: 1. ANSYS. However.com . running Microsoft 2000 Professional Edition. there is no plane of material symmetry. For www. Disk drive: 2. the material properties do vary with direction and the material properties are specified in three orthogonal directions. USA. 1 GB of RAM is the minimum requirement. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) of ANSYS enables the user to work with 3-dimensional (3D) models and also generate results from them. Windows XP 32-bit.. the material properties vary with the direction. The material properties are defined by three separate Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratios. you will be joining hands with thousands of users of this Computer Aided Finite Element Analysis package. For information visit www.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-17 Orthotropic Material In case of Orthotropic material. But in this case. for 64-bit systems.cadcim. developed by ANSYS. Do not reproduce.com Evaluation Copy. It has three mutually perpendicular planes of material symmetry. A DVD drive is required for the program installation. and a 17-inch monitor compatible with this type of graphics card. 4. Anisotropic Material In case of Anisotropic material.2 GB Disk Drive space (Minimum recommended size). Copy. Structural analysis Thermal analysis Fluid flow analysis Electromagnetic field analysis Coupled-field analysis Acoustic analysis SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS The following are the system requirements to ensure the smooth running of ANSYS on your system: • • • • • System unit: An Intel Pentium 4 or AMD 64. Graphics adapter: Graphics card compatible with the supported operating systems. If you are familiar with the previous releases of this software. 3.cadcim. is a dedicated Computer Aided Finite Element Modeling and Finite Element Analysis tool. ANSYS is known as the standard in the field of Computer Aided Engineering. you will be able to upgrade your designing skills with the tremendous improvement in this latest release.

To run the ANSYS Product Launcher on the Windows system. For information visit www. Starting a New File Using ANSYS Product Launcher Window Taskbar Menu: Start > All Programs > ANSYS 11.com GETTING STARTED WITH ANSYS There are two modes to run the ANSYS program: Interactive mode and Batch mode.cadcim. Do not reproduce. online help. you can execute a file of commands in the ANSYS program. And.com Evaluation Copy.1-18 • • ANSYS for Designers Approximately twice as much swap space as memory is required. Interactive Mode This is the default mode in ANSYS. Batch Mode In the batch mode. as shown in Figure 1-10.0 > ANSYS Product Launcher ANSYS Product Launcher is used to run the required ANSYS program or access a modified ANSYS file.0 > ANSYS Product Launcher from the taskbar menu. choose Start > All Programs > ANSYS 11. the ANSYS Product Launcher window will be displayed. For www.cadcim. and tools to create models in the graphics window. TCP/IP for the license manager. Figure 1-9 Starting ANSYS using the ANSYS Product Launcher . Copy. It allows you to work with menus and dialog boxes (Graphical User Interface).0 or higher. as shown in Figure 1-9. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6. It is useful when you do not want to interact with the program such as during the solution phase of an analysis.

Figure 1-10 The ANSYS Product Launcher window The options in the ANSYS Product Launcher window are discussed next.0 > ANSYS from the taskbar menu. Default Page of the ANSYS Product Launcher Window The options in the default page of the ANSYS Product Launcher window are used to specify the simulation environment.cadcim. For information visit www. Do not reproduce. The options available in this drop-down list are: ANSYS Workbench ANSYS ANSYS Batch Copy. the highest licensed product will run automatically. license. ANSYS will start with the last configured product launcher settings. and the add-on modules. refer to Figure 1-11.com Evaluation Copy. For www. Figure 1-11 The options in the default page Simulation Environment This drop-down list is used to specify whether you want to run the interactive or the batch interface.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-19 Alternatively. you can run ANSYS by choosing Start > All Programs > ANSYS 11. If you have not run the launcher yet.cadcim.com .

