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1 Rise of fluid in Capillaries 2 Additional pressure of arbitrary curvature (Laplace equation )and its application 3 Capillary Pressure effect in Porous Media p y 4 Capillary Pressure Hysteresis 5 measurement of Capillary Pressure 6 Application of Capillary Pressure

1) Capillary pressure of gas-liquid system

If a Capillary tube is placed in a large open vessel continuing liquid , liquid will rise in the tube above the height of the liquid in the large vessel vessel. g This rise in height is duo to the attractive force (adhesion tension) between the tube and the li id d the th liquid and th small weight ll i ht of the column of liquid in the tube.

Fig.3 20 Fig 3-20 Pressure relations in Capillary tube

Capillary pressure:

2 cos pc = r

Definition: The pressure difference between p

non-wet phase and wet phase is called capillary p pressure. expressed by Pc. the direction was wet phase to non wet phase. non-wet phase

2 cos pc = r

2 wo coswo h= rg(w 0 ) g

Fig.3-21 Pressure relations in Capillary tube

tube laid t b l id up i any di in direction ti

proportional to r;

Figure 7.8 Capillary rise experiments for two porous media of different grain sizes.

is driving force of displacing oil by water;

is resistance of displacing oil by water;

automatically enter rock ; but if rock surface is oil wet , water can not automatically enter oil-wet rock .

4) Some definitions

wetting phase from a porous medium with a nonnon wetting phase is known as drainage.

the non-wetting phase from a porous medium with a wetting phase is known as imbibition imbibition.

1) Derived equation (

Laplace

equation can be derived by considering the mechanical equilibrium of the interface. work done in expanding the surface, by increasing the pressure on the convex side is the side, work against the surface tension.

The

p2

D'

C

R2

D

dR

A'

AB 1 = R1

p1 R1

'

BC 2 = R2

pc = p1 p 2

1 2

W = p fABCD dR = AB BC p dR

Z = W

fABCD = AB BC

1 1 pC = p = + R R 1 2

R1 = R2 = R

r R= cos

Fig.24 Fig 24 the relationship between the capillary radius and the curvature radius

2 cos Pc = r

R1 = , R2 = r

1 1 Pc = ( + ) = = R1 R2 R2 r

R1=r1/COS(+) R2=r2/COS(-) so:

2 cos( ) pci = ri

R2 =

W /2 cos = R1

2 cos pc = = R1 W

spheres h

1 1 pC = + R R 1 2

1 1 1 = + Rm R1 R2

pc =

Rm

1) When the droplet (or bubble) is at the static state The capillary pressure of spherical interface

2 2 cos p = = R r

' c

'' cz

'

'' '

3) )

1 1 p C = 2 '' ' R R

When the droplet flow in a nonuniform pore to a capillary tube of decreasing size ,a higher pressure drop is required to move the drop into the constriction constriction.

1 1 p C = 2 '' ' R R

1) Capillary Pressure Hysteresis by Contact angle hysteresis

2 cos( + ) pP = rp

2 cos( ) pt = rt

Visual advancing angle: Visual receding angle:

A = 1 + R = 2

displacement:

imbibition :

Semi-permeable Disk Method Mercury injection method Centrifuge method The dynamic capillary-pressure method The evaporation method

p yp curve between capillary pressure of reservoir rock and the wetting- phase saturation is called Capillary Pressure curve curve.

Pc P = f( ) (s

A. Normal pressure Semipermeable Disk Method

The bottom of the vessel consists of a semipermeable plate, which allows the wetting phase displaced from the sample to pass through while blocking the passage of the non wetting phase non-wetting

VP VW = Sw = VP

placing the sample, initially saturated with a wetting fluid, in a vessel filled with the non-wetting fluid. With the sample on the porous plate, the pressure of the non-wetting fluid is increased in steps and the system is allowed to achieve equilibrium after each pressure change. g phase displaced at each p The volume of wetting p pressure is measured. The wetting phase saturation of the sample is determined from the volume of wetting phase displaced at each pressure to obtain the capillary pressure versus saturation relationship.

typical curve

Pc

% 20 16 12 8 4

Sw (%)

4.2

18

27 r,

54

%

placing th sample, i iti ll saturated with a l i the l initially t t d ith wetting fluid, in a vessel filled with the non-wetting fluid. fl id With the sample on the porous plate, the pressure of the non-wetting fluid is increased in steps and the system is allowed to achieve equilibrium after each pressure change. g phase displaced at each p The volume of wetting p pressure is measured. The wetting phase saturation of the sample is determined from the volume of wetting phase displaced at each pressure to obtain the capillary pressure versus saturation relationship.

Advantage of the porous plate method: This method use oil and water ,therefore more , nearly approaching actual wetting conditions. The method gives a reliable estimate of the irreducible wetting phase saturation. Disadvantage: The porous plate limits the maximum capillary pressure to about 200 psi. It takes too long to obtain the entire capillary pressure curve b thi method. by this th d

non-wetting phase mercury; wetting phase air The core is placed in file sample chamber of the mercury injection equipment The sample chamber is evacuated, and incremental quantities of mercury are injected while the pressure required for injection of each increment is recorded recorded.

Principle of measurement: p

1

1 Nitrogen pressure; 2 pressure gauge; 3 mercury i j ti pump; 4 sample cell; injection l ll 5 vacuum system

The mercury injection method is very fast fast. The range of pressure is large.

Core can no longer be used for other tests after mercury injection. The method also cannot be used to determine the irreducible wetting phase saturation. mercury vapor is toxic, so strict safety precautions must be followed when using mercury mercury.

