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You are on page 1of 5

Veniamin A. Abalmassov1,2 and Dmitri A. Maljutin1,3

1

Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia

2

Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Lavrentieva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia and

3

Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Lavrentieva 11, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia

(Dated: May 10, 2006)

We propose a simple experiment that everybody can carry out just while reading this paper. The

only thing we need is a pen or a pencil and a finger. The dynamics of the falling pen, which is

in touch with the finger, depends essentially on the initial inclination angle of the long axis of the

arXiv:physics/0409154 v1 29 Sep 2004

pen. We point out two different types of trajectories of the falling pen and we investigate initial

conditions for each of them to be realized. We write differential equations describing the dynamics

of the pen and analyze them both numerically and analytically.

I. SETUP AND EXPERIMENT the critical angle does not depend upon them.

We would like to determine the critical angle for all

We would like to show in our paper how sometimes values of the parameter l0 . However, this proves to be

very usual things taken from our daily live can be formu- rather a hard task. We will solve it only numerically.

lated into an elegant physical problem. Let us carry out Two limits are of particular interest in this problem that

a simple experiment. We take an ordinary pen by one of correspond to the case of l0 = 0 and l0 = L/2. It is

its ends while keeping the other in touch with our finger interesting to test our intuition and to try to guess the

as it is shown schematically in Fig. 1. At first, we allow value of the critical angle in these limits. Is it π/2 and 0

for a large enough initial angle between the long axis of respectively or not? We will try to exploit both of these

the pen and the vertical, say α0 = π/4. We let the pen cases analytically.

fall down. Due to the contact with the finger, however,

it is not a free fall. While falling down the pen slides

across the finger and this makes it to rotate. Finally, it

fell on one side from the finger (for large initial angles, it II. EQUATIONS OF MOTION

is a side where the center of mass of the pen was located

initially). If then we decrease gradually the initial angle

and repeat the experiment again, at a certain angle we Differential equations which describe the evolution of

notice that the center of mass of the pen starts to pass the solid body momentum, P, and angular momentum,

through the point of the ”pen-finger” contact and the

pen falls down on the other side from the finger.

The question is: What is the critical value of the ini-

tial inclination angle in the considered setup which does

separate the two different types of motion of the pen in

our experiment?

First, let us understand upon what this critical angle,

αcr , could depend? After some trials we can see that it L/2

depends on the initial position of the contact point be-

tween the pen and the finger. More precisely, being di- T

mg a T

mensionless, the critical angle depends on the ratio of the N

initial distance between the center of mass of the pen and T

Ffr

X

the contact point to its total length, l0 /L. Interestingly,

this ratio together with the coefficient of kinetic friction, l O

µ, between the pen and the finger, which is also dimen-

sionless, are the only parameters which determine the

critical angle (we will consider a pen and a finger of zero

Y

thickness which is close to realistic conditions and sim-

plifies essentially the problem). Indeed, it is not difficult

to see that we cannot construct any other dimensionless FIG. 1: The pen and a finger are in contact at the point O. We

parameter in our problem, for example, from the mass of show also a coordinate system, forces, and basic parameters

the pen or the gravitational constant, which means that which are defined in the text.

2

M, can be written in the general form1 : Then, we find from Eq. (2) the normal force:

dP dM

= F, = K, (1) I0 dω(t)

dt dt N (t) = (6)

l(t) dt

where F is the total external force applied to the body

and K is the total torque. and insert it in Eq. (4) which takes now the form:

There are two independent variables in our problem:

the angle α and the length l, see Fig. 1. However, the

dvl (t)

normal force, N, which acts on the pen at the pen-finger = l(t)ω 2 (t) − g cos α(t)

contact point and which is perpendicular to the pen long dt

axis will also enter our equations of motion. So we will µI0 dl(t)