These options in this tab will vary depending upon the simulation environment. Figure 1-12 The File Management tab Working Directory All the ANSYS files are stored in the working directory. Therefore. To set the working directory.cadcim. For www. Do not reproduce. You can assign the job name maximum up to 32 characters. CFD.1-20 MFX . select the ANSYS Batch environment. The options in this tab are shown in Figure 1-12. File Management Tab The options in this tab are used to set the working directory and assign a name to a job. For information visit www. you need to select the ANSYS option from the Simulation Environment drop-down list and the ANSYS Multiphysics option from the License drop-down list. . and electromagnetic analysis problems. you will deal with the structural and thermal analyses. These options will vary depending on the simulation environment you select.cadcim. License This drop-down list is used to select the license from the available types. This filename will be used for all files generated in ANSYS. choose the Browse button. thermal. Note In this textbook. the selected folder will become the working directory for all the files saved by ANSYS unless and until you change it. The ANSYS Multiphysics has the capability to solve the structural. Select the required folder and choose the OK button.com Evaluation Copy.com By default. Job Name Enter the file name in the Job Name edit box. In this textbook. Customization/Preferences Tab The options in this tab are used to customize the working environment and are shown in Figure 1-13. the Browse for Folder dialog box will be displayed. The two add-on modules available in this area are ANSYS DesignXplorer (-DVT) and VT Accelerator (-VTA). the ANSYS Multiphysics license is used.ANSYS/CFX LS-DYNA Solver ANSYS for Designers Copy. If you want to run the file of commands. Add-on Modules Area The check boxes in this area are used to select the add-on modules. the ANSYS environment will be selected. acoustic.

By default. which is enough for most of the analysis work. Graphics Device Name This drop-down list is used to set the graphics device.com . the options in this area will be activated. Select the 3D option from the drop-down list. Total Workspace (MB) This spinner is used to set the memory for running the ANSYS.cadcim.cadcim. For information visit www. win32 will be selected for the Windows system. which implies that the US English language is set as the default language. By default. if a graphics device is installed on your system. Custom ANSYS Executable This option is used to start a customized ANSYS executable file. By default.com Evaluation Copy. For www. the value is 512 MB.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-21 Figure 1-13 The Customization/Preferences tab Memory Area Select the Use custom memory settings check box from this area. Copy. the en-us option is selected from this drop-down list. its value is 256 MB. By default. ANSYS Language This drop-down list is used to specify the translated language file. Do not reproduce. Additional Parameters This option is used to set the parameter values at the ANSYS start-up. Database (MB) This spinner defines the portion (in MB) of the total memory that the database will use.

the ANSYS Multiphysics Utility Menu window (ANSYS session) will also be closed. Do not reproduce.cadcim. ANSYS 11. For www. the ANSYS 11. After setting all options in the ANSYS Product Launcher window. choose Profiles > Save Profile from the menu bar. Enter the configuration name in the Name edit box and choose the Save button from the same dialog box.0 Output Window and the ANSYS Multiphysics Utility Menu window (ANSYS session) will be displayed.0 Output Window also receives text output from the program.Save dialog box will be displayed. Saving and Loading the Launcher Configuration You can save or load a specific launcher configuration. For information visit www.ANSYS/CFX option from the Simulation Environment drop-down list. To save the specific launcher configuration.0 Output Window. the Launcher Profile . Copy.com Evaluation Copy. shown in Figure 1-14.0 OUTPUT WINDOW The ANSYS 11. choose the Run button from it. choose Profiles > Load Profile from the menu bar.ANSYS/CFX Setup Tab This tab will only be activated when you select MFX . Select the required configuration from the Profiles area and choose the Load button from this dialog box. choose Profiles > Manage Profiles from the menu bar. The options in this tab are used to run ANSYS and CFX with their proper licenses.Load dialog box will be displayed.com The MFX . To load a specific configuration. the selected configuration will be loaded. the Launcher Profile . The ANSYS 11. To rename or delete a profile or to set a profile as the default profile. the configuration will be saved.cadcim.1-22 ANSYS for Designers High Performance Computing Setup Tab The options in this tab are used to launch and run ANSYS by sharing memory with multiple processors. . runs along with the ANSYS Multiphysics Utility Menu window (ANSYS session). If you are running ANSYS on a stand-alone system. It gives the information on how ANSYS interpreted the user’s input. or run ANSYS with proper MPI configuration. If you close the output window. use the default options from this tab.

