Assignment On Concepts of Information and Communication Technology
Submitted byKuhoo Chauhan Form No-1170621 MBA-IB
store. most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery mechanism in both developed and developing countries. and audio conferencing technologies. online programming. older technologies such as the telephone. The use of computers and the Internet is still in its infancy in developing countries. television and.” These technologies include computers. the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India combines the use of print. due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access.ICTs
stand for information and communication technologies and are defined. have a longer and richer history as instructional tools. radio and television have for over forty years been used for open and distance learning.
To get the word out about your business. if these are used at all. radio and television. as a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate. and manage information. In recent years there has been a groundswell of interest in how computers and the Internet can best be harnessed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education at all levels and in both formal and non-formal settings. Similarly. although now given less attention. one of the steps that you need to do is to select the right media where you will advertise and promote your business. established in 1969 as the firs educational institution in the world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning. The Open University of the United Kingdom (UKOU). Instead.
. and to create. although print remains the cheapest. the Internet. they want to get the most return for their investment. broadcasting technologies (radio and television). For instance. in recent years. Your advertising campaign should translate to greater sales. broadcast radio and television. Small businesses do not advertise for the sake of advertising. and telephony. recorded audio and video. every penny is precious. For a small business. more profits and healthier bottom line. still relies heavily on print-based materials supplemented by radio. But ICTs are more than just these technologies. disseminate.
Rye. The right media for one business may be wrong for another.While there are a number of venues where you can promote your business. Based on an excellent small business reference book "How to Start and Operate a Successful Small Business: Winning the Entrepreneurial Game" by David E. to advertise their businesses. you need to ask three important questions:
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Where are my target buyers? What is the best medium to reach them? Can I afford to launch an effective campaign using this medium?
An important step to developing your sales and marketing plan is to select the right media to send out your message. readers can go back to your message again and again if so desired.
Ad space can be expensive Your ad has to compete against the clutter of other advertisers. Advantages
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Allows you to reach a huge number of people in a given geographic area You have the flexibility in deciding the ad size and placement within the newspaper Your ad can be as large as necessary to communicate as much of a story as you care to tell Exposure to your ad is not limited. Free help in creating and producing ad copy is usually available Quick turn-around helps your ad reflect the changing market conditions. including the giants ads run by supermarkets and department stores as well as the ads of your competitors
. The ad you decide to run today can be in your customers' hands in one to two days. both big and small alike. below are the relative advantages and disadvantages of the advertising media most frequently used by small businesses: • Newspapers
Newspapers are one of the traditional mediums used by businesses. There are no hard-and-fast rules as to which media is better.
g. High reader involvement means that more attention will be paid to your advertisement Better quality paper permits better color reproduction and full-color ads The smaller page (generally 8 ½ by 11 inches) permits even small ads to stand out
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Long lead times mean that you have to make plans weeks or months in advance The slower lead time heightens the risk of your ad getting overtaken by events There is limited flexibility in terms of ad placement and format. Magazines
Magazines are a more focused. as you can choose magazine publications that cater to your specific audience or whose editorial content specializes in topics of interest to your audience. albeit more expensive. This medium allows you to reach highly targeted audiences. You may be paying to send your message to a lot of people who will probably never be in the market to buy from you. most ads are for sales Expect your ad to have a short shelf life. Space and ad layout costs are higher
There are several forms of Yellow Pages that you can use to promote and advertise your business. so your competitors can quickly react to your prices With the increasing popularity of the Internet.• • • • • •
Poor photo reproduction limits creativity Newspapers are a price-oriented medium. Aside from the traditional Yellow Pages supplied by phone companies. newspapers face declining readership and market penetration. Hispanic Yellow
. A growing number of readers now skip the print version of the newspaper (and hence the print ads) and instead read the online version of the publication. Newspapers are a highly visible medium. you can also check out specialized directories targeted to specific markets (e. alternative to newspaper advertising. Advantages
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Allows for better targeting of audience. as newspapers are usually read once and then discarded.
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Wide availability. Gives your business personality through the creation of campaigns using sounds and voices Free creative help is often available Rates can generally be negotiated During the past ten years. and other services classified as Yellow Pages. you may have to advertise simultaneously on several stations to reach your target audience Listeners cannot go back to your ads to go over important points
. Audiotex or talking yellow pages. The vast array of radio program formats offers to efficiently target your advertising dollars to narrowly defined segments of consumers most likely to respond to your offer. Blacks. at work. and your ad can easily get lost in the clutter Your ad is placed together with all your competitors Limited creativity in the ads. as the audience is actually looking for the ads Ads are reasonably inexpensive Responses are easily tracked and measured Frequency
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Pages can look cluttered. and even in the car. radio rates have seen less inflation than those for other media
Because radio listeners are spread over many stations. at home.).Pages. as mostly everyone uses the Yellow Pages Non-intrusive Action-oriented. Internet directories containing national. local and regional listings. given the need to follow a pre-determined format Ads slow to reflect market changes Radio
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Radio is a universal medium enjoyed by people at one time or another during the day. interactive or consumer search databases.
