Lecture 12 Assignment-Textbook Chapter 23 (Pregnancy, Growth and Development

23.1 Introduction 1. Growth is an increase in the size of the individual, whereas development is the continuous process by which an individual changes from one phase to another. (p. 876) 2. Prenatal is the period of development from fertilization to birth, whereas postnatal is the period of development from birth to death. (p. 876) 23.2 Pregnancy 3. Define pregnancy. (p. 876) It is the presence of a developing offspring in the uterus. Pregnancy consists of 3 periods called trimesters, each about 3 months long. 4. Describe how sperm cells move within the female reproductive tract. (p. 876) A sperm cell moves, by its tail lashing and muscular contraction in the female reproductive tract, into the uterine tube. 5. Summarize the events occurring after the sperm cell head enters the oocyte’s cytoplasm. (p. 878)  The sperm cell invades the follicular cells and penetrates the zona pellucida with the help of an enzyme (hyaluronidase), released by the acrosome of the sperm.  It then passes through the egg cell membrane into the cytoplasm. During this process, the sperm cell loses its tail, and the nucleus in its head swells.  The egg cell then divides unequally to form a relatively large cell and a tiny second polar body, which is expelled later.  The nuclei of the egg cell and sperm cell come together in the center of the larger cell.  Their nucleus membranes disappear and their chromosomes combine, thus completing the process of fertilization. 23.3 Prenatal Period 10. List the functions of hCG. (p. 882)  It prevents the termination of pregnancy.  It maintains the corpus luteum.  It stimulates the synthesis of other hormones from the developing placenta. 11. Describe the formation of the placenta, and explain its functions. (p. 882) It is formed from the region of the chorion still in contact with the uterine wall Function: to deliver nutrients to the developing fetus and carry wastes away from the developing fetus. 17. Distinguish between the chorion and amnion. (p. 888) chorion amnion membrane that contains the chorionic villi and membrane that develops around the embryo about the surrounds the developing embryo second week and is filled with amniotic fluid 18. Explain the function of the amniotic fluid. (p. 888) It provides a watery environment in which the embryo can move and grow freely without being compressed by surrounding tissues. It also serves as protection from being jarred by the mother’s body movements. 19. Describe the formation of the umbilical cord. (p. 891) Is formed as the amnion envelopes the tissues attached to the underside of the embryo. The umbilical cord includes 2 arteries and a vein. It suspends the embryo in the amniotic cavity.


Lecture 12 Assignment-Textbook Chapter 23 (Pregnancy, Growth and Development)
21. Explain why the embryonic period is so critical. (p. 892) During this time the embryo implants within the uterine wall, the main internal organs develop, and the major external body structures appear. 23.4 Postnatal Period 31. Distinguish between a newborn and an infant. (p. 904) newborn infant A baby is considered a newborn from birth until the end A baby is considered an infant from the end of the of the fourth week after birth. fourth week of age until age one year. 32. Explain why a newborn's first breath must be particularly forceful. (p. 905) The first breath must be powerful expand the lungs: a. Surfactant reduces surface tension. st b. A variety of factors stimulate 1 breath. 33. List some of the factors that stimulate the first breath. (p. 905)  Increasing concentration of carbon dioxide  Decreasing pH  Low oxygen concentration  Drop in body temperature  Mechanical stimulation that occurs during and after birth 34. Explain why newborns tend to develop water and electrolyte imbalances. (p. 905) Immature kidneys cannot concentrate urine very well. The newborn becomes dehydrated. Water and electrolyte imbalances may develop. 38. Define adulthood. (p. 907) It extends from adolescence to old age. 40. Define senescence. (p. 907) The process of growing old 41. List some of the factors that promote senescence. (p. 907)  Disease processes that interfere with vital functions can accelerate senescence.  Diseases of any major body system can also accelerate senescence. 23.5 Aging 42. Discuss the signs of passive and active aging and the physiological causes of these signs. (p. 909) Passive aging Active aging Entails breakdown of structures and slowing or failure In autoimmunity, the immune system attacks the body of functions CT breaks down Apoptosis: form of programmed cell death. It occurs throughout life, shaping organs DNA errors accumulate Lipid breakdown in aging membranes releases lipofuscin Free radical damage escalates 43. Life span is the length of time a human can theoretically live, whereas life expectancy is the realistic projection of how long an individual will live. (p. 911)


Lecture 12 Assignment-Textbook Chapter 23 (Pregnancy, Growth and Development)
Critical Thinking (p915) 1. If an aged relative came to live with you, what special provisions could you make in your household environment and routines that would demonstrate your understanding of the changes brought on by aging?  reducing background noise  marking stairways clearly  providing night lights and higher wattage reading lamps  avoiding use of scatter rugs applying nonslip strips in bathtubs  avoiding electric heaters  providing firm chairs  serving a low-sugar, low-salt, low-fat, high-fiber, high-calcium diet  encouraging fluid (water) intake  clearly labeling medication containers. 3. What symptoms may appear in a newborn if its ductus arteriosus fails to close? Those of congestive heart failure: a. Cyanosis b. Fatigue c. peripheral and pulmonary edema). Toxins usually cause more severe medical problems if exposure is during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy rather than during the later weeks. Why? a. Liver: immature; may not be able to readily destroy the toxin b. Kidneys: immature; homeostatic mechanisms may function imperfectly



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