+ g sin α(t) − 2 ω(t) . (7)

need three equations in total to describe the dynamics of ml2 (t) + I0 dt

the pen. It is convenient to derive two of these equations

from the angular momentum evolution equation written

We note that by definition ω(t) = dα/dt and vl (t) =

with respect to two different axes. First, we write this

dl/dt. Thus, we rewrite Eqs. (5) and (7) and we obtain

equation with respect to the axis passing through the

the system of two coupled nonlinear second order dif-

center of mass of the pen perpendicular to the plane of

ferential equations which describes the evolution of the

Fig. 1 (in order to exclude the weight force from consid-

angle and the center of mass position in time:

eration):

d l

[I0 ω(t)] = N (t)l(t), (2) α′′ = (sin α − 2l′ α′ ) , (8)

dt l2 + I0

µI0

where I0 is the proper moment of inertia of the pen, ω(t) l′′ = lα′2 − cos α + 2 (sin α − 2l′ α′ ) . (9)

l + I0

its angular velocity, N (t) the absolute value of the normal

force, l(t) the lever of this force. The dependence on time

for quantities we indicate by the parentheses on the right Here we have made all p quantities dimensionless upon the

with the time variable, t, inside. substitutions: t := t g/L, l := l/L, and I0 := I0 /(mL2 ).

Now, we consider the evolution of the angular momen- We use a prime instead of d/dt from now on in our for-

tum defined with respect to the axis passing through the mulas in order to make them more compact.

contact point O perpendicular to the plane of Fig. 1 (we We require that the solution of this system would

exclude the normal force from the equation in this case): satisfy four initial conditions: α(0) = α0 , l(0) = l0 ,

α′ (0) = 0, and l′ (0) = 0. The last two conditions corre-

spond to the zero initial velocity of the pen.

d

(ml2 (t) + I0 )ω(t) = mg l(t) sin α(t),

(3) To find a solution of the above system is not a simple

dt task. One way consists in employing numerical methods.

where m is the mass of the pen, g the gravitational con- In the next Section we will show results which gives this

stant. approach. After that we will consider two cases when the

The last equation we will obtain from the evolution system can be simplified and investigated analytically.

equation for the total momentum of the pen. For this In Appendix A we give an alternative way of derivation

purpose we choose the frame of reference which rotates of the above system of equations specifically for those vig-

together with the pen, contact point O being in its origin. ilant readers who could feel themselves uncertain about

In this frame of reference the center of mass moves along the rotating frame of reference.

one of two coordinate axes which coincides with the pen’s

long axis. Since this frame of reference is not inertial we

should take into account the centrifugal force acting on

the pen as well. Finally, we have: III. NUMERICAL SIMULATION

d

[mvl (t)] = ml(t) ω 2 (t) − mg cos α(t) + Ffr (t), (4) In order to solve numerically the system of Eqs. (8)

dt

and (9) we first come back to variables ω and vl and we

where vl (t) is the velocity of the center of mass along the rewrite it as a system of four first order differential equa-

pen’s long axis, Ffr (t) = µN (t) the friction force. tions with four independent variables: α, ω, l and v := vl .

We will now simplify the above equations. First, we Then, we use the finite difference method, namely Euler’s

transform Eq. (3) to obtain: method, to solve it. For this we divide the time interval

[0, T ] into N small intervals, each of a length ∆t = T /N ,

dω(t) ml(t) dl(t) and substitute, e.g., the derivative dα(t)/dt by the ratio

= g sin α(t) − 2 ω(t) . (5)

dt ml2 (t) + I0 dt [α(ti+1 )−α(ti )]/∆t, where ti+1 = ti +∆t and α(t0 ) = α0 .

3

ues for the whole range of the initial length l0 . We have

-0.10

carried out the calculation for three values of the co-

efficient of kinetic friction µ. In the case of non zero

-0.05

value of the coefficient we see that αcr is smaller than

π/2 when l0 = 0. This is due to the fact that there is no

X sliding for the angles α > π/2 − arctan µ, when the fric-

0.00 tion is available, which follows from the couple of equa-

-0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

tions at equilibrium: mg cos α = µN and mg sin α = N .

Thus, when α > π/2 − arctan µ the pen first rotates

0.05

without sliding, its center of mass falls below the finger

and then (when α > π/2 + arctan µ) it starts to slide.