refer to Figure 1-16.cadcim. In this textbook. It contains the file control. This menu is very important in ANSYS GUI. Various menus and toolbars in ANSYS session are discussed next. For information visit www. Dialog Box If you choose an option that has three dots (.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-23 Figure 1-14 The ANSYS 11..cadcim.0 Output Window ANSYS MULTIPHYSICS UTILITY MENU WINDOW (ANSYS SESSION) The Graphical User Interface (GUI) of ANSYS is shown in Figure 1-15. For www. the menu bar is called as the utility menu.com Evaluation Copy. plot control.com . Utility Menu In ANSYS. plot. then you will be prompted to select the entities from the graphics area. and many other options. a dialog box will be invoked. Do not reproduce. It is the easiest way to communicate with the ANSYS program. Graphical Picking If you choose an option with a plus sign (+) after it.) after it. you will follow the GUI method to solve the problems.. Conventions Used in the Utility Menu The following are the conventions used in the utility menu. Copy.

cadcim. Do not reproduce. For www.cadcim. Action If you choose an option that has a blank space after it. an action will be performed. For information visit www.com Evaluation Copy.1-24 ANSYS for Designers Copy. a submenu will be displayed. Figure 1-16 Conventions used in the Utility Menu .com Figure 1-15 The ANSYS session Submenu If you choose an option that has an arrow symbol (>) after it.

and zooming the model in the graphics area. Graphics Area In the graphics area. indicate that a dialog box will be invoked when you choose them. you can view the result in counters and graphs. The shortcut menu contains the options for adjusting the graphics window display. It is just like the drawing area in other CAD software packages with the only difference that in this graphics area.cadcim. This structure depicts a step-by-step approach to the analysis. Figure 1-17 The Main Menu In the Main Menu.com .Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-25 Main Menu The Main Menu is arranged in a tree-like structure with various colors to indicate the level of the tree structure. For www. and postprocess the counters and graphs. show the results. For information visit www. If you choose an option that has an arrow symbol at its left.com Evaluation Copy. If you right-click in the graphics area. then you will be prompted to select entities from the graphics area. the options having a square symbol at their left.cadcim. as shown in Figure 1-17. It contains the tools to create the model and perform the analysis. setting the view. Figure 1-18 The shortcut menu used to adjust the graphics window properties Copy. as shown in Figure 1-18. a shortcut menu will be displayed. you can build the model. Do not reproduce. apply the load.

Open Analysis File. The Standard toolbar is shown in Figure 1-19. . Figure 1-21 The floating ANSYS Command Window Raise Hidden Icon While working on ANSYS. You can resize the command prompt and also change its position by using this button.cadcim. sometimes the dialog box will hide behind the ANSYS Utility Menu window (ANSYS session).com Figure 1-19 The Standard toolbar ANSYS Command Prompt The ANSYS command prompt allows you to enter the commands.cadcim. Choose the Raise Hidden button to display these hidden dialog boxes. For information visit www. For www. choose the Close button from the command window. The floating ANSYS command prompt is shown in Figure 1-21. Figure 1-20 The ANSYS Command Prompt Command Window Icon This button is used to float the ANSYS command prompt. as shown in Figure 1-20. Do not reproduce. Copy.com Evaluation Copy. and so on.1-26 ANSYS for Designers Standard Toolbar It contains the most commonly used tools such as New Analysis. To restore it to the original position. The format of the command will be displayed dynamically when you type it. Figure 1-22 shows the hidden dialog box and Figure 1-23 shows the raised dialog box. Save Analysis.

cadcim.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-27 Figure 1-22 The hidden dialog box Figure 1-23 The raised dialog box Copy. For information visit www.cadcim.com . Do not reproduce.com Evaluation Copy. For www.

four ANSYS tools are available in this toolbar. Copy. For www. For information visit www. Also. . Do not reproduce. the dialog box from which the picking menu is invoked will get closed. You can also change the view of the model using this toolbar. This dialog box is used to create and manage the contact pairs.cadcim. This toolbar allows you to create your own tool menu.com Figure 1-24 Model in which some of the nodes are selected Figure 1-25 The same model after choosing the Reset Picking button Contact Manager This button is used to invoke the Contact Manager dialog box.1-28 ANSYS for Designers Reset Picking This button is used to reset the picking menu and clear the selection in the graphic area. rotating. By default.com Evaluation Copy. Model Control Toolbar This toolbar contains the tools for panning. Figure 1-26 The Contact Manager dialog box ANSYS Toolbar This toolbar contains the shortcuts of the most frequently used commands and functions. and zooming the model. Figure 1-24 displays a model in which some of the nodes are selected and Figure 1-25 displays the same model after choosing the Reset Picking button. The Model Control toolbar is shown in Figure 1-27.cadcim. as shown in Figure 1-26. You will learn more about customizing the ANSYS Toolbar in later chapters.