3) Centrifuge method

Measuring Principle and step:

th sample saturated with a wetting fl id i placed the l t t d ith tti fluid is l d in a centrifuge cup containing the non-wetting fluid The sample is rotated at a series of constant angular velocities and the amount of wetting fluid displaced at equilibrium at each velocity is measured This process is continued until no more fluid when the rotational velocity is increased.

F = mw r

2

1 2 2 2 Pc = w ( r2 r1 ) 2

The centrifuge method is fast The method is good for determining the irreducible water saturation. It can simulate the process of water or gas displace oil .it is a promising method it method.

Disadvantage:.

inability to obtain spontaneous imbibition capillary p p y pressure curve. the calculated water saturation at the core inlet is an approximation,

2 L cos L r= pcL

2 R cos R r= p cR

R cos R p cR = p cL L cos L

The conversion between semi-permeable disk method and oil-water capillary pressure under reservoir conditions.

Swiirreducible saturation

of wetting fluid

Pt threshold displacement

pressure, pressure corresponds to the onset of invasion of the medium

Fig. Qualitative characteristic corresponds to the nonwetting

of capillarity pressure curve

WE: Mercury injection efficiency; SHgmax: maximum mercury saturation; i t ti SH i : minimum mercury saturation Hgmin The mercury injection efficiency can be regarded as the oil recovery in a strongly water-wet oil reservoir

(a) Well sorted sample, with medium-size pores;

(b) Nonsorted sample; (c) Well sorted sample, with large pores; (d) Well sorted sample with fine pores; sample, (e) Poorly sorted sample, with more fine pores; (f) Poorly sorted sample, with more large pores.

1) Determining rock wettability A. Determining by Wettability number

W=1 complete wetting by water; W=0 complete wetting by oil;

cos wo =

PTwo og PTog wo

wo = arccos

PTwo og PTog wo

=90ocomplete wetting by oil;

Principle of Determination

Determining by comparing the area unclosed by the curve of water displacing oil with the area unclosed the curve of oil displacing water.

0.7 0 A1 A2

100

water-wet;

Oil-wet;

-0.7 0

A1 log =0 A2

intermediate wetting

20 % 16 12 8 4

4.2

18

27 r,

54

rmax = 0 . 75

Rmax: the largest pore size

pT

the o water co tact level ( 00% water t e oil ate contact e e (100% ate

saturation lever)

PT the free water level PC=0 connate water saturation level SCW theoretical transition zone the height

between 100% water saturation lever and connate water saturation level t t t ti l l

level of fw=100%

between level of fw 100% and connate water fw=100% saturation level

Swi

20 40

60

80

100 PcR h= w 0

h:height above free water level ,m m PcR:capillary p p y pressure at some p particular

saturation for reservoir conditions,MPa

conditions of water and oilg/cm3)

Example 1:The capillary f E l 1 Th ill force curve h b has been obtained from laboratory. if the water saturation is 35%, d the 35% and th capillary pressure i 0 126MP ill is 0.126MPa, calculate the height of water saturation of 35% plane above f l b free water l t level. l

Let t reservoir conditions , L t at i diti wo = 24 mN/m, w = 1 088 g / cm3, 1.088 o = 0.848 g / cm3, at atmospheric pressure t t h i wg= 72 mN/m.

obtained b semi-permeable di h b i d by i bl diaphragm method i the h d in h laboratory. When the water saturation is 50%, the capillary pressure is measured to be pcL=0 06Mpa The surface tension =0.06Mpa.The of water is 72 mN/m in surface conditions. While in the reservoir conditions ,the interfacial tension between water , and oil is 24 mN/m.The water density is w = 1.088 g / cm3 and oil density is o = 0.848 g / cm3 .The altitude of free water level i -1000m.the reservoir rock i water-wet, and the t l l is 1000 th i k is t t d th contact angle between water and reservoir rock is assumed to be the same as that at surface condition. condition

Calculate:

(1)The distance of the water level where water saturation is 50% to the free water level. (2)The altitude of the water level where water saturation is 50%.

Pc1

Sor P 2 h2 c

Pc2 Scw Sor

Scw P1 h1 c

H = h1 - h2

The definition of J-function :

Pc K J ( SW ) = ( ) cos

1 2

media that have the same pore structure but different permeability and porosity will have ff the same Leverett J-function.

Formula Derivation:

r= 8K K = c

1 2

2 cos r= pc

pc 2 = c cos

K

1 2

2 cos K c = pc

pc J (s w ) = cos

1 2

1 2

abc de

70mN/m,=0 70 N/ 0

core PC number (50) 1 2 3 4 3.66 3 66 2.5 1.38 1 38 0.85 K,10 3 K 10-3 m2 11.2 11 2 34.0 157 569 0.147 0 147 0.174 0.208 0 208 0.275 J(50)

pc

2

43

J

K pc J= 70 1.0

0.5

Sw %

At reservoir conditions:

R28mN/m,=0every permeability is166m2 28mN/m, 0 every average porosity is 0.208

Sw% 100 70 54 44 30 20 J(sw) 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.60 1.45 3.15 Pc(sw) 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.59 1.43 3.12

pc

pc =

J cos K

0.5

Sw %

kg g/cm) Capillar Press ry sure

200 100 10 1 0.1 Idisplacement R displacement trap hysteresis Inhaledt W 80 60 40 Sor S 20 Mercury saturation (%) 0

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 04 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 Water saturation Sw% Pure oil producing areas() Pc(R) irreducible water saturation ) Swi H B Producing oil and water() 100producing water surfa ( (100) ) C Pure water producing areas Sw=1-Sor irreducible oil ) 60 80 100 Free water level

20 40

Water saturation %

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