0.10

In contrast, when α < π/2 − arctan µ the pen starts to

slide from the very beginning. The numerical result for

l0 = 0, see Fig. 3, agree well with the critical angle value

0.15 αcr = π/2 − arctan µ.

A peculiar feature of the dependence of αcr on l0 is

0.20

its finite value for l0 = 1/2, i.e. when initially the pen

Y

touches the finger by its very end. This angle is about

27◦ for µ = 0.

different initial positions.

li

ωi+1 = ωi + ∆t 2 (sin αi − 2vi ωi ) , We consider now two cases when the system of equa-

l + I0 tions (8) and (9), which describes the evolution of the

i

2 µI0 inclination angle and the center of mass position of the

vi+1 = vi + ∆t lωi − cos αi + 2 (sin αi − 2vi ωi ) ,

li + I0 pen in time, can be substantially simplified.

αi+1 = αi + ∆t ωi ,

li+1 = li + ∆t vi . (10)

90

to be stable and works very well. We show in Fig. 2 80

, in degrees

60

havior of the pen when its center of mass passes through 50

the contact point twice. In two other cases the pen falls

cr

d

explicitly on different sides from the finger. 40

critical angle,

a

fall of the pen for a given initial length l0 . First, we take b

c

trajectory of the pen. If the pen fell on the left side from

the finger (we just look at the position of its center of 10

and repeat the calculation. Otherwise, if the pen fell on 0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5

the opposite side, we add to the critical angle the half length, l , in units of

0

L

of it. We repeat the cycle about ten times increasing or

decreasing the initial angle at each step by a half of an

increment from a previous step. This procedure allows to FIG. 3: Numerical results for the critical angle for three dif-

achieve a very good precision of the critical angle value ferent coefficients of friction: a) µ = 0, b) µ = 0.5, and c)

of about 1/210 ∼ 10−3 . The above method lies in the µ = 1. Line d) corresponds to the analytical solution in the

class of dichotomy methods. case of critical angles close to π/2.

4

A. Angles close to π/2 We are not able to fully solve this equation. However,

if we consider only the very beginning of the movement,

It should be clear that the critical angle will be when (l0 − l) ≪ 1, we need to keep only third and fourth

√ about terms in Eq. (18) which simplifies it essentially:

π/2 when l0 is close to zero. In the limit |l| ≪ I0 and

|γ| ≪ 1, where γ = π/2 − α, Eqs. (8) and (9) simplify to dα lα

the system (we consider only the case µ = 0): + 2 = 0. (19)

dl l + I0

I0 γ ′′ = −l, (11) The solution of the above equation is

l′′ = −γ. (12) s

l2 + I0

We have supposed the derivatives γ ′ and l′ to be negligi- α(l) = α0 02 , (20)

l + I0

bly small compared to unity as well. The solution of this

system is a combination of trigonometric and hyperbolic which fulfills initial conditions α = α0 and α′ = 0 at

sines and cosines. However, due to the zero initial con- t = 0.

dition for the velocity the sines drop out of the solution. In order for our approximation to be self-consistent we

Thus, we have should have α(l) ≪ 1 for all values of l. While the solu-

γ(t) = A cos ωt + B cosh ωt, (13) tion (20) is valid only for (l0 − l) ≪ 1 we assume it does

p p not differ much from an exact solution even for l close

l(t) = A I0 cos ωt − B I0 cosh ωt, (14) to zero. We cannot prove this assumption analytically,

though a numerical simulation of Eq. (16) supports it.

−1/4

where A and B are constants and ω = I0 . Thus, from the condition

p of self-consistency for l = 0

We suppose that the critical trajectory corresponds to we should have α0 l02 /I0 + 1 ≪ 1. This means that,

the case when l(T ) = 0 and γ(T ) = 0 for a particular in the case

p of l0 = 1/2, the angle α is always small if

moment T . This could probably contradict the observa- α0 ≪ 1/ l02 /I0 + 1 = 1/2 (we note that this limit is

tion that the center of mass can pass twice through the close to π/6 = 30◦ ). For these small initial angles the

contact point (see Fig. 2). However, we can hope that center of mass of the pen will pass across the contact

our assumption is valid at least for the limit γ ≪ 1. It point with the finger. In contrast, for larger initial an-

results in B = 0 and the oscillatory solution for γ and l: gles the pen will fall on the side where its center of mass

was located initially. So, the critical angle is in between

γ(t) = γ0 cos ωt and l(t) = l0 cos ωt, (15)

and it is larger than zero.

