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We the People 7e. Chapter 1 Title authoritarian government autocracy citizenship constitutional government democracy direct democracy equality of opportunity government laissez-faire capitalism liberty limited government majority rule, minority rights oligarchy pluralism political culture political efficacy political equality politics popular sovereignty power totalitarian government Description a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits but may nevertheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions a form of government in which a single individual - a king, queen, or dictator - rules informed and active membership in a political community a system of rule in which formal and effective limits are placed on the powers of the government a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through the election of key public officials a system of rule that permits citizens to vote directly on laws and policies a widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit with minimal or no government interference freedom from governmental control a principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution the democratic principle that a government follows the preferences of the majority of voters but protects the interests of the minority a form of government in which a small group - landowners, military officers, or wealthy merchants controls most of the governing decisions the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government. The outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation broadly shared values, beliefs, and attitudes about how the government should function. American political culture emphasizes the values of liberty, equality, and democracy the ability to influence government and politics the right to participate in politics equally, based on the principle of "one person, one vote" conflict over the leadership, structure, and policies of governments a principle of democracy in which political authority rests ultimately in the hands of the people influence over a government's leadership, organization, or policies representative democracy/republic a system of government in which the populace selects representatives, who play a significant role in governmental decision making a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it

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We the People 7e. Chapter 2 Title Amendment Antifederalists Articles of Confederation Bicameral Bill of Rights a change added to a bill, law, or constitution those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government, and were opponents of the constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787 America's first written constitution; served as the basis for America's national government until 1789 a two-chambered legislature; opposite of unicameral the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee certain rights and liberties to the people mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches. Major examples include the presidential veto power over congressional legislation, the power of the Senate to approve presidential appointments, and judicial review of congressional enactments a system of government with a weak national government but strong states or provinces a phrase in Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution (also known as the necessary and proper clause), which provides Congress with the authority to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out the other powers given to Congress the presidential electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president specific powers granted to Congress in the Constitution a system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between the central (national) government and regional (state) governments a series of essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay supporting the ratification of the Constitution those who favored a strong national government and supported the constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787 the agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 where representation in the House of Representatives would be apportioned according to the number of inhabitants in each state, but in the Senate each state would have an equal vote regardless of its population the power of the courts to rule on the constitutionality of actions of the legislative and executive branches, or the states. The Supreme Court asserted this power in Marbury v. Madison (1803) (p. 42) a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution a framework for the Constitution, introduced by William Paterson, which called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population the division of governmental power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making Description

checks and balances Confederation elastic clause

electoral college expressed powers federalism Federalist Papers Federalists Great Compromise

judicial review limited government New Jersey Plan separation of powers

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Article VI of the Constitution, which states that laws passed by the national government and all treaties "shall be the supreme law of the land" and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any subdivision the agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that stipulated that for purposes of the apportionment of congressional seats, five slaves would count as three free persons oppressive and unjust government that employs cruel and unjust use of power and authority a framework for the Constitution, introduced by Edmund Randolph, which provided for a system of representation in the national legislature based upon the population of each state We the People 7e. Chapter 3 Title block grants categorical grants Description federal grants-in-aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent congressional grants given to states and localities on the condition that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which delegates to Congress the power "to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States and with the Indian tribes." This clause was interpreted by the Supreme Court in favor of national power over the economy authority possessed by both state and national governments, such as the power to levy taxes a type of federalism existing since the New Deal era in which grants-in-aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities (without commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals. Also known as "intergovernmental cooperation" a policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government, such as from the national government to the state and local governments the system of government that prevailed in the United States from 1789 to 1937, in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state governments specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress (Article I, Section 8), and to the president (Article II) a system of government in which the national government shares power with lower levels of government, such as states a system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments grants-in-aid in which a formula is used to determine the amount of federal funds a state or local government will receive provision from Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution, requiring that the states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state the process by which one unit of government yields a portion of its tax income to another unit of government, according to an established formula. Revenue sharing typically involves the national government providing money to state governments

supremacy clause Three-fifths Compromise tyranny Virginia Plan

commerce clause concurrent powers cooperative federalism

devolution

dual federalism expressed powers federal system federalism formula grants full faith and credit clause general revenue sharing

