Kitsune

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Kitsune
Kitsune (狐, IPA: [kitsɯne] ( listen)) is the Japanese word for fox. Foxes are a common subject of Japanese folklore; in English, kitsune refers to them in this context. Stories depict them as intelligent beings and as possessing magical abilities that increase with their age and wisdom. Foremost among these is the ability to assume human form. While some folktales speak of kitsune employing this ability to trick others—as foxes in folklore often do—other stories portray them as faithful guardians, friends, lovers, and wives. Foxes and human beings lived close together in ancient Japan; this companionship gave rise to legends about the creatures. Kitsune have become closely associated with Inari, a Shinto kami or spirit, and serve as its messengers. This role has reinforced the fox's supernatural significance. The more tails a kitsune has—they may have as many as nine—the older, wiser, and more powerful it is. Because of their potential power and influence, some people make offerings to them as to a deity.
Prince Hanzoku terrorized by a nine-tailed fox. Print by Utagawa Kuniyoshi, 19th century.

Origins
It is widely agreed that many fox myths in Japan can be traced to China, Korea, or India. Chinese folk tales tell of fox spirits (called Huli-jing) that may have up to nine tails, or Kyūbi no Kitsune in Japanese. Many of the earliest surviving stories are recorded in the Konjaku Monogatari, an 11th-century collection of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese narratives.[1] There is debate whether the kitsune myths originated entirely from foreign sources or are in part an indigenous Japanese concept dating as far back as the fifth century BC. Japanese folklorist Kiyoshi Nozaki argues that the Japanese regarded kitsune positively as early A nine-tailed fox, from the Qing edition of the as the 4th century A.D.; the only things imported from China or [2] ancient text Shan Hai Jing. Korea were the kitsune's negative attributes. He states that, according to a 16th-century book of records called the Nihon Ryakki, foxes and human beings lived close together in ancient Japan, and he contends that indigenous legends about the creatures arose as a result.[3] Inari scholar Karen Smyers notes that the idea of the fox as seductress and the connection of the fox myths to Buddhism were introduced into Japanese folklore through similar Chinese stories, but she maintains that some fox stories contain elements unique to Japan.[4]

• Ōtsuki Fumihiko in Daigenkai (1932–1935) proposes that kitsu is an onomatopoeia for the animal. • Myōgoki (1268) suggests that it is so called because it is "always (tsune) yellow (ki)". a fox's cry is transcribed as kon kon or gon gon. He met her one evening on a vast moor and married her. According to Nozaki. and ne is related to neko. The oldest known usage of the word is in the 794 text Shin'yaku Kegonkyō Ongi Shiki. however. 545). kitsu-ne means come and sleep. -Ne signifies an affectionate mood. non-imported tradition of benevolent foxes in Japanese folklore. but he refused." Ono called after her. the word for cat. and the Japanese red fox (Vulpes vulpes japonica)." So every evening she stole back and slept in his arms.[5] Because the fox returns to her husband each night as a woman but leaves each morning as a fox. you will always be welcome. leaped over a fence and fled. which Nozaki presents as further evidence of an established. in modern Japanese. Other old sources include Nihon Ryōiki (810–824) and Wamyō Ruijushō (c. this becomes kitsune. One of the oldest surviving kitsune tales provides a widely known folk etymology of the word kitsune. Simultaneously with the birth of their son. tsu is a possessive particle. an inhabitant of Mino (says an ancient Japanese legend of A. and that ne is an affix or an honorific word meaning a servant of an Inari shrine. These oldest sources are written in Man'yōgana which clearly identifies the historical spelling as ki1tune. Ono's dog was delivered of a pup which as it grew up became more and more hostile to the lady of the moors. the word kitsune was originally onomatopoeia. she is called Kitsune. the word for "dog". In classical Japanese.[5] Unlike most tales of kitsune who become human and marry human males. resumed vulpine shape. • Tanikawa Kotosuga in Wakun no Shiori (1777–1887) suggests that ki means "yellow". At last one day the dog attacked her so furiously that she lost courage.[3] Kitsu represented a fox's yelp and came to be the general word for fox.[2] Kitsu is now archaic. there is no general agreement. tsu is a possessive particle.Kitsune 2 Etymology The full etymology is unknown. Following several diachronic phonological changes. Japan is home to two red fox subspecies: the Hokkaido fox (Vulpes vulpes schrencki. spent the seasons longing for his ideal of female beauty.D. and ne is related to inu. She begged her husband to kill it. this one does not end tragically:[6] [7] Ono. • Early Kamakura period Mizukagami indicates that it means "came (ki) [perfective case particle tsu] to bedroom (ne)" due to a legend that a kitsune would change into one's wife and bear children. Come back when you please. "but you are the mother of my son and I love you. Many etymological suggestions have been made. and ki-tsune means always comes. pictured). • Arai Hakuseki in Tōga (1717) suggests that ki means "stench". "You may be a fox. 934).[7] .