element type.cadcim.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-29 Figure 1-27 The Model Control toolbar User Prompt Information This is a prompt area. This dialog box is divided into two parts. and so on). This will be the first step in any analysis process. It gives instructions about what to do next. you need to specify the type analysis you want to perform (Structural. Do not reproduce. Fluid. as shown in Figure 1-28. The instructions for the user will be displayed in this area. For information visit www. choose Preferences from the Main Menu. currently active coordinate system. SETTING THE ANALYSIS PREFERENCES Main Menu: Preferences Before proceeding to perform an analysis. real constant number. the Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box will be displayed. For www.com .com Evaluation Copy. To set the analysis preferences. the discipline options. Copy. one showing the individual disciplines and other.cadcim. the current attribute settings are displayed such as material. Thermal. and section number. Current Settings In this area.

Specify the disciplines and their discipline options by selecting the required radio button provided on the left of each option. Do not reproduce. The p-Method Struct option provides the user specified degree of accuracy. . you will learn about the structural and thermal analysis.1-30 ANSYS for Designers Copy.com Figure 1-28 The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box Disciplines The disciplines are arranged according to the types of analysis that can be carried out in ANSYS.cadcim. So. For information visit www.cadcim. choose the OK button to exit the dialog box. h-Method By default. p-Method Struct The p-method struct is used only for linear structural static analysis and gives accurate results with the coarse mesh. In this textbook. Next. The h-method can be used for doing any type of analysis and requires a finer mesh than the p-method. Select the required discipline by selecting the check box on the left side of the disciplines area. In this textbook. For www. we will use h-Method option to solve the analysis related problems.com Evaluation Copy. we need to select the Structural and Thermal check boxes only. this radio button is selected. Discipline Options The Discipline options area contains two types of solution methods for solving the structural problems in ANSYS: h-Method and the p-Method Struct.

the /Units command is used to remind you to use the consistent set of units. not through the Utility Menu and the Main Menu.cadcim. Do not reproduce. Select the Degrees DEG option from the drop-down list to specify the angular units as degrees. Length = Millimeters (mm) Mass = Kilogram (kg) Time = Seconds (s) Temperature = Celsius (oC) Force = Newton (N) Pressure = N/mm2 Stress = N/mm2 Note You can specify the SI or British units for material property libraries. SI at the ANSYS command prompt and press the ENTER key. For www. It is the responsibility of the user to be consistent with the units used in the analysis. the Radians RAD option is selected from the Units for angular drop-down list. as shown in Figure 1-29. However. which will be discussed in Chapter 4. which indicates that the current angular unit is radians. For information visit www. choose Parameters > Angular Units from the Utility Menu. the units will be set automatically. the Angular Units for Parametric Functions dialog box will be displayed. Copy.com Evaluation Copy. It does not prompt you to specify units while carrying out the analysis.cadcim. This command can only be accessed from the ANSYS command prompt. Following are some of the quantities and their respective units used in this textbook. type /UNITS. It simply does the calculation of the data fed into it.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-31 UNITS IN ANSYS Command Prompt: Utility Menu: /Units Parameters > Angular Units ANSYS is unit independent. To set angular units for the variables.com . Figure 1-29 The Angular Units for Parametric Functions dialog box By default. To set the SI system of units.

in the Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System dialog box. . Do not reproduce. If you do not enter values in the edit boxes. elements. Apply. Apply This button allows you to perform the action without closing the dialog box. The result display includes temperature or stress contours.com Dialog Boxes Various options available in any ANSYS dialog box is given next. Cancel This button is used to exit the dialog box without performing the action.cadcim.0. or a tree structure. OK If you choose this button. The geometry display includes display of nodes. and the working of these options are discussed next. Figure 1-30 The Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System dialog box Action Buttons The action buttons in the dialog box include OK. they will be assumed to be zero (0). For example.cadcim. keypoints.1-32 ANSYS for Designers OTHER IMPORTANT TERMS RELATED TO ANSYS The other important terms related to ANSYS. Graphics Display The graphics display options in ANSYS are used to change the geometry display. check boxes. option button. and Cancel.com Evaluation Copy. and graph display. common options in ANSYS. For information visit www. a tabbed box. radio button. the corresponding action will be performed and the dialog box will be closed. Inputs to be Specified The input to the ANSYS dialog box can be provided through text entry. multiple selection list. two columns selection list. For www.0 location in the active coordinate system. a keypoint will be created at 0. result display. as shown in Figure 1-30. if you choose the Apply button without entering any values in the edit boxes. Copy. and so on. single selection list.