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grants-in-aid home rule implied powers necessary and proper clause New Federalism police power preemption privileges and immunities clause project grants redistributive programs regulated federalism reserved powers states' rights unfunded mandates unitary system reserved powers states' rights unfunded mandates unitary system programs through which Congress provides money to state and local governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes defined by the federal government power delegated by the state to a local unit of government to manage its own affairs powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution. Such powers are not specifically expressed, but are implied through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, it provides Congress with the authority to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out its expressed powers attempts by Presidents Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states through block grants power reserved to the state government to regulate the health, safety, and morals of its citizens the principle that allows the national government to override state or local actions in certain policy areas provision from Article IV, Section 2, of the Constitution, that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special privileges grant programs in which state and local governments submit proposals to federal agencies and for which funding is provided on a competitive basis economic policies designed to control the economy through taxing and spending, with the goal of benefiting the poor a form of federalism in which Congress imposes legislation on states and localities, requiring them to meet national standards powers, derived from the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution, that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states the principle that the states should oppose the increasing authority of the national government. This principle was most popular in the period before the Civil War regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government a centralized government system in which lower levels of government have little power independent of the national government powers, derived from the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution, that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states the principle that the states should oppose the increasing authority of the national government. This principle was most popular in the period before the Civil War regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government a centralized government system in which lower levels of government have little power independent of the national government We the People 7e. Chapter 4 Title Description

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bills of attainder Bill of Rights civil liberties "clear and present danger" test double jeopardy laws that decree a person guilty of a crime without a trial the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee certain rights and liberties to the people areas of personal freedom with which governments are prevented from interfering test to determine whether speech is protected or unprotected, based on its capacity to present a "clear and present danger" to society the Fifth Amendment right providing that a person cannot be tried twice for the same crime

due process of law the right of every citizen to be protected against arbitrary action by national or state governments eminent domain establishment clause ex post facto laws exclusionary rule fighting words free exercise clause grand jury habeas corpus the right of government to take private property for public use the First Amendment clause that says that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion." This means that a "wall of separation" exists between church and state laws that declare an action to be illegal after it has been committed the ability of courts to exclude evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment speech that directly incites damaging conduct the First Amendment clause that protects a citizen's right to believe and practice whatever religion one chooses jury that determines whether sufficient evidence is available to justify a trial; grand juries do not rule on the accused's guilt or innocence a court order demanding that an individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause for detention a rule articulated in Lemon v. Kurtzman that government action toward religion is permissible if it is secular in purpose, neither promotes nor inhibits the practice of religion, and does not lead to "excessive entanglement" with religion a written statement, made in "reckless disregard of the truth," which is considered damaging to a victim because it is "malicious, scandalous, and defamatory" the requirement, articulated by the Supreme Court in Miranda v. Arizona (1966), that persons under arrest must be informed prior to police interrogation of their rights to remain silent and to have the benefit of legal counsel an effort by a governmental agency to block the publication of material it deems libelous or harmful in some other way; censorship. In the United States, the courts forbid prior restraint except under the most extraordinary circumstances the right to be left alone, which has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to entail free access to birth control and abortions the process by which different protections in the Bill of Rights were incorporated into the Fourteenth Amendment, thus guaranteeing citizens protection from state as well as national governments an oral statement, made in "reckless disregard of the truth," which is considered damaging to the victim because it is "malicious, scandalous, and defamatory"

Lemon test

Libel

Miranda rule

prior restraint

right to privacy selective incorporation slander

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speech accompanied by conduct or physical activity such as sit-ins, picketing, and demonstrations; protection of this form of speech under the First Amendment is conditional, and restrictions imposed by state or local authorities are acceptable if properly balanced by considerations of public order