[9] For example. nine-tailed foxes) gain the abilities to see and hear anything happening anywhere in the world. long life. and nine tails are the most common numbers in folk stories. literally good foxes) are benevolent. They are a type of yōkai. or spiritual entity. the yako (野狐.Kitsune 3 Characteristics Kitsune are believed to possess superior intelligence. and the word kitsune is often translated as fox spirit. The zenko (善狐. and magical powers. a ninko is an invisible fox spirit that human beings can only perceive when it possesses them. Other tales attribute them infinite wisdom (omniscience). this does not mean that kitsune are ghosts. On the other hand. some folktales say that a fox will only grow additional tails after it has lived 100 years. nor that they are fundamentally different from regular foxes. five. . The associated game involves matching clues from folklore to pictures of specific creatures. celestial foxes associated with the god Inari.[8] Local traditions add further types. literally field foxes. they are sometimes simply called Inari foxes. its fur becomes white or gold. seven. However. Because the word spirit is used to reflect a state of knowledge or enlightenment.[10] [11] Statue of a kitsune at the Inari shrine adjacent to Tōdai-ji Buddhist temple in Nara Physically.[15] This obake karuta (monster card) from the early 19th century depicts a kitsune. kitsune are noted for having as many as nine tails. a greater number of tails indicates an older and more powerful fox. in fact.[13] One.[14] When a kitsune gains its ninth tail.[12] These kyūbi no kitsune (九尾の狐. Another tradition classifies kitsune into one of thirteen types defined by which supernatural abilities the kitsune possesses. also called nogitsune) tend to be mischievous or even malicious. all long-lived foxes gain supernatural abilities[4] There are two common classifications of kitsune.[12] Generally.

fox-fire).[19] Variants on the theme have the kitsune retain other foxlike traits. young girls. willful manifestation in the dreams of others. although some tales say 50. along with a fox's tail. or a skull over its head.[4] and a kitsune can duplicate the appearance of a specific person. flight.Kitsune 4 Shapeshifting A kitsune may take on human form. especially at dusk or night. and some tales ascribe it to foxes in human form. Common belief in medieval Japan was that any woman encountered alone. such as a coating of fine hair. could be a fox. Then Koan transformed in front of them. perhaps when the fox gets drunk or careless. generally through sexual contact. a historical person credited with wisdom and magical powers of divination.[17] Foxes are particularly renowned for impersonating beautiful women. thin eyebrows. When the people of the household saw him. Traditionally. Then. and some become so rattled by the presence of dogs that they revert to the shape of a fox and flee. becoming an elderly fox and running away.[21] Kitsune have a fear and hatred of dogs even while in human form. These shapes are not limited by the fox's age or gender. a broad leaf. and high cheekbones."[23] Other supernatural abilities commonly attributed to the kitsune include possession.[22] One folk story illustrating these imperfections in the kitsune's human shape concerns Koan. literally. an ability learned when it reaches a certain age—usually 100 years.[24] [25] Other kitsune have characteristics reminiscent of vampires or succubi and feed on the life or spirit of human beings. or a reflection that shows its true form. the fox must place reeds.[18] In some stories. kitsune have difficulty hiding their tails when they take human form. According to the story. "in his pain. A particularly devout individual may be able to see through a fox's disguise automatically. looking for the tail. or take fantastic shapes such as a tree of incredible height or a second moon in the sky.[16] [20] Some tales speak of kitsune with even greater powers. a "Fox women" by Bertha Lum: fox-shaped shadow. is a common method of discerning the creature's true nature. able to bend time and space.[26] .[16] Common forms assumed by kitsune include beautiful women. mouths or tails that generate fire or lightning (known as kitsune-bi.[13] As a common prerequisite for the transformation. and the creation of illusions so elaborate as to be almost indistinguishable from reality. they were astonished to see that Koan had fur covering much of his body. he ran out of the bathroom naked. he was staying at the home of one of his devotees when he scalded his foot entering a bath because the water had been drawn too hot. this facial structure is considered attractive.[20] Kitsune-gao or kitsune as women fox-faced refers to human females who have a narrow face with close-set eyes. invisibility. or elderly men. drive people mad.

