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Summary: 1) Equations of Tangents and Normals: (a) The basic equation of a straight line is: y = mx + c or (y-y1)=m(x-x1), where m is the slope of the line (=dy/dx) and (x,y) or (x1,y1) are the coordinates of the point at which we define the tangent or/and normal equations on a given curve. The value of the derivative of this curve at the given point gives the value of m. (b) If the slope of the tangent is mt (dy/dx), then the slope of the normal is mn=-1/mt or 1/(dy/dx). 2) Curvature The radius of curvature R of a curve at a point is given by:

{1 + (dy / dx ) } R=

d 2 y / dx 2

3 2 2

or R =

(1 + ( y) )

y

2 3

(It may happen that the calculated value of R may be negative. This merely indicates which way the curve is bending. Since R is a physical length, then for all practical purposes, R is taken as absolute-value long.)

3) Differentiation of Inverse Trigonometric Inverse Hyperbolic Functions: Refer to the summary of Tutorial 4. 4) Stationary Points (Maximum, Minimum and Point of Inflexion): (a) A stationary point is a point on the graph of a function y = f (x) where the rate of change is zero. That is where:

Solving this equation will locate the stationary points. (b) Having located a stationary point it is necessary to identify it. If, at the stationary point: (i) (ii) (iii)

d2 y > 0 the stationary point is a minimum, dx 2 d2 y < 0 the stationary point is a maximum, dx 2 d2 y = 0 the stationary point may be a local maximum, local minimum or point of inflexion. dx 2

(c) Point of Inflexion: A point of inflexion is a point where the direction of bending changes from a right-hand bend to a left-hand bend or vice versa. It can also occur at points other than stationary points. In the case of the real point of inflexion, the graph of the second derivative crosses the x-axis, i.e., the sign of the second 2 2 derivative changes as the graph crosses the x-axis. So the test is to look at the sign of d y/dx a little to the left and a little to the right of the assumed point of inflexion. If the graph of the second derivative only touches the x-axis and the value of the second derivative does not change sign, then it is a case of no point of inflexion.

1) (a) If x y + xy x y + 16 = 0, find dy/dx in its simplest form. Hence find the equation of the normal to the curve at the point (1, 3). (b) Given x = [dy/dx = (3x+y)/(x + 3y)]

(i) Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve 4x3 + 4xy + y2 = 4 at (0, 2), and find the

coordinates of a further point of intersection of the tangent and the curve. [y+2x=2; 2y=x+4; (1,0)]

Tutorial 6

2 2 2 2

(ii) Find the angle between the curves x + y = 4 and 5x + y = 5 at their points of intersections for which x and y are positive. (iii) In a domain of 0 /2, find the angle, , between the curves: y = sin and y = cos . (iv) Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = of the tangent at the origin. 2) (a) Find the maximum and minimum points of y = x + x 5x. (b) The current, i, flowing through a circuit is i = te (t 0), (1). What is the value of the current i as t gets large, t , (2) Determine the maximum value of the current. (i) Suppose that at any time t(s) the current i (Amp) in an alternating current circuit is i = 4 cos t - 4 sin t. What is the peak (largest magnitude) current for this circuit? (ii) The signaling range x of a submarine cable is proportional to r 2 ln the conductor and cable. Find the value of r for maximum range. 3) (a) Find all points of inflection of the graph y = e x . (b) Find the values of x at which points of inflexion occur in the following curves: (1) y = e2 x 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 ,

2

[37o46']

[109.47o ]

[20 y = 125 x - 363; y = 2 x ]

2

-t

[imax = 4 2 A]

1 , where the ratio r is the ratio of the radii of r

[0.606]

(2) y = x 4 - 10 x 2 + 7 x + 4 .

4) (a) Find the radius of curvature and the coordinates of the center of curvature of the curve y = 3 ln x, at the point where it meets the x-axis. (i) Find the radius of curvature of the catenary y = c cosh(x / c ) at the point (x1,y1), where c is a constant.

2 (ii) If 3ay 2 = x( x a ) with a > 0, prove that the radius of curvature at the point (3a, 2a) is 50 a . 3

[ y12 / c ]

-1

2x 2 1 + x

(i) Show that: (1) d [sinh 1 (tan x )] = sec x , (2) d [cosh 1 (sec x )] = sec x

dx dx

-1

4 x 1 4 x

2 ] x (1 + 4 x)

Tutorial 6

C.1) The equation of a curve is 4 y 2 = x 2 (2 x ) , (a) Determine the equations of the tangents at the origin, (b) Show that the angle between the tangents is tan 1 2 2 . C.2) If 4x + 8xy + 9y - 8x - 24y + 4 = 0, show that when

2 2

( )

dy d2 y 4 . = 0 , x + y =1 and 2 = dx dx 8 5y

[max. (-11/5, 16/5), min. (1, 0)]

Hence find the maximum and the minimum values of y. C.3) The acceleration, a, of a machine is given by a =

of r for maximum acceleration to occur. Hint: Instead of finding the second derivative to check that you have a maximum, which is not pretty, check the sign of first derivative test.

[25]

C.4) Given that x = 1 + sin , y = sin - cos 2, show that d2y/dx2 = 2. Find the radius of curvature and the center o [5.59; (-3.5, 2.75)] coordinates of curvature for the point on this curve where = 30 .

Tutorial 6

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