which limits the amount of information you can communicate Relatively expensive in terms of creative. Effectiveness of response to the campaign can be easily measured. sound and motion
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Message is temporary. sales letters. is a marketing technique in which the seller sends marketing messages directly to the buyer. and sales letters with brochures. Your ad campaign is hidden from your competitors until it's too late for them to react
. Your message can be as long as is necessary to fully tell your story. and may require multiple exposure for the ad to rise above the clutter Ads on network affiliates are concentrated in local news broadcasts and station breaks Preferred ad times are often sold out far in advance Limited length of exposure. thus helping increase positive response. as most ads are only thirty seconds long or less.•
Ads are an interruption in the entertainment. production and airtime costs Direct Mail
Direct mail often called direct marketing or direct response marketing. a radio ad may require multiple exposure to break through the listener's "tune-out" factor and ensure message retention
Radio is a background medium. which means that your ad has to work hard to get their attention
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Television permits you to reach large numbers of people on a national or regional level in a short period of time Independent stations and cable offer new opportunities to pinpoint local audiences Television being an image-building and visual medium. it offers the ability to convey your message with sight. Advantages
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Your advertising message is targeted to those most likely to buy your product or service. Direct mail includes catalogs or other product literature with ordering opportunities. Marketing message can be personalized. You have total control over the presentation of your advertising message. Because of this. Most listeners are doing something else while listening.
as the success of this kind of promotional campaign depends on the quality of your mailing list.•
Active involvement . answering any questions or concerns they may have about your product or service.can be elicited from the target market. national and even global prospects. Results are highly measurable. Advantages
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Provides a venue where you can easily interact with the prospect.
. or telemarketing. Long lead times are required for creative printing and mailing Producing direct mail materials entail the expense of using various professionals copywriter. quality of your list and size of the campaign. is an effective system for introducing a company to a prospect and setting up appointments. It's cost-effective compared to direct sales. If outsourcing. set-up cost is minimal Increased efficiency since you can reach many more prospects by phone than you can with in-person sales calls. printers. and throw them immediately without even opening the mail. as well as to introduce new products to them Makes it easy to expand sales territory as the phone allows you to call local. Resources need to be allocated in the maintenance of lists. artists.
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Some people do not like receiving offers in their mail. depending on your target market. You can get a lot of information across if your script is properly structured. Can be expensive. Tele-marketing
Telephonic sales. Great tool to improve relationship and maintain contact with existing customers. photographers. etc.the act of opening the mail and reading it -. It's easy to prospect and find the right person to talk to.
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An increasing number of people have become averse to telemarketing. particularly if the telemarketing is outsourced to an outside firm It is most appropriate for high-ticket retail items or professional services. If hiring an outside firm to do telemarketing. there is lesser control in the process given that the people doing the calls are not your employees May need to hire a professional to prepare a well-crafted and effective script It can be extremely expensive. computer mouse.
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Targeting your market is difficult. distributed during trade shows). etc. More people are using technology to screen out unwanted callers. such as key chains. useful. mugs. hence promoting long retention and constant exposure Availability of wide range of inexpensive items that can be purchased at a low price. They can create instant awareness. particularly telemarketers Government is implementing tougher measures to curb unscrupulous telemarketers Lots of businesses use telemarketing. or decorative products called advertising specialties. They can generate goodwill in receiver The items can be used to supplement other promotional efforts and media (e. recipients need not purchase or make a contribution to receive these items.g. target audience may decide to keep the items. It is difficult to find items that are appropriate for certain businesses Longer lead time in developing the message and promotional product Possibility of saturation in some items and audiences Wrong choice of product or poor creative may cheapen the image of advertiser
. If done well. This can be an inappropriate medium for some businesses. Advantages
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Flexibility of use High selectivity factor as these items can be distributed only to the target market. Specialty Advertising
This kind of advertising entails the use of imprinted. These articles are distributed for free.
Types of media include the Internet. SMS and MMS enable a business to reach specific consumers.
. By sending emails to customers or suggesting a product to friends on social media platforms such as Facebook or Twitter. Search engines can guide interested consumers to the website to learn about products or services offered by a business. Advertising a product on a website can extend an offer to potential customers in any part of the world.An Overview of Advantages & Disadvantages of Using ICT
The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become more integrated into aspects of life. The focus can be greater than using billboards or newspapers where an audience that isn't targeted might see the message. A website also enables a business to reach out to a target audience through search engines. a business may end up spending far less than it would through conventional promotional approaches such as placing an ad in a newspaper. ICT continues to gain an edge over other non-computerized promotional materials such as brochures. Extremely Interactive The Internet and mobile phones are highly interactive promotional tools compared to advertising done with brochures or billboards. this assumes the potential customer has access to the Internet. a business also can save money by sending bulk short message service (SMS) and multimedia messaging service (MMS) data to customers. Alternatively. Sending emails to potential customers is faster and comes with minimal cost as opposed to having brochures printed and distributed through sales agents. cable television or a mobile phone. However. Advertising products on a website could allow consumers to comment and offer valuable reviews of products and services. but ignore it. an email promoting a product can be sent to thousands within a target audience at once. posters or billboards because of some advantages it has in promotional messaging. ICT means all forms of media used to handle and convey messages. Using emails also is cost-effective. Target Audiences ICT pathways such as the Internet. For example. Market Expansion Using media such as the Internet allows businesses to break through geographical barriers and promote products and services faster. Cost-effective Online promotion is cost-effective. In marketing. distributing brochures or bulk mailing to target consumers.