By no grasp can it be so tightly compressed by a strong hand that it will not slip from under the fingers. In the late 19th century. Shunichi Shimamura noted that physical diseases that caused fever were often considered kitsunetsuki. also written kitsune-tsuki) literally means the state of being possessed by a fox. Entire families were ostracized by their communities after a member of the family was thought to be possessed.[32] [33] Possession was the explanation for the abnormal behavior displayed by the afflicted individuals. may induce a fox to leave its host. or tsukimono-suji.Kitsune 5 Kitsunetsuki Kitsunetsuki (狐憑き or 狐付き. alleging that not they. often performed at an Inari shrine. The legend is the subject of the noh drama Sanjō Kokaji. and it glides instantly to another place. once freed from the possession. The victim is always a young woman. are hungry. aburagé.[34] The belief has lost favor. and aversion to eye contact. but stories of fox possession still appear in the tabloid press and popular media.[36] Symptoms include cravings for rice or sweet red beans. Sometimes they run naked shouting through the streets. — and they eat a great deal. Japanese tradition holds that fox possession can cause illiterate victims to temporarily gain the ability to read. Dr. but the possessing foxes.[35] In medicine. Kitsunetsuki is often attributed to the malign intents of hereditary fox employers. Exorcism. azukimeshi.[28] Though foxes in folklore can possess a person of their own will. the victims' facial expressions are said to change in such a way that they resemble those of a fox.[29] Folklorist Lafcadio Hearn describes the condition in the first volume of his Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan: Inari and its fox spirits help the blacksmith Munechika forge the blade kogitsune-maru (Little Fox) at the end of the 10th century. And on some part of the body of the possessed a moving lump appears under the skin. Possessed folk are also said to speak and write languages of which they were totally ignorant prior to possession. Sometimes they lie down and froth at the mouth. whom the fox enters beneath her fingernails or through her breasts. etc.[37] . azukimeshi. Strange is the madness of those into whom demon foxes enter. kitsunetsuki was noted as a disease as early as the Heian period and remained a common diagnosis for mental illness until the early 20th century. or other foods favored by foxes. Those who suffer from the condition believe they are possessed by a fox. They eat only what foxes are believed to like — tofu. the victim will never again be able to eat tofu. One notable occasion involved allegations that members of the Aum Shinrikyo cult had been possessed. when such gentle measures failed or a priest was not available.[30] He goes on to note that.[27] In some cases. listlessness. restlessness. Kitsunetsuki is similar to but distinct from clinical lycanthropy.[30] In Japan. which seems to have a life of its own. and yelp as a fox yelps. Prick it with a needle. victims of kitsunetsuki were beaten or badly burned in hopes of forcing the fox to leave. kitsunetsuki is an ethnic psychosis unique to Japanese culture.[31] In the past.

"Give me back my ball!" The man ignored its pleas till finally it said tearfully.[38] Some stories identify them as magical jewels or pearls. I'll stick to you like a protector god. a color of good omen. such as the famous Fushimi Inari shrine in Kyoto.[40] One belief is that when a kitsune changes shape. Black foxes and nine-tailed foxes are likewise considered good omens. and representations of sacred Inari foxes without them are rare." The fox later saves his life by leading him past a band of armed robbers. Print by Utagawa Kuniyoshi.[46] Inari appears to a warrior. "All right. Many Inari shrines. a kitsune keeps the ball in its mouth or carries it on its tail.[41] For example.[39] When not in human form or possessing a human.[42] Portrayal Servants of Inari Kitsune are associated with Inari. a 12th-century tale describes a man using a fox's hoshi no tama to secure a favor: Kitsune glowing with fox-fire gather near Edo. and they sometimes serve as guardian spirits.Kitsune 6 Hoshi no tama (ほしのたま) Depictions of kitsune or their possessed victims may feature round or onion-shaped white balls known as hoshi no tama (star balls). For me.[45] There is speculation among folklorists as to whether another Shinto fox deity existed in the past. but the line between the two is now blurred so that Inari itself may be depicted as a fox. In addition to protecting Inari shrines. I'll be your enemy forever.[43] This association has reinforced the fox's supernatural significance. Another tradition is that the pearl represents the kitsune's soul. the kitsune will die if separated from it for long. Print by Hiroshige.[13] Jewels are a common symbol of Inari. Inari-zushi is a type of sushi named for Inari that consists of rice-filled pouches of fried tofu. feature such statues. This portrayal of Inari shows the influence of Dakiniten concepts from Buddhism. the fox's power over evil is such that a mere statue of a fox can dispel the evil kimon. Foxes have long been worshipped as kami. entire shrines are dedicated to kitsune. Those who obtain the ball may be able to extract a promise from the kitsune to help them in exchange for its return. Likewise. where devotees can leave offerings. Inari's kitsune are white. its hoshi no tama holds a portion of its magical power.[44] Originally. they are petitioned to intervene on behalf of the locals and particularly to aid against troublesome nogitsune. you've got the ball.[9] They possess the power to ward off evil. but you don't know how to keep it. those spirit foxes who do not serve Inari. that flows from the northeast. which is accordingly found in the noodle-based dishes kitsune udon and kitsune soba. "Confound you!" snapped the fox. Similarly. the Shinto deity of rice. or energy. It won't be any good to you. sometimes large numbers of them. Tales describe these as glowing with kitsune-bi. I tell you. . kitsune were Inari's messengers.[9] Fox spirits are said to be particularly fond of a fried sliced tofu called aburage. if you don't give it back. If you do give it back though. accompanied by a kitsune. it's a terrible loss.[19] According to beliefs derived from fusui (feng shui). or fox-fire.