speech plus

CHAPTER 1 1. A student council is an example of: representative democracy. 2. The framers of the Constitution stipulated that the number of representatives in the House of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand constituents, but today the average member of Congress represents approximately how many people? 650000 3. Which is a key American value in our political culture? Liberty, Equality, Democracy 4. According to the ancient Greeks, a citizen is one who is knowledgeable of and actively participates in government. 5. In recent years, more and more Americans are learning about government from Late-night comedians. 6. Many of the conflicts in American politics today revolve around the proper scope of government. 7. In which of the following activities will a typical college student feel the presence of their state government? takes American Government 101 8. According to the authors of the text, good citizenship requires political knowledge. And political engagement. 9. Trust in government in the US has declined in the last 50 years. 10. The majority of Americans believe that government is run by a few big interests and that government officials dont care what people think. The term used to describe this would be low efficacy. 11. Realistically, the United States did not become a full practicing democracy until: the 1960s. 12. Which of the following is not a principle of our democracy? Complete freedom. 13. According to your textbook, why are knowledgeable citizens more engaged in politics? because they understand how politics affects their lives 14. How much do Americans know about their government? Very Little 15. In a democracy, sovereignty is vested in: the people. 16. The gambling industry in your state wants to change the state Constitution to allow gambling. They organize a campaign through voter signatures and put their proposal directly on the ballot. This is called a(n) ballot initiative 17. A system of government that recognizes no formal limits on its power is called totalitarian. 18. Americans are less supportive of income redistribution than Europeans. 19. The bourgeoisie of western Europe wanted to promote political participation for the middle classes. 20. What kind of government do we have? Republic 21. Which of the following statements describes Americas growing population since its founding? The number of elderly Americans has grown and the number of children eighteen and under has declined. 22. The United States core political values are liberty, equality, and democracy. 23. Which of the following is the primary responsibility of the Federal Government? police the cities, establish zoning for commercial and residential purposes, license doctors and lawyers, NONE of these are responsibilities of the Federal government

7 24. The belief that citizens can affect government is called political efficacy. 25. In nineteenth-century Prussia, Otto von Bismarck introduced social reforms to aid the lower class because he: was trying to offset the growing power of the middle class 26. Laissez-faire capitalism has been limited by government regulation 27. The trend line of Americans trust in the federal government rose in the 1990s and peaked in 2002. 28. Political efficacy is the belief that one can influence what government does. 29. The famous political scientist Harold Lasswell defined politics as the struggle over who gets what, when, how. 30. What is the basic difference between autocracy and oligarchy? the number of people who control governing decisions 31. According to the authors, good citizenship requires political knowledge. And political engagement. 32. The principle of political equality can be best summed up as one person, one vote. 33. Which of the following is an important principle of American democracy? popular sovereignty, majority rule, minority rights, limited government, All of the above are important principles of American democracy. 34. Which of the following is not related to the American conception of liberty? freedom of speech, free enterprise, freedom of religion, All of the above are related to liberty. 35. Which of the following is not part of American political culture? belief in equality of results 36. Which of the following does not represent a current discrepancy between the ideal and practice of democracy in America? the use of property restrictions for voting in three remaining states 37. Americans trust in their government declined steadily from the early 1 960s to the mid1 990s but has risen slightly since then. 38. Which of the following is not part of the U.S. political culture? belief in equality of results 39. The U.S. definition of liberty refers to personal and economic freedom. 40. Government run by a few people is called oligarchy. 41. The formal institutions that rule a people are called its government. 42. Throughout U.S. history, Americans have been suspicious of strong government 43. According to Harold Lasswell, politics is who gets what, when, and how CHAPTER 2 1. Under the original, unamended Constitution, the only person(s) elected directly by the people was/were: members of the House of Representatives. 2. ______________ is a system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments. Federalism 3. Which of the following statements is true about the Constitutional ratification process? The struggle for ratification was carried out in thirteen separate campaigns. 4. Antifederalists wanted: a more decentralized government. 5. An amendment to the US Constitution may be proposed in which of the following ways? a twothirds vote in both houses of Congress 6. The Shays's Rebellion was significant in that it: demonstrated the weakness of government under the Articles of Confederation. 7. The Equal Rights Amendment: was formally approved by Congress but failed to be ratified by three-quarters of the states. 8. One of the key underlying themes of the original Constitution was: promoting cooperation between branches of government.