and volumes.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-33 The Plot and PlotCtrls menus from the Utility Menu are used to control the display of the objects. 3. zoom. 6. Pan. 8. as shown in Figure 1-31. Number the keypoints. 7. For www.cadcim. 5. elements. For information visit www. 2. Changing the boundary condition colors. 4. lines. Figure 1-31 The Plot menu Figure 1-32 The PlotCtrls menu Copy. . Changing graph colors. The PlotCtrls menu can be used to perform the following tasks: 1. areas. and so on. and rotate the model. Animate a particular result. Changing the color scheme of ANSYS.cadcim. Capture an image. is used to control the view and style of graphics display. is used to display the nodes. The Multi-plot option is used to plot all entities mentioned above. Add symbols and annotations.com The Plot menu. Changing the default component color. elements. Do not reproduce. keypoints. 9. as shown in Figure 1-32. Plot Menus PlotCtrls Menus The PlotCtrls menu.com Evaluation Copy.

or four parts. Choose the Apply and then the OK button. 2. Refer to Figure 1-33. . Do not reproduce.1-34 ANSYS for Designers Panning. You can pan.cadcim. and rotate the model using the keyboard and mouse as explained below: Copy. and Rotating the Model In ANSYS. right-click in the graphics area and choose the Graphics Properties > Window Layout from the shortcut menu. Note The graphics area must contain atleast one geometric entity before dividing it. Refer to Figure 1-33.cadcim. To do so. Zooming. and then drag the mouse to pan the model. Depending upon the divisions required. For information visit www. For www. select the required radio button from the Window Layout area. 3. and then drag the mouse to rotate the model. and then drag the mouse to zoom and spin the model. Press and hold the CTRL key and the left mouse button.com 1. Figure 1-34 shows the graphics area divided into four divisions. you need to divide the graphics area into two. three. Press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button. and Rotating the model Dividing the Graphics Area Sometimes.com Evaluation Copy. the Multi-Plotting dialog box will be displayed. Zooming. the front view is the default view and the Z axis is pointed normal to the screen. Press and hold the CTRL key and the middle mouse button. zoom. Refer to Figure 1-33. Figure 1-33 Panning.

Active Window The Window drop-down list is used to activate any one window or all windows at once. Alternatively. as shown in Figure 1-35.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-35 Figure 1-34 The graphics area divided into four divisions The Pan-Zoom-Rotate Dialog Box Toolbar: Utility Menu: Standard > Pan-Zoom-Rotate PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate The Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box is used to manipulate the view of the model on the screen. Once you activate the window. For information visit www. Zooming Options Area The buttons in this area are used to zoom the model in the active window. Copy. Views Area The buttons in this area are used to set the view (in which the model is viewed) in the active window. Do not reproduce. the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box will be displayed. invoke the Pan-Zoom-Rotate tool from the Standard toolbar. For www.cadcim.com Evaluation Copy. you can choose PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate from the Utility Menu. The options in this area are shown in Figure 1-35. These buttons are discussed next. all the operations (Pan-Zoom-Rotate) are initiated in the active window. To invoke this dialog box.cadcim.com .

For information visit www. Back Up This button is used to undo the zooms created earlier using the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box. For www. Win Zoom This button is used to zoom the area trapped in the square. which is created by specifying two corners.com Evaluation Copy. Do not reproduce.cadcim. You can undo up to five zooms in each active window.cadcim. Box Zoom This button is used to zoom the area trapped in the square.com Figure 1-35 The Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box Zoom This button is used to zoom the area trapped in the square. The enclosed portion will then be zoomed and displayed again. which is created by first specifying one corner point and then the edge.1-36 ANSYS for Designers Copy. The aspect ratio of the window will remain unchanged. . The zoom portion will then be displayed again. which is created by first specifying the center and then the size of the rectangle.