I have to request that you make minute inquiries into the matter. wrote a letter to the kami Inari: To Inari Daimyojin. while the crueler ones abuse poor tradesmen and farmers or devout Buddhist monks. women are possessed instead. and let me know the result. A traditional game called kitsune-ken (fox-fist) references the kitsune's powers over human beings. The headman beats the hunter. scissors. and boastful commoners. whom he bewitches.[50] [51] The Fushimi Inari shrine in Kyoto features numerous kitsune statues. Dakiniten is depicted as a female boddhisattva wielding a sword and riding a flying white fox. the hunter beats the fox. a hunter. Their victims are usually men.[52] . the effective leader of Japan. greedy merchants. whom he shoots. The game is similar to rock.[47] 7 Tricksters Kitsune are often presented as tricksters. whom he outranks. This ambiguous portrayal. My lord.[48] [49] Another tactic is for the kitsune to confuse its target with illusions or visions. kitsune are thought to employ their kitsune-bi or fox-fire to lead travelers astray in the manner of a will o' the wisp. goddesses conflated with Inari's female aspect. If it turns out that the fox has no adequate reason to give for his behavior. Stories tell of kitsune playing tricks on overly proud samurai. with motives that vary from mischief to malevolence.[18] Other common goals of trickster kitsune include seduction.[18] For example. you are to arrest and punish him at once. In one case. or vengeance for a perceived slight.Kitsune Kitsune are connected to the Buddhist religion through the Dakiniten. Any other particulars that you may wish to be informed of in reference to what has occurred. causing her and others a great deal of trouble. theft of food. paper. leads people to try to discover a troublesome fox's motives. If you hesitate to take action in this matter I shall issue orders for the destruction of every fox in the land. Toyotomi Hideyoshi. humiliation of the prideful. the fox beats the headman. you can learn from the high priest of Yoshida. I have the honor to inform you that one of the foxes under your jurisdiction has bewitched one of my servants. and endeavor to find out the reason of your subject misbehaving in this way. coupled with their reputation for vengefulness. but the three hand positions signify a fox. and a village headman.

samurai families were often reputed to share similar arrangements with kitsune. In some cases. Print by Yoshitoshi. The kitsune patriarch appears in the man's dreams: "My father lived here before me. Accordingly. and we'll be sure to let you know when anything good is going to happen!"[53] Tamamo-no-Mae.[19] The astrologer-magician Abe no Seimei was reputed to have inherited such extraordinary powers. kitsune do not share human morality. and the foxes resign themselves to moving to an abandoned lot nearby. But I just want you to know. I'm afraid.[57] [58] True kitsune gifts are usually intangibles. however. common households thought to harbor kitsune are treated with suspicion.[55] Abandoned homes were common haunts for kitsune. sir.[56] Tales distinguish kitsune gifts from kitsune payments. sir. only the homeowner's threat to exterminate the foxes convinces them to behave. or similar valueless items under a magical illusion. . where they can cause all sorts of mischief. then claim that the house "has been ours for many years. . Many stories tell of fox-wives bearing children. stones. sir — I'm sure they'll understand when I explain to them why you're so upset. As yōkai. and the fox-wife is forced to leave him.[54] Oddly. such as protection. He must then return to confront his abandoned family in shame. and . and by now I have many children and grandchildren. we wish to register a vigorous protest.[58] Wives and lovers Kitsune are commonly portrayed as lovers. The man eventually discovers the fox's true nature. When such progeny are human. one more time? If we ever make trouble again. If a kitsune offers a payment or reward that includes money or material wealth.[59] The kitsune may be a seductress.Kitsune 8 Kitsune keep their promises and strive to repay any favor. And now. Won't you pardon us." The man refuses. how sorry I am that this is our last night of life. I gather that you're going to kill us all. leaves. Kuzunoha is a popular figure in folklore and the subject of kabuki plays. Occasionally a kitsune attaches itself to a person or household. you're understandably fed up with us. sir. but they never listen. Other kitsune use their magic for the benefit of their companion or hosts as long as the human beings treat them with respect. But the young ones. knowledge.[60] Typically. but these foxes were considered zenko and the use of their magic a sign of prestige. disoriented. if only you'll forgive us. part or all of the sum will consist of old paper. filthy. a legendary kitsune featured in noh and kyogen plays. We'll do everything we can to protect you from now on. . the husband wakes as if from a dream. twigs. then of course you must act as you think best. In one story from the 12th century.[61] The kitsune Kuzunoha casts a fox's shadow even in human form. for example. and a kitsune who has adopted a house in this manner may. they possess special physical or supernatural qualities that often pass to their own children. They get into a lot of mischief. who proves a devoted wife. and I'm always after them to stop. the young man unknowingly marries the fox. They first try to scare him away. and far from home.[18] One 12th-century story tells of a minister moving into an old mansion only to discover a family of foxes living there. Print by Utagawa Kuniyoshi. bring its host money or items that it has stolen from the neighbors. usually in stories involving a young human male and a kitsune who takes the form of a human woman. but these stories are more often romantic in nature. or long life.

