.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. WILLIAMS AND NOEGATE. 1894. EXERCISES FOR READING AXD GLOSSARY BY ADOLF ERMAN.GRAMMAR WITH TABLE OF SIGNS.tlT> ^ >- . COVENT GARDEN. TRANSLATED BY JAMES HENRY BREASTED. LONDON AND 20. 14. EDINBURGH. . HENRIETTA STREET. SOUTH FREDERICK STREET.

Authorized Translation. .

and which must guide us in the interpretation of texts. aims to acquaint the learner with those grammatical phenomena which are well established. the acquisition of the Egyptian lanand writing. For those who are familiar with the peculiar situation of Egyptian philology. this book is designed to facilitate as far as possible. for the beginner. is the simultaneous acquisition of One who not familiar with this. I need not premise with the remark. the only phase of the Egyptian language which we really understand. will never properly comprehend it in its older . It It further aims to afford him as correct a picture as possible of the general structure of the Egyptian language. As the outgrowth of practical academic instruction. and is also intended for those who guage must dispense with the assistance of a teacher in the study.AUTHOR'S PREFACE. viz. that something else the study of Egyptian is grammar if it is necessary to to be at all a fruitful study. Coptic.

to note also the constant cross references in both. I have tried . The paragraphs therefore deal with what may be caUed the classic language. The Egyptian language as we find it. most ever attain more than a super- capacity for reading Egyptian texts by rote. The material selection offered and limitation of the grammatical especial difficulty. I would therefore request the student of my book to work through Steindorff's Coptic Grammar a book parallel with this and especially.IV periods. and even leaving Late Egyptian and still later idioms out of account. presents quite different stages of development. with which the idiom later employed as the learned and official language is practically identical. of the popular language of the middle empire on the other. the language of the inscriptions and poems of the middle empire. The material in the chrestomathy is also taken from texts of this character in order that the beginner may accustom himself to their linguistic usage and especially to their consistent orthography. fifteen hundred still years of the history of the language remain to be dealt with. nor. at the ficial AUTHOR'S PREFACE. These difficulties have been surmoun- ted by relegating to certain paragraphs (A and B) the peculiarities of the ancient religious literature and those and the inscriptions of the old empire on the one hand.

clear print and explanatory remarks. In the use of the book it has seemed to me that the beginner should first familiarize himself with the most important paragraphs. to facilitate the understanding of the chrestomathy by division into sentences. but also tries to form a connected idea of the sections of the grammar thus If in referred to. 1893. much which is not so designated undoubtedly belongs to Steindorff and Sethe. But we have so often ourselves. in order to understand Egyptian inscriptions correctly. doing this he not only looks up the paragraphs indicated. designated by an asterisk. . and should then work through the first part of the Chrestomathy. that in this book. where as a rule he must recognize the grammatical forms for himself.. The appendix to the chrestomathy contains "the most important of the formularies from the list which must now be mastered. ADOLF EEMAN. he will then be sufficiently advanced to take hold of the second part of the chrestomathy.AUTHOR S PREFACE. that dis- cussed these things among we could not if separate our "intellectual property" even it we deemed at all important to do so. It further behoves me to state. SUDENDE. August 19th.

that the "vowels were very commonly omitted". on p. Ex. an assertion in direct contradiction of the facts. The peculiar lator.* * that the The above statement may seem strange to one who knows grammar of Le Page Renouf was reedited in 1889 ("An Elementary Grammar of the Ancient Egyptian Language" by P. Prof. But this venerable scholar. difficulties experienced by the trans- in transferring into English the results of the grammatical investigations of his honored teacher. has not followed the modern development in Egyptian grammar. Bagster & Sons. 50 the In of the m-form of the verb is stated to be inse- parable from the subject and separable from the verb. to the unique character of the that the language investigated. 1 you will find the Egyptian consonants I. classified under a list of vowels! and the statement added. London.). and this about a system of orthography exclusively consonantal (with the exception of one or two doubtful endings). the Nestor of English Egyptologists. gr. His book is therefore entirely obsolete. 3. On p. does not yet exist in English. These difficulties were due firstly. and due to a confusion with . Le Page Renouf. 2nd. as it has been created by the German grammatical school in the last fifteen years. C &c. and secondly to the fact new science of Egyptian Grammar. ed. render a word of explanation necessary.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. Erman.

The ready is with which the German lends itself to the enti- expression of compound ideas in one word. the latter being called an "independent personal pronoun". VII There were therefore no termini technici of Egyptian grammar ready facility at hand in English. But to enumerate forms and phenomena unknown to this grammar would be to repeat a large portion of the work though Mr. 18 where the absolute pronoun st is called a suffix. Le Page Benouf has stated in his "Concluding Observations" that the Egyptian language suffered many changes during its enormously long history. no hint of these changes appears in the treatment of grammatical forms and syntax. Further. rely foreign to English for which a felicitous and the peculiar phenomena compound was always ready in the despair of the the flexile German were sometimes In. s. 3 f. sn and s. Victor Loret may testify. e. for in the classic language st is always used absolutely. If the end of the period thus included were two thousand years removed from us. . the author being misled by the confusion purely orthographic in late and corrupt texts. s. separably. without any distinction of time. the parallel would be complete and it could be stated with impunity that the Latin article was il and that the Italian nouns were comprised in five terminationally inflected declensions..TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. The entire treatise is therefore as reasonable as would be a grammar. should present the forms of Latin and its offspring Italian in heterogeneous combination from the Augustan age down to the present day. s. but the 2 m. i. and 3 m. between st. In France the new science is equally disregarded. and all the plurals are wanting. which. Those of the 1 c.. the particle Or turn to p. are incidentally mentioned. s.. In the same chapter one searches in vain for any paradigm of the old absolute pronouns. 2 f. as the recent "Manuel de la Langue egyptienne" of here translated.

"substantivized". from the lips of the man whom they are almost solely due. but to have used this term would have been a liberty not justified it is. viz. very similar to the Assyrian "permansive". fifteen years. may be as interesting and in- structive to the English have been to to and American student as they the translator.VIII TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. One word has been With the coined. that such terms have intelligible to the been made at least English reading student and the indulgence of the reader is craved wherever felicitous English has been sacrificed for the sake of clearness. translator. It only remains to be achieved within the last hoped that the results. being simply the transferred "substantivirte". llth. and after with the author. It is hoped. which render the grammatical structure of the ancient Egyptian tolerably intelligible. however. but could find nothing better stands. and which are herewith presented for the first time in English. . BERLIN. German translation "uninflected passive" for the German "endungsloses consultation Passiv" the writer was not at all satisfied. in translating. JAMES HENEY BREASTED. 1893. it The term "pseudoparticiple" is another directly transferred word for which nothing better could be found. both in conjugation and meaning. Nov.

a. Personal Pronoun. J. Unusual Styles of Orthography Rules for Transliteration f. Special Points in Phonetics Syllabic Signs c. a. GRAMMAR. Phonetic Signs. Ideograms Determinatives 36 44 52 tr- 45 Orthography. Personal suffixes 73 79 Old Absolute Pronoun Later Absolute Pronoun Expression for "self 8083 84 85 d. In general b. e. 68 69 Words G. 4.CONTENTS. The Alphabet b. 35 3. 1. &. INTRODUCTION 13 412 1327 28 32 31 So OETHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. 7071 72 PRONOUNS. 5. 5^ 54 59 63 Orthography of the Ideograms Purely phonetic Orthography Abbreviations Inversion of the Order of 58 6^ d. c. In general 2. c. a. .

Rare Classes and Irregular Verbs The Causative .2. ns) 138 3. Dual Use of the Singular. /3. Plural. d. Forms Expression of Gender of the Substantive a. c. a. pForms with n- f. Adjectives without Ending Adjectives in 'i 128 131 132 137 139 Appendix (ir'i. Numerals. /3. a. The Article The Absolute Substantive Apposition and Coordination 104106 107109 110112 113116 117 118 121 119 122 125 g. 1. . /". . c. e. 162 2. a. b. Usual Classes 148154 155 y. Demonstrative Pronoun. In general. The a. 160 161 Voice . Beal Numerals b. c. Adjectives a. t- 86 91 90 94 NOUNS. Plural /?. Usual Inflection. Appendix to the Numeral 140145 146147 VERBS. The Genetive. Imy. b. y. Expression of the Subject (Inflection). Direct Genetive 124 127 Genetive with n 2. Substantives. Classes of the Verb. b. a. . b. 1. Forms with m. . 95 99 98 103 Expression of Number. 163169 170 171 In general . a. a. Dual.

XI The Formation sdmf. Its Formation B. "it is". Dependent upon Verbs E. 220 222 223 b. In the Conditional sentence D. Its Formation as Indicative 172 173 Use 174 177 176 178 C. Iwfsdmf. Dependent y. a. Appendix The -Form sdmnf. The <'-Form sdminf.) Formation Use. Introduced hy a. The Forms of the First Group. With the Auxiliary Verb wn Subject. . e. The Forms iw sdmf and Iw sdmnf. 3. (Pseudoparticiple. upon Prepositions 191 190 193 c. . . The Form Jirf sdmf. ft. a. Use as an Indicative In Conditional Clauses 182183 184 186 187 A. ft. 188 189 D. Its b. 179 180 181 As an Optative The Forms of the Second Group. Compounds with Forms a. Its Formation Use 194 195 196199 200 203 <J. b. ft. As a Subjunctive E. y. In a Final Clause F.CONTENTS. With Double a. ft. The />r-Form sdmlirf. 228 229 . 224227 . a. The Forms wnf sdmf and wntnf sdmf. Its 204205 206207 208215 Form Form 216 4. The Uninflected Passive Old Inflection. . a. In the Active-Transitive In the Passive-Intransitive 217 219 5. of the Usual Inflection. A. Its ft. B. C.

With the Auxiliary Verb iw With the Auxiliary Verb wn Infinitive 250252 253 255 8. Participles b. to the . 301 305 Simple Prepositions 306 314 Compound Prepositions 315317 . 254 257 10. Formation Substantive Nature 262268 269 271 Its y. In general y. Its ft. . With ChCn and ChC With in. ft. Compounds with "make" or Infinitive.XII c. ft. 88 oo With a Verb a. of the Verb. 9. Infinitive. b. Its c. 283288 289292 293 295 Verbal Adjective 11. . prn and iw The Form sdrnf piv ir 230234 235236 237 6. d. Adverbs 300 2. 258 261 a. 238 239 7. Use 272281 282 Substantivized Forms. a. In general. Appendix Verb the Object : 296299 PARTICLES. a. a. of Motion. Compounds with r and the The Imperative The Nominal Forms a. Introduced by Auxiliary Verbs. Prepositions. CONTENTS. (I. ft. . To Denote the Action Itself. Without the Auxiliary Verb (Improper Nominal Sentence) 240245 246 249 b. c. Compounds with the Pseudoparticiple a. 1. To Denote a Person or an Object.

. a. Interrogative Sentence Negative Sentence. Clauses. /3. 194 . C. Dependent and Substantivized Temporal Clauses Conditional Clauses Relative Clauses. . With ir. ir-. c. /3. b. . of Words 336342 343 In general Without Introduction 344 347 346 350 y. The Order Emphasis. a. a. a. /3. . The Simple Nominal Sentence 327 The Nominal Sentence Introduced by iw and wn. y. XIII Conjunctions. a. With and nn The Circumlocutions with The Negative Adjective 364 im-. In general Enclitic Conjunctions 318 319 323 322 Non-enclitic Conjunctions 326 THE SENTENCE. With the Substantivized Verb With the Passive Participle With the Adjective nt'i 399 400 404 Page 171 TABLE OF SIGNS BIBLIOGRAPHY. Without Connective 392 394 401 393 y.CONTENTS. 372 m. c. 8. b. c. r and In The Ellipses 351355 356 363 5. 3. b. a. b. Kinds of Sentence. tm-. The Nominal Sentence. c. 373377 378 380 d. 1. The Parts of the Sentence. a. 332 The Nominal Sentence with pw 334 331 333 335 2. . 381383 384 386 385 391 f.

3. to the Priests of Abydos 3. 37* 39* . 5. Examples of the Royal Titularies . FIKST PART. Examples of Grave Formulae. From the From the APPENDIX. . 40* 42* GLOSSARY.XIV CONTENTS. Medicinal Receipts Cosmetics and Domestic Receipts From the Proverbs of Ptah-hotep Story of Sinuhe Story of the Eloquent Peasant to the Authorities of El- 6* I 11* SECOND PART. 17* 2. 28* 1. 1. 1. phantine. 2. 2. A Writing of Thutmosis' I. 4. From Canalizing of the First Cataract the Address of Thutmosis' 3* I. EXERCISES FOR READING.

ABBREVIATIONS.) Brugsch. e.Z. Mariette Abydos (Bibliography Bd). Mast. Hdb.: Totenbuch. 28*).: : : Coptic. Papyrus Ebers (Bibliography Feminine. iE. Mathemat. Wb. : . 'yr. d'Ab. : New .: Mariette. : : . : : Rouge. 28*). (Bibliography Bd). 'easant : Story of the Eloquent Peasant (Exercises for L. Coptic utler: Papyrus Butler (Exercises for Reading Grammar. lar. Inscriptions of Siut Totb. 17*). Leipzig 1868. : : Bf). Brugsch. 1882. Empire. 'risse: Papyrus Prisse (Bibliography Be). Pyramid Texts (Bibliography Bf). : lar. Mariette. Denkmaler (Bibliography Ba). )opt. Inscriptions hieroglyphiques (Bibliography Ba). : Reading p. e. W. Gr. Bf). : : Sprache (Bibliography C. Worterbuch Steindorff. b. lath. (Bibliography Ab).IH. i. lin. Naville (Bibliography CFna: Inschrift des Wni (AZ. p. Auswahl (Bibliography Ba). '. Pepy I. iD. Old Empire. or : R. I. Middle Empire. Pyramid of Pepy I. Isq. Sinuhe (Exercises for Reading p. Cat. liar. A. SVestc. (Bibliography Bf).: Zeitschrift fiir agyptische Br. Catalogue des monuments (Bibliography Bd).: Eisenlohr. masculine.: Late Egyptian. Mastabas (Bibliography Bd).). Handbuch (Bibliography Be). siut: Griffith.: ieps. Lepsius. Ausw. Be). Papyrus Westcar (Bibliography Be).: e. Ab. Br. ed. or Merenre Pyramid of Merenre' (Bibliography Lepsius. Die agyptische Graberwelt.

.

The Middle-Egyptian. C.INTRODUCTION. Galla. Aramaic the East-African languages (Bischari. and did not entirely die out until three centuries ago.the Late-Egyptian . \ . the employment of which as the learned. as far The language of its oldest monuments belongs back as the fourth millennium B. The Egyptian language is related to the &c. livergences found in this period are noted in the reErman. gramm. Arabic. mitic languages (Hebrew. literary language continued into culiarities of its oldest Roman times. We distinguish the following chief periods of the language: 1.). Jin this The Old-Egyptian. the po[of mlar language of the new empire the most important . the oldest language treated book. Pe- form (found in the so-called "pyramid texts") are noted in the remarks "A" under 2. the popular language the middle empire and . and to the Berber languages of North- Africa. Seto 1. Somali and others). Egypt. 3. 2. [the different paragraphs.

written without vowels. 3. parallel with this book. by Steindorff. their number is very large. The Demotic. Since the idioms cited. to acquire a knowledge of Coptic. from 1 4. plants. 1. though only about 500 are in frequent use. Brugsch (Berthe language of of course obsolete. &c. Coptic is ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. Hieroglyphic writing consists of pictures of men. 14) the Coptic affords the only possibility of understanding the structure of the It is therefore necessary. The the Cf. animals. which are all I hereafter cite as "C". 33 -35. the popular language of the last pre-Christian centuries. Neuagyptische Grammatik (Leipzig 1880). *4. . "Grammaire demotique". 2. EgypOnly even for the beginner. It is more fully treated in: Erman Sprache des Papyrus Westcar (Gottingen 1889) and Erman. marks U B".2 INTRODUCTION. tian language. Christian the Coptic Egyptians written with Greek letters. written in a peculiar ortho- graphy. IN GENERAL. Coptic. ^. and the determinatives of 47 are sufficient at the start for . lin 1855) 5. The alphabetic and syllabic signs of ^13. 3. grammar. one who already proficient in Old-Egyptian and should venture into Late-Egyptian or Demotic. (cf. Cf.

IN GENERAL. the other signs he will best learn through usage. The J. for it reasons of convenience we always write direction. Hence the words rpQ'i "hereditary prince". signs stand in part vertically as (1 ' *> J yf' >&*$' almost the n part horizontally <^> ones used in both positions are the especially only / ^^ / tequent signs o-=> or cf. heads of the animal and face human by the which always toward the beginning. and 5. 5 7. only exceptionally (when employed for certain deco- from left to right. the beginner. ilosely follow this caligraphic A* . The writing properly runs from right rative purposes) to left. inscription is is to be read from the right or the easily determined figures. 1. guous signs should together form an approximate rectangle. Caligraphy demanded that a number of conti- 7. At the present day we do not always law but to the Egyptian . smr tvQi "nearest friend" and hs "praise". A C3 "great" and i-~-. nevertheless.ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. or a 47). in the latter Whether an left. The frequent abbreviation ^=i I m3C-hrn> or 1 'justified" is preferably written 1. 1 f could only be written as follows ? I arrangements )e like <^> ^ *' T"< I I C ~I=ll~' Q /\ barbarous.

For example. 1. and should especially familiarize thimself with the abbreviations for the different birds there employed. that out of respect for it. Similarly ^o often written for the rvt more correct but unpleasing lift. when written upon Egyptian paper. customary to sketch the hieroglyphs exactly. 9. and ^ for q^ g. than are presented by our printed and written . < TibC. This is however correct. IN GENERAL. for they have no other points of distinction letters. only in large ornamental inscriptions. he sometimes departed from the correct orthography. 8. in almost all cases he wrote for sCh 1\Q) "to play" and rmt_ "man" (I \shc. in most cases It is it ventional regarded as sufficient to outline them in a conmanner with a few strokes. "prince". because the correct writings g * L a jj ' ^ jj a Jj> is <i^> ^^ were unpleasing. The beginner should take as his pattern practically the writing in is Brugsch's Dictionary. $ rt. 9. was so important. From the earliest times the individual signs were very much shortened and rounded off.4 it ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. rate writing the We have accustomed ourselves to contrast these abbreviated hieroglyphs as a sepa- so-called "hieratic" - with the in- writing of the monuments.

i. a more angular uncial. classes are often not to be sharply defined. THE ALPHABET. out of which the Demotic (cf. 2. a. 4) finally grew. and 2. and a more rapid cursive. 11*. which represent a certain word. to indicate its meaning in a general way. Ideograms. THE ALPHABET. 10 13. PHONETIC SIGNS. as follows: . arrangement of which is The alphabet ern) is (the mod- 13*. fall into 2. The two hieratic writing is subdivided further into 10. which are alphabetic or syllabic. e. as the first.2. which often contracts an entire word into one ligature. in which the individual signs remain for the most part separated. three classes ac- meaning: Phonetic signs. signs placed after a word. for ori- ginal determinatives pass over into ideograms original ideograms into syllabic signs. 5 A knowledge of the Hieratic is not an immediate necessity for the beginner. PHONETIC SIGNS. tt. So-called determinatives. but are also very often employed for another the word having same consonants 3. varieties. The hieroglyphic signs cording to their 1. As may be seen from the table of signs these 12. It was this cursive writing.