According to Hara (2004). For example it is now argued that US influences how most young teenagers all over the world now act. Promotional messages also can be tailored to fit their needs of customers at particular locations. Cost BarrierAnother important drawback to using ICT in schools is the fact that computers are expensive. Anytime. emails. This means that a lot of lower and middle level jobs have been done away with causing more people to become unemployed. This may be seen as a good thing but on the other hand there will be little money left over for other significant costs. Languages too have become overshadowed. downsizing and outsourcing. Dominant culture – While information technology may have made the world a global village. According to the IT learning exchange (2001). with English becoming the primary mode of communication for business and everything else. This means goods or services can be advertised when your target audience may not have the time to go through a newspaper or a brochure.Additionally. SMS and MMS allow businesses to send out custom-made multimedia messages or alerts to a target audience that can facilitate direct responses.
. within the early years education attitudes towards ICT can vary considerably. Anywhere Marketing The portability of ICT forms such as a mobile phone or laptop allows a business to promote products or services 24 hours a day from anywhere in the world. Some see it as a potential tool to aid learning whereas others seem to disagree with the use of technology in early year settings. when it rains during a soccer match. For example. Unemployment – While information technology may have streamlined the business process it has also created job redundancies. dress and behave. in most schools ICT will be the single largest curriculum budget cost. it has also contributed to one culture dominating another weaker one.
Disadvantages of ICT
One of the major barriers for the cause of ICT not reaching its full potential in the foundation stage is teacher’s attitude. an entrepreneur could send bulk messages to promote rain gear that is for sale within that time and particular locale.
Privacy – Though information technology may have made communication quicker. dispatch planning and financial accounting. Lack of job security – Industry experts believe that the internet has made job security a big issue as since technology keeps on changing with each day. it has customized its applications to meet local requirements. produces a diverse range of products. if he or she wishes for their job to be secure. Nearly 210 VSATs link its corporate office. (HLL).
One of India's leading consumer companies. From cell phone signal interceptions to email hacking. 90 warehouses and 13 branches manufacturing and marketing an array of toiletries.
ICT in Hindustan Lever Ltd. HLL had net sales of $2 million (Rs 80. production reporting. The functions of HLL that are computerized include manufacturing. people are now worried about their once private information becoming public knowledge. HLL has addressed this problem through extensive computerization. but has not gone in for total automation. The company also has 70 LANs in different locations. from personal care to household goods. The company has about 50 professionals in ICT at its headquarters. HLL has massively distributed resources. Hindustan Lever Ltd. and the flow. processing and presentation of information to these is affected by a combination of manual. This means that one has to be in a constant learning mode.
. it has also bought along privacy issues. Integrating these units to ensure smooth flows of information and to satisfy changing customer needs is a daunting task. cosmetics and home-care products. Inter.000 million) in 1997 and has more than 60 factories. purchasing. all linked by VSATs for efficient communication. material resources planning. and another 30 onsite specialists in other branches and factories The communications infrastructure of HLL is massive. easier and more convenient. such as depots and factories.and intra-office communication is carried out through cc: Mail. Although HLL uses a readymade software package. One of the earliest TNCs to set up shop in India. regional offices and manufacturing facilities. mail and automatic transfer systems. data processing. The company is one of the largest users of VSATs in the private sector. distribution.
where factories took four to six days to close their accounts.
. they are now capable of doing this in just two days. all inter-unit reconciliation is done automatically with the systems "talking" to each other. On the distribution front. sales and receipt data to buffer depots. For example. Similarly.HLL was previously using stand-alone software packages. a daily replenishment system demands that all warehouses transfer their stock. which compute the next day's requirements and generate loading slips accordingly. Now all functions are integrated using one software package. HLL plans to link its regional stockiest to HLL systems to monitor pipeline stocks and demand. Fresh investment is being planned in the area of communications to utilize the new ICT infrastructure available in the country. HLL has realized several benefits from this use of ICT. In the area of financial accounting. which meant additional data entry and a longer turnaround time on documentation. Likewise. which is expected to improve service and the predictability of supply. This has reduced the time taken for the month-end reconciliation exercise from four days to just one day. The VSAT network is utilized to carry out this function. consolidation of nearly 100 accounting units is achieved in a record time of eight to 10 days.