2003. Michael. and Humor.Kitsune Other stories tell of kitsune marrying one another. 2003. Kitsune — Japan's Fox of Mystery. Kitsune. 139 [11] Nozaki. Half Animal: Tales of Werewolves and Related Creatures. p. edu/ clients/ sbklein/ GHOSTS/ articles/ CatalpaBow-WitchAnimals. "wise old heads nodded. Shaping Text: Philosophy and Folklore in the Fox Koan. "Foxes". Glimpses. Kitsune. Half Human. Indiana: Authorhouse. 95. "was so obsessed with the girl that his superstitious followers became alarmed and believed her to be an incarnation of the white fox-spirit of the Suwa Shrine. Turnbull writes. Abe Masaji & Prof.91 (http:/ / books. kitsune are generally depicted in accordance with folk stories. as wise. com/ books?id=uaC-7pnqdtEC& hl=en& pg=PA129#v=onepage& q& f=false) [13] Hamel 2003.[64] [65] as do contemporary works such as anime. 153 [23] Hall. 9 In fiction Embedded in Japanese folklore as they are. in "Nagashino 1575".[62] The event is considered a good omen. 155 [21] Nozaki. Glimpses. Bloomington. Half Human. google. remembering the unhappy circumstances of his birth and his magical mother". Lafcadio. cunning. Kitsune. google. pp. [2] Nozaki. Glimpses. 144 [24] Hearn.72 (http:/ / books.129 (http:/ / books. who had bewitched him in order to gain revenge. The warlord Takeda Shingen. Glimpses. 159 [16] Nozaki.127–128 (http:/ / books. Tokyo: The Hokuseidô Press. 1961. 2005. p.[66] Although these portrayals vary considerably. Santa Barbara. Western authors of fiction have begun to make use of the kitsune legends. com/ books?id=uaC-7pnqdtEC& hl=en& pg=PA127#v=onepage& q& f=false) [5] Hamel 2003. Kumiho. 211 . Ishikawa Junichiro [9] Hearn. Jamie. Kitsune. Kiyoshi. relates the tale of the Takeda clan's involvement with a fox-woman. Steven. uci. Kitsune. 3 [4] Smyers 1999." When their son Takeda Katsuyori proved to be a disastrous leader and led the clan to their devastating defeat at the battle of Nagashino. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. Huli Jing. 206 [22] Heine. Half Human. org/ etext/ 8130). Noh. 1999. Fox" (http:/ / academia. [19] Ashkenazy. after which Shingen forced marriage on Suwa Yorishige's beautiful 14-year-old daughter Lady Koi—Shingen's own niece. issendai. kitsune appear in numerous Japanese works. Rain falling from a clear sky — a sunshower — is called kitsune no yomeiri or the kitsune's wedding. 158 [31] Smyers 1999. Project Gutenberg e-text edition (http:/ / www. and kabuki plays derived from folk tales feature them. com/ books?id=uaC-7pnqdtEC& hl=en& pg=PA90#v=onepage& q& f=false) [32] Nozaki. google. Kitsune. com/ books?id=uaC-7pnqdtEC& hl=en& pg=PA72#v=onepage& q& f=false) [8] Yōkai no hon written by Prof. 36–37 [26] Nozaki. 145 [18] Tyler xlix. Romance. Janet. p. Kitsune. Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.89 (http:/ / books. 2003-04-28. Shifting Shape. google. 5 [3] Nozaki. gutenberg. and powerful beings. com/ books?id=f46OerF-91EC& hl=en& pg=PA89#v=onepage& q& f=false) [6] Goff. Handbook of Japanese Mythology. 211–212 [12] Smyers 1999. California: ABC-Clio. [15] Hearn. Kitsune. p. Turnbull writes. p. 25–26 [17] Hall. google. 154 [10] Hall. 59 [28] Nozaki. com/ books?id=f46OerF-91EC& hl=en& pg=PA91#v=onepage& q& f=false) [14] "Kitsune. 26. but the kitsune will seek revenge on any uninvited guests. in 1544. manga and video games. Japan Quarterly 44:2 [7] Smyers 1999. . 216 [29] https:/ / eee.90 (http:/ / books. Kitsune. 148 [20] Hearn. google. Retrieved 2006-12-14. kyogen. Shingen. 156–157 [25] Nozaki. shtml#tails). in reference to a folktale describing a wedding ceremony between the creatures being held during such conditions.[63] Stephen Turnbull. bunraku. pdf [30] Hearn. 221 [27] Nozaki. defeated in battle a lesser local warlord named Suwa Yorishige and drove him to suicide after a "humiliating and spurious" peace conference. "Foxes in Japanese culture: beautiful or beastly?" Japan Quarterly 44:2 (April–June 1997). Notes [1] Goff. com/ fox-misconceptions.