Action Buttons Area The buttons in this area are used to perform different actions. zoom. or rotate the model. Copy.cadcim. or rotate the model dynamically. Help This button is used to invoke the Release 11. and Z screen coordinates in the active window. Right Mouse Button Press the right mouse button and drag the mouse to rotate the model.cadcim. The dot buttons are used to zoom the model in or out. Left Mouse Button Press the left mouse button and drag the mouse to pan the model. Do not reproduce. Dynamic Mode This check box is used to pan. Y. and left or right. These buttons are discussed next. Also. Reset This button is used to display the default orientation of the active view. zoom. The origin of the screen coordinate axis is located at the center in each window. Close This button is used to close the dialog box. The functions of these mouse buttons are discussed next. The arrow buttons are used to pan the model up or down. Middle Mouse Button Press the middle mouse button and drag the mouse to zoom and spin the model. it zooms the window such that all the entities can be displayed within the window.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-37 Panning and Zooming Options Area The buttons in this area are used to pan and zoom the model in the active window. and rotation.com Evaluation Copy.com . Select this check box and use the mouse buttons to dynamically pan.0 Documentation for ANSYS window. Rate Slider The Rate slider is used to control the amount of pan. For information visit www. The rate varies from 1 to 100. Rotating Options Area The buttons in this area are used to rotate the model about the positive or negative X. zoom. Fit This button is used to zoom the active window such that all the entities can be displayed within the window. For www.

Locational Picking Locational picking is used to locate the coordinates of nodes and keypoints.1-38 ANSYS for Designers Graphics Picking Graphics picking is used to locate or retrieve the entities like nodes and keypoints using the left mouse button. The different areas in this dialog box are discussed next. . while unpicking. Figure 1-36 The Create KPs on WP dialog box Pick Mode Area The radio buttons in the pick mode area are used to pick or unpick an entity or a location. In ANSYS. Copy. Locational picking 2. Do not reproduce. The Pick radio button is selected to pick a point from the graphics area. Retrieval picking 3. For information visit www. The Unpick radio button is selected to deselect the selected point.cadcim. The mouse pointer converts into an up arrow.com Evaluation Copy. there are three types of graphics picking operations. Figure 1-36 shows the Create KPs on WP dialog box that is used for locational picking. The right mouse button is used to toggle between pick and unpick. Query picking These operations are discussed next.com 1. For www.cadcim. while picking and into down arrow.

Keyboard Entry Options This area is used to specify a known coordinate location during locational picking.com Picked Data . This area gives information about the workplane and the global cartesian coordinates of the picked items.ROT on KPs dialog box Copy. meshing. Figure 1-37 shows the Apply U. You can either select the individual entities by selecting the Single radio button. it gives information about the minimum and maximum number of times that a point can be picked.cadcim. applying degrees of freedom. Also.com Evaluation Copy. Retrieval Picking Retrieval picking is used to pick the existing entities for operations such as applying loads. Action Buttons Area The buttons in this area have been discussed earlier. Do not reproduce. For information visit www. or you can use the following options for picking the entities: Figure 1-37 The Apply U. while applying load. you need to press the ENTER key after specifying the coordinate location for picking.ROT on KPs dialog box that is used for retrieval picking.cadcim.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-39 Pick Status Area This area gives the counts of the picked entities. and so on. For example. For www.

com Query Picking Query picking is used to display the specified items from the database. and so on.com Evaluation Copy. Loop This radio button is used to pick only the lines and areas. Next. the entities inside the rectangle will be selected. the entities inside the circle will be selected. To invoke the results query picker. angle between lines. Copy.cadcim. The complete set of lines or areas within the continuous loop are picked. as shown in Figure 1-38. Using Mouse Buttons for Picking You can use the mouse buttons for picking points/XY nodes in various ways that are given next. as shown in Figure 1-39. the 3D annotation attached to the model with help of leader will be displayed in the graphics area. To invoke the model query picker.cadcim. If you select the Generate 3D Anno check box. choose List >Picked Entities + from the Utility Menu. It also provides information about force per unit area. press and hold the left mouse button and drag the mouse to specify the diameter of the circle. Model Query Picker Utility Menu: List >Picked Entities + The model query picker allows you to display the information about the picked entities.1-40 ANSYS for Designers Box Drag a rectangle around the entities. Polygon Create a polygon by picking the points in the graphics area. . Do not reproduce. the Model Query Picker dialog box will be displayed. Results Query Picker Main Menu: General Postproc > Query Results The results query picker allows you to review the results for specific points on the model. Circle Click in the graphics area to specify the center of the circle center. For www. Model query picker and Results query picker and these are explained next. Select the entities for query and choose the Apply button. the entities inside the polygon will be selected. Choose the Pick All button to select all entities in the graphics area. choose General Postproc > Query Results from the Main Menu. This window contains information about the selected entities. For information visit www. the KLIST Command window will be displayed. There are two types of query pickers.