8 9. The purpose of the first ten amendments was to: provide clear limitations on the powers of national government. 10. An important issue dividing Federalists and Antifederalists was the threat of tyranny, meaning: generally, unjust rule by the group in power, from the Antifederalists' perspective, the fear of an aristocracy, from the Federalists' perspective, rule by the passions of the majority. 11. The United States' first written constitution was: the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. 12. Prior to the twentieth century, most governments relied on ____________ for revenue. tariffs, duties, and other taxes on commerce 13. The First Continental Congress met in 1774. Which of the following actions did the delegates at the Congress take? They called for a total boycott of British goods. 14. The Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation were not sufficient to hold the new nation together as an independent and effective nation-state. Which of the following statements is FALSE? Many of the pre- and post-revolutionary radicals, small farmers, artisans, and shopkeepers wanted a strong national government in order to protect their economic interests. 15. The Virginia Plan was favored by: large states, since it emphasized the importance of size and wealth. 16. Since 1789, more than 11,000 amendments were formally offered in Congress. Of these, only ____________ were finally ratified by the states. 27 17. What is a limitation (drawback) of liberty as a political principle? Limits on government action can inhibit effective government. 18. In general, it was the ____________ vision of the United States that triumphed. Federalist 19. The power of judicial review: was assumed by the Supreme Court 20. Under the Great Compromise, small states were given an advantage in the Senate. 21. The Three-fifths Compromise dealt primarily with what issue? A slave would count as three-fifths of a person when determining population. 22. According to your text, which of the following statements best articulates the motives of the framers at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia? The framers' interests were reinforced by their principles. 23. Which of the following statements is true about the Three-fifths Compromise? Under this compromise, five slaves would count as three free persons in apportioning seats in the House of Representatives. 24. The amendment route to social change: is, and always will be, extremely limited. 25. When was our current constitution written? 1787 26. The Tenth Amendment: reserves power not granted to the national government to the states. 27. What or who were Publius and Brutus? The pen names used in essays written defending (Publius) and attacking (Brutus) the proposed U.S. Constitution 28. According to the text, the story of the founding is important because: it was a story of political choices, and Americans continue today to make tough political choices. 29. Most of the seventeen Constitutional amendments ratified since the Bill of Rights in 1791 have been directly or indirectly concerned with: structure or composition of government. 30. The Connecticut Plan provided for which of the following? The Connecticut Plan provided for which of the following? a House of Representatives apportioned by the number of free inhabitants plus three-fifths of the slaves and a Senate consisting of two members from each state selected by

9 the state legislatures 31. According to your text, _________ inevitably leads to the growth of political activity and the expansion of political participation. Liberty 32. The Constitution's framers placed ____________ ahead of all other political values. individual liberty 33. ___________ is a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national governments. A confederation 34. Which of the following concepts best explains the underlying reason for the Bill of Rights? limited government 35. The purpose of the first ten amendments was to provide clear limitations on the powers of national government. 36. In the Revolutionary struggles, which of the following groups was allied with the New England merchants? b) southern planters 37. How did the British attempt to raise revenue in the North American colonies? b) taxes on commerce 38. The first governing document in the United States was b) the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. 39. Which states proposal embodied a principle of representing states in the Congress according to their size and wealth? d) Virginia 40. Where was the execution of laws conducted under the Articles of Confederation? c) the states 41. Which of the following was not a reason that the Articles of Confederation seemed too weak? c) the impending tyranny of the states 42. What mechanism was instituted in the Congress to guard against excessive democracy? a) bicameralism b) staggered Senate terms c) appointment of senators for long terms d) all of the above 43. Which of the following best describes the Supreme Court as understood by the Founders? d) a supreme court of the nation and its states 44. Which of the following were the Antifederalists most concerned with? d) the potential for tyranny in the central government 45. The draft constitution that was introduced at the start of the Constitutional Convention was authored by a) Edmund Randolph. CHAPTER 3 1. Which term describes the sharing of powers between the national government and the state governments? federalism a system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments 2. The system of federalism that allowed states to do most of the fundamental governing from 1789 to 1937 was dual federalism the system of government that prevailed in the United States from 1789 to 1937, in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state governments 3. Which of the following resulted from the federal system? a) It limited the power of the national government in relation to the states.

