International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology
,
Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011
Rhotrix Topological Space
A. Mohammed
1
and A. A. Tijjani
2
1
Department of Mathematics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
abdulmaths@yahoo.com
2
Department of Mathematics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
abbatijjani@yahoo.com
Abstract
We introduce a new technique of constructing topological spaces using underlying sets whose
elements are called rhotrices and present their results for mathematical consideration.
Keywords: Rhotrix, real rhotrix set, rhotrix topology and rhotrix topological spaces
1. Introduction
By rhotrix, we mean a new paradigm of matrix theory dealing with representation of arrays of numbers in
mathematical rhomboid form introduced by Ajibade [1] as an extension of ideas on matrix–tertions and
matrixnoitrets suggested by Atanassov and Shannon [2].
The idea of adopting the algebra and analysis of rhotrix theory presented by Ajibade to the study of
abstract structure development, using rhotrix set as the underlying set, is now increasingly becoming a
stimulating area of interest for research. This may have been motivated by the fact that matrix theory has
a formidable influence in the study of concrete abstract structures, which may be analogous to consider
the study of abstract structures over rhotrices. Thus, the first pioneered work was on classifications of
rhotrices and their expressions as abstract structures, which include groups, semigroups, monoids and
Boolean algebras, presented by Mohammed [3] as part of the discussions, on enrichment exercises
through extension to rhotrices. Following this, was the work by Mohammed [4], which considered the
study of the development of rings, fields, integral domains, principal ideal domains and unique
factorisation domains, using rhotrix set as the underlying set. And most recently is the proposition of a
novel concept, called rhomtree, as a graphical representation of rhotrix, suggested by Mohammed and
Sani [5]. It was shown in the paper, that rhomtrees may have practical implications in some real life
situations.
In this paper, we consider the study of the development of topological spaces, using real rhotrix set as the
underlying set. This will be achieved through our investigation of a class of rhotrix set, say,
^
( ) R n . We
propose to collect some or all of the elements of this real rhotrix set into hole, say,t . Then we verify if
the elements of t satisfies the axioms of algebraic topology. Positive outcomes will yield abstract
structure, which we referred to as rhotrix topological space, denoted by
^
( ), R n t
 

\ .
, with
^
( ) R n as the
underlying set and t as the topology on
^
( ) R n .
2. Preliminary definitions
The following definitions, which may serve in our discussion of results presented in section 3.
September Issue Page 21 of 105 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.3, 2011
iss
Definition 2.1 (Real rhotrices)
These are rhotrices whose entries belong to the set of real numbers. The set
^
( ) R n defined by
2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 2
2
2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 2
2 1
2
1
2 3 4
^
( 1) 1 ( 1) 1 ( 1) 1
\ 2 \ 2
2 2 2 1 1
( 1)
2
( 5) ( 3) ( 1)
( 1)
: : : : :
: : : : : : :
.. .. .. .. .. ..
( ) : ,...., 2 1
: : : : : : :
: : : : :
n n n
n n
n
n n n
n
r
r r r
r r r
R n r r and n
r r r
r
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ + + + + + +
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ +
÷ + ´ ` ´ ` ´ `
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ ) +
÷ ÷ ÷
+
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
= e e +
´
¹
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
)
(2.1)
is called the set of all real rhotrices of dimension n, where
2 1
( 1) 1
2
2
( )
n
h R r
+ +
= is the heart of any rhotrix
^
( ) ( ) R n R n e , and \ 2 n is the integer value obtained on division of n by 2.
For example, when n=3, we obtain rhotrix of dimension three as
1
2 4
5
(3) ( )
r
R r h R r
r
=
, where
3
( ) h R r = is the heart of R(3). Also, for n=5, we get rhotrix of dimension five as
1
2 3 4
5 6 8 9
10 11 12
13
(5) ( )
r
r r r
R r r h R r r
r r r
r
=
where
7
( ) h R r = is the heart of R (5).
Definition 2.2 (Inner product of rhotrices)
Let R(n) and S(n) be rhotrices in
^
( ) R n , the dot or inner product of R(n) and S(n) denoted by
( ) ( ) R n S n  , is the scalar obtained by multiplying corresponding entries and adding the resulting
products:
1 1 2 2
( ) ( )
n n
R n S n r s r s r s  = + +÷÷÷÷÷÷+
Definition 2.3 (Euclidean rhotrix space)
The
^
( ) R n in which an inner product of rhotrices is defined, is called a Euclidean rhotrix space.