com Evaluation Copy. Do not reproduce.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-41 Figure 1-38 The Model Query Picker dialog box Figure 1-39 The KLIST Command window Copy.cadcim.com . For information visit www.cadcim. For www.

The middle mouse button is used to perform an action.cadcim. Enter the new jobname in the Enter new jobname edit box and choose the OK button from the dialog box. For information visit www. choose File > Change Jobname from the Utility Menu.log This file contains the history of every command used during a session. *.ext. To change the jobname. The format of these files is Jobname. the loading data.com Evaluation Copy. Copy. The right mouse button is used to toggle between the pick and unpick modes. For www. Do not reproduce. The result data contains displacements. Jobname Utility Menu: File > Change Jobname It is the name that is given in the ANSYS Product Launcher of ANSYS. different file extensions are used to identify the contents of a file. material properties. Files During the process of analysis. the Change Jobname dialog box will be displayed. The following are some main file extensions used in ANSYS. Database The ANSYS database is used to store the input and the result data in the memory.1-42 ANSYS for Designers The left mouse button is used to pick or unpick an entity. The default name is File.com ANSYS Database and Files The ANSYS database and files are discussed next. stresses.cadcim. For example. db is used for database. The input data includes model dimensions. strains. the ANSYS writes and reads several files. *. You can change the jobname in an ANSYS session also. as shown in Figure 1-40. and so on. . reaction forces.err This file contains a listing of all the errors and warnings encountered during a session. Figure 1-40 The Change Jobname dialog box Extension In ANSYS. These components of the file name are discussed next. and so on.

cadcim. Alternatively.rst. then ANSYS will overwrite the old *.db from the Utility Menu to save the file.rfl Saves the flotran result file. which ANSYS does not allow. . you can choose File > Resume Jobname.log and *. To save the file. choose the Resume_DB button from the ANSYS Toolbar.rst Saves the structural result file. The resume operation is used as an undo tool. choose the SAVE _DB button from the ANSYS Toolbar.rth Saves the thermal result file.com db and dbb The database file (db) is a read-only file. The result files are read-only. and *.err files. *. Note If you start a second session with the same jobname in the same working directory. These files are discussed below: *.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-43 *. It restores the database into the memory from the last saved database file (db). Alternatively. You cannot save the read-only db file the second time because this process will attempt to write over the dbb file. When you save a read-only db file. *.rfl These are the result files that contain the result data calculated by ANSYS. you can choose File > Save as Jobname.com Evaluation Copy. *.cadcim. the existing read-only file is saved to a dbb file. *. Resuming the File ANSYS Toolbar: Utility Menu: RESUME_DB File > Resume Jobname. To resume a file. *. Saving the File ANSYS Toolbar: Utility Menu: SAVE _DB File > Save as Jobname.db The save operation copies the database from memory to a file called the database file (db). For information visit www. Do not reproduce.db from the Utility Menu to remove a file.rth.db The resume operation restores the database from the db file into the memory.rmg Saves the magnetic result file. Copy. For www.rmg.

the Clear Database & Start New dialog box will be displayed. which includes taking the following decisions: . Solving an analysis Copy. Do not reproduce. and postprocessing have been discussed earlier in this chapter. And. For information visit www. Some Basic Steps in General Analysis Procedure Every analysis involves some basic steps. Preliminary Decisions Preprocessing Solution Postprocessing The preprocessing. 3.com Clearing the Database Utility Menu: File > Clear & Start New This operation is used to clear the old database and start a new one. which are as follows: 1. For www.cadcim. To clear the database.cadcim. It is recommended to save the database as you progress through an analysis. Meshing operation c. Choose the YES button to start a new database. as shown in Figure 1-41. 2. It is similar to restarting ANSYS. Boolean operation b. choose File > Clear & Start New from the Utility Menu. 4.1-44 ANSYS for Designers Tip. Preliminary Decisions A successful analysis of any geometry depends on accurate planning.com Evaluation Copy. solution. you must save the database before attempting the following operations: a. Figure 1-41 The Clear Database and Start New dialog box Choose the OK button from this dialog box. the Verify window showing a warning that the old database will be deleted will be displayed.