Half Human. Half Human. Half Animal: Tales of Werewolves and Related Creatures. New York: G. org/ issues/ 9/ 9-1795. 1985. google. 159–161 [55] Hall.82–85 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=ispqCirVSvQC& pg=PT91& dq=kitsune+ mercedes+ lackey& cd=1#v=onepage& q& f=false) 10 References • Addiss.76 (http:/ / books. The Fox's Craft in Japanese Religion and Folklore: Shapeshifters.77. T. 109–124 [66] e. Project Gutenberg e-text edition (http://www." Kyoto Journal 63 (http:/ / www. 149 [42] Tyler 299–300. Kitsune.90 (http:/ / books. Kitsune. ISBN 0-8248-2150-5 • Johnson. pp. google. com/ books?id=uaC-7pnqdtEC& hl=en& pg=PA82#v=onepage& q& f=false) [48] Addiss. 144–145 [37] Yonebayashi. Michael. Braziller. Cultural Anthropology. Glimpses. Retrieved on December 13. Retrieved on December 13.org/ etext/8130). A compilation of terms for sun showers from various cultures and languages. Indiana: Authorhouse.112–114 (http:/ / books. 2005.W. Japanese Ghosts & Demons: Art of the Supernatural. p. William A. 153 [45] Smyers 1999. 10th ed. 2004. 214–215 [35] Downey.96 (http:/ / books. google. 195 [58] Smyers 1999. Shifting Shape. Kitsune. 142 [50] Nozaki. Kitsune. 2006. Transformations. google. ISBN 1-57607-467-6 • Bathgate. Kitsune. California: ABC-Clio. google. [54] Hearn. Stephen. Glimpses. 81 (http:/ / books. Braziller. T. Kij Johnson's The Fox Woman (http:/ / books. ISBN 0-415-96821-6 • Hall. 1999. "Far Eastern Fox Lore". Steven. Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan. "Kitsunetsuki (Possession by Foxes)".. 132–137) ISBN 0-8076-1126-3 • Ashkenazy. google. "Ten Thousand Things. com/ books?id=uaC-7pnqdtEC& hl=en& pg=PA96#v=onepage& q& f=false) [46] Smyers 1999. google. • Heine. Jean Miyake. 2003. (pp. Jamie.g.1795 (Dec. pp. 121–152) ISBN 1-4107-5809-5 • Hearn. p. Glimpses. google. p. html). 137 [49] Hall. Shaping Text: Philosophy and Folklore in the Fox Koan. Stephen. New York: G. (pp. com/ books?id=Z0S6-KNcd6wC& dq=kij+ johnson+ fox+ woman& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=Iz0JTKXECoG8lQfz_aDcDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CCcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q& f=false) and Mercedes Lackey's Spirits White as Lightning (http:/ / books.103–105 (http:/ / books. Glimpses. Bert. Japanese Ghosts & Demons: Art of the Supernatural. com/ books?id=uaC-7pnqdtEC& hl=en& pg=PA98#v=onepage& q& f=false) [52] Hall.Kitsune [33] Hearn. com/ books?id=uaC-7pnqdtEC& hl=en& pg=PA112#v=onepage& q& f=false) [41] Hall. 157 [61] Ashkenazy. Handbook.98 (http:/ / books. google. Glimpses. Half Human. Ghosts & Demons. New York: Routledge. Bloomington. p. Asian Folklore Studies 33:1 (1974) . com/ books?id=uaC-7pnqdtEC& hl=en& pg=PA103#v=onepage& q& f=false) [59] Hamel 2003. com/ books?id=uaC-7pnqdtEC& hl=en& pg=PA76#v=onepage& q& f=false) [44] Hearn. linguistlist. 2003.gutenberg. 1985. Santa Barbara. [57] Nozaki. and Duplicities. [64] Hearn. google. [36] Haviland. 165 [34] Nozaki. pp. 2006. 150 [62] Addiss. org/ 10. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. 137 [53] Tyler 114–5. 230 [51] Smyers 1999. com/ books?id=uaC-7pnqdtEC& hl=en& pg=PA77#v=onepage& q& f=false) [47] Smyers 1999.000things/ 039. Lafcadio. html). Retrieved on November 20. "Sunshower summary" (http:/ / www. p. Michael. Half Human. 2006. 1998). com/ books?id=f46OerF-91EC& hl=en& pg=PA90#v=onepage& q& f=false) [60] Hearn. Half Human. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Co. 183 [39] Nozaki. 132 [63] Vaux. [43] Smyers 1999. 148 [56] Tyler 122–4. LINGUIST List 9. 95–97 [38] Nozaki. Handbook of Japanese Mythology. Kitsune. 169–170 [40] Smyers 1999. Transcultural Psychiatry 1:2 (1964).. kyotojournal. 162–163 [65] Nozaki. 2002.