Definition 2.4 (function over rhotrix set)
Let
^
( ) R n and
^
( ) S n be sets of real rhotrices of the same dimension n. A correspondence that associates
with each element
^
( ) ( ) R n R n e a unique element
^
( ( )) ( ) f R n S n e is called a function from
^
( ) R n
September Issue Page 22 of 105 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.3, 2011
iss
to
^
( ) S n , which we shall write as
^ ^
: ( ) ( ) f R n S n ÷ . Here,
^
( ) R n is called the domain of f,
^
( ( )) f R n
is called the image of f and
^
( ) S n is called the range of f.
Definition 2.5 (Norm and distance over rhotrices)
Let R(n) and S(n) be rhotrices in
^
( ) R n , the distance between rhotrices R(n) and S(n) denoted by
( , ), d R S is defined by
2 2 2
1 1 2 2
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n n
d R S r s r s r s = ÷ + ÷ +÷÷÷÷+ ÷
The norm or length of the rhotrix R(n), written R , is defined to be the nonnegative square root of
: R R 
2 2 2
1 2 n
R R R r r r =  = + +÷÷÷÷÷+
The reader can observe that
( , ) d R S R S = ÷
Definition 2.6 (Metric space over rhotrices)
A pair of objects (
^
X , d) consisting of a nonempty set
^
X of real rhotrices of the same dimension and a
function
^ ^
: , d X X × ÷ where the set of real numbers, is called a metric space over real rhotrices
provided that:
(i)
^
( , ) 0, , ; d P Q P Q X > e
(ii) ( , ) 0, d P Q =
if and only if
^
, , ; P Q P Q X = e
(iii)
^
( , ) ( , ), , ; d P Q d Q P P Q X = e
(iv)
^
( , ) ( , ) ( , ), , , . d P R d P Q d Q R P Q R X s + e
The function d is called a distance function or metric on
^
X and the set
^
X is called the underlying set.
Definition 2.7 (Topological space over rhotrices)
Let
^
X be a nonempty set of real rhotrices of the same dimension and let t
be a collection of subsets of
^
X such that:
(i)
^
, X t C e
(ii) If
1 2
, ,........................,
n
O O O t e , then
1 2
........................
n
O O O t · · · e
(iii) If for each , , O
o
o t eI e then O
o
o
t
eI
e .
The pair of objects (
^
X ,t ) is called a topological space. The set
^
X is called the underlying set, the
collection t is called the topology on
^
X , and the members of t are called open sets.
September Issue Page 23 of 105 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.3, 2011
iss
3. Results
Theorem 3.1
Let
^
( ) R n be the set of all real rhotrices of dimension n as defined by equation (2.1),
where 2 1 n Z
+
e + and let d be a distance function between any two members of
^
( ) R n , defined by
the correspondence
2 1
2
( 1)
2
1
( , ) ( )
n
i i
i
d A B A B a b
+
=
= ÷ = ÷
¿
,
then
^
( ( ), ) R n d is a metric space of real rhotrices.
Proof
For any 2 1 n Z
+
e + , the real valued function d is well defined since for any ( ) A n A = and ( ) B n B =
in
^
( ) R n , we have
2 1
2
( 1)
2
1
( , ) ( ) 0
n
i i
i
d A B A B a b and
+
=
= ÷ = ÷ >
¿
2 1
2
( 1)
2
1
( , ) ( ) 0 .
n
i i
i
d A B A B a b iff A B
+
=
= ÷ = ÷ = =
¿
Next, the real valued function d satisfies symmetric property since
2 2 1 1
2 2
( 1) ( 1)
2 2
1 1
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( , ), 2 1.
n n
i i i i
i i
d A B A B a b b a B A d B A where n
+ +
+
= =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = e +
¿ ¿
Finally, triangular inequality holds in
^
( ( ), ) R n d since for any three members A(n)=A, B(n)=B, C(n)=C
in
^
( ) R n , we have:
2 1
2
( 1)
2
1
( , ) ( )
n
i i
i
d A C A C a c
+
=
= ÷ = ÷
¿
2 1
2
( 1)
2
1
( )
n
i i i i
i
a b b c A B B C
+
=
= ÷ + ÷ = ÷ + ÷
¿
A B B C s ÷ + ÷ (triangular inequality of the Euclidean norm)
2 2 1 1
2 2
( 1) ( 1)
2 2
1 1
( ) ( )
n n
i i i i
i i
a b b c
+ +
= =
= ÷ + ÷
¿ ¿
September Issue Page 24 of 105 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.3, 2011
iss
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) d A C d A B d B C ¬ s + . Hence, the result follows.
Theorem 3.2
Let
^ ^
( ) R R n = be the set of all real rhotrices of dimension n as defined by equation (2.1) and let t be the
collection of all subsets of
^
R , then
^
( , ) R t is a topological space of real rhotrices.
Proof
Since t
is a collection of all subsets of
^
R then
^
, R t C e
.