√

where γ0 = l0 / I0 , which is exactly the condition we

searched for. Finally, the critical

√ angle in the considered V. SUMMARY

limit equals to αcr = π/2 − l0/ I0 . We trace this depen-

dence of αcr upon l0 in Fig. 3. The agreement between

our theoretical result and numerical data for angles αcr We have proposed a simple experiment, which needs

close to π/2 is quite remarkable. a pen and a finger all in all, and we have formulated it

into a mathematical problem. The key question of the

problem is the value of the critical angle which separates

B. Small angles two different types of trajectories of the falling pen. Nu-

merical methods allow to solve this problem and to find

Another limit of interest corresponds to small angles α. critical angles for any initial center of mass position l0 .

The principal question is whether it is possible to prove Theoretical analysis of the equations provides us the crit-

analytically that for l0 = 1/2 the critical angle αcr has a ical angle value in the limit of small l0 and allows us to

finite non-zero value. So, we consider small angles α ≪ 1 say that for l0 close to 1/2 the critical angle should have

and l0 close to 1/2 and we rewrite Eqs. (8) and (9) in a finite non-zero value.

this limit as: We would like to refer the reader to several problems

which are also about the dynamics of the falling pen,

(l2 + I0 )α′′ + 2ll′ α′ − lα = 0, (16) however, in a totally different setup.2,3,4 We have en-

l′′ = −1. (17) countered them while studying our problem. They are

quite nice!

The solution of Eq. (17) is l = −t2 /2 + l0 which corre-

sponds to a free fall of the center of mass. In Eq. (16) we

switch from the time variable, t, to the length variable, VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

l, arriving at the equation:

We would like to thank Maxim Kirillov for discussions

d2 α

2l 1 dα lα of a numerical solution, Florian Marquardt for remarks

+ − − = 0.

dl2 l2 + I0 2(l − l0 ) dl 2(l2 + I0 )(l0 − l) on the manuscript and many other people for their inter-

(18) est to the problem.

5

OF EQUATIONS OF MOTION −l sin α and y = −l cos α. We note the expressions for

the second order derivatives in these coordinates:

We keep the equation which describes the evolution of

the angular momentum in the center of mass frame of

reference:

−x′′ = l′′ sin α + 2l′ α′ cos α + l α′′ cos α − (α′ )2 sin α ,

d

[I0 ω(t)] = N (t)l(t). (A1)

−y ′′ = l′′ cos α − 2l′ α′ sin α − l α′′ sin α + (α′ )2 cos α .

dt

It permits to express the normal force through α and l

as N = I0 α′′ /l.

We write then two equations for the evolution of the

pen momentum in projection on x and y axes:

We make variables dimensionless as we did in Sec. II

mx′′ = N cos α − µN sin α, (A2)

and finally we obtain Eqs. (8) and (9) from Eqs. (A2)

my ′′ = mg − N sin α − µN cos α. (A3) and (A3) rewritten in polar coordinates.

1

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Theoretical Physics I: sian), Kvant 2, 26-27, 1999 (Moscow Center for Continuous

Mechanics, (Pergamon Press Ltd 1980). Mathematical Education).

2 4

A. Chernoutsan, ”Where Will a Stick Slide to?” (in Rus- L. Turner and J. L. Pratt, ”Does a Falling Pencil Levitate?”,

sian), Kvant 4, 41-42, 1998 (Moscow Center for Continuous Quantum, March/April 1998 (National Science Teachers

Mathematical Education). Association (NSTA) and Springer-Verlag New York, Inc).

3

A. Chernoutsan, ”The Stick Continues to Fall...” (in Rus-

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