The Document window contains the help information related to the topic selected in the Navigational window. The Navigational window contains the Contents. you can get help on the ANSYS commands. or coupled-field analysis. and so on. ANSYS Help Utility Menu: Help > Help Topics To invoke the help window. The solid modeling in ANSYS is discussed in the next chapter. For information visit www. Search.0 or an earlier version. 4. analysis procedure. 6. The ANSYS help window is divided into two parts: Navigational window and Document window. the Release 11. that is structural. choose Help > Help Topics from the Utility Menu. Do not reproduce. and Favorites tabs. Also. On choosing this button.cadcim. . as shown in Figure 1-42. Points to Remember while Performing an Analysis 1. Element Type This is an important aspect and determines the element characteristics.0 Documentation for ANSYS window will be displayed.0 with ANSYS 10. Copy.0 Documentation for ANSYS window. thermal. fluid flow. Do not delete the files created by ANSYS after the analysis is over. For www. the help relevant to that particular dialog box will be displayed in the Release 11. every dialog box in ANSYS contains the Help button. 2. Save the database before performing complicated operations such as boolean and meshing.cadcim. Assign different jobnames to differentiate between various analyses. The element types are discussed in the later chapters. Index. electromagnetic field. In the help window. you need to decide the type of model required to define a geometry. 5. 3. Keep on saving the database at regular intervals. Create each analysis project in a separate working directory. element types. You cannot open the db files created in ANSYS 11.com What to Model Next.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-45 Analysis Type First of all you need to decide the type of analysis to be performed.com Evaluation Copy.

choose the QUIT button from the ANSYS Toolbar or choose File > Exit from the Utility Menu. Select the appropriate radio button from the list of options given and choose the OK button. The options in this dialog box are discussed next. For www. For information visit www.0 Documentation for ANSYS Window Exiting ANSYS ANSYS Toolbar: Utility Menu: QUIT File > Exit To exit ANSYS.com Evaluation Copy.cadcim. the Exit from ANSYS dialog box will be displayed.cadcim.com Figure 1-42 The Release 11. as shown in Figure 1-43. Do not reproduce.1-46 ANSYS for Designers Copy. Figure 1-43 The Exit from ANSYS dialog box .

(T/F) 5. The__________file contains all the errors and warnings encountered during a session.0 with ANSYS 9. 8.cadcim. (T/F) 6. which including the geometry. This radio button is used to save the geometry. You cannot open the db files created in ANSYS 11.No Save! This radio button is used to exit the ANSYS session without saving the database. loads. solution.0 or an earlier version. the nodal degrees of freedom (Displacement) are calculated. For www. The __________button is used to raise the hidden dialog box. In ANSYS. (T/F) 7. elements.com Evaluation Copy. (T/F) 3. (T/F) 4.Introduction to FEA and ANSYS 1-47 Save Geom+Loads If you select this radio button and choose the OK button. Finite Element Analysis is an approximate method. Quit . For information visit www.com Save Geo+Ld+Solu . the ANSYS session will be closed. and volumes. Self-Evaluation Test Answer the following questions and then compare them to those given at the end of the chapter: 1. In the __________ analysis. and so on. 10. only the geometry and the loads will be saved. graphs. 9. and the solution. The shape of an element can be changed by moving the nodes of the element in the space.cadcim. Do not reproduce. The models that have holes or sharp corners need to be densely meshed in those areas to get better results. loads. results. areas. the top view is the default view for displaying a model. keypoints. (T/F) 2. The __________menu is used to display the nodes. The elements that have the nodes at the middle of the element edge are called linear elements. lines. Save Everything This check box is used to save everything. Select any one of the above radio buttons according your requirement and choose the OK button. Copy.

3. 6. For www.cadcim. 8. *. 10. T. T. F.cadcim. Structural.com . 7.1-48 ANSYS for Designers Answers to Self-Evaluation Test 1.com Evaluation Copy. T. 9. 5. Plot. T. Raise Hidden.err Copy. 2. For information visit www. 4. F. Do not reproduce.