10 b) It restrained the power of the national government over the economy. c) It allowed variation among the states. d) all of the above The overall effect of the growth of national policies has been to provide uniform laws in the nation. Which amendment to the Constitution stated that the powers not delegated to the national government or prohibited to the states were reserved to the states? Tenth Amendment The process of returning more of the responsibilities of governing from the national level to the state level is known as devolution. One of the most powerful tools by which the federal government has attempted to get the states to act in ways that are desired by the federal government is by providing grants-in-aid. The form of regulated federalism that allows the federal government to take over areas of regulation formerly overseen by states or local governments is called preemption. To what does the term New Federalism refer? efforts to return more policy-making discretion the states through the use of block grants A recent notable example of the process of giving the states more responsibility for administering government programs is welfare reform. According to the text, what is one of the important arguments for a strong federal government? its role in ensuring equality McCulloch v. Maryland is an important case because the Court interpreted the delegated powers of Congress broadly, creating the potential for increased national powers. States' rights advocates argue that states do not have to submit to national laws when they believe the national government exceeds its authority. Which of the following statements best captures the meaning of the concept regulated federalism? The national government sets standards of conduct or requires the states to set standards that meet national guidelines. Which president is best known for his attempts to return power to the states? Richard Nixon Specific powers provided to the national government in the U.S. Constitution are called ____________ powers. Expressed By 2008, how many states had some spousal rights for same sex partners via gay marriage or civil unions? Nine The New Deal of the 1930s signaled the rise of a more active national government. Gibbons v. Ogden in 1824 was important because it gave the national government significant new authority to regulate interstate commerce. "State governments experiment with different policies to find measures that best meet the needs and desires of their citizens." This quote from your text best reflects which of these statements? State governments can be viewed as laboratories of democracy. What is the purpose of the Tenth Amendment? to limit the powers of the central government by establishing reserved powers for states and individuals Over the course of American history, the federal government has _______ compared with state government. grown stronger During the course of American history, the federal government has _______ compared with the states. grown stronger

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23.

11 24. The Constitution SPECIFICALLY grants Congress the power to do all of the following EXCEPT: charter a national bank. 25. Which of the following statements is NOT true? For most of U.S. history, the national government followed a strict interpretation of interstate commerce. 26. Implied powers or the necessary and proper clause allows the national government to interpret its delegated powers expansively. 27. Why did the framers of the Constitution limit the power of the federal government? They were suspicious of centralized power. 28. The process of transferring more responsibilities of governing from the national level to the state level is known as devolution 29. Most of the rules and regulations Americans face in their daily lives are set by state and local governments. 30. Which of the following is a traditional area of national government responsibility? Defense 31. Which of the following best represents a unitary system of government? The national government selects the textbooks and curriculum for all schools. 32. One benefit of having a federal system is that a) states can act as laboratories of democracy. b) states have different needs and concerns. c) it gives state and local governments more flexibility to handle problems. d) All of these are benefits of federalism.

33. The Supreme Court ruling in United States v. Lopez is important because it was the first time since the New Deal that the Supreme Court limited the power of Congress under the commerce clause. 34. By the year 1932, ____ 25 ________ percent of the U.S. workforce was unemployed. 35. For three-quarters of American history, _____ state governments _______ has/have done most of the fundamental governing. 36. The power to declare war is an example of which type of power? Expressed 37. The division of powers and functions between the national government and state governments is the definition of federalism. 38. Which of the following statements best captures the meaning of the concept devolution of authority? The national government grants the states more authority over a range of policies. 39. When a state's laws conflict with federal law on international trade issues, the national government law is supreme, so the state law is invalid. 40. Which of the following best exemplifies the doctrine of preemption? federal criminalization of marijuana, even when states or cities allow medicinal use 41. Which level of government is not addressed in the Constitution? Cities 42. Which type of grant provides more control to state and local governments in the distribution of federal grants-in-aid? Block 43. Regulations or new conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the national unfunded mandates. 44. Which provision allows cities a guarantee of noninterference in various local affairs by state governments? home rule