Kitsune • Nozaki.comnet.kitsune.ca/~foxtrot/kitsune/) Kitsune.onmarkproductions. Retrieved 2006-12-14. • Schumacher. The Fox and the Jewel: Shared and Private Meanings in Contemporary Japanese Inari Worship. • Portal of Transformation: Kitsune in Folklore and Mythology (http://www. issendai. and Asian fox spirits in the West (http://academia. 10-ISBN 0824820584/13-ISBN 978-0-8248-2058-9. Osprey Publishing. (1987). Romance. Stephen. Kumiho. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.onmarkproductions. Royall.com/kitsune.shtml) . OCLC 39523475 (http://www.com/ kitsune/kitsunepdf.com/html/oinari.org/) Kitsune.edu/articles.delathehooda. • Tyler. Tokyo: The Hokuseidô Press. (2000). 10-ISBN 0-8248-2102-5/13-ISBN 978-0-8248-2102-9. Kiyoshi.shtml).worldcat. (1999).com/html/oinari. Huli Jing.union. Japanese Tales.htm) • IDEAS Undergraduate On-Line Journal (http://ideas. and Humor (http://www. Kitsuné — Japan's Fox of Mystery. New York: Pantheon Books.coyotes. Nagashino 1575.com/fox-index. 1961.php?action=read&id=25) • Gods of Japan page on the fox spirit (http://www. Fox – Fox spirits in Asia. "Oinari" (http://www.org folklore (http://www.org/kitsune/kitsune.zip). ISBN 0-394-75656-8 11 External links • • • • The Kitsune Page (http://www. A to Z Photo Dictionary of Japanese Buddhist & Shinto Deities. Karen Ann.jh-author.html) Foxtrot's Guide to Kitsune Lore (http://www. ISBN 1-84176-250-4.org/title/ fox-and-the-jewel-shared-and-private-meanings-in-contemporary-japanese-inari-worship/oclc/039523475) • Turnbull. Mark (September 1995).shtml) An extensive bibliography of fox-spirit books. • Smyers.

Gerbrant.wikipedia. Alex LaPointe. Mike10987. Waggers. Howcheng. L. Can't sleep. Elm-39. Elb2000. Petrusbarbygere. Fox women. Rija. Shimoru. Thomasmallen. Sizzle Flambé. Aquatopia17. Vmenkov._Fox_women._helped_by_a_fox_spirit. Conti. Antybum. Zaz-en. Shaggo. Koaala. Black Adam. Classicrockfan42.. Wereon. Teamrocketspy621. Zimmygirl7. TrekMaster. Torsodog. Fg2. RobertG. Tenmei. WhisperToMe. Mobius. Fvasconcellos. CALR. IDEAS07.org/w/index. Gune. Shimeru.php?title=File:Fushimi_Inari_mini_torii. Yvesnimmo. Goldfritha. NeoCoronis. Deepdesert. Charles Matthews. L Kensington. Jssfrk. ONUnicorn. 1 anonymous edits Image:Kuniyoshi Kuzunoha. Wingsandsword. Melanie beswick. Lawrencekhoo. DVD R W. Dp76764. Ru. Shorty pants.jpg  Source: http://en. Ciphers. J peter lee. MikeDockery. Nik42. Tony Fox. WTCA. BorgQueen. Amake. Kotengu. Tobosha File:Bertha Boynton Lum. El Magia. William Avery Image:Vulpes vulpes laying in snow. Bradeos Graphon. Grenavitar.wikipedia. 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Keilana. Art LaPella. CKarnstein. Fuzheado. Jay Koh. Jeff G. Him. Tyrhinis.php?title=File:Kuniyoshi_Kuzunoha.Hagedorn. Gracenotes. Brucenatelee. E2eamon.php?title=File:Fox0290. CommonsDelinker.jpg  Source: http://en.php?title=File:Vulpes_vulpes_laying_in_snow. Whimsicat. Salix alba. Raul654. Nilfanion Image:Tamamo-no-mae-woodblock. Jigokudani. Bobo192.org/w/index. 2 anonymous edits Image:NineTailsFox.org/w/index. Kwamikagami. Bendono. Almafeta. clown will eat me. Dysprosia.php?title=File:A_man_confronted_with_an_apparition_of_the_Fox_goddess. Emperorbma.org/w/index. The wub.0  Contributors: Dodo. Mitch Ames. Zephiris. Aznist. Eichikiyama. Mrholybrain. Unknown Dragon. LordAmeth.wikipedia. Alansohn. Haoie. RandomCritic.jpg  Source: http://en. DocWatson42. Xiabravery. Colincbn. Darksidex._1908. Bryan Derksen. Moom99. Dekimasu. Fennec. Lightmouse. Chuchunezumi. Mkill. PastaMoron. Frankatca. Kris Schnee. Liastnir.wikipedia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Blast. Dulcem. OceanSound. Frungi.org/w/index. Oda Mari. IdLoveOne. MRSC. Wikipelli. Wiki Raja. Clamster5.