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Eighteenth Century be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2010.
19th century depiction of a Japanese folding fan with a poem on its open surface. A hand-held fan is an implement used to induce an airflow for the purpose of cooling or refreshing oneself. Any broad, flat surface waved back-and-forth will create a small airflow and therefore can be considered a rudimentary fan. But generally, purpose-made hand-held fans are shaped like a sector of a circle and made of a thin material (such as paper or feathers) mounted on slats which revolve around a pivot so that it can be closed when not in use. The movement of a hand-held fan provides cooling by increasing the airflow over the skin which in turn increases the evaporation rate of sweat droplets on the skin. This evaporation has a cooling effect due to the latent heat of evaporation of water. Fans are convenient to carry around, especially folding fans. History East Asia
"Two gibbons in a tree". Korean envoys brought along Korean folding fans which were of Japanese origin as gifts to Chinese court. The popularity of folding fans was such that sumptuary laws were promulgated during Heian period which restricted the decoration of both hiogi and paper folding fans. famous artists were often commissioned to paint fans. The Chinese form of the hand fan was a row of feathers mounted in the end of a handle. In the later centuries. are smoother with an even texture. . Machine made paper fans. The folding fan was invented in Japan around the 6th to 8th century. a Japanese monk Chonen (奝然 Chōnen?. They are used today by Shinto priests in formal costume and in the formal costume of the Japanese court (they can be seen used by the Emperor and Empress during coronation and marriage) and are brightly painted with long tassels. A particular status and gender would be associated with a specific type of fan. In Japanese pop culture. Later in 11th century. Printed fan leaves and painted fans are done on a paper ground. The number of strips of wood differed according to the person's rank. They were made by tying thin stripes of hinoki (or Japanese cypress) together with thread. According to the Song Sui (History of Song). pien-mien. introduced in the 19th century. The Chinese character for "fan" (扇) is etymologically derived from a picture of feathers under a roof. During the Song Dynasty. The Chinese fixed fan. Hokusai's Five Fans. Harisen are featured in anime and graphic novels as comedic weapons. means 'to agitate the air'. 938－1016) offered the folding fans (twenty wooden-bladed fans hiogi (桧扇 hiōgi?) and two paper fans kawahori-ogi (蝙蝠扇 kawahori-ōgi?)) to the emperor of China in 988. The paper was originally hand made and displayed the characteristic watermarks. Simple Japanese paper fans are sometimes known as "harisen". Later in the 16th century Portuguese traders introduced it to the west and soon both men and women throughout the continent adopted it. Chinese poems and four-word idioms were used to decorate the fans by using Chinese calligraphy pens. The Chinese dancing fan was developed in the 7th century. Yi Yuanji's painting on a fan (11th century) The earliest known Chinese fans are a pair of woven bamboo side-mounted fans from the 2nd century BC. It was a court fan called the Akomeogi (衵扇 Akomeōgi?) after the court women's dress named Akome.
introduced from Japan. Japanese flat fan (uchiwa) Japanese fans are made of paper on a bamboo frame. and Hangzhou was a center of folding fan production. Korean 부채 buchae) continue to be important cultural symbols and popular tourist souvenirs in East Asia. or tortoise shell. usually with a design painted on them. the non-bending fans (uchiwa) are popular and commonplace. the folding fan. The leaves are usually painted by craftsman. The fan symbolizes friendship. respect and good wishes. The slats. by actors and dancers for performances. The function and employment of the fan reached its high . Chinese: "shànzi". were carved and covered with paper or fabric. and they are also an important stage prop in Japanese dance. In Japan. Folding fans have "montures" which are the sticks and guards. It was also used in the military as a way of sending signals on the field of battle. mica. Social significance was attached to the fan in the Far East. and the Korean fan dance of buchaechum is very popular. The fan is primarily used for fanning oneself in hot weather.Korean fan dance (buchaechum) Folding fans (扇子 Japanese "sensu". sandalwood. The management of the fan became a highly regarded feminine art. In China. bone. of ivory. fans were variously used by warriors as a form of weapon. however fans were mainly used for social and court activities. came into fashion during the Ming dynasty between the years of 1368 and 1644. and by children as a toy. The Mai Ogi (or Chinese dancing fan) has ten sticks and a thick paper mount showing the family crest. Chinese painters crafted many fan decoration designs. mother of pearl. Geisha of all types (but maiko most often) use folding fans in their fan dances as well. They are given on special occasions. In addition to folding fans (ōgi).