12 45. The era of "New Federalism" began in the 1970s. 46. The Internet Tax Freedom Act that prohibits states and localities from taxing Internet access services is a good example of preemption. 47. Which of the following statements about federalism is true? The U.S. system of federalism allows substantial inequalities to exist across the country. 48. The 1996 Welfare Reform Act is an example of New Federalism because it reduced the restrictions on how states spend grant money 49. In contrast to ___ dual _______ federalism that defined America until the 1930s, since the New Deal, _ cooperative_ federalism has prevailed. 50. What is a grant-in-aid? Money appropriated by the national Congress to state and local governments 51. Especially since the New Deal in the 1930s, _ the national government_ has/have played a much more prominent role in protecting liberty and promoting equality. CHAPTER 4 1. The concept of selective incorporation means: only some of the liberties in the Bill of Rights are applied to the states. 2. The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution are known as the: Bill of Rights. 3. Miranda rights concern: self-incrimination. 4. The Supreme Court ruled that the right to privacy did not extend to homosexuals in the case of: Bowers v. Hardwick. 5. According to the text, which of the statements below best expresses why the general status of civil liberties can never be considered fixed and permanent? Liberty for some requires restraining the liberty of others. 6. Which of the following places restraints on how the government is supposed to act? procedural liberties, due process of law 7. Which of the following statements best reflects the nature of the Bill of Rights? The rights guaranteed to all in the Bill of Rights are self-executing. 8. A few weeks after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, Bill Maher was sharply criticized for comments he made about past U.S. policies of "lobbing missiles from thousands of miles away" and our unwillingness to use American ground forces. His show was then cancelled by ABC. This is an example of: censorship. 9. The First Amendment's ____________ protects the right to believe in and practice one's religion of choice. free exercise clause 10. As the text notes, four forms of speech fall outside the absolute guarantees of the First Amendment and therefore outside the realm of protected forms of speech. Which of the following is not a conditionally protected form of speech? political speech 11. Dollree Mapp was convicted through evidence obtained through an illegal police search. What happened in her case? The Supreme Court ruled that the illegal evidence could not be used in court. 12. The Supreme Court's decision in Roe v. Wade was based on the: right to privacy. 13. An example of speech plus would be: giving a speech against abortion and then distributing informational leaflets. 14. Citizens of the United States unquestionably have a right to bear arms, but the exercise of this right can be regulated by: state law, federal law.

13 15. The so-called Lemon test, which came from the court case Lemon v. Kurtzman, concerns the issue of: aid to religious schools. 16. Which Amendment provides for freedom of religion? First 17. Civil Liberties primarily: protect people from government abuse of power. 18. Taking private property for public use is covered under the provision of: eminent domain. 19. The bill of rights originally applied to __________ .only the national government. 20. The first civil liberty selectively incorporated into the Fourteenth Amendment as a limitation on state government power was for: property protection. 21. The Second Amendment concerns: the right to bear arms. 22. In essence, for more than 170 years the Bill of Rights: did not really affect most Americans 23. The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments, taken together, define: due process of law 24. The Supreme Court case of Mapp v. Ohio established the: exclusionary rule 25. Which 1937 Supreme Court case established the principle of selective incorporation? Palko v. Connecticut 26. Which of the following statements is not true? In Palko v. Connecticut the Court ruled that double jeopardy was one of the provisions of the Bill of Rights incorporated in the Fourteenth Amendment. 27. Which of the following issues have been considered by the Supreme Court under the right to privacy doctrine established in Griswold v. Connecticut? birth control, abortion, Homosexuality. 28. A law that declares an action to be illegal after it has been committed is a(n): ex post facto law. 29. Protections of citizens from improper government action is the definition of: civil liberties 30. The Supreme Court upheld a state university ban on Tupperware parties in college dormitories, declared as constitutional laws prohibiting the electronic media from carrying cigarette advertising, and upheld a Puerto Rico statute restricting the advertising of casino gambling. These are examples of restrictions on: commercial speech. 31. The ____________ has been interpreted quite strictly to mean that a virtual wall of separation exists between church and state. establishment clause 32. The Supreme Court has stuck down which of the following activities in public schools? teacher-led prayer at the beginning of the school day, reading the Bible over the school intercom, prayer before school football games 33. ___________________limit what the government can do, while____________ define HOW the government can act. Substantive liberties ; procedural liberties 34. From 1789 until the 1960s, the Bill of rights put limits on a) the national govt only 35. The amendment that provided the basis for the modern understanding of the governments obligation to protect civil rights was the c) 14th amendment 36. The so called lemon test, derived from the supreme courts ruling in lemon v. kurtzman, concerns the issue of b) aid to religious schools 37. The process by which some of the liberties in the bill of rights were applied to the states (or nationalized) is known as a) selective incorporation 38. Which of the following provided that all of the protections contained in the Bill of rights applied to the states as well as the national government?D) None of the above, not the 14th amendment, not the palo v. Connecticut, not gitlow v. new York 39. Which of the following protections are not contained in the first amendment? D)All of the above are first amendment protections (establishment clause, free exercise clause, freedom of the press)

14 40. Which of the following describe s a written statement made in reckless disregard of the truth that is considered damaging to a victim because it is malicious, scandalous, and defamatory?b)libel 41. The 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th amendments taken together, define: due process of law 42. In what case was a right to privacy first found in the constitution? Griswold v. Connecticut 43. Which famous case deals with 6th amendment issues? Gideon v. wainwright