14. but by means of the Coptic (cf. Since the ew empire @ is also written for w. c ( Ajin) ^ J w m m To these are further signs: to be added two secondary . (Eagle) fl & I a (Beedleaf) c . PHOXETIC SIGNS. Our transliteration of these signs must be regarded only as an approximate equivalent of the respective sounds . r B. C. / for m 14*. and V for n. THE ALPHABET. 15) and . O.2.

are not indicated. g. 16. (U It "father". g Al (cf. In the later syllabic writing 70) is also used for indication of a vowel. I P "wine". For the exceptional use of some few consonants for the indication of certain vocalic endings cf. lost. d. i and in many 16*. an established fact that all signs represent consonants. 18. *haj. tf. 27. THE ALPHABET. 7 the manner in which Semitic words are transcribed it is in Egyptian. PHONETIC SIGNS. won (from *lerp). e.) In certain endings was used in the oldest orthography to indicate an ?'. which the later orthography indicates by ^ (cf. (cf. probably corresponds approximately to 15** But in many words ^b\ often indicated ' early became % a pronun(][]?/. since the n. 27). *"TL f" E) K^S ^& (I h3 "husband" (*#:?). or Cf. <\ e. 1 and Rem. written ra ~V\ n v& h3y i. copt. copt. words always remained a EICOT.2. C \s\ 15 2). just as in Semitic writing. e.g- by the addition of m a. . U ^^ Imn copt. A^AA^/^ AMOyN "Amon" (from ^imon^ (1 C 15 a. ciation. on \\ i cf. M I etymologically corresponds to i. 15 16. 15. copt. tt I But with most words *r it was early cf. e . and Egyptian words in Semitic. The vowels.

one and the same sign O 22. s. Cf. for it ** => was interchanges with s. disappeared. THE ALPHABET. PHONETIC SIGNS. C 15 Rem. certain words /WW\A n also was probably pronounced an fiJ /. in the syllabic orthography (Cf. standing very near to merged into one sound that we transliterate them with . 2.8 2. C 8 a. and a few end- ^K is also used to indicate a vowel (something like u). r. 17 22. f\ Up In <^> like represented / as well as r. . a. C 8. a^>_ to the Semitic s. (something like hh) and ch in acA). C 13. 20. cf. but in Coptic it has ^b> w corresponds to Semitic 70) 1. /about corresponded to our English Cf. X P h and h differ like arab. Copt. originally a special appears to but both were so early sound. were likewise originally different sounds . *17. a c corresponds to Semitic y and this pronun. ciation *18. was very long preserved Cf. C O 14. arab. but they were also so early merged into one we transliterate them both with the same s dsn corresponds to tj our sh. C 12 be. 19. w Cf. in oy. sound that sign s. ings. ~~*~~ an<^ I h. n. 2i * h is Heb. nevertheless in (something like German many words O h have also possessed a softer sound.

(cf. ? is a special modification of the same sound. C 10. e. only. . cf. s=> t is a special 24. down i. which must have o in the n. had. for the fre.24. v_^& k to D. e.27*. but not to be defined more closely. . B: 1-=. becomes . Concerning its origin cf. is C 11 a. modification sounded about period ints ^. in most words already passed over C 11 a. 9 9 ^ s a sound corresponds to p. quently recurring grammatical ending it cannot stand at the beginning or in the middle of a word. which must have sounded something like s. *mesios "she bears"). cz^3 d corresponds for the most part to Semitic 25. e. at the end of word stems and we then transliterate it with y. 23 27. still the indication of two (rs in the oldest 26*. In the latest period <=^> Cf. m (1(1 msii (something like *meslol "I bear". But in most words ^1-=^ very early passed into g-=-^. is a sign used since the m. From the m. 108.2. Cf. 2. texts. it is written for (]. PHONETIC SIGNS. e. But at a very early s=> Cf. . mil I msis i. very near to p. same sound. THE ALPHABET. in so far as this has remained 16). N\ 'i however. in certain endings. 4. so that it coincides with (1(1 in Copt. g. e. t & corresponds to Semitic of the like fi. Ak ^ 23.

according to 40 have become . and for initial 29. shm and hsm "holy of holies". tvh$ "column" and tv3h'i "hall of columns" &c. PHONETIC SIGNS. I also. e. In many words it stands. some- times as second. C. In many words 3 was also early lost. Remarkable is the writing of \\^lt "father" (copt. rvhlh with tvh3 "seek". 6. for which a sign wanting. (1 i and " is written (1~ and further the combination o. (1 Similar phenomena appear sometimes with 30. ss and also hs and sh. SPECIAL POINTS IN PHONETICS. which interchanges with <::::> (j. ssp. are Such is a expressed by a combination of several. 6. The weakness of the breathing "v\ 3 produces peculiar phenomena. syllabic signs were also used which.10 2. is 28. very 157. s. 31. SYLLABIC SIGNS. with smS "kill". ElODT) which since the oldest times appears also as A (I ^ ^ or c. 13m and Im3 "pleasant". PHONETICS. Certain sounds. Along with the simple consonants. ssp and Sp "receive". Along with these occur forms like km3m with km3 "create". kind of <=> r occurring as the final letter of many words. sometimes as third consonant. g. ss3 and s$3 "wise". sm3m cf. A further interchange is ss. 28 32. k3m and km3 "create". SYLLABIC SINGS. 32.

are of importance for the beginner. For further examples cf. C. SYLLABIC SIGNS. The syllabic signs in . the list hieroglyphs. . however.. rvrh . ceptions (like The rare ex- Jls\ . rv are almost as frequent as 34*. really an ideogram for wr "great". 11 pure phonetic signs from original ideograms. \5 ^ vK ) occasionally also with all the others the syllabic sign must be used.2. 34. whose second consonant is 33*. To be noted are: ? D fer tf M Of these k3 and t3 LTJ & ^ occur also in syllabic writing /?^. appears as syllabic sign in hsmn "natron". mnh of "wax" etc. PHONETIC SIGNS.anoint" &c. ^>. for such for syllables the most part must be written with these signs. really an ideogram for mn "re- main". The syllabic signs. 33.<! _M^ in sbl "door" and db3 "restore") probably indicate peculiar phonetic conditions in these words. Thus ^^. the above for these. ^\ -3*. the alphabetic writing may also be used: . appears as a syllabic sign in swri "drink". rvrs "spend time".

*37 Since abstract conceptions and the like cannot be sketched. z> nw 3rv * w and *35. nt city. IDEOGRAMS. IDEOGRAMS. v^*. & heart. 133). incorrectly 3. *36. (cf.12 3. the also sign of the ending (cf. 102). 1\ for ti. . The ideograms originally denoted the objects which they represent: cr^] pr house.ht wood. 35 37. (like the sign for 2) or tint ^K 43). &c. _$=& rw . concrete objects in some way suggestive of them are used as ideograms for them: ? Scepter is the ideogram for hk3 "reign". i@> Jir face. ^ c sun. O Qi y| s^ soldier. used in many words as initial yn (cf. sw n Q7\ Note further the I f syllabic signs : perhaps or sometimes also (] probably rs*.

IDEOGRAMS. . 3840. hk3t The ideogram therefore denotes only the consonants forming the stem. without belonging to the same stem. and not in any a special vocalization of it. A |sU Plant used as the arms of upper Egypt for rs "south". C\ Sacred * falcon for st Hr "God Horus". as well as the adjective nt'i "urban" and all its forms. is used for all forms of the Iik3 "ruler" verb MJ? "reign" and the substantivs "ruler" (fern. according to the above remarks. In a few cases more than one sign are found united to form one ideogram. as j^2 smZwt'i "the uniter (of Egypt)" 11 nn "this" is etc. only words belonging to the same stem may properly be written with the same ideogram. An ideogram word but used not only for one specific 39*. 38. nevertheless the Egyptians from the oldest times transferred many signs to such words as accidentally contained the same consonants.3. g. not only for nt "city" but also for the plural nrvt "cities". Target for "shoot". | likewise. 13 8 Staff of office for hrp "lead". Although. e. way 40*. also for all forms derived from it.).

goose. g. truth. In this manner ideograms for stract all sorts of ab- conceptions were obtained. flute. "rest"'. occur much more frequently than words like "lute. the original con- 42. 32seq. m&t "truth". g. A few ideograms really have double values. . hpr "become". so crete employed for tpt "head" and d3d3 "head".14 3.. become. beetle. Thus. rvr "great". Cf. great" &c. Many of these signs were further transferred to so many words that they eventually became purely phonetic syllabic signs. s3 "goose" rvr "dove" &c. Since words like "good. which is apparently occurs it has been caused by the subse- quent merging together of two originally different signs. s3 "son". IDEOGRAMS. Thus e. son. meaning in the case of many such ideograms was therefore nearly forgotten. thus 41. g. dove" &c. 42. 41. ^ rvr "great" ^ p3 "fly" &c. : pr "house" transferred to pr "go out". htp "offering" transferred to htp nfr "lute" transferred to nfr "good". e. in the merging together of the signs . 3 mBCt "flute" lipr "beetle" .. In many cases however where a double value e.

{ rnpt "year". 'v\ mdw ^ "speak" tfw. one sign Q with both meanings found A its origin. tr "time". 43. < ^- a7 bs "bring in". i I 1st | hrrv "voice". rs "south". "rob". 15 Q and YJ one of which meant hrp "lead" and the other A I skm "mighty". "troop". that o|ten no longer possible to detersign.3. -TV" s& "walk in gp through".. . 44. 1 -^ kmC j "south". gj nst "throne". differentiated are: l\ In "bring". fl\ hr "below. which are regularly confused The following frequently recurring ideograms are differently formed from all others: J\ Irv "go". s^ i "go". \\ and in the inscriptions. ^ which one sign of going separated into different Similarly ideograms by the addition of consonants. 44. it is frequently. IDEOGRAMS. L \ and TV. is SOT "come". &c. A similar confusion of different signs occurs so 43. mine the correct form of a difference in: ' Note especially the S g. kd "build" &c. rnp "bloom".

are t\ m still. g. are intended to facilitate the reading. Vir Note especially: Do goddess. people. which more numerous indicate only in general the (| 1 I meaning of their word. DETERMINATIVES. "in" &c. far But those determinatives are and important. A. W*M A 1 9 s^ msh "crocodile". they are not used. B. . 4. ^^ rvr "great". like that of the tree in <r>. 47) comes *46. man 5 woman. DETERMINATIVES. g. few determinatives represent exactly the object which their word denotes e. Irt "do".^ bird. e. after the more special. revered person. ^ plant. 45 47. latest part of the Egyptian *45^ The determinatives. The determinatives At a far rarer in the pyramid texts than later.16 4. which every one recognizes of himself.y A Isr "tamarisk". in this case the more general (of. later period there is an inclination to attach several determinatives to a word . with very frequent words. ^ ^5. insect. animal. the determinative of heaven and of crocodile in the words A and 1\ *47. the writing.

4.

DETERMINATIVES.

48. 49.

17

000

Otree,
3i

dust,
fluid,

(late X>) land,

5

A/WWA
AAAAAA

water,
desert, foreign

J\

go,
see,

^^g7\

land,
city,

what

is

done with

the mouth,

cr^i house,

^
flesh,

(late

*

a)

that

barbarian,
(late
fire.
<?)

which demands strength,

""^
.

little,

bad,

~-. abstract.

O

time,

When

a determinative

is difficult

to write, espe- 48.
e. g.

cially in manuscripts, an abbreviation \ is used,
st "Isis" for

\

i
Exact scribes, especially those at the end of the
49*.
e.

m.

distinguish

still

closer differences

in
ill,

deter-

mination. They
to render its

mark a determinative with
e.

in order

meaning general,
"roast" but
"

g.:

Mr

iwf "flesh"
c w t "cattle"

pnw "mouse" but
hrrt "flower" but fl
i

^\ _^o

A

^ l&t
ill

"onion'Y?).

Erman,

Egypt, gramra.

18
*50.

4.

DETERMINATIVES.

50. 51.

These scribes further add the sign
minative, in order to restrict
its

I

to a deter:

O
B.

rk "period of time", but

meaning, e. g. "Ll vk h rrv "day",

O

M "northern", but ^
<

(I (I

mryt "dyke".
1
1 1

In the

n. e. these

additional signs
e.

and

I

are often

incorrectly employed.

To the m.

belongs the rare practice of

occasionally furnishing the determinatives

@ and fv/VQ with the

feminine ending
"city',,

t

(^'

^

),

as if they -were the substantives nt

smt "land".

"51.

determinative which
are written with
determinative,
1

The stroke must be regarded is added to

as a special kind of

substantives, which

only one sign and have no other
:

e. g.

>
drv

"mountain",

r3 (?) "mouth",

*

c "arm",

"SxJ si "son",
I):

or (with the feminine ending

-^
I

(\S\J~\

o

dt "hand",

o

smt "desert" etc.
I

Nevertheless the usage varies
ceptions to the
*"

much

here and two exall texts:

\

law here given are found in

hr
is

1.

"face", 2.

"upon" with

even when the
|

word

a preposition, not a substantive.
s

^

"man" with

|

notwithstanding the other
cf.

determinative which follows.

also

58.

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

<Z.

IN GENERAL.

52. 53.

19
52*.

A

determinative

is

frequently transferred from

one word to others, which have the same consonants,
even when
it

does not suit their meaning.
is

Thus,

e. g.

the syllable kd

written

:

M

^

or

M

_

because of

kd

"circle"

and kd "make pottery";

Ib "to thirst"

written: n

S<2^\ because

of Ib "calf"; ^"eternity"
etc.

written: 3T1
A.

because of dt "landed property",
is

Especially to be noted in the old texts

the writing
flesh

O

iwf "he

is"

which has taken on the determinative of

'rom iwf "flesh".

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.
a.

IN

GENEKAL.
53.

The orthography,, which experienced great transformations in the course of time, determines in an
often arbitrary

manner how

far phonetic signs, ideo-

grams, and determinatives must be employed in writing different words. The most widely spread and important system of orthography which
as classic,
is

may be

designated

found

in the greatest purity in the
;

manu-

scripts of the

m. e. with this system the beginner should seek to make himself as familiar as possible,

before he approaches texts in another orthography.

20

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

6.

ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGRAMS.

54. 55.

A.
able,

The orthography of the pyramid texts is exceedingly variand renders the understanding of them very difficult indeed;
it is

hut for us

of importance, because

it

often

consistently

distinguishes grammatical forms

even though not which the classic
of the
o. e.

orthography leaves undistinguished.
seeks the greatest possible brevity.

The orthography

b.

ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGEAMS.
of

54.

The majority
gram, to

words are written with an ideoits

which

is

added an indication of

pronun-

ciation in alphabetic signs.

Whether

all

the conson-

ants of the

word are

to be written, or only a part;

whether they are to stand before or after or on both sides of the ideogram, is decided by usage for each

The following paragraphs present separate word. the usage of the classic orthography. Caligraphy
(cf.

7) is

moreover often the motive

for the selection

of a given writing.
*55.

Usually
added.
is

it

is

only the final consonant which

is

To

biliteral
e. g.:

ideograms the

final

consonant

subjoined,
I
I

"

ms "to bear",

A

^
CD

lid
e.

"whit^",
g.
:

\

to triliterals the final consonant,

Sf hpr "become", U f A Che "stand",
-cr=
fl

? A | n>3h S A
U
*? ^l

"lay",

=v
**}

rv3d "green",

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY,

b.

ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGRAMS.

56. 57.

21

or also
e. g.:

but more rarely

the last two consonants,
U C\

Cnh "live"
f/W\AAA

'

<::I>

wsr "strong",

~
nfr "good".

More
$

rarely all the consonants are written,
"feast",

e.

g.

:

56*.

|^L7/?&

n (^

s

P
p

"times" (germ. Mai),

p

JL, t\

i

spd p re P are ">

f

mw

"

fieid "'

and

still

more
\
'
'

rarely only the initial consonants, as in:

<~-->
l>k:

\\ff U

r

"

s i eze

possession",

I

sb3 "star".

A.
frequent,

In the oldest orthography writings of just this kind are
~~
cf. e. g.
:

t

o

<^>

and

t

nfr "good",
AAAAAA

Q

o

y
A

J\

A

H fm
classic writings

CliC "palace",

"Lord'' instead of the

T

^' A <H> y J\ A

'

y

H

""""
'

^I^7

^ui.
*\

I

I

Finally in soine isolated cases the initial conson- 57.

ant of the ideogram or
placed after
a

its

entire phonetic writing

is

it, e. g.

:

wcl "to

command",

^^

|

dmd

"unite",

r "storehouse",

T 1\

^^^ mr

"be sick",

mr "pyramid".
A.

This

is

also a

remnant of the

oldest orthography; in the

pyramids such writings are frequent.

59. c. ^ mil CMJ**/ olVi It "fll'Mnlz" . Imt "woman". the abbreviations of netic addition. rib "every". Note the rare cases (^ ^\ Q for V\ A ^^ 3 wd3 "sound. pn^T ^^7 s* ^ rib "scribe". PURELY PHONKTIC ORTHOGRAPHY. . C. ntr "god". All words for which the orthography possesses no ideogram are written with purely phonetic signs These are in part very i. Jl^e. "fill". e ^=^^ # : "army". PURELY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY.22 *58. etc. 58. without ideograms. healthy". C-L A. | ^^ for ^^ ^ 3lit "field". as: Jir Only a few especially frequent ideograms except 67 are left without any pho- "face". 5. frequently recurring words. Oulj. f) f\ ^VW\A Im "to be". jt f^ "*\\ r^S- bln n 1 " bad "' "lion". lit ' "house". is In the oldest orthography the purely phonetic writing very frequent. "lord". ORTH03RAPHY. which also occur occasionally later. A/ f* CLI111K. st "Isis". mrvt "mother". like: . ^ rn <^ ^> I "name". pr "house". e. and the feminines Q Q crz] rj^J 59.

the were. To^ L J t fc?. nrv . D 1 ^ s:?. cf.Hiumii final *. consonant which mr. g. But in many cases the initial consonant also is written (and such syllabic signs are thereby dist: inguished from the real ideograms. I 0^\ I] mn-i. ATJ". ORTHOGRAPHY. . in which the subjoined I be inserted within the syllabic sign. It : mostly the . 60 62. according to pronunciation is is added to them ^~ WTX in the is same way. mn. As a rare writing note that of the i^ * syllabic sign >X n which the phonetic value is indicated by means of another frequently recurring nrv: ^ sign for nw. originally ideograms. ms. 56) e. written. those derived from sub51.5. C. (I stantives then receive a stroke according to Note the writing of the words and is to * In mm and sl3: AAAAAA 62.* according to Sethe. -^* s &c. PURELY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY. g. * hr. 23 Since the syllabic signs employed in these writings 60*. A few syllabic signs moreover are often also 61*. 40. thus e. employed without phonetic addition. s3-i. e. tvn. ^\ t'irv. g.