Arbitrary union of members of t
belongs
tot , since for any ,
i
A i t ì e e , an indexing set, we have
i
i
A
ì
t
e
e . Finally, intersection of finitely
many members of t
belongs to t , since for
1 2
, ,................,
n
A A A t e implies that
1 2
................
n
A A A t · · · e . Hence, the result is established.
Remark 3.2.1
(i) Of all the various topologies that one may place on a set
^
R , this
^
( , ) R t contains the
largest number of elements and is called the discrete topological space.
(ii) The distance function defined in theorem 3.1 can serve as a metrization of the topological space
in theorem 3.2.
Theorem 3.3
Let
^ ^
( ) R n R = be the set of all real rhotrices of dimension n and let
{ }
^
, ( ) R n = C
be the collection of
some subsets of
^
R such that, C is the empty or null set and
^
( ) R n is as defined by equation (2.1)
then
^
( , ) R is a topological space.
Proof
Since
{ }
^
, ( ) R n = C
is a collection of some subsets of
^
R
then C,
^
Re . Arbitrary union of
members of
belongs to . Finally, intersection of finitely many members of
belongs to .
Hence, the result is proved.
Remark 3.3.1
Of all the various topologies that one may place on a set
^
( ) R n , this
^
( , ) R contains the smallest
number of elements and is called the indiscrete topological space.
The following definitions will be of help in the next theorem:
Natural rhotrix: A rhotrix is called a natural rhotrix if all its entries belong to the set of natural numbers.
Integer rhotrix: A rhotrix is called an integer rhotrix if all its entries belong to the set of integer numbers.
September Issue Page 25 of 105 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.3, 2011
iss
Rational rhotrix: A rhotrix is called a rational rhotrix if all its entries belong to the set of rational
numbers.
Theorem 3.4
Let
^ ^
( ) R n R = be the set of all real rhotrices of dimension n as defined by equation (2.1) and let
{ }
^ ^ ^ ^
, ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) N n Z n Q n R n O = C be the collection of some well defined subsets of
^
R such that, C
is the empty or null set,
^
( ) N n
is the set of all natural rhotrices,
^
( ) Z n
is the set of all integer rhotrices and
^
( ) Q n is the set of all rational rhotrices,
then
^
( , ) R O
is a topological space.
Proof
Since
{ }
^ ^ ^ ^
, ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) N n Z n Q n R n O = C
is a collection of some well defined subsets of
^
( ) R n
then
^
, R C eO. Arbitrary union of members of O
belongs to O. Finally, intersection of finitely many
members of O
belongs to O. Hence, the result is established.
4. Conclusion
A new technique of constructing topological spaces using real rhotrix set as the underlying set has been
proposed. It seems interesting to consider developing ideas for rhotrix topological algebra which may be
analogous to existing ideas in matrix topological algebra. Examples of such ideas are continuity and
compactness in rhotrix topological space.
5. Acknowledgement
We wish to thank Professor G.U. Garba for his helpful suggestions. We also wish to thank Ahmadu Bello
University, Zaria, Nigeria for funding this relatively new area of research.
6. References
[1] Ajibade, A.O., “The concept of rhotrix for mathematical enrichment”, International Journal of
Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 175179, 2003.
[2] Atanassov, K. T. and Shannon, A. G., “Matrixtertions and matrixnoitrets: exercises in
mathematical enrichment”, International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and
Technology, vol. 29, pp. 898903, 1998.
[3] Mohammed, A. “Enrichment Exercises Through Extension to Rhotrices”, International
Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, vol. 38, no.1, pp. 131136,
2007.
[4] Mohammed, A. “A Remark on Classifications of Rhotrices as Abstract Structures”, International
Journal of Physical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 496  499, 2009.
[5] Mohammed, A. and Sani, B. “On Construction of Rhomtrees as Graphical Representation of
Rhotrices”, Notes on Number Theory and Discrete Mathematics, vol.17, no.1, pp. 2129, 2011.
Authors Profile
A. Mohammed is a Mathematics Lecturer at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. His research interest includes
algebra, optimization theory, rhotrix theory and applications. This Author is the first Young Scientist that receives
Ph.D. Mathematics degree, specialising in a relatively new area called „Rhotrix Theory and Applications‟, from
September Issue Page 26 of 105 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.3, 2011
iss
Ahmadu Bello University in 2011. He is a member of Mathematical Association of Nigeria, Computer Association
of Nigeria and Nigerian Mathematical Society.
A. A. Tijjani receives his Ph.D. degree from Imperial College, University of London in 1995. He is presently the
Head of Mathematics Department of the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and also the Deputy Dean of
Faculty of Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. He has supervised several M.Sc. and Ph.D. works in
Mathematicaal Analysis. He is a member of Nigerian Mathematical Society and Mathematical Association of
Nigeria.
September Issue Page 27 of 105 ISSN 2229 5216