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  Source: http://en.svg  Source: http://en.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Amcaja. Andycjp.org/w/index.php?title=File:Speaker_Icon.. Audiosmurf. Makomk. Greatgavini. Gaius Cornelius.wikipedia. AngelExp. Nnh.spider. Satanael. Sasuke Sarutobi. Cnilep.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. The Famous Movie Director. Nasuko Keis. Tsinoyman. Qp10qp.jpg  Source: http://en. UberCryxic.wikipedia. Luigifan.org/w/index. Mysdaao.wikipedia. CambridgeBayWeather.JPG  Source: http://en. Miuki. Wildhartlivie. Juliancolton. 1 anonymous edits License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Petrusbarbygere File:Speaker Icon. Silverkaze. IPSOS. BD2412. Skysmith. 庚寅五月 Image:Fushimi Inari mini torii. Pipian. Draconis57. JadziaLover. Livetolaugh159. Crescent moon lord. Šmokljan. Bamtheory. Saarbruecken911. Mare-Silverus.wikipedia. Magiclite. Putrescent stench.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Utagawa Hiroshige Image:A man confronted with an apparition of the Fox goddess. Mafuyu. Wraithdart. Mintrick. Tokek. Otashiro. Beanieboy007. BryceTries. Baldhur. Tbhotch.php?title=File:Prince_Hanzoku_terrorised_by_a_nine-_tailed_fox. Paine. Jesse Viviano. SorryGuy. 0/ .jpg  Source: http://en. John Fader. KAWASAKI Hiroyuki. VederJuda. Brighterorange.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:trialsanderrors Image:Blacksmith_Munechika. Dragomiloff. Mgiganteus1. Mcgee84. Kelisi. Red devil 666. Retard. Tapir Terrific.org/w/index. MrClick.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Taichi. Draicia. Catapult. Aznph8playa2. Jjpancake. Piotrus.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Amcaja. Antipastor. ZayZayEM. JoshG. Seshiro. Dalziel 86. Sango4ever. Kvn8907. PlazzTT.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Guss.delanoy.php?title=File:Hiroshige-100-views-of-edo-fox-fires. Meep god dammit._by_Ogata_Gekkō. Mimihitam.org/w/index. Vendettax.php?title=File:Tamamo-no-mae-woodblock. Tom-b. WoodElf. Andonic. Cdocrun. Guest9999. BillDeanCarter. N5iln. JonathanDP81.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Amcaja. MisfitToys. Berserk798. Yuhungry. Nnh. Phoenix7777. Patstuart. 554 anonymous edits Image Sources. VegitaU. JerryFriedman. Sanfranman59. GraemeL.org/w/index. Msikma. Dcoetzee.Article Sources and Contributors 12 Article Sources and Contributors Kitsune  Source: http://en. Moonprincess7070.wikipedia.php?title=File:Bertha_Boynton_Lum. Remurmur.jpg  License: Attribution  Contributors: Shiretoko-Shari Tourist Association Image:Fox0290. Nyo. Silverhand. Mdchachi. John of Reading. NeoChaosX. OGoncho. Altenmann. Vidyaranya.org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia. MythicFox. Rmky87. Mrarfarf. Genesis. Scapler. Saly1002. Orca1 9904.org/w/index. DeadEyeArrow. Ootachi.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Amcaja. Kintetsubuffalo. Vikiniho84. USA Dragon. Kurtan. Belasted. Quaerere. Megster420. Brandmeister (old). Ryulong. Octane. Gilliam. Brian Kendig. Orrosta.tailed fox. WJBscribe. SpuriousQ. Synapopyse. Repku.wikipedia. AltiusBimm. Sehelei. Apollo. Spite170. Apostrophe. Jpark3909. Andreas Kaganov. Regushee. DerHexer. Reene. Kagome 77.php?oldid=442416799  Contributors: Ace ofspade.jpg  Source: http://en.org/w/index.wikipedia. Time for action. Chris the speller._forging_the_blade_Ko-Gitsune_Maru. Mackeriv. Eequor. Chill doubt. IGeMiNix. G. Akrosii. Melanom.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fg2 Image:Obake Karuta 3-01. 1908. Hamasaki gion higashi. Skabbo.org/w/index. Escape Orbit. TomorrowTime. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. Amcaja.wikipedia. Reedy. Binabik155. Jay32183.

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