63. '. d. ABBREVIATIONS. where it is supposed that the reader himself will perceive them from the connection: l<cn>r$ 2T I I ji 1 1 1 for the plural sr(w} "princes". 64. JJ ^z 7 for Jimt nb[t] "every 64. Since the Egyptian writing was naturally intended only for such as were familiar with the language. the Egyptians omitted much as dispensable. for tvsr "desolate for Iht "thing". therefore which grammatical changes take place within a word are left plur. Jimrvt o JJ Jimt \ -I "woman" is written JJ i oilil (that is without indication of the n>\ But further.24 5. . Further with many phonetically written words a consonant regularly or often omitted. for ft for inr "stone". e. for Ck3 "correct J J 7 for smt "land". which seemed to them self-evident. Note especi- ally the frequently Ci used words: 9 for Iff (j ^ "father". of Almost all unindicated. d. for ptr "see". 63. g. n for v sms "follow". ^K ^J for rmt "man". hrd D "child". OBTHOGKAPHY. AAAAAA for hCp "Nile". ABBKEVIATIONS. JQ f\ for htm "to seal". the grammatical endings are also often omitted. woman" is &c.

e. ABBREVIATIONS. d. are: o for [1 o it "father". : 65. Here belong also the cases where only its second consonant is added to a triliteral ideogram in violation of 55. which 67. are written with only an ideogram are abbreviations. &c.5. "? f A 3 r\ I for f r "k z3 v\ M:? | "to reign". (j for s^m^ "name of a goddess". Belonging to the earliest period. \ A ?O A for nhh "eternity". hale. *=^ f or D for rpQ'i "hereditary prince". run". like: < still more jiCfi 66. the old divine names. abbreviations occur. 25 for df3 "food". ifI "be- longing to". Further. "o i) oD A u I ''^ "offering". T ^ * for I I AAAAAA "? stn "king of upper Egypt". titles &c. &c. 65 67. g. ORTHOGRAPHY. fl I fl I J\ for shsh "walk. like: ^X T rvp rv3rvt "opener of ways" (a divine name). and formulae. <H> for (I . but sometimes occurring later also. .also n ^^" for [1 %> *^T~ Iwf "flesh". for <=> wsr "strong". healthy". titles In frequently used arbitrary "prince". A.. the beneI diction nr 1 & A for Cnh wd3 snb "living.

OQ /. "like ReC". the correct order must of course be restored. (For the most important cases cf. In titles. e. names &c. a syllabic orthography. hCrvf-RC i "his i i 68.ys for n I _IJTA o _ k3t "labor". 68 - 70. in reading. a word which is obvious from the connection. *\ . It consists of the syllabic signs .-. nate the king or a god are inserted in the writing before the others belonging thereto. . Si 1 { hn-ntr Hkt "priest of the goddess ffkt". e. UNUSUAL STYLES./. Since the m. priest". _ n 1 o for ^p^ D nht "strong". g. proper names &c. is very often so abbreviated that only its deter- minative n is /VAAAA inserted. words which desig- *69. ml RC UNUSUAL STYLES OF ORTHOGRAPHY. g. 11 e. : 1 sin "son of the king".26 6. 70. the table of signs). diadems are those of ReC" (royal name) &c. hn-ntr "servant of the god. formulae. for (j v\ trvt "statue" &c. there developed along with th( usual writing. which nevertheless was only used for the writing of foreign words. INVERSION OF THE ORDER OF WORDS. e. INVERSION OP THE ORDER OF WORDS. Finally.

are found as early as the m. One should accustom himself to the following rules: . 71. Sportive methods of writing. g. a. 27 treated in rv. 72. RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION. UNUSUAL STYLES.O \\ for ' MJ =^ tive _S^III ^\ msdmt . serve as simple consonants. 33 :? 35 and of other syllables in ^ and The sounds and w evidently serve as the approx. e. which ideograms seem to correspond to er and en. cf. g. wherein (3j) as determina- JT ofms "child" represents tt this syllable. Verzeichniss der Hierogtyphen mit Lautrvert (Leipzig RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION. 6.. ffif^i . *ffib s=> f\ " the Hebrew "scribe" &c. 6. represents d. that a transliteration free from some arbitrariness is impossible. The orthography so often leaves the phonetic form of the words uncertain.cosmetic". \\ mwt "mother" But this wanton method first attains importance from the fact that such an orthography gradually superceded the old hieroglyphs in the Greek period. e. c^ drv "mounthe syllable tain mt. imate indication of the vowels tw-p3-ir3 for cf. determinatives and un- precedented signs are used as ideograms. 71. of these signs may be found inBrug"sch. The syllables <_^| ?>:?(?) and ^^ n in employed therein. A summary 1872)./. 72. >~\ /~\ e.

1. texts of the m.28 PRONOUNS. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. PERSONAL SUFFIXES. in and d should always be transliterated in cases of doubt. only those should be supplied which occur in parallel cases really written out. (Tl '1 v^T ^C m ~ PRONOUNS. to express pos- . 73. and rather too little than too much should be 133 tm'i. suffixes. 4. The personal which are subjoined to tl noun. 1. when in doubt. '^'s according I to 24. In the case of omitted consonants ( 64. in the m. 25 had. restored. 65) and grammatical endings ( 63). PERSONAL SUFFIXES. In compound words the component parts shoulc be separated by a hyphen: "Ramses". a. 1. on ^ * mt ( no * *i m *ty- Words in which the order of consonants changes-! . Hence f) first j im3 am only l3m when this reading is phonetically written out. 30) should be written. e. t become-^ and d^a. and / and d only and and -=^ are actually written out. already n. *73. ( 29. the prepositions and the verb. d. e. Hence -V\- f\ i according to but U yi^ 3. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. <=t I s= I \_i a 2. employed when ^ Hence J) ntr butT^? ntrt. with the form in which they oftenest occur. Since most %==>'$ and e.

1 sg. c. away (e. a. C. lc. c. e - "my office". my C 5). \ I/ \ ) /WWVA I I s=> t (^) C\ AAAAAA 3m. g7\ ^i^> mr/r "thou The (e. is according to the Coptic an in the o. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. from the e. [1 /^~* \l I -. also. *^ / f. copt. 29 session or the subject (e. PERSONAL SUFFIXES. 194). The pyramids aways write as and this writing occurs an exception later B. . ^ g. hr-k sdm-k "thou nearest"). according to the "upon thee". suff. pATK) "thy foot".M I 3. g. (cf. down "^te it is mostly indicated by determinatives. 74. 23wt[i] e. Plur. is always left o m. a woman or a god speaks. X0)l "my head"). g. I snf /WW\A> AAAWA/ ( ) . Nevertheless it is sometimes left unindicated here also. falls After consonants the suffix later foot" cf. especially in the n-form of the verb it [I. 1. g.i 2m. classic orthography are: > Sing. A. rif or ^*Jj or ^^=J| accor ding as a man. word to which they are subjoined. ^3^ k f. pr-k "thy house". They are written after the determinative of the e. it i 74.1. lovest". ^<^5' rdk (copt. read s3l "my son".^J 1 I ' n o 2.

pi. 3 plur. sg.30 75. when they are subjoined to a noun in the dual or having the dual meaning. z=> t of the 2 sg. were early superceded where we would expect the 77. suffix * rv^rt'if'i "his two \\ OJl . g. On the other hand the suffixes of the singular. 78. cf C 50. t: f. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. AA/WVA^U. f."" I "v\ _/l \\ C-rvif'i _ "his two arms".* A. suffixes attached to infinitives (e. <? ^Juu^ xx \\ sptrv'ik'i "thy two lips". 1. PERSONAL SUFFIXES. are a Jl| and _|| . al- In the m. ^o"~" ^^.g. . The pyramids write such a [1 ft. The suffixes of the dual by those of the plural. snnrvf'i "his \\ A 79*. a. though it is not always written out. e. 5. very strangely take the dual ending i. sg. 76. The 3 m. is sometimes and the 3 "it". nevertheless imitrv-srii ^ still to \\ "between them both" ** ] is be found. The pyramids have 3 du. Late writings of the 2 has lost the t sg. These suffixes are not used as object. B. g. often used for the neuter of it" . ww fl' | snl. and 2 ready * passes over into ^ nevertheless z=* and ^ AAAA/V\ in Copt. occurs even for more than one person. 7579. e. ' $ second". ~ legs". 7. this suffix (-E). 2 du. f. Nevertheless as possessive * Todtb. ^ I hrs "on account the 3 f. are often written later also. ~~ e.

c. trv 81. st They are still employed (cf. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. c. 1. 3m. on the other hand regularly as object. 1%i> T Jl o [l fl" I i I I I I I Neutr. are already and si'. is written in the o. tn. ' fl b. c. (im or t_n ?) 3. B. -The 3 is when the ^\ is of course always to be read not written. which externally at least are identical 80*. THE OLD ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. verb are mostly made with the infinitive. C 174). the copt. as subject. The trv 2 m. these suffixes have therefore become real object suffixes in Copt. tn in the f. rvl Plur. THE OLD ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. b. The and the K\ 1 sg. Its forms. 369. e. 81. 80. Since the forms of. 2 pi. are: Sing. 1 c. with the suffixes in the plural. 328. 383). (cf. even . "at thy drawing") they represent the object to our gram- matical sense and the Egyptians themselves later conceived them as such. 3 c. m. 2i. e. AA/W\A tn A/WWV tn I I I III f. ^\. 31 ^ I 1 * xo t=> Av ? hr Ithk "when they draw thee" lit. almost only in a certain few cases 166.1.

only e. 2 <1 m. *84. These forms are only employed as emphatic subject. 1 sg. 1 v\ a swt is still to be found in the m. ? . c. they have two forms tw and kw. sn is almost entirely superceded by it. Of these. like tmt. the pron. 76). and for the *82. (lit. 3 m. tm and The form l^sZ perhaps originally belonged the 3 f. st "they turned themselves about". THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. for neutr.32 1. C. 1 c. to but it is nevertheless regularly used. V\ 2 (I. e. "it". 2 m. A. 2 f. LATEE ABSOLUTE PEONOUN. It is used with decided preference and may even refer to a number of persons (cf. . Cf. For the in. stt. the time of the m. 3 f. 1. g. 3. down. "it") 83. LATER ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. stvt. and correspond to the emphasizing of the substantive by Sing. They c. The pyramids write the 1 sg. the pyramids have also further forms of these pronouns which they employ with special emphasis. 350). 82 84. pi. Cnnsn Along with the above. wit. from e. means of In (cf. are: Plur. f. ^\ twt.

later from which the copt. THE EXPRESSION FOR p| ds- "SELF". 33 As may be seen. a. g. C 52). J9-FEM. stands after the substantive: I pr pn AAA/WV "this house ". gramm. (I iptn (ptri) The plural forms are. occurs rarely for "self"*. Vw. this expression. and are replaced by nn (cf. means "self. WITH p-. m. d. In cere- AAA/WV Sin. From C 51. Egypt. the 1 sg. is an exceptional form. e. 91). m.2. dsk "thyself". e.(cf. (1 D pn AA/vAAA f ^ f. (cf. and the possessive B. UJ i I __ lit I in "this castle". The word with the suff. 1 sg. In the pyramids they are later rare. . Ernian. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 85. g. t-. these forms the copt. already obIt always solete. There is suffixes. The most common demonstrative "this".. t: 86. Q- is: 86. (hi "myself". The word 1]C "body" with or without suff.(to(Jb* descends 2. a AAAftAA Ipn (pn) f. Plur.. pronouns have descended. still A. dsf B. 66.* omg. becomes more frequent. 103) the others consisting of a little syllable nl. in the m. "himself etc. d. FORMS WITH MA SO. (I an inclination to write the 1^Z^> cf.

In the pj'ramids f. m. pw (also p. f. t-. occur. trvy In the archaic language m. Ipw f. m. m pn gs "on this side". which is also later written *^*~. in 3. . . ! ceremonial address: Ppy prv "o Pepy" in apposition. The pyramids use it with especial emphasis substantive also. WITH p-. e. m. "this prince"). ^ pf. tf (properly /?/:?? f/2?). 87 90. 93. also Q^Knn pwy. B. is replaced by nf3. it still survives: sing. In the later language it is entirely lost. In n. for "this" (following its noun) this pw. 239. (lit. *90. cf. The pyramids have also the plural ipf and also place it (like pn 8 6 A) before the substantive. monious language it also follows proper names of before the persons. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOrNS. A.34 2. tive /^x^^ *-g* p3f'i- It follows the substan- and often adds an implication of despicableness. the prince of tw Tnw" Iptw. and are properly perhaps identical for "that" is sing. *87. B. lost. The plur. f. 88. occurs almost only in in the cases in 2. A. especially in direct address. prv. pi). with the old 89. it is almost entirely The weaker word 1. hh3 prv n Tnrv "Cmrvt- n-l. A. C-mwi-n-si. The old word m. The usual later demonstrative is sing. plur. 334. . one form and then only 237.

AA/WV\ 1 I I are A/VWW D v\ (older nn] as a substantive 1 -^\ JV -^\ v\) it nw is used precisely like 92. "this". In the pyramids p3 does not occur. FORMATIONS WITH n-. Sin.- bo ok". 32. in raw 3 n . 113. 91. C* .. 2 Bauer Westc. DATX the plural B. ^K^ t3. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. "this": said this" 1 . II ddnf nn "he But it is for the most part connected by the genetive n with a following singular or plural: I I /WWNA jj ni|j] ^ nn 86). 5. is ^\ ^> 94. FORMATIONS WITH U-. c-Wyx*5"^ p3 /dw "this. n sht'i "these peasants" 2 (lit. cf. 12. <=s\ ~*| 91. nation replaces the plural of pn B. Usually replaced by n:?. 4-4.. "this of peasant"). cf. 35 p3) f. differing from the others. 92. 6. A. which. Later the genetive n falls away: nn (_LJ_) i3dt "these W1 and incorrect writings for nn. The article is later c. this combi(cf. It is is also used as a substantive (p3 prv Wslr "this Osiris") and then has also a plural. developed from p3. TTAl (C 58) is descended from p3. "*9 is \\ i /rf 'TL i always placed before the substantive: nAr<C vx. i.2.* it means 75.nn AAAAAA *\ "S is properly a substantive. the later demonstrative also p3'i b.

SUBSTANTIVES. The feminine has the ending 1. if3 in the same way replaces the 2 plural of pf. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. 297. a. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. B. 108. various inanimate objects. "this". 3 Siut I. /wwv\ replaces c3 ca ca I the plural I I of ptv (cf. 95. a. as the plural of ["'""i Ofv P serves v\ d p3 (cf. 2 Eb. B. the naturally feminine. w^rt "leg". 5. To the pyramids n3 unknown. NOUNS. 90. . g. Eb. e. SUBSTANTIVES.36 NOUNS. *94. 87): It is o fi\ Jj nrv n ntrmr "These gods". In LA it is lost. . w/? n (*3wt ''those swellings is (?)" . | i X_Zf n3 n gmhrvt "these wicks" 5 is still I I A. e. more archaic than nn. which are conceived as feminine. g. in the n. 113). 1. and denotes -t *95. 1. hence the article is for the most part **2\ 113B. AAAAAA e. like nst "throne". cf. 2. . 20. The masculine and feminine are distinguished. Here also the genetive n falls away n3. 2. % n3 "this" also a substantive. it in the combination n3 n with following plural.

-f. 97. B. 96. 97.J*- A. (I ~~^ ^\lnpw Anubis. In the n. like C$3t "multitude". chiefly r\ u. . 258. with various substantives like c. is always written. especially also those with n like hnrv "interior". d. Pj *-' v\ Hnmrv Chnum. 292. ^^O^\ AAAAAA _. ms "follow") also 3. rhyt "huma- nity" . hrvttf) "evil". '^A V" S\ smsrv "follower" (from D 282. like ntt "that which". and the 5. The masculine originally had an ending was denoted by w. 4. '" AA/V^W \ Fioop). e. like stnyt "kingdom". => v\ 21 /WVW\ Mntrv Month. like. fl 2. which 96. SUBSTANTIVES. with substantives which denote a person and are derived from an adjective or verb: X Jiwr "poor").1. Expressions in the neuter. . O^\S _/<- hntv "jar". The ending of the feminine. $ 8 M 9 cf. written. It is nevertheless only rarely A/WV\A 1.11111111 with divine names ^.: ^. Jirvrrv "pauper" (from Q ^^^^. 37 3. ^\ etc. Abstract conceptions. In the pyramids this ending is still more frequent. \\ \\ itrrv -'stream" (pronounce *jotru. Collectives. 395. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. the ending was probably already lost.