called the iron fan. 325300 BC. fan and sun hat. Berlin Eros offering a fan and a mirror to a lady. Archaeological Museum in Milan. from Tanagra. Altes Museum. or tiě shān in Chinese. see Korean fighting fan for Korean use). tessen in Japanese.point of social significance (fans were even used as a weapon . Italy Depiction of an 18th century folding fan with French design patterns. Ancient Greek amphora from Apulia.  Europe Ancient Greek statue of a lady with blue and gilt garment. .
Fans became generally popular. In the 17th century the rigid fan which was seen in portraits of the previous century had fallen out of favour as folding fans gained dominance in Europe. introduced from East Asia. but of the fans of this era it is only the more exotic folding ones which have survived. The reverse side of these early fans also started to display elaborate flower designs. Portuguese traders brought fans to Europe from China and Japan. In the 17th century the folding fan. These fans are particularly well displayed in the portraits of the high-born women of the era. Hand fans were reintroduced to Europe in the 13th and 14th centuries. but continues in the Eastern Orthodox and Ethiopian Churches. Fans made entirely of decorated sticks without a fan 'leaf' were known as brisé fans. In the 15th century. These rigid style fans often hung from the skirts of ladies. Archaeological ruins and ancient texts show that fans were used in ancient Greece at least since the 4th century BC and was known under the name rhipis (Greek: ῥιπίς). the fan was absent. However. Fans from the Middle East were brought back by Crusaders. These were used during services to drive insects away from the consecrated bread and wine. during the Middle Ages. Their use died out in western Europe during the Middle Ages. In Europe. became popular in Europe. Christian Europe's earliest fan was the flabellum (or ceremonial fan). despite the relative crude methods of construction folding fans were at this era high status. Queen Elizabeth 1st of England can be seen to carry both folding fans decorated with pom poms on their guardsticks as well as the older style rigid fan. The sticks are often plain ivory or tortoiseshell. often with a religious or classical subject. usually decorated with feathers and jewels. sometimes . Fans started to display well painted leaves.Ready For The Ball by Sophie Anderson. which dates to the 6th century. exotic items on par with elaborate gloves as gifts to royalty. One of the characteristics of these fans is the rather crude bone or ivory sticks and the way the leather leaves are often slotted onto the sticks rather than glued as with later folding fans. Those folding fans of the 15th century found in museums today have either leather leaves with cut out designs forming a lace-like design or a more rigid leaf with inlays of more exotic materials like mica.
Ltd who produced a series of advertisements in 1954 showing "the language of the fan" with fans supplied by the well known French fan maker Duvelleroy. European fashion caused fan decoration and size to vary. often with little or no space between them is one of the distinguishing characteristics of fans of this era. In 1685 the Edict of Nantes was revoked in France. fans reached a high degree of artistry and were being made throughout Europe often by specialized craftsmen. spring 2004. unspoken code of messages These fan languages were a way to cope with the restricting social etiquette.  Categories . Portrait by Spanish painter Diego Velázquez In the 18th century. or parchment were decorated and painted by artists. Wind-up fans (similar to wind-up clocks) were popular in the 18th century. Ryan) . In the 19th century in the West. The way the sticks sit close to each other. This is now used for marketing by fan makers like Cussons & Sons & Co.P. Around the middle 18th century. However. This caused large scale immigration from France to the surrounding Protestant countries (such as England) of many fan craftsman. Folded fans of silk. either in leaves or sticks. It has been said that in the courts of England. modern research has proved that this was a marketing ploy developed in the 18th century (FANA Journal. inventors started designing mechanical fans. Fact & Fiction about the language of the fan by J. Spain and elsewhere fans were used in a more or less secret.inlaid with gold or silver pique work.one that has kept its appeal remarkably over the succeeding centuries. Fans were also imported from China by the East India Companies at this time. This dispersion in skill is reflected in the growing quality of many fans from these non-French countries after this date.