*"^1 f_"_\y "i The names of foreign lands. although they do not have the feminine ending. probably because smt "foreign land" b. g. e. 6. and only disregarded ht in abbreviations (like for collective ntr "house of god"). rn = *ran (DAM) "name". and feminine substantives end in e or a long vowel (cf.38 a. perceive from the Copt. e D ^& irp=*ierp (won) "wine". ~ -- I f W\\. g=3 I I I down. PggE^7 dnh = A/W\AA /\ *denh (TNg) "wing". ending is often omitted in the n. C 63 seq. 99. 98. From the fern. which seems to have super- ceded the plural of M rmt "man". . is written almost without exception B. 99. that the noun possessed various definite formations (cf. The r -> 2C rmtt "humanity". FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. or added in the wrong 98. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. but We these are not to be recognized in hieroglyphic ortho- graphy. "*' sm = rC *reC (1 I (pw) "sun". AAA^\A g\[) >*V } E. place. d I is understood with them. FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. like ^z^ v\ K3s "Ethiopia" are treated as feminines. the feminine ending loses its t. because they are for the most part distinguished only by different vocalization. *sim (CIM) "herb". Hence the n.). C 61). e.

with the adjectival ending of t. belonging to the stem. wzY?). "mor- I ningstar" Imlhtv t\ .Sl\ fl ^ imShy "revered" . SUBSTANTIVES. f^ snf = is *snof (CNOq) "blood".1. yt. is found later only in proper names. 39 1 51 jHf = ffrh == *ffdrh (tftopg). if. others by the ending this ending is probably ident132. n I ( ^\->lc l< dw3rv ntr . they end in m. f. 101. with the numerous substan- m. o^ ftf*to0j (TOYCDT) of substantives I'. ] \ >k^\ u rrvS >^c 1 Jr drv3y ntr \J. ?/. ~~D~^^ spr *spfr (CTTtp) "rib". than of an ending in the older period the ending of the masculine is in most an i cases not written: . 100. 101. like v\ (1 Hrl "the one belonging to Horus" (German "der Horische") from v\ in their orthography: in the o.: f. in the m. Hr "Horus". On tives in the other hand. figure". 6. wt (pronounce So e. w. The old writing of this ending. f. yt. mrrvt ^^^Lfi n I] (la mryt "love". A ical large number derived from 100. In most cases these words have taken on a peculiar form e. the question seems rather one of . ui. . FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. e."night". . in m. "statue. g. \^ s^'i "sand" (O)(JD).

which is used like a substan- A. this prefix written preferably with the syllabic sign J|vi 35): m (cf.40 1. PR U 103. Those in rv'i like ^\ ^Z^ JL v> i=pp=i kkni "darkness". SUBSTANTIVES. for abstract ideas (brv nfr e. and the expressions. AAAAAA !\ t\ 102. Since the m. Note further the prefix (like the nt-. The prefix U "belonging to" -V "I -f\ is entirely obsolete. . title ft I U e. \ 6. FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. which is used German ". . are * perhaps old duals. tl-siv "the one belonging follower of the king. 103. U probably: "it tive "truth". "place". i. T v\ n. A number is of substantives is derived from verbs e. msdmt "eye cosmetic" &c. . is true"). mhst "scales" (from h3 "measure"). "good is place" "the good"). it is nevertheless found in the to him". A - remarkable form t\ the frequently recurring -^ ^7 fl mn m ^c (properly. AA/WW 8 fl 1 N\ I nhs'i X "negro" V {> I X \\ (J 1 (J I i 1 ^ nhsyi "negress". wesen". 102. by means of a prefixed m. made with J^\ v\ brv i.) to express the nature it is or practice of that to which prefixed (nt-hsb "Rechnungswesen") .

41 c. orthographi- 104*. PLURAL.). i. prrv f^\ "houses". ~vwv\ OOO mnw "monument". r 1 1 which follows the ideogram standing alone: i jri 1. a. by a threefold writing of words written with j an ideogram: sV*j. 105. ntrn "gods". PLURAL. III. 104. 8t n hlt3w "charm". they (I put after purely phonetic writings: (pi.). %^ \&s nrvt "cities" (archaic. a. hQjtv "princes" (obsolete). . SDBSTANTIVES. hhrv "mil- ntrrv ^l 4. (more rarely k ). the plural cally indicated: 1. . EXPRESSION OF NUMBER. ^ ^^ ^^ df3to" victuals". which follows the detersrrv i minative: of 2. by means of n "fx. v>o o o tkrw "ex- cellent" Such writings also occur sporadically later. EXPRESSION OF NUMBER. C.1. There is often found in the pyramids also the threefold c repetition of phonetic signs. "gods" (abbreviation of III. 2. but still retained with some words). 1\ i *-=s\ e. by means of i. also l|miJ^ X LJ ooo . l<=z>v\rw at Jl IJi i i i& \$L "princes" (abbreviation A. g.). j The plural of the masculine ends fV in v\ rv (about 105*. is Apart from the ending. by threefold writing of the determinative: *=^V&V&M^ 3.

there are also plurals in -fl fl (I (I that of the adjectives in ti ends later in \s\ M fl y^i (I fiy.). C 109. PLURAL. so i words which contain no phonetic "heads". The plural of the feminine ends cf. 106. g. Eb. On the plural of cf. probably because the word already ends i in the sing. t'itv ^i. : Note especially 1. "necks" 1 . 58. e. B. for the most part. which e. i in o rvt (*rvet. 12. end not written out: With words which the rv in the singular already is in i jN. g. 116 seq. 133) it take plural ending. not written with signs. 133 and 43. <X. The adjectives in t'i 'i (cf. The w is. o 97. that ofl I AAAAA stn "king of upper Egypt" has the form i I T (1(1 ^K Jl /WVW\ I I Jv in stnyrv. In the n.). those in write with the sign (cf. like erv cf. 2. C 109 seq. EXPRESSION OF NUMBER. in good manuscripts. is consistently written _ smrv "herbs".42 1. |^VraM3 hkBrv "rulers". e. 1 i dSdSrv ntrrv mrrv "gods". ( l of the plural v\^ 3. 4. \ JIIII hrrv plural of hrrv "day". C. SUBSTANTIVES. 61).

With other words the determinative is repeated: thnrv'i "the two obelisks". 108. 108. by ^O^>- the with words t3rvi written with only an ideogram: "the two lands "the two eyes". DUAL. 2 I from rnpt pOMl"TF). | | was a corresponding or \\. SUBSTANTIVES. C. 107. 43 (from nhbt). is orthographically indicated: repetition of the sign. being usually written for hmrvt "women" &c. which is still e. 19. a determinative. not written. (from "v\ C3wt "swellings (?) ~ C3t) &c. (3. - Eb. . P.wr/(?) is In this case the ending 2. ill. In classic orthography these J| i endings are nevertheless rather seldom written. 107* The dual -Z. DUAL.1. by which the threefold writing of the ideogram or determinative is avoided. Q'i "the two members". used or as a determinative in the oldest texts. 1 Grave in Assuan. Just as there in the plural. <s>. > ~" x legs". so also in the dual there sign. AA/VWA D \vj-N 7T I I 1 rnprvt "years" (pMTTOOYB. ending is ^A^A^A^ <? o JO is mnt'i "the two The written for the most part. g. 108. EXPRESSION OF NUMBER.

especially where ^^^ rib "every" (select1 . 110. e. Jin or or o \\ tl. f. "every brave one" i. with abstract nouns. ra"v\ y^ i LU II 122 b.44 Y' U8E OF THE SINGULAR. DUAL. they are written Y. PLURAL. v\(|(| or v\ tvii.. subjoined to the substantive. . ^\ f~ ~\ v\ m. properly an i which. *109. USB OF THE SINGULAR. this But since the it e. in the masculine is joined to the masculine ending w. ^ is forgotten and has the value of a vocalic sign for the dual ending i. g. 111. e. from the m. PLURAL. g. The singular often employed collectively. which is then also employed for every similar ending i. is 110. in the feminine to the feminine ending t. "600 men ed) from ^M 2T kn rib /www Vj N^_-7 "from all the brave". DDAL. the plural used: 1. The older writis *^V f\ f\ The dual ending *^V *"\ ft ings of these endings are m. L) gmhwll "the two door jambs". Differently from our conception of is it. on. meaning of I I. where we expect is the plural. e. 111. e.

AAAAAA B. A g. 113. rf. mtv "water". sort are early treated as mnrv "monument". (cf. /W Plur.. rib "gold". definiteness or indefiniteness of a sube. The forms are: Sing. names of the metals. which. " with names of material e. C 112 sq. mw the "water"). "^\ *?:? with following plural is written n3 n. g. It early became of. C THE ARTICLE. ) with following singular or plural. SUBSTANTIVES. to 113. A/W^A AAAAAA i i i i "reward" &c. THE ARTICLE. . hrrv "height". 2.1. is only used of persons extinct. 112. first and the popular language of the m. instead of e. g. i D But plurals of Irprv "wine" &c. begins to employ the demonstrative p3 90) as an article. cf. e. The older language has no expression known us for the stantive. / d. 45 "time". The dual pairs. are used ribrv the plural denotes separate pieces of the material. Since the m. m. this singulars also (e. "gold nuggets". T2\ w/w* nS n ("the of . or things in 121. like in the singular. With words of material.%(1! J^JT'Oi * t3rv "heat". D %. .

the expression p3yf "his" "the his") copt. 4. . the combina* tions "*" ~^\|AAAAAA W CjV H. .46 114. 2. THE ARTICLE. d. In the later language. 1. TEq-. " . This popular language of the m. the expressions of the cult and the kingdom.". a few words occurring with especial frequence. The indefinite article wC copt. many designations of localities. . . 114 116. These are 1. OY C 122) grew out of this wCw n in the n. I (really "the his house") "~ for """as _ prf "his house". e. the plural nSyfn e. further. B. e. i 115.) t a rvQ nt "one of B. g. relation in all cases. "OUC of . (lit. and replaces the possessive suffixes (cf. re- gularly omits the article with certain words.) still mean "any (cf.. 3. the plural is nByf\ in Copt. does not yet exist in the popular tongue of the m. 116. this (cf. the names of all parts of the body. the combination of the article with the possessive suffixes. is the "possessive article" T7ECJ-. . e. . originates from TTO)q (cf. (fern. SUBSTANTIVES. . NEq- C 55). (maSC. Before a substantive it denotes the possessive 73) e. In the n. . The later "indefinite" article also. C 54). The feminine is t3yf. where the article would be used.

THE ABSOLUTE SDBSTANTIVE. 47 e. "every sun"). a sarcophagus". expressions like r$jjh 3. it specifies locality : tZL ? J^% 1 Sin. 2. stands after the one explained. ||| III in expressions with sp "time": n ^> Jj \sprv 4 "four times". APPOSITION AND COORDINATION. e. ^ K i w& "every day" (lit. of place in 2. 2 phagus of white stone. The following peculiar cases are important: r> VWAA I i A /\ r\ | 1. g. APPOSITION A. . O ft "at the time of". Here also. ro 1 (7) 1 1 1 1 rnP* ^ n the fourth year". apposition. I <d> i. 1. g< ^S mht "northern". substantive follows an adjective in order to specify that to which the quality of the adjective refers: Ikr shrrv "excellent in plans". belong the numerous cases where a 118. THE ABSOLUTE SUBSTANTIVE. In an the substantive explaining 119. 1 19..l 1 7 . 49. it specifies material: (I i .6. for designation of time. 13 I N e. AAA/VNA The substantive stands absolutely: r\ r \ very often fr* 117./. krs "white stone. COORDINATION. for designation "in front". ==^lnr a sarco- i hd. 2 u Da 5. 1 /.

Prisse 9. The expression for "or" Q^\ r-pw (older D^\) comes after the words to be separated by "or": m w&. 22 jars of beer2 . 6 2 Siut I. * Sin. fa (p (p > 60 men". cooi'dinate also The pyramids by means of the particle which comes after the words to be connected. ' e. m 7 . m hnms r-pw "as lord or as brother or as is friend" In rare cases r-pw repeated after every word. APPOSITION AND COORDINATION. e. Ausw. 3 i. e. 4 are joined by the preposition Q sition fi ' lir.48 B'bdrv /. 120. 132. as well as his A. 22 jars". 121. 5 Westc. "Thinis. 122 7 a. . 9 5zi ] (1(1 8 Oo nn Q MZ Kby 22 "Beer. 14. sn. it specifies number and measure: i. 11. while the prepo- AA/WSA hnt permits each of the connected words to stand forth individually (Iff hnC mrvtf "his father. mother" 6 ). i AZ 29. Abydos". 293. Leps. i. of Thinis. 120 1 121. 8 d. anumber ^ s& rm a? number consisting of 600 men. J) i they are usually left unconnected: ^^iKstf Jefcll JL - i^/vX ufl ^X^O) I i& I I hmwt Things which are to be closely connected (dc hr Jiwyf "storm and wind") tjtyw "women and men". 120. 1st. 9. Abydos situated in the nomos 3. a In a series of coordinated words. 3 LD n.

a. g. g. the Coptic forms suffered show that the former of the words as in so joined shortening. DIRECT GENETIVE. 49 ff. The 1. pr Imn "House of Amon. C 140). On i the other hand. Eg-ypt. D .. 2 B.ff. Erman. most part so ^-. in the combination cannot be separated. After general designations of locality: 288. THE GENETIVE. This older kind of genetive is apparently expressed only by the position of the two substantives. Sin. THE GENETIVE. ^JUr. ed as a compound word. a. in which the governing word stands before the governed: (I I jv AAAAAA Jk-J. the analogous form of the Semitic "status constructus". 2 1 Siut I. in other cases the two words 123*. DIRECT GENETIVE. 122 124. mnh "an excellent overseer of peas- ants". gramm. direct genetive is especially preferred: 124. mr-sht'iw in and are treat**r^ ^k. 122*. n V pr-hCft is NT n ty wt i$ P w P r -h c fi "but they 1 are not Ihrvt things of the prince's house" where the genetive divided by Is prv. that they for the e. (cf." The connecwords is I tion between the two loose.(1 I may be separated. This last case persisted down into the Copt. <=~-**> n n n M^ * * e. 244.

1 After general designations of time: v\ O m mr :? rk hnf "at the time of his majesty".50 j3. 135 means something like "belonging according to It is to". according to classic orthography. cf. like "overseer". only the cases of 140. ^^ v\ rib "lord". formed by means of an adjective *m. in Copt. *125. are: i Sin. "son": ' ' JA mr k3t "overseer of the works". V 3. . The direct genetive was gradually superceded by the 123 are preserved. Where 1 sin r\ T /WW\A wJ-j "king" and j I ntr "god" are the governed words: T . ^ hmt stn "wife of the king". e. P. pr "house". later indirect. cf. m i hCt hrdrvf "at the head of i i his children". INDIRECT GENETIVE WITH M. its forms. 78. After certain frequently recurring words. g. On the written order of these words B. INDIRECT GENETIVE WITH n. which. 2. 4. 69. This adjective agreed in gender and numit ber with the noun to which belonged. "the priest belonging to of Amon" for "the priest Amon". 125.

cf. 122 b. J\ AA/WV\ pi.3. II. to subjoin that which will more nearly define the noun. also the feminine. n became an unchange- able particle. m. The 1. Mar. 24." 2 rt 0-=^ AAAAAA 3 N/ 2. m. nw (*nw). II. C. rii to designate a part: /VWW\ smrvf ^""""^'' "the first of his harvest. like Copt. A/WWN n (*ni) 7T f. fj. m. /WWW also 1 ). /WW\A cf. * ne e. INDIRECT QENETIVE WITH H. mv'i. it first e. Ab. the plural. 138d. %> nM7t -^ n older period there was further a dual m. and Since the LE. LD * LD II. 149 d. 310. Plur. The old writings are: sg. 3 Una 6 43. nt (*nil). " 5 man of truth". This word early lost its inflection. fj nt (in the m. 2 smt I.) lost the dual. B. m. to designate material : I htp C3 /^^v rii sst "a great offering tablet of alabaster. 6 LT> II. 141. where tf I //& 6 AAWAA i i we would often employ an adjective: ?Q ^ 4 T T W ^c n 3000 "an army of 3000. once A. f. D . 126. A/VWVA 51 Sing. w* (*niwt." 3. then (already in the popular language of the m. O Y\. 106)." c=s> x i x ^' TV \/ *^1 ' ^^ ^ rii KMirv "the "a city of Coptos. indirect genetive must be used: vww\ /" AA/WV\ tp'i 126.

3. \ ^\ ndm _S^ "sweet" *nodm (NOYTM). 2 Una 46. 13.52 127. ' ^^ J to designate the possessor: ht ntr nt ILD c <=>! " 1 Wnn-nfr "the temple of W. . that preferred: C3 [~"| I 1. ADJECTIVES.2 ^ AA/WW jQ ( Jtj I 2. 99) e. g. *128. to express the idea of appurtaining to or hav- ing source in a place: rii . C 146 sq. a.bm ^j ^X^ \ "bad" *l)6in (BO)U)N). 128. On the further optional use of the indirect geneit is tive. ^ "large" *Co3 (-0). These adjectives. 1 Eb. 2. 75. 2. a. had various forms also common to substantives (cf. note especially. ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING.^^^ WBrvZt "Acacia wood from Nubia".wwv. perhaps derived from verbal stems. 2. ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. ] U "^. 127. ^Z7 w& "every" *m& (NIM). ^^ wr "great" *rver (-oyvip).: ft A/AAAA P] **I2S^^ ^ nfr "good c *nofr (NOyciE). Cf. ADJECTIVES.

15. 2 ^ 3 ^ I -I Jj> \\ Ihtvt ribwt hrvrvt (?) "all w bad .. . 147). Egyptian reader. J^^ A/WW VV C &wrt' wr^af Z] ^^ "two great towers". fern. 4 LD HI. is often always. i 6 ^ *^~ t 2 5 & r& H^_ s3f rvrf "his great Eb. is i i i 2. 225. 53 it in They follow their substantive and agree with number and gender: Q. that of the plur. was first later lost. a. 129. 15. ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. 124. the ending of the wanting. LD II. Most adjectives the plur. and for the C most part the sign B. Rarer combinations of the adjective are: 1. I i i also. 4 \\ NeA-ertheless most texts are not exact in the writself evident of course to the ing of these endings. v\ o M ^* . fern. fern. C8121.<dO<S0v Q o 129*. fern.. 30. 5 Cf. sing. forms one word with the substantive: t3-hd-sn "their white bread". things". 130. .51 'sweet beer . Of ^I^7 nb "every" only the survives. 24 d. being replaced by the plur. 111 Cs3rv "many ten thousands". 54. The possessive "^ < suffix of the I noun repeated with the adjective: son'. . ADJECTIVES. Una Siut 14. masc. become unchangeable (cf. 11. I. it AA/\ftAA 130. /v^ 1. 3 6 Eb.2. wtfw . .

there arises a final from the junction of the feminine ending of the adjective. b. ADJECTIVES IN ?. Thus: . cf. from a feminine. e. ADJECTIVES IN i. m. 111. *133.) f. 43. masc. o (it) Plur.: Sing. 300. derived from fern. this ending was accented. f. 'i C 93. % // ^ g 1L rrv^ (ti) (tit) (in>) (tin. if the adjec- tive is derived syllable. o (iwt) o. ^^Vva <cn>l fvr "the great one". -t ft'. g. which is written Coptic has the sound of e. \v ('). the Copt. This ending is only written. ^^ the i (tiwt).54 131. m. They are all derived from substantives or prepositions by with 'i and in means of an ending. masc. In the was left unindicated even in the sing. its ending ^^ cf. It is employed also as I a substantive. 1). On the employment of the adverb b. rv'i cf. and the 'i As may be seen from cf. where it really forms the end of the word. ral according to J 000 On nfrw "beauty" (Pluthe employment of the adjective as predicate and 331. that is only in the sing.. e. 61. and such writings are often found in later texts also. 131 133. *132.

also written ^ . (T 1 (] o i m oo i Plur. ly- AAAAAA f. r\ e. also. -**-(- AAAAAA (j^. g. nt'i "urban". ^\ V\ m. native) god". 55 Iri "existent at" hnti "existent before" WVWV Sing. r the plur." . Id (I A. m.. . B. 134. I | (1(1. Since the adjectives derived from feminine sub. e. stantives were identical in form with the dual of these substantives (e.b. and nt'i "two cities"). and ^n A (I 11 or fi r\ ^ \\ r\ ^C\ rr^ (1(1.134. masc. in the oldest orthography. r~i A few such writings o-ccur "the later also . m. f. . The Pyramids write t for ft . (1 ^* for fi. for ^V (according to 104 a). ADJECTIVES IN I. from nt "city" . such duals. e. and and ^. are often written for the corresponding adjectives: \l\ ntl "urban". already occurs incorrectly for the sing. note: I gVj ' vci? ntr nt'i urban (i. since they were pronounced about alike according to 97 B. In the v\ ^ . or o y\ \^v ^r tytftf) "Horus dwelling in the horizon. is in the n. 1 I A confusion between o V\ ' and o ^-^ begins in the n. e.

Eo ^\ <=<=>< x m^rt' "being like". * ^ * ) #r? "existent ) upon" (from 7/r). Those adjectives which are derived from a preposition. III. o\\ -ss. very often govern a following substantive or personal suffix (like the prepositions etc. P (M lmtibf"ihQ one Ir'i (fern. ADJECTIVES IN I. 125) "belonging to" (from w). g.mhtt "north of" &c. "existent upon" (from (p). like: 2wtf "not being" (Copt. 24 d. ^( . b. 1 n LD Ct 2 "belonging to the house". AT-. like: ir (1 > l^Cs ir vek' Tin) * mi " ex ^ stent i n" (fr mm )j \WJ \v " " ex i stent at * ri (from r). . -jHff \\ \fYYn ^ ^ -n^ X "existent before" (from hnt) t w? (cf. likewise a few others. C 89). (paf /- AA/VW. 135. from which they are derived). ^ "existent under" (from $r). 2 Louvre C 172. cf.) existent in his heart".56 135. e.

fV \/o v> TT |v\ o ^ ^. 6 K^=^ Av hft'i "enemy" I. Ib. especially those in 1 e. 4 I . Una . ^= " AAAAAA c==^ t=3 \\ gssn hr'i "their < ^s hn-sn 7 "their upper-side". ^N. III. 4 LD 9 8 Eb. 57 = hr'isstf 1 "one supervising (lit. Prisse 5. ADJECTIVES IN 'i. II. Ab.. e. 70. All that is stated in is i 129. "over") secrets". "existent in their times CX^K xi " smrvt mht'irvt * "northern lands". "*" like a sub. the Bedouins). valid also for the adjec"fL i cf. substantive end96. 24. Eb.b. 16. U mlt'if 2 "resembling him". I (lit. 130 concerning the 136*. 136. 5 r likewise ._ _ a hr'iw $c "those existent upon XV the sand" i (i. tives in Imirv . g. adjectives without ending. 4. Mar. 13. 7 41U ^\ >ws /WWVA fl dii_ms- imi n dSrt "the interior of an onion mltirvk (?)". o ^ j&i 149e. 24d. -=^> _Zl o o o e. Sin. yio / I vft n fv w i < J s> 1 1 1 Hh IT 5 _zr v>i fD v\ i J& n~ m 1 /wwvA mCbw i i i i 1 h3wsn "the priests serving in their times" 3 P^^^i ').137. ing according to In this manner many new substantives t'i\ originat- ed. 6 Very frequently they are employed stantive. 3 Siut ^ 311. 72. 137. g.-. upper side . 35. 2). ___<z "one like thee" 9 (with masc. 5 2 LD II.

ra <zi> . is really an old verb and e. in proper condition". which we also TOnr'wwvA M I Q ps r\ I I I I 1 i i often translate "belonging to". 11. ns). as reward therefor".58 c. The following remarkable unchangeable expressions are probably descended from adjectives: 1. 138. place. e. correIr'i} sponding to" (properly probably the adjective expressions like in k xov 2. . c. from smt Imntt "western land"). M y^vSH nf suffix. in the old language is still construed as such. Imy. 139.3 On the other hand the word HS. (1 Iri [1 Ir'irv (?) "belonging to. LD III.>J v^ HI]* 7T U I m ^\ tsw'i 1 Ir'i "as corresponding reward. 3 Westc.. 138. APPENDIX (Iri. f\ AAAA^VA f\ t\ r\ im y "b e l n g in g to him r . " * w^ "nothing" &c. 9. g. APPENDIX (H to^. (O)A(]T). 24 d. with changeable <j 139. ns). (j^(J(J ir nsn Imy "the oldest W'S Jj cli one belonging to them. j o r> J^JJCTZDl AA/WV\ r\ n m st ir'i "in the corresponding \v 2 . the oldest of them". 2 prisse 13. g. 1 ?^^ . ft Imntt "the west" (PMNT. 11.

d'Abyd. LD III. 3. REAL NUMERALS. -vw\w AAAAAA nnni > . 141. 24 d. REAL NUMERALS. a. I n <. Cat. ~ 141. tens of thousands.3. the numerals run thus: . U Irv ns st Inr rvC "they . 1 rvC 4 fdrv 5 dn>3 1 sn 3 hmt 1 6 sis 2 Mar.635. JJ i (I \S^ vfck. 3 Peasant 16. "one stone possesses them")2 ns (lit. tens.) In so far as they are known. hundreds of thousands. are from one stone" *~^' (lit. i ^^ In dates the units are indi- cated by horizontal strokes ( &c. NUMERALS. a. thousands. NUMERALS. 140*. 999. The numeral I figures are: units. The greater number precedes the less: 12. 140. hundreds. s^ mr ~P r "^ belongs to the house3 overseer" "the house-overseer possesses it"). . -<TV "the horizon possesses him"). 59 IT JH zon" r\ ^n ns H f\ sw lht(l) "belonging to the hori1 (lit.

also 1 C 143. ill "4 ells". the ones upon the year". also in 2. : with the numeral 2. Cf. NUMERALS. In LE the numeral precedes the noun. "these his 4 gods''. j I 1(1 rwp^ iJO "110 years''. A. _ fk 5 \^> Miut rnpt "the days. - 7 sfh 100 S& rf&C 8 9 to psd 1000 hi 10000 10 mt 100000 A/w Of the tens. the 5 intercalary 1 B. five.60 3.I fck r tion has been preserved in the expression \ a_ e. "these his four. The numeral "* ~ rvC "one". subjoin to The pyramids treat the numeral as a substantive. REAL NUMERALS. 30 is wQ:?. r accounts. 143. the gods"). *142. 142. does the old construction remain. of the units was used. 162 sq. for the others the plural Cf.only in the specifications of an account and with the numeral two. C 157. >J>fS 1 1 . i. a." On the other hand the noun stands in the singular _Z. which is mostly writ . wi3 2 "two ships" in specifications of measure and time. * I I most part in the plural: >< T AAAAAA I I 1 1 71 /' ' stoy/v 3 "three kings. This construe. which is for the most connected by n. . and 4 it the numbered word as an apposition: fdwfipw ntrw 1 (lit. The numeral follows the noun and the for the latter is VM i-i.

They are all used as substantives also. also C 165. f. The nrv: ordinal numerals are formed by the ending 145*. which. ^\ < MI"hi m snnrv " r\ t3 "thousand of bread". B. lative: meaning rendered super- 41 /-^ tvC ty r "^ e on ty excellent. A. still found. (cf. 146. 1 the other numerals perhaps did the same. agrees with its noun in gender: \ rnpt tvQ "one year". (I (1 The probably dual word: m. supplanted by 135).. cf. In the pyramids the ordinal numbers are entirely written out. "fill They are early supplanted up" (the third" 6. 61 ten out. 142 A) Una . APPENDIX TO THE NUMERAL. APPENDIX TO THE NUMERALS.6. On rvCrv n cf. "the second". construed like the numerals : in the i pyramids 47. *^x kt (for ktl) "the other" is ky. as an ad- jective always follows its noun.144 146. hmtntv "the third" &c. in like manner U w>Vlr snnw "*^ e second" is later. = "that which fills by a circumlocution with vnh up three"). its By placing is n>C before an adjective jprjygrb. 116. "first" tp'i (cf. is they may precede or follow their noun." as The numerals are Q M *_E^/ also used substantives: 144.

others. ky gsrv "another salve". 1 rvBt "his other way". 26. Una 28. e. IN GENERAL. a( *148. 2 and how considerable these 3 Butler 1C. of inflection. 147. "number of their revolts"). 1.62 THE VERB. . These classes differ in manner Eb. a. a. 3 means "every". USUAL CLASSES. with following cf. 147. The verbs are divided cording to the number and character of their con- sonants. *=$ nw bsfsn "every one of their revolts" (lit. USUAL CLASSES. 2 55 The real plural of the word is \5 si. THE VERB. into various classes. . THE CLASSES OF THE VERB. the so-called "radicals". 13. is more 1 1 i frequently a circumlocution kt-ht "another used for a it t i body" and o ouril sT kt-ll another thing". i. kw'i (the first \\ is the old determinative of the dual). tnrv The substantive plural or singular IAA/WW j "number". 148.

) are properly (radicalis) geminatae" (II ae 150*.THE VEEB. triliteral g. mh "fill". Jd^[|p all kd "build" &c. which neverthe(1(1. AAAAAA I nvbv v\ W^ WCS cool". The most common verbs (abbrev. verbs having the last two radicals alike e. But as these similar rad- icals fall together vowel. consonants in forms unchanged.) have as third radical an or l| . less is visible only in certain forms: first V- in most cases they show only the ~ two radicals or double mrr. kmm "become black". : class is that of the bi-literal 149*. m->-> A ] kbb JV "become ^^ full (tvn. also the second: mr. The verbs "secundae gem. II lit. "tertiae infirmae" (Illae 151*. -differences were. USUAL CLASSES. C 199. ^ M unnnr rvn "to ^ their AAAAAA open". 149 151. in where they are not separated by a most forms they resemble the biliterals Cf. signation of these classes is that C 185 sq. TJJ& rvnn "to be". 63 may still be seen from the forms of cf. g. Q]\ Rj' mr "love". the verb preserved in Copt. <K\ ^\ "see". . They retain Cf. i The very numerous verbs inf. km &c). ^ ^J\ j9r"goout". a. g. The decommon to Semitic grammar.) as e. e. C 186 sq. (tlfl ms "bear".

their . correspond to the II lit. C 213. With a part of these verbs the third radical was originally a u or -<sz>-/J[h on the other hand the form Irr is w which as a rule became lit. and III lit. Cf. 152 154.) and quinqueliteral verbs (IV lit. 1\ Mf Cf.) which correspond to the inf. and the verbs ( "quartae infirmae" (IV ae inf. They like these. rihm "rescue . which correspond to the II gem. USUAL CLASSES. The triliteral verbs (til like the II ( 149) f/WV\AA o "live". ( 151). 3tp "load". 150).64 THE VERB. *152. only isolated examples ( which an i written out 2h inf.) i or \ lit.). The and quadriliteral V lit. Illae ed. The verbs "tertiae geminalae" (Illae gem. I ps'i). j\ hi "descend". and! consonants rtmain unchanged. can be safely classed with the 154. . and written A. as a rule are not to be distinguishin certain ' Both double the third radical forms Sp * spdd "be revered": in I Jr | is H spss)'. C 200 sq. 153. IV ae Cf. C 227. The frequently recurring verb ir "make" writes the forms Ir and try.

smaller groups. Cf. 65 are mostly derived from II lit. 155 157. The verbs K i ultimae 3 (Ilae ^. above contrived classes. E . is 29. however. ^J\ s. the frequently recurring verbs dd j " c=A III =1^^ AA/VWV "say" and <^> fgfe ndr "strike" present other II many lit. in a n . The verbs mediae second radical. cannot be distinguished with certainty. further subdivisions by reason of the special phonetic character of one of the radicals. ru^\ 1-A Jar^-si) I v w3d "become green". like :?. RARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS. within the exist. Beside these ordinary classes there are apparently other. According to the Copt. for the 156. P. the IV (cf. g. have apparently early Occasionally it c^=\ lost the ^. Illae ^). 226). Egypt. seem to have had the same form C 224. nhm). rr^S> "unite" along with T. which. e. 155. BARE CLASSES AND IEREGULAR VERBS. gramm. lit. as also 157.: Rj hmhm " low ) ' roar " ( from * hm ^ ra nhmhm (from and V lit. which have an lk\ h3b "send". points which distinguish them from lit. and III lit. sBm. ^^ appears at least orthographically as the third radical: fO u'^x hb3 for h3b.(3. and Moreover.

insdead ofpSs. also written rv. 222. The verbs Ilae gem. rv only rarely. " C 192) and often Jl 0\ verbs mediae I Copt. rv. 159. C to 221. especially TV The verbs and in mediae write the it. especially. . by many texts without their 161. that (according 29) a few verbs Illae 3 (mostly those in -m3) :?. the probable form rls (according pOEIC wake") always written in ~\ rs.66 P. as a rule L like ~~ ps "divide". g. cf.. The existence of U may is only be conjectured from the e./-^ mt "die" al- ways written for <=r> for mrvt (cf. part is probably early lost hence l^. in certain forms. had various peculiarities (cf. in part. because to tf \\^ a rrvd "grow". tvss. customary orthography. RARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS. tvss. 208). evident from the Copt. Note repeat the second radical after the in certain forms : km3 "create": A These forms are possibly to be read k3m and and the syllabic sign is only retained out of preference for the 158. The verbs primae like ^K I rvsh "be far" are. make the form ps. 159. 158.

with intransitives hr "fall": shr "cause to fall". nfr "be beautiful": snfr "make beautiful". the last corresponds to the reduplicated forms. _ > ^ -_n rrf/. sCm "cause swallow" know" "wash down"). cf. sometimes '. from every verb. e. iii - o. p "go". (. A. IRREGULAK VERBS. e. E. ps (older fs) "cook" has *^^-\ \\ and V pfs ffl V Entirely irregular are: In "bring" (properly Illae inf.P. C 231). and especially ^ rrf^ "give". "go" sometimes nj\ ^(?). thus the causatives of most biliterals have feminine infinitives (hr "fall": shrt to fell". I By means of the prefix s there may be formed 161*. 30. g. sometimes written TJ in. rh "know": srh "cause to inform against). I sometimes J\ v\ \\ *fY ^~^ 2n>. ly more rareto with transitives (i. ] 67 cf. These causatives do not (i. D A .) A AA/V/VNA 160*. and E* . - - On the other 1 hand K^-> Q psf. THE CAUSATIVE. THE CAUSATIVE. Cm "swallow". f. which has the form <cz>A ^ D . ilitlJ . another verb with causative meaning. 160. ^ and A A. j] /WWVA sometimes A -/-I Int. remain in the class to which their stem verb belongs. 161. iCi *^\. __D A _ D didlC?). sometimes _/^ v\ Irvt.

and the beginner must be satisfied to familiarize himself with the forms thus far known to us. 182. suffixes The 73. 163. With verbs primae the w. 162. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION).g. sdm "hear": of . verb distinguish- 162. 164. a few of these writings occur later also. broad": flfl ssh "broaden". VOICE. according to the old orthography. b. VOICE. 2. 163. Nevertheless. Cf. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). The causatives of the quadriliterals (cf. cf. C 238). c. The is which reminds one of the Semitic perfect. falls away. smni) furthermore doubles cf. C. There are two methods of inflecting the verb. and not improbable that the intransitive verb was analogously divided (1. 242. e. e. continuous condition). classic still employed in the later language only within cf. restricted limits (as pseudoparticiple. the last consonant in certain forms (smnn C 232). incipient. 164.68 b. %P wsA"befar. 241. method uses the personal g. It is certain that the transitive ed an active and a passive. all details are as yet obscure. the causative of mn (infin. earlier. C 171. triliterals are treated as w. 208). without being able to understand their systematic connection more exactly.

A. 69 Sg. 80) is. employed thus subject: hpr si m ftsbt "it changes into worms" (for hprs). no suffix is 165. Dual forms occur in the pyramids also. ^l\ *c^ sdmf 3 c. and V lit. pronoun. 1 206 A). 2m.C. (](]): ^K fit A 1 According to Sethe. c. An also absolute pronoun as (cf. the verb frequently receives an ending (with Illae inf. this inflection was first lost with IV lit. ^1\ ^z^> sdmk 2 ^^sdmn ^^\^sdmtn ^lj\ ' 3m. employed and the substantive follows the noun unconnected: If the subject is a substantive. by exception. 165 167. B. 1 c. *$ sdm ntr ^\ ^ v V Oh ^^* sdmtrv I hrrvk "thy voice is heard". sdmsn On 74.* K QA *^*> hears thy voice". EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). 75. 166. the writing of each suffix cf. <^%^ *dml PL 1 m. is When the subject a substantive or an absolute 167. . Apart from the uninflected passive (cf.

1 168. . < 8 narrative cf. o * 8 Mar. Sin. Note especially: 194) "that cf. The impersonal use of the verb (without subject). 216. irn AA/WAA fl (w-form. is frequently met with. Hdb. 204) "that amounts to" 4 The passives are to express the a employed with especial preference. Math. 43. A second actor. Abyd. often a respectful designation of the On the omission of the subject in animated king. 225. is (logical) subject. shdrv srv t3w'i r Itn "he illuminates the earth better than the sun". done by means of the particles in and hr: vv . cf. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). (l^K I Irv "it is" 2 . 169. ' 25. occurring in all forms. J n/WVAAA French "on"): c h c ntrv u o ^\rhtn> ~1 dd ^\ L\ "it is known" 5 9 . to indicate the real often added to a passive or intransitive verb This is which already has a grammatical subject. II. 243. indefinite subject v (Germ. Sin. 55. * 2 Sin. 41. f}prhr ($r-form. Math. 169. 263. "it is said" 7 . "man". 49. A ^V "one stands" . amounts to" 3 : W . 168. Sin. 6 ' 3 LD III 24 d. 26.70 C. This impersonal subject is furthermore. Hdb. rdlin "they caused" is 353: 1 probably also to be explained thus.

on the part of the artificer" 2. i} 97. W. A. . a. a. USUAL INFLECTION. so that it is difficult for us to distinguish them correctly. Gr. is therefore not attempted in the following. but in part also. essentially the same external appearance (sdmf). of forms. sdmmf). are distinguished by the vocalisation only. 170. hr s "some (of the fruit) is chewed by the " man" 1 . which are in part indicated by endings attached to the stem (like sdmnf. IN GENERAL. 139. The most important aid for the recognition of the verbal 1 Eb. .2. In the same to infinitives {] 1 manner the logical subject is added i and participles by means of Irt -<2>-t ln\ k3t In hmt'i "working 3 . fall. IN GENERAL.AAAA/W siezed fry ReC" 2 U Q fl Ssp Ck In EC thy arm is <> . The later inflection of the verb falls into a series 170*. . Any exact separation of these various forms. making work). V--. (lit. 2 p py . and only the two great groups into which they are distinguished. These latter forms have orthographically. 19. in the case of most verbs. 3 Br. 47. 71 nh'i . USUAL INFLECTION.

is afforded by the pyramids. but '. The Copt. pronounced something like unindicated by the classic mok. 172. trv]. are no longer to be determined. trv The ending in is written. (' /( \V\ >vV ).72 b. t The passive of the which is attached later inflection ends in at the (tl. "man".) live".. THE FORMATION sdmf. THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. *172. Irv. e. A. the differences in which. prefix a [I for the indication of the prosthetic vowel to the forms beginning with two consonants: c I ' (I 1 /( V\ is wSleft . apparently includes three or four frequent forms. ITS FORMATION. and the n. on the other hand the manuscripts it new empire again indicate by means of (I ^JA. b. end of the word. precedes the suffix: sdmtrvf. This prosthetic vowel ' orthography of the *171. It is made with transitives and causatives. or in the m. THE FORMATION Sdmf. a. sdmntrvf first sdmlntrvf. ft tl or o t. French "on"): Ti Vc t nhtrv "they (impers. has lost this passive. write the ending B. The pyr. K. THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. Its most important classes are as It follows : . e. forms. which often e. for the expression of an impersonal subject (Germ. always A. then also impersonally with intransitives.

<X. The position of the vowel. s'dmof. A *^ 178). THE FORMATION Sdmf. but in others. cf. is this vowel was in one case (with the denoted by verb dependent upon rdl "cause that''. Furthermore. 173. sometimes f~\ both forms: "go" varies between J\ v\ Irvtf . g. indicated " in 170 A. 178). group really includes different forms. In classic orthography sg. XXX tvnnf "he is" *L*=^_ (cf. the I is nevertheless. e. 179) an . only occasionally written by the pyra- mids ( J! ( i] ^ ) and by the manuscripts of the it is n. That this may be seen e. 73 II lit. sq. do not: /W\A/V\ -^> A/VWVA tvnf (cf. s'dmf "he hears": " III ae inf. ' SM^T m r ^^ c ^ only written in the 1 ^6. with the other forms nothing cf. in the case of the II ae gem. C 234 it. cf. sometimes Irv A Inf (cf.c\ Intf (cf.) . with irregular Q verbs: In "bring" sometimes has 180). in certain cases separate their like radicals: ^^^=^. THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. . m'ri'f "he loves": x ~*^=^. m'riof. 6 ('kdof. (1(1 *^_). is known about (Concerning TTPXAC] C 247). 'kd*f "he builds" : III lit. 180).6. which 173.

rdl "give". in gress. tences. B. A D 178. . 239).74 &. and B. 174. rvsbf n sht'i AAAAAA IT \\ | < -- --. I. A/WVAA JX X srw. . * 1\ To ww I 7-j d I I Z$ r dl rvl J\nf m llrvt I I Eli nt smr "His majesty established me in the rank of a friend" In the later language. *174.. which prefers other (cf. ITS USE AS INDICATIVE. ("he is justly punish- gr-prv irn mr-pr ed &c". V?\ ^jA SP I I Jl v. In the old language sdmf of the group. JT I n wsof n nn n pn "He did not answer the princes. THE FOEMATION Sdmf.) the house overseer was there- upon silent. between dlf (cf. ITS USE AS INDICATIVE. 180). Una 2. is 222. and rdif( J\ v\ ^=_ 174) irvf. sdmf descriptive senwhich the action makes no essential prois retained in more This especially the case at the close of a short paragraph: rvnln mr-pr . Jir srht "the house overseer complained of (the peasant) ddinsn nf they said. is the usual form for the chief events in ordinary narrative: n AftAAAA r\ \@/ ^ pjS \\ V A^vn A 1 . forms and constructions for narration 230.

. assertions c= and the like: it "The plant ^^ 'X\ H I d I rwds hr 2 . . in snrvtt its 176. 178. e. 177. .) Here belongs also the formal said". AS A SUBJUNCTIVE. m THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. AS A SUBJUNCTIVE. 16. 179. 51. then say &c." The Ilae gem. 75 (but) answered this peasant" (The last two clauses simply enlarge upon the fact of the silence already stated. (cf. IN THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. . A . are doubled in it this case (lr A AA/NAAA . 389): (]<^>/ st . 37. lr gmk 3 . nts grows upon II belly (i. descriptions. ed by the particle C '-=^v i . . E. which introduces direct discourse. "he says". 2 Eb.. C 230b. D. a combination which led to the formation of a new causative in Copt. ^| ^* . ddhrk you m33k ind . 179*. In "bring" has the form A rdl "give".C. the form D. used in conditional clauses introduc<=^> (j It is further 177. It is further "^K^^ is ddf "he 175. .: 1 Bauer 50. g. ^^t^ "If .. 3 Eb. it creeps)" C. cf. "if you see"). used where a fact expressed. cause that". 1 . It is very frequently dependent upon rdl "give. 18.

12. AS AN OPTATIVE. Sin. rdl "give" Iwt 0. F. 2 Peasant 38. 79. It is often introduced by means of the particle AAAAAA Ih: (1 "^ I v^ Ih dds nl "let 4 her say to me" or by means of a preceding Ir "do" (impv. 3 p ri sse 10.. "bring" has the form ^ . 182. Eb. are not AAAAAA doubled. Probably identical with the preceding: ^=^> r~\ \ J) ^zi^> J mrk hmtk "Love thy wife" 3 . This very frequent form is probably identical with that of the subjunctive and optative. IN A FINAL CLAUSE. FQ I ^\ JLA Mf therefore send 1 \> h^bl nk sw that may F. 75. The cf. E. QA *182. that I choose for myself (of his land)" 1 180. C\ /""N /Vj M Q AAAAAA ^ II A l\ rdlnf stpl nl "he caused . C 234 sq. In A ft . vowel was here an according to the Copt. *181. AS AN OPTATIVE. Sin. 181.76 E. IN A FINAL CLAUSE. him to 2 you . It stands without introduction **?\ : "You might allow your servant I"! O AAAAAA O ^r\ to come Jirs ^x C\ ' to me.): "see" i -cs>- ^ 7 ^ * Ir 5 . . 9. In this case the gem. "come" j^^> .

this 184*. but probably only with verbs which have a .. (I V\ *5oT ]_M^_m^. especially in old texts. g. e. There are also found forms of this group in y. 185. like) mt. A. mdicf ni him speak with me'' cause that he speak with me). Imi (imperative is of rdl "cause that". 35). A. (and the like) mtn. ITS FORMATION. THE FORMS OF THE SECOND GROUP. 184. P. group may be recognised with certainty. only with those verbs which are marked by the doubling of the last consonant according to In the case of most verbs they are not to be recognised from the orthography. m. ITS FORMATION. 77 B. The forms of A. or (according to 151 A) a w as The form with the According to Sethe. is 185. The word for "behold" undoubtedly belongs the optative: Sg. v\ 10 and [Q v\ J^ _Z1^I^5 V\ -J h3wk "thou comest down". 256) with following verb "let often substituted (lit. * to 183. Since the n. e. . e=>\ 1 the last radical 1 "^ (I (J 1 ^ . fs^*. THE FORMS OF THE SECOND GROUP. 185. for it: Imi cf. 6 ddyk "thou I sayest". |\ (and the f\ t* mk (mtt? cf. final consonant doubled.

B. rdl e. D ' " i X "3 2 nn pssf "he shall not divide" . . in the case of the frequently recurring verb Illae inf. B. In place of the form with final consonant doubled.-priest" come out 1 for) .: <: <^-^> ^:> <^>OI sndt'i rib |1 A/W\A/\ ~*] Jj& ' AA/WV\ <Ci\\\ x prr ffrt hrtv 3 -pn n ''These three days (rations) will be delivered (lit. Ir "make". It is to be noted that. 311. Illae gem. 289. / i\ i\ im fl or *-". significance the form is apparently with reference to the future it is used very often. ITS FORMATION.. hj M t u let honey drop in Siut I. the form A f A.. 187. 7. 3 Eb. 22. _ verb i. in promises. USE AS AN INDICATIVE. to every s. for they are not doubled except in the case of 259.78 A. The emphasis . and IVae inf. 2 Siut I. With the last two it is especially easy to recognise it. found in the case of the Ilae gem. of 187. ^n A dldi(?) 160). the irregular fl . USE AS AN INDICATIVE. (dl) "give" has (cf. as well as the Illae iuf. threats. 186. -An/77 ft J3J? . directions. 296. the form Irr is indicated by 186.. questions &c.

. . 190. 190. E. A _/_! 1 A/WW\ wdn hn/prrl go to this "His majesty commanded that I mountain" 2 ntrrf "My majesty knows that he is a god" 3 . E. where (cf. It is : lEb. 36.INCONDIT.C. g. 9. * Westc. D.DEP. 188. ddhrk "If you find that his body . . ON PREPS. 4 . IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES. dependent upon various prepositions. which govern a sentence after the manner of our conjunctions the usage seems to vary."'. 79 C. likewise "v\ ml "see". 149e. gmmk htf . 189. fvj\ lj\ gm "find". 15. DEPENDENT UPON verbs VERBS. 189. mr "wish" rvd "love"). 24d. DEP. D. . DEPENDENT UPON PREPOSITIONS. Ir It is further the particle precede: used in conditional clauses. 389) does not immediately I 188. UPON VERBS. Y ^\ a "command" and ^ ^ 1 the like: <^^^:> A i^ ^\ AAAAAA A *^=* y /T ^w . . . 3 LD III. . 8. (lit. 2 LDII. (& QJ\ <^> swrf"fear". jl <=~> It further follows the rh "know". "I desire that you say" E.CL. then say &c.

rdl: olr ^>v ditwf. Prisse 6. K^= Y. The form sdmf. e : first group the II >k r\ make the form kd~trvf. Eb. cf. 191193. 6. In the is valid also for the passive in (cf.. the Illae inf. 117. 'f\.80 7- APPENDIX. tive sentences.: (n I Q v\* sin. hr m33f rvi "because he ml h^Cf in the region of light" 3 - m I3ht (?) "as he shines hft "Be not haughty toward him 4 hssf when he is wretched" . cf. 24 d. All that is stated in 172191. in contrast with sdmnf ( 197). on the relative forms 394. as far as t may 171). 282 sq. "let the patient drink this "till <d>"v\ _jfl ^V I r rvssf ^~^ he urinates" 1 . 2 3 LD IU. mslrvf. lit. is sometimes present in meaning. 172 190. APPENDIX. 192. 193. Beside the cases cited in mation sdmf is found elsewhere. so especially in rela396. where is not possible to state anything definitely concerning the On the substantivized forms forms employed. 15. . the forit 191. be seen.

81 in the second ~ group however rdi has the form didltrvf. and that: 1. /^T) Note N. show only the second consonant Ir : QA according to 3. contract their consonants: ^J?7 -<2>- AftAAAA m3nf "he 2. the III ae WiAAAA inf. a. ^ AA/VW\~v j. Erin an. is to say. Agypt. without the prosthetic vowel. as 338 sq. most part. ITS FORMATION. that the form began with a simple 195. ^% AAAAAA f\ I gmntrvs "she is found". already lost its n in the n. Granim. e. a. 170 A). may it: be seen from /f~~^^ pr) belongs inseparably to the stem. c. further. the verb rdl "give" < - --^ (cf. 194. THE n-FORM sdmnf. 195. n. ^^^^t /"} sees . ITS FORMATION. i 160) nearly always <^. the II ae gem. J 1 . THE W-FORM sdmnf.c. AAAAA^ / AA/VSAA has the form B. the passive ending follows . consonant (that cf. mrnf\ -<s>- "make" has the form -^"O""^- AAAAAA 151. ^<z>A for the The M-form had. In this form the stem receives an ending is which 194* written after the determinative: It V^^__ nt AAAAAA QA mrnf "he loves".

in an old which otherwise usually employs sdmf for narrative. LD II. : "Lay ^^~~~^ this ^(\ upon the place of the nrrvdnf"-\\> (certain- AAAAAA extracted hair. 283) in contrast "His i i majesty came in peace ^ /Q. min rhntn 3 "behold. that etc. ITS USE. This form. especially in relative clauses (cf. Siut 310." Thence further also. adds to a Una 22. g. narrate events with animation. P. 2 Eb. Since the m. or- served to text. 196198. 220. in asseveration. i ^z^ wSj 4 (i. ly) will ^-a-^. 1 it cut to pieces the land of the Bedouins. had overthrown them). g. 122 a.82 P. 396). I. is only used independently. ." (in ceremonious style). e. the events of war are recalled with liveliness [-] >a Awwx by means of the w-form: f^ yf yf ^f AAAAAA |0 00 ^ ^ ^\ **=?= ln msC P n nf i^i r Y> V I V\ ' t3 Hr'irv-sC "This army came. explanation and the like. which iginally e.- shrnf hftirvf "he had overthrown his enemies" e. 63. 2 not grow (again)". 17. ye know *197. but occurs elsewhere also with a preceding verb: """" fl I (cf. the n-form different 3 is used for the most it part. in an entirely i manner. ITS USE. after he *198. e. It often indicates the past.

is silent I c-^3 ^K ^ r gr. an accompanying remark more particularly explaining it (circumstantial clause). 169. ^ Prisse 9.3 L ^^- v\ I As may be seen in the case of the last clause. . is pushed into the background in a stylistic manner only. He found D the canal obstructed ^^i^. 199. Inscription of Sehel. n mdrvnf 1 mouth and he does not speak". 1 Prisse 4. 3 Bauer 34. the question is no longer one respecting an unimportant accompanying circumstance. Irv seemingly always takes the w-form: place is 4 nfrn 5 "The good". F* . overagainst the preceding important event (he went)._S^ hr prt and found him as he came out &c". The pyramids already employ the above ~ It is a remarkable fact. A. also. that T nfr "be good" 199. 4. ^ it <=> And * 2 n skdn dpi hrf and no ship sailed upon (longer)". 10. ITS USE. 170. 83 preceding word or sentence. but the second occurrence (he found). So in descriptions: S ''The & ^j^.|3. 5 p epy ].e\ peasant [ | xx /^\ went to implore him A/f?* ^\ gmnf srv A <ZI> VA T 77 _/ A. nfrn Ppy "P. 2 is well". likewise in narratives /f~^ ra : "Then /WWVA <~j this .

<s>In "bring". e. (sentences of the context But many texts of the m. . 3 THE Ar-FOBM sdmhrf. AAAftAA AAAAA^ I or in "when water comes out ^s>- (I Irlnk ns then make e._ I wnhrf W * rvZd ml rvnn 9. srvrlln s "Let the of it. for it (the receipt) &c". tp Sin. r\ AAAAAA It is further. e. 1 (1 A/WWA y hnf "the king occasioned" with other forms). THE AP-FORM sdmJjrf. 2 EJJ. That which is 194.84 d THE IW-FORM sdminf. Ir "do". 200 sdminf. its This rare form also corresponds to the w-form in formation. Originally this m-form: ^v$\ u form was ceremonial. 21. e. 204. g. especially in the case of the com- mon words: jj t-=^j \ "^ dd "speak". often A/^A^A^ used in directions. 195 C5 is f\ valid also AA/NAAA for the formation of the 201. It is -^^ employed in descriptions: AWAAA y _. 3 Eb. 202. d. e. sdminf it is there- fore especially preferred where the subject to is a person rdiin whom respect is due. 243. man |\ drink". ^^* I jy IN (I 1 AAAAAA AA/^AA^ QTV y^ M /wwvv 1 I vf^ Si. J\ "v\ 77 iw "go" and 203. 32. g. 204. 56. also employ it elsewhere in narrative. THE Jn-FOEM stated in *200.

for the practical purposes it of grammar. 20. e. (as far as inflection involves pronominal endings) that was uninflected. it may be stated with the greatest probability. 9. which when written. 11. 205. 2 Eb. 4 203). Eb. C=L^\<^> ^ ^ ^* o (1 I ddhr k rs "say o 3. probably belong the formulae is" 2 *^ hprhrf "that (as result of a putation) and o ^\ <^> I (Ellipse for ddhrtrv rs 3 "they say to her") "her name is".. It occurs more frequently in directions (like the 205. 3. "endungslos" as distinguished from in tw. * 6 The word term used by the author. 2. 5 41. only to be found with certainty. e. and as this passive can with certainty be found only with nominal subject. 5 \ ddhrlrv "let there be said". . ject. Math. 4.5. with nominal sub. 85 is t3 "He was green 1 (i. 6 3 Eb. 36. Westc. \ ) r 1 1 1 ms nk hrdrv 3 "Three child- ren are born to thee". g. one in doubt whether should It is be classified with the earlier or later inflection. but "endungslos" has absolutely no equivalent in Eng. Hdb. m-form to her". is it This formation. Eb. U. 16. THE UNINFLECTED* PASSIVE. THE TJNINFLECTED PASSIVE. jQj Here also. i TRANSL. It certainly is so. e.3. throve) like one who upon com- earth". leaves exactly 206*. like the active. 206. the passive ending "uninflected" does not adequately translate the viz. g.

A/VWXA l JUU AAOA mntl f. . are probably to be explained in part as uninflected passives. Mar. the passive in must always be used. in the m. -illtlwirf i 3 m. Jcrss The impersonal verbs suffixes. ITS FOEMATION. ' "she was buried". *208. OLD INFLECTION (PSEUDOPARTICIPLE). in the w-form. the formation of which. 207. OLD INFLECTION (PSEUDOPARTICIPLE).86 4. it cannot be used in dependent clauses. There are a few obsolete passive forms with e. AAAAAA \ is as follows: \*^^^^v&mnkrvi(mnkiv'}} "I remain" . acIt is cording to the usual orthography Sing. found in only one form. ITS FORMT J N. like and these may also belong here. f> mn o /wwv\ t . On t the other hand. g. 208. A/WSAA i W j ./""^ 2m. Mast. 168 also. in a cir- cumstantial clause ChCn (cf. 201. 4. for example after rdi. in one form only. a. The uninflected passive would then belong to the later inflection. so that. 207. e. the so called pseudoparticiple. of A. 198) or the combination with 230). 1 c. especi- ally where the latter would be (cf. It often takes the place of the passive in . a. and occurs with unchangeable stem.

e. The original forms of the 3 of the dual (m. Vulgar writings of the n. originally r\ had the ending (I . in the case of the Illae (I. : 1 sg. f. 1 The ending of the sg. B. mmvy. 1 1 1 1 ft. the ending was at that time. ITS FORMT'N. 1 c. 212) and the forms lost. sg. is also written to use this AAAAAA ^ ~i v! ^z^Vu* 209. mnty) were early B. AAAAAA 1 1 1 1 iv U Jl -e\u AAAAAA mnrvin I I I ' n l[ -c-1 .). the with the final I- becomes (1(1 : Details according to Sethe. B. mnt'iwrii \\ A. . has supplanted all the others and only a few sg. already spoken -t. ^ggy <^ 3 c ^ "^ \ . ~^>--^^ rarely v\ ^o Q r\ ^ (I rvrhl "(he is) anointed". more "*f\. the writing ^ is 210. e. ~9^?~ AAAAAA I nWn *Ii ^\ C^ >T"< Lk^ Other -Pv A writings are ^^^ (o. other forms also begin to drop out. (cf.. The "^Y 3 m.4. m. a /WWVA U c. e. mntyiv. and IVae 1 inf. especially in the manuscripts of the m. OLD INFLECTION (PSEDDOPARTICIPLE). is) ' mixed". (cf.1 AAAAAA 2 3 c. and many texts seem regularly certain verbs form with ) -^a ( . 209 211. AAAAAA i\ v\ -M^ mn. pi. it was pronounced In the case of the endings ti. e. are g > t and c v\ tw. ^z^?> v\ and rarely ^-^* VS' -k. in Copt. are preserved with them. 211. 87 1 f n ij Plur. customary. C 3 181) the 3 f. <|j\ y B \>^f 3mirv "(he 1 Jl Jj inf. e. In the n. In the n.

there 3 f . I gem. an active-transitive and a passive-intransitive. msli "(he is) born". in the most important cases it . f. kebe ("cool") m. as -e and -te: II II lit. 212 214. e. the endings being added according to the later pronunciation. hemhome. m. lit. 214. in "v\ and a tl\ but both were already lost at a very remote period and only the 3 m. m. sepdode ("prepared") gem. i i i was originally in n(j in the plural a 3 m. f. e. UK ma also be wr itten for Jr ^\ JL i i i . but those in have disappeared. m. In the m.88 4. mene. probably already lost. hemhomte ("roaring"). The vocalisation can be restored only in the passive-intransitive forms. OLD INFLECTION (PSEUDOPAllTICIPLE). *213. But the first was very early lost. occasionally occurs in the f\ ^?\ m. originally The pseudoparticiple apparently had two forms. runs about as follows. the ending of most verbs was L\L.: (\ v\ Irv "they come". which are retained in the Copt. f. the writings in are frequent. mente ("remaining") III inf. ITS FORMT'N. mosje ("born") lit. sodme. a. III (III sdomte ("heard") m. m. thus restored. those in "v\ (1 not rare. c .

rdl "give" has the c form didiw. -^till occurs. 89 was A. QflfljOl. 217sq. of the intransitives The pseudoparticiple and pasj 217. employ it as a narrative form. pronounced something like erliw ("knowing"). ITS USE. is Of the irregular verbs. 241). the pseudoparticiple. ITS USE. as well as that of the transitive verb rh . The few old texts. ACT. and preferably at the close of a short paragraph. PASS--INTRANS. 215 217. |3.: I Irkrvl "and I did". b. IN of 216. P.b. rdlrv. also a \> dlrv and otherwise "go" makes the 3m. has preserved a living pseudoparticiple. from which it draws a conclusion. I [jj V\ im^-^s -*J shlkrvi "and caused to descend".-TRANS. only in the 1 sg. but the latter frequent. THE ACTIVE-TRANSITIVE FORM. It. a. sives. which still make this form a. ^\ I . In the case of the Illae inf.. its use corresponds exactly with that of the passive-intransitive form (of. FORM. seemingly. The pseudoparticiple of the transitive of the II lit. Only the verb rh "know". although it is transitive.. IN THE PASSIVE-INTRANSITIVE FORM. occur side by side. the forms ITJ lv\and the more 215.

e. 7. almost only in the hskrvi hrs A. I it is 4 hot)". IN THE PASSIVE-INTRANSITIVE FORM. 219 On the use of the pseudoparticiple as apparent cf. 402. /wvw\ ~\ r\ kbti "If you find his jy/www \\\gmmk drmf sm. 3 Sin. "This l 3 pronoun a closer limitation. 5 B. predicate 240 sq. 199. have. g. \ h^ 1 "and I was therefore praised". 246 sq. g. Eb.. slitpf ntrwu'. *218. g. 37. . Eb. du. 348. where most part. "if you find his sole. 219. The pyr. 2 LD * II.) and the like. employ a participle.90 |3. 122 a. C 181.. still 1 sg. 233. 3. In Copt. 218. 182.. e. it is more frequently employed for the in order to annex to a substantive or we would. ^z3^>^\VQi r l command came <zz>My me. the remains of the pseudoparticiple have entirely gone over into participles. htpwil "he satisfies the two gods. Pepy I. hlf J*7 /WWW U IA sole hot and his body cool" (lit. out". 36. 216). 234. and they are satisfied" 2 (H m. is still used as an independent O T jQ verb. srv stsy "Look at him stretched Cf. (as) I to stood (in the midst of my tribe)". E. "know" (of.

COMP. 220. 91 5. (1 1 jJ/WWVA Iw Innl Ddi 1 have brought Ddi hither". 197). WITH FORMS OF THE USUAL INFLECTION. a. 332). 8. Iw sdmnf "he (had) heard" (past. 246. 47. which as a rule are distinguished in usage as follows: Iw sdmf "he hears (heard)". Iw sdmn ntr "the god heard". in a single independent remark: (1 "This plant UX /wwv\ is used so and so fi ^K ^ III ^ of I y \ o "v\ made ^ J) ^_ means of i^ytf tw grt srtvdtw sn n st m t3yf prt "further. 2 ' Eb. 115). the hair of a its fruit''. 2 Westc. only the passive in t. . In contrast with the simple forms sdmf and sdmnf. 19 (cf. both passives occur with the second. IS". 1 woman is to grow by "v\ A Jl "The prince came to the king I and said. -ed cf. INTRODUCED BY "IT THE FORMS Iw sdmf AND a. these have a certain independence (like other clauses introduced by Iw It is therefore used. the forms run: Iw sdm ntr "the god hears". cf. 221. 8.221. .5. With the first. is where a fact to be express. (j'\\ Irv "it 220*. With nominal subject. there are made two forms. COMPOUNDS WITH FORMS OF THE USUAL INFLECTION. ho sdmnf. With the impersonal auxiliary verb is".

WITH DOUBLE SUBJECT. is far more rare and probably V\A archaic. AAAAAA AAA/VAj &. (Beginning of the narrative). "he is. ~ *224. The corresponding use of the auxiliary verb AAAAAA wn "it is". the forms of 149 e. ba. THE FORM iwf sdmf. . WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB wn. There are found ^^* ^ " v\ WvV rvn sdmf "he hears"J i| sdmnf "he heard" and a -^^ u he heard". This form (1 I "%\ n C\ _Hv^ ^w/ 5</w/ (lit. a. THE FORM J) is iw/ sdmf. ' p.92 222. 222 225. 223. AUXILIARY VERB ivn. 221) in re^ LD II. a number of verbs in this form follow one another^ ^\ _HK^A When iwf 225 - is used with the first of them only. It is used (similarly. means "he accustomed to hear". he hears"). a(3. A *^V '"I | I With p3 nominal subject it runs as follows: (I 1 v\ /I 5\ y ^-^M JV */ J \ ^w n#r sdm/ "The god is accustomed to hear". It is used especially at the beginning of a narra- tive or of one of hzbn its paragraphs: [1 ^\ rD\j^ me 1 AAAAAA 1 "v\ Itv rvl nbl "My lord sent out &c.

(3. that happens to him". 2 ^ v\ ^=^_ wnf sdmf 6. Totb. irvf mnf Q'i n V\ _ffix^A^\ man on whose neck there is a swelling and who has pain p. gin. ing to 249. /WWVA \\ nlibtf "A s stf o ^^ nhbtf. JJ n fi n /Ci . 226 228... 1 book prf . 226. It is especially preferred in the case correspond- 227. 3 very 228. 93 marks. 51. 15 B. in which a fact A _n stated: (j "\> ^*\Jf t3 P ^ "y\ n ^ R "He who has this Iw grt prts dltrvs hr "Further. in the two organs of his neck". 4 wninf sdmf. 20. 51.. 18. 2 it is But on the other hand the forms in also 246 Q 249) in descriptions f\ employed (like and desQ criptive narratives: t\ ^\ tl O^ ^J I v ^r i_l _ AAAAAA ^r AA/WAA AAAAAA C__L ^^ e* rj /} Fl ^i I ^ll ^N^ y^. THE FORMS wnf sdmf AND wulnf is sdmf.U ^r P^i Jf ^^ mn> n ^& "I 3 gave water to the thirsty". 96.. is THE FORMS wnf sdmf AND /WW\A The form -^^ *^=^ Eb. its fruit is accustomed to be laid upon bread". . * Eb... for the continuation of a relative clause or the like: p A v. he knows ^w/" all rhf hprtvt nf ribt goes in and out .

In the popular language of the m.. 4 Sin. another. a. which only occurs where one of the words for king. rare. forms the subject: AAAAAA ] I i -^ AAAAAA (] | V v^\ I 1 I KX\ _y _i i MU Q. Eb. 4 o ^K A "Let there be given". 3. it is weakened to the usual form for narrative ("he heard"). The very frequent combination ^ A AAAA QiCn sdmnf ("he arose and heard"?). Eb. WITH cf*CW AND chC. 230. 44. however. *230. . originally marke an occurrence in the narrative. is used in directions: rv3Jik <= >^z^Yo ^ AA 2 ll^H u Jj hrk dtk "lay your hand". as significant (something like 'then he heard"). 174. c. e. WITH chcn AND chc.229. 48.. WITH A VERB OF MOTION. * st gss d3d3s im "Let the 3 woman I anoint her head with dltrv it". rvnlnf sdmf. ca.94 fey THE FORM /jr/ sdmf. 346. This rare formation evidently related to sdmhrf. and like it. Eb. 9jm / ft IVtlviv It II j hw/ /fr-J /)</)/ (// w/ rtC' " JLXX9 r^ a i 1 majesty sent to me". 3. Y- THE FORM is 229. 47. ten archaically 1 i> is also writ- OY~ 2 i Y 3 A 5 and 21. is explained by hrf sdmf.

WITH chcn AND chC.co. Ip c=?| QCn <Mw 7# "The prince No example j of the passive inis occurs. If the subject is a pronoun. 8. whose 233*. ChCn sspd ^ I? A AAAAAA fl QC W r ^ 2 "they (impers.) occasioned". compound seems In the case of the active of the transitives. The nominal sentence described verb is in in 240sq. the unin. it is attached to Ch as suffix: ^ 4 A ^ (Wyl fi ^TTi^" ^ ^f c ^ Cw ^ hntkwl "I sailed up". 8. i 4 ^H A/VWW I & <~- > r ^"ji 1' QCWS ^r/* "She ceased". Westc. fleeted passive. Qif-n U always has the w-form following: """ <jp _ <^:> n 231*. 3 LD * LD II. I I :^ J^^^cnn D ^ (cf. In the language of the to be wanting. Westc. 2 * ib. said". 122b. e. this 95 still A. 122 a. I A/WVAA - A AAAAAA ' A ^ L\ cjiCn rdlnf "he gave".. o. 6. I is employed with transitive verbs: H __ -f\ Q A JT "His majesty went I V /wwvv J\ _ V 2 ^= "^\J\ GL rt L \^ Pi tiii V\ ^\ _^ . . 3. however. 3. freely used after Qin D A 207): f n(l <=^> Jjo1\ A AA^VA l\ U 1 hpt ''The house was fitted out". U.M* Ck 3 Qi^n hnfwctt D ' m htp in peace".231234. 4.. there i also used the 234.232*. 5 is (J I Other than in narrative. in- the pseudoparticiple.

35. 3 Math. 18. Hdb. The form sdmf pw. WITH I in. prn AND Iw. 236 ' J\ Iwl mhkrvl "then I d. while intransitives. @ f~7^flra'^l|(] falls 2 -^ a cs Mtl lire "then she immediately". prn AND C <T ' iw. Eb. 36. The forms derived from ^ M -A . * Eb. which are AAAAAA ^> AAAAAA "come" and it than c/^Sft. 2 184 sq. 37. 3 j\ am full". form Y A c^ c i which transitive verbs follow in the fol- form sdmf. 235 237. just as with QiCn./J In and jt?r -^ . 235. 51. but like "go out". but it further appears to denote also a condition at r\ /WVAA jl tained: "When you find this or that in is him I D^K snbf ptv then he well". Eb. low in the pseudoparticiple: i i I o 1 w&Z "then he discharges all worms". c . cf. cf. THE FORM sdmf piv. 4 The verb has the form of the second group. /*. 87 on pw) something like "it is he who hears" (cf. 237. 20.96 p. d- THE FORM sdmf pw. 7. means . are far rarer in construction and original meaning. WITH in. 1C . in the first instance.

6. used since the m. WITHOUT THE AUXILIARY VERB (IMPROPER NOMINAL SENTENCE). a. do" with an dependent upon as object ("he does hearing"). COMPOUNDS WITH Ir it "MAKE". This combination supercedes the inflection.238. | much more frequent. B. G . Often with verbs of going: 1 . The strange combination prv Irnf ("it ^ Y^\ D^> sdm is 239*. later with all verbs C 249). E. 7. Hdb. ~*\ especially with verbs of going. g. was early transferred to sentences with verbal predii Sin. used: 1. *^\ . because pr is a verb of going. 19. granim.*. 97 Ir 6. with the (cf. is as a form of narrative. 238. <^z^> <nr> first YX A 1H r#rAI U w^- d3d3 "you multiply" IV lit. and caus. Ill lit. -<s>-ME^p v\ <==*=> iri smt "I went" 2. 41. = Math. 2 Una 30.^O^^AA. was hearing which he did"?) which e. COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. Erman. The combination of nitive is "make. WITH ir. WITH PSEUDOPABTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. g v$\ ^ prt prv Irnf "he went out". With compound verbs 2 . : AAAAAA < dZZ^> ^J^ Irnl dr-t3 "I journeyed" -<a>3 . 7. (cf. Egypt. infi.) 240*. < According to Sethe. 240. while the parallel verbs are expressed by means of sdmlnf or Ch^n sdmnf. The model of the nominal sentence 327 sq.

exactly. Iw "go". in the case of transitives. shr "overlaid" the verbs of going etc.). "go". hr "fall"). > J] U rh "know" w (cf. (mlrv "recommence". In general. hpr "happen"). but also hpr "to be" even where 4. The following. COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. 241. 242. (rdi "give". This kind of sentence was the origin of the late Egyptian forms twfsdm 241. 3k "diminish".). it ' means "become". 3. and in the infinitive with the preposition ^ #r. hrp "lead". Cf. ssp "receive". 2. frv "be broad" &c. B. . More participle: 1. mr "be sick". (qCOTM) and twflir sdm ((]CO)TM). verbs of condition. the following are in the pseudo- the passives (ph3 "divided". the verbs of condition when they denote the continuation of the condition (mh "be full". however.).98 7. the is verb following. 242. 8 216). the verb in the pseudo- participle in the case of intransitives and passives. ml "see" &c. i 2. when they denote the entrance upon the condition. (hi "descend". in the infinitive the transitive verbs with or without an object following. cate. even with following object. are with hr: 1. the subject (a noun or pronoun) preceding. C253sq.

on . . therefore in asser- m rl "No contradiction comes out of after my mouth" 1 . 265. 8. Ihtv hr m3w "Old age comes . 2 3.). . G* . "Behold (thou woman). . &c. and especially mk "behold" ( ( 183) where the old absolute pronouns 80) are used: S3-nht irv m C3m 2 . . 4 weakness(?) recommences" S LD II. Prisse 4.). criptive parts of a narrative 13 w h3rv . It is further used in descriptions and in the des: 244. 3 136 h. 99 3. 2 Westc. Its use corresponds to that of the real nominal (cf. 12. 243. 243..7. low". sentence 328 sq. In the oldest language the infinitive with to does not yet have been usage here. lir rmy "weep" seem ciple A. verbs of crying and weeping (nml "roar. It is used. I MJ Sin. COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. 244. for at that time the pseudopartiwas still made with all verbs ( 213). Sinuhe comes \\ as an Asiatic" tk [ come" 3 .

^^ j it. Sin.' sentence of this kind 1 . 1 it had become evening" is A A. 3 220222). 3. 'A ^ fy- n ^' ^ww (fern. 246. J oA i H rjAA^AAAQ I I AAAAAA/WSAAA . 4 Inscription of Sehel. 2 Westc. often also used as a . Ibf fn> 4 . 3 whose summits reach heaven". tk H A relative clause: v\ AWWV Jl ikil . or expresses a subordinate circumstance in connection with which an action took place: ^ d^> /WVAA/V. 129131. bnbntsn Jbhtv m hrt ^ . according to hCfi rib m3h nl. < Just as the forms sdmf and sdmnf are introduc ed by the auxiliary verb fi%> Iw 1 (cf. . J . LD IH. Li I 1 I I J"v\X^v "two obelisks . /Mwi' L . is Such a description conjunction the (1 often introduced by the 323). WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB iw. belongs use of ^\ clauses : 1\ ^~* d J\ A m ht "after" in temporal * Jjjwi JB=& ^ fl ^f*^ 2 . ls= _B^fc 1st ( Here also. INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS. about: "Day broke and now burned for came the people of Tnw. ^^ hdnf hrf. "He sailed down upon his heart being glad" a. ^a^. 10. while every heart me 1 " (not narrative but description). INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS. WITH THE VERB Iw. . '-" f\ AAy\AAA Ksk >"?! 98) itl. 24 d.100 b. *L^_ ^ 246. j <X. m ht mlrrv hpr "After 245. b.

the use of Iwf supplanting the nominal sentences of and Iwfhr sdm. 2 Sin. 36 17. . 222): o Irv trvtl shr m nb. by in In. . Indrvtf its m rv3sm "My statue silver- was overlaid with gold and 2 apron with gold. is used where a fact (cf. is sentence with verbal predicate just also often introduced Irv. In the popular language of the m. If the subject is a pronoun. 101 so the nominal treated.248. C 251. expressed in a single 247. INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS." Even when the sentence 1 in question. It is further employed at the beginning of a its narrative or of one of paragraphs (cf. it. corresponds E. as FqCOTM (iivf EqCCDTM hr sdm). expresses Eb. in the case of a sdm especially. 247. The modifi- cation introduced by this is both cases the expressed by same.b. are already 240 sq. independent remark 221): "Say concerning Irv (j^Kr rH Q**=*- T^v 248. <X. It is Cf. it is a suffix: <=> to ^ Sr-A [] &J but J 7A^>. later ' v therefore ^ *^ J\ ^ to e. becomes still more extended. WITH THE VERB llO. 307. sdm) and They are (iwf preserved in Copt. 1 mrstf(l} phltl his liver (?) is divided" . the forms Iwf sdm pronominal subject. 262 sq.

only an accompanying subordinate circumstance. 149 c. . whose body there. When a number of relative nominal sentences are joined to one noun (cf. 245). (cf. 250. nht htf hrs. while this army of the king 249. distinguished according to 241 242. 3 fir-^/IIa. 4. 2 Eb. WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB WH. Iw ms^ pn n stn hr "she bore upon looked on" 1 . LD II. all but the first are introduced by Iw 227): <-?-< > ]\ V I I Ir mB3k hri-stt .. fore stiff and who is diseased in his stomach (?)" 2 p. 14. Here belong the forms..102 (3. 250.. this form is used like that without Iw (cf. it. . . 25. ^^^=^^) AAAAAA v\ tvnf sdm (the verb is pseudoparticiple) and -^^^^_ ^ ( ^ v\ WvV wnf tir sdm: -^^ *L=^ ^ d^3 -Jb] *k^> A AAAAAA I li M | | ^^7 rvnfhr dw3ntrw I lib "He worshipped all 3 gods" . 245) : 7>r/*. Irvf Jir mn r-lbf "If you is see any one with a swelling . WITH THE AUXILIAEY VEEB ton.

A verb remarkable formation. rvnkl dwnkwi "I threw The forms distinguished according to 241 242 252*. 251. which represent an action or a condi- tion as the result or conclusion of that previously narrated.". But they are further employed at the beginning of a paragraph also. They are therefore employed fl M for the most part. at the close of a para- graph: "This or that was done to cheer the king S\ ^^^ _^J |U AAAAAA WHIH ID U fin/ KO _JJ A \1 IA AAAAAA and the heart of his majesty was (on that account) AAAAAA <fV AAAAAA W \ I V n. where they then connect the latter with that which precedes : "The wise man had the children the called. is 251. WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB WU. is found in ^&i AAAAAA ^^^^<=^>^^ J\^^^^\^ myself down(?)" 2 . gave them book and said I to them | &c. I New paragraph: | AAAAAA I i i i I jf i ^ Q I _ X i ^ AAAAAA ~SSX1 I AAAAAA ( nil /WVAAA! 1 LD II.ff AAAAAA \ ^ ~1 cheered 3 (lit. V1 wnnf Cnh '"He will live" ( 184. cool)" . nninf lir sdm. 252. 3 Westc. 2 Sin. 149 c. in which the auxiliary also in the pseudoparticiple. (~\ 103 1 AAAAAA AAAAAA *^_ 187). 252. 1. 6. are more frequent. .P.

the basis of the construction Irvf r (e. 240) the preposition <c=> : r. . 2 gi n . In Copt. 253. .. e. it is preserved as F(|8CO)TM 3 (cf. that "And they threw themselves upon it 1 their and they read &C. has already nearly superceded the simple form in the popular language of the m. rvnlnsn 2i/l hr sdt bellies B.104 8.. g." Toward the end of the n. 280. 253. "to". Prisse 2. .) and the form thus originating. temporarily the most e. (1 ^\ was early prefixed 246 i to this kind of sentence also (as in sq. 254. i i i I <=^3 st ^. . "he will be a friend" 2 ). B.. __ . . indicates the future rvl r nhm C3k "Behold. 5. i. it is common form of narrative. >254. COMPOUNDS WITH T AND THE INFINITIVE. "he Irvf will (l'v\ jlj 1\ WH a friend".. The auxiliary verb I will take thy ass" 3 Irv . Bauer 11. hr rdlt st hr hrvtsn. (j^ ^^^v wf r s ^m " ne will hear". C 269). COMPOUNDS WITH On be something" is for r AND THE INFINITIVE. with following infinitive. there developed a kind of nominal sentence. 8. e. in which r smr "he (cf.. this becomes so frequent..

(1 older v\ . is used as imperative of cf. it (something like or rv e mho)\ in the plural ended in ("mhorv}. Since the n. cause". 255. IMPERATIVE. 105 9. according to indicate the prosthetic vowel. the signs and a _n are the deter- minatives of giving). n MA. these endings are almost never written. the Copt. do". in ^ mh i-*-*-* The imperative had no ending "fill" I the singular: 255*. of "make. rarely \[J\. iml incorrectly in the . the II sing. the third radical is and the ending L B.9. and the plural of the imperative is indicated only by the determinative i: Q^N\ QA lit. In classic orthography. 31. later J|vi lljh and Mar. the Ilae gem. (Copt. cf. A. C 305. p. i. are doubled. the infinitive also used instead of the imperative. however. e. impv. e. and the like. 256. 1\ ' m. IMPERATIVE. . n. The plural of the Illae inf. still possesses but few imperatives of the C 305. in the "fall" 170 A: llir (something like e hro. old formation. more Ab II. i shBn> "remember" or left entirely unindicated. A n rd"give. In detail note further: 256. in the pyramids ends in (I [I. In the pyr. e.

. forms just cited. AMOy. . IMPERATIVE. write mi "give" for the most part (with the sign D). m. 282. they have further a real imperative of di. On the employment of V\ a V\ a "give" in clauses 182 B. The distinction in gender observable in the two Copt. imi Altw "cause that there be given" (in the replaces it. LE. m. often follow it also: m r- rk "gehe". 257. the like. imi loses its original meaning "give".. was probably existent in the old language also. cn>*A/wxA wn ir(n "open ye". which is written A Lu K (I ra B. (Copt. AMH. e. A. (I ^ _D imi rdl. cf. The imperative solute is often followed by the old ab- pronoun ^o (cf. LD HI. as imperative of the verbs of coming. 3 Sin.106 9. The pyr. contracted to (I V\ ^H^vf )> 257. employed with suffixes for 348). Nav. f. C 305). III 1 sdmrv Irf tn "hear ve" 3 J 27. 24 d. I. From frequent usage since the expressing a wish. I r- and lr-. but is not indicated in the ortho- graphy. 2 Totb. P^I The words emphasis (cf. 80): ^\ X> Jl& \ J\ i ^ i i Y> ^s t "hasten (thou)". VN\ AAWAA rvd^rv tn I "go (ye)" 1 . cf. ed.

. as may be conjectured from the pi. Ab. AAAAAA i Mar.m. m. ^9vb\ sdm Pl. p *}>\ stP w " cn o sen one" 2 The participles occur in active and passive forms. the masculine substantive it ending "v\ (cf. PARTICIPLES. II. 259. THE NOMINAL FORMS OF THE VERB. m.10a. have sometimes separated. stands v\ o v\ wttrv . sometimes contracted consonants: -^* AAAAAA rvnn "being" " or -A. and those of the past seem to have been distinguished.:Si5 tvn. PARTICIPLES. of which. which as a rule are written as 258* Sg. "be- getter" . have. The sing. alone as a substantive. 1 especially where f ^ ^\ ^\ g. 2 LD II. m. for the most furthermore. 3 According to fiethe. 259. ^^|\ i sdmyrvt^) may part. a. f. The follows : participles. often rv has 96). had a vocalic ending z. 107 10. those of the present and future. 25. 122 a. e. 3 Note in detail: II ae L The gem. 258.

J\ pr "having gone Beside the forms with doubling (present) there occur in the passive. but M "having born" (fem. . "" The irregular verb rdl "give" has the active ^ form 260.108 2. PARTICIPLES. written for 151. and -ca>-(j(l for try. I (cf. in the active. The Illae inf. and sometimes do not (past): <z>^\ ffl mrrrv "loving". sometimes double the second radical (present). others in which out. 13. hr hQl "the kings who were before me" 2 or like a substantive: . 1.) but gmyt "found" gmmt "being found" do". The participle is either used attributively like an adjective: -v -?>^ . Irr. ft r\ /~N f -* ill Irywt r/ "the 1 wrong done against him" . Hf.) In the case of -<s>. according to 3.). is (fem. 260. Eb."make. 10a. prr "going out". the third radical 151) is visible (past): (fem. c_i A n dldl "giving". 2 EIH 19 sq.

* Eb. 26.). : cf." 3 A A (i. *L=^_ mryf "his son beloved by him". especially [I when it is put in the passive participle. The grammatical subject of a verb may also be retained. s3f *^^. 14. passive e. I li^ ^^. to indicate logical the one. i Eb. 261. _=> mry (1 (1 "beloved by the two lands". Prisse 5. PARTICIPLES. (fern. 19. from whom IBiv'i the action in question proceeds): . jH>^ T^^ AA/WVA " C2>" H 1 mr w ^1 ^r 1 *\-r^ ^ r/" "pain about that done to him. 109 \ mst t3y "one 1 . to whom injury is done by his brother" a fratre) 2 (lit. 16.10a. often its added to a subject 261. remedy ^\ J is "** ill JJ^<n> o is m I Irrrvt n ht of that which made for the 4 body" . factus malum contra eum 5 . substantive or a suffix participle. 11. who born a boy" ^^|\ [m'vx sT sdmyrv "the \ listeners" 2 . . 400 and examples like AAAftAA (1 -o>. Bauer 25.(1 (I T ^|\ W i r ii mr f rf i n snf "He. 5 Merenre' 465 j the whole according to Sethe.

. a. II ae Whether the \\ 7f c== ( i infinitives of the other gem. and no special lit. The old expressions /wwv\ mr n "beloved of" are of. o : With the following first has the after the consonant.110 b. like iD vv rvU "urinate". o is An III lit. ITS FORMATION. CoAcA. pro- ms n "born bably passive participles of". are also J to be vocalised thus. b. sdm "hear" CCDTM (with *" suffixes COTM=). A. The vowel ending II infinitive has different forms in the different classes it verbal classes. o o> A Mht w w (cf. found after the second consonant of some like which denote a quality. of like meaning. IV and suffixes 263. (for *tsor~) <nr> ^J\ kmom dsr II TDOO) "become red" and also of the i ae gem. 262. THE INFINITIVE. -^"r wn "open" oyCDN (with suffixes III lit. ^1\ V lit. ITS FORMATION.. AA/WvA Ir n "begotten also. like s v\ 1\ "become black". 263. . is uncertain. a.. *262. THE INFINITIVE. with cAcO)A).

b.

THE INFINITIVE,

a. ITS

FORMATION. 264

268.

Ill

The Illae
^v

j>,

most part an a
*i

according to the Copt, have for the 264. after the second consonant in the

infinitive:

v> n

&

A

v\
J!ES>

?\

n
i\

wd3 "be healthy" OYXAl,

n
I

\

\

U

I

%^-

sk3 "plow" CKAl.
O O
\\
'
i'

""
*i

f\

Certain infinitives, like

R X
/\ r\

A
-rf-J

hlu "seek",
AAAAAA

(1
1

265.

^
j

^
The
f~\
|

m' w ^

"land"

(i.

e.

die,

MOONE),

in careful

orthography, end in
III ae
inf.

'i.

have
i

infinitives
/k

with feminine 266*.

ending and the vowel
[

or

n

e:
jjj

1^ mst "bear" MICE
-<S>*r#

prl "go out"
do", FlpF, nj"^\

mpe, nppF,
'-descend"

"make,

A

^^

F &c.
infinitives, 267.

_^\s>_y_i
lit.

A
like

few III

have likewise feminine
"sit" B.

dh hmst
Q
fl

gEMCt,

as well as the

irregular verbs
"give".

A

Mf (?) "come" und

<~

:

n

rdlt

The causatives of the

II

lit.

have likewise femiI

268.

nine infinitives (according to

161):

^^^
c^\
\y/

s fy rt

"overthrow"

(from

hr

"fall"),

0"^^
I

il

smnt

AAAAAA

U

"establish" from

mn MOyN "remain") CMINP.- Among
inf.

the causatives of the Illae

are found
s

I

sms'i

lj||

"unbind", but also

Pru"|^(](|/\

^

f

"cause

to

112
descend".

(3.

ITS

SUBSTANTIVE NATURE. 269

271.

The causatives of the
lit.

III

lit.

are classified
/>

with the IV
up", Copt.

in the infinitive,

II?

s^hc "get

COOgF
0.

(from *soCh'C).

ITS

SUBSTANTIVE NATURE.
was originally a substantive with
and governs no obrendered in possessive form by
79),

*269.

The
no

infinitive

the general meaning of the verb. It therefore belongs
to
definite voice of the verb

ject; "to kill

him"

is

hdbf "his killing"

(cf.

and

Mb

hft'i

"to kill the

enemy" was originally undoubtedly a genetive, "the
killing of the enemy",
270.
(cf.

C

173.)

Of
*A*VWV

itself,

hdbf "his killing"
killing,
EL 3i^-^ "

may

also
in

have the
I

meaning "the
A
I

which he does", as

JT|

*$~*-~]
I

P^^^\
is

msdr nds sdmf "an ear whose
e.

_B*v5t
l

hearing
is
is

small"

(i.

a deaf ear), but such usage

practically rare (the substantivised form of

283

preferred in this case)
is

and a possessive

suffix

on

the infinitive

always

first to

be translated as the

object of the latter.
271.

The substantive character of the

infinitive

is

evidenced also by the fact that a plural is made from In contrast with the singular it is best rendered it.

by a substantive:
i

Eb. 91,

2.

Y. ITS

USE. 272.

113
Plural

Singular
/""\

4?

A

*^V

/""^

I

i^'to bear"
ffl|'

_^
msrut

\
1

j

1

'birth";

~

c
3

mrt "to love"

2 ^"vN mrrvt "love";

r-*

ac

"to stand"

i
fi

J

"^ -A IN
Ji
3

c/c;

"standing

place";

^^> hkr "to hunger" Q
With many verbs however,
and of
the singular.
Y.

^\

^^

likrrv

"hun-

(e. g.

those of going
also used like

rejoicing) the plural infinitive

is

ITS USE.

It stands, precisely like a substantive, as the

sub-

272.

ject of a sentence:

"My wish was
subject,
cf.

to

make

it

5 for him" (irt

is

335),
:

or as part of the genetive relation ^ /o r\ <->( ^ n\ ra cq r~i

|o

AAA^V^I

(T LJ v
J 1

A ^ ILDLnn v^^r
st

hrn> n

st tk ^

m

ht1

ntr,

"The day of the lamp-lighting
jj
i

in the temple"/

^ni^u^l
2

hrs "place of burying", 7
H, 122 a.
Siut
I, 3
"

4

LD

Westc. 10, 8. & LD n, 122b. Erman, Egypt gramm.

LD
d.

III,

24

291.

Westc. 6, 13, Westc. 7, 8.
j[

114

.

ITS USE.

273275.
118):

or for the qualification of an adjective
T
A

(of.

c^^ ^\ QA
1

nfr

mdw

"excellent in speak-

mg
273.

"

1

Further, as object after verbs of willing, like
""

"v\
|

rvd
j

"command",

mr

"desire",

^p> nA snd
a
1J

"fear", as well as ^=^&

\\ nA k3 "think" and ymH/
C
si)

rh "know, be able"
n U

(cf.

314):

!1

^y--^ J]^ 1K
"
2

X
|H U
I

^==

-/J.

JIE^ ^~x

w( jtrvnf
2

"It

was commanded him to pay
189

it".

Beside

the above, the construction in

is

also in use

with these verbs.
274.

The
position
;

infinitive

may be dependent upon any prewith the more common prepositions these

combinations have in part taken on special meanings, which are noted below:
275.

The

infinitive with

^S\

m

"in",

denotes for the

most part time,

"They were astonished ^\^ Q
came",
3

(j

A milt when they
e.

but nevertheless occurs with other meanings,
"*
2

g.

fi^>

1L
Peasant

^OP ^"^^ o
75.
2

Sn>

m

Irtlsft "free

from do-

ing sin
Peasant 48.
3

Prisse

2, 4.

*

Mar. Ab. n,

24.

-.

f.

ITS USE. 276. 277.

115
276*.

With <^i>
pose (as
.ope

still
AA/VW\

almost always indicates purin Copt, with e cf. C 315):
r "to", it
S&"-,

-!

r\

g&

^^ /^

/Q

|||

hntf r shrt

Jift'irvf (cf.
1

7)

"He

sailed

up

to

overthrow

his enemies",

"He went <=>

QA

/www

v\

_
^)

TO r s/>r n mr-

2 pr-wr to beseech the chief house-overseer".

In the

common

expression <zr>

r

dd ''in order

to say" the idea of in the

purpose had already disappeared
it,

m.

e.,

so that

(like its derivative XB,

C

370), only indicates the beginning of direct discourse,

"I wandered through the

camp
nhm

*

._

,

^^

QA
ml

<=>

=s\^
With

1

Tk

L y \^ P T T % i_E^
_.

(]

^r

r dd: Irtrv nn
3

m?, while I cried,

'How

is this

done?'".

^
vr

Jir it

denotes simultaneousness ("while")*,
tni
fir

277*.

AAAAAA .,
I
I
'

/)

tea

Srnsf"! went, follow-

ing him",

4

found him going out"

On
*
i

he was going out"). 5 the use of this combination as a substitute
(''as

LD

Best rendered in English by the present participle. TEANSL. 2 Bauer 33. 3 Sin. * LD 202. II, 122a, II, 122 a.
34.

Bauer

H*

7. 3.. H srvrl hkt ds 100 "He 2 eats 500 loaves . and give him j the remedy". 8.. 242. 280. for the pseudoparticiple with transitive verbs. .. with the infinitive.. cause : ^ "I lived. and drinks 100 jars of beer"... 40. 240. 278. 3 Eb. 278 280. e\mr\ 279 O - /WVAAA linf- "with" connects the infinitive with a it preceding verb whose meaning " r f\ i now e e t3 adopts: _B c ' 2 (g o i i i AA/VAAA (I I AAAAAA W\ ^O O ^/] ?? u I I ^3 W/WV\ ?^ X lO ^ I ^w/ /. Westc. honored by the king 3 " JKfl Wv^ f~\ /^ I ^J^ 1 r~\ / LWWVA I U I /WWVA \ jv i m Irt 1 m3Ct n stn because wrought truth for the king". . This method of continuation is especially prefer- red with imperative and optative expressions: rf . ..r ww 500 . ITS USE.116 f. hnC rdlt nf phrt 3 "Make for it . cf. An absolute infinitive is subjoined to a sentence for the addition of an explanation: 2 Prisse 19. 8. The prepositions scripts) /www n (the of good manudenote and i^T"" #&c..

117 $X i ' mnrvs n as her Itfs 'Imn. . . The logical subject may be added to . and that they go out 3 . . and that the priest give c.". Q X <^> . SUBSTANTIVIZED FORMS. m rdlt nf .. "that (they) give him . The verbal forms of the 170) 282*. Irt nf ihnrv'i rvrrv'i "She made (it) monument for her father 1 Amon. a nominal subject is introduced by the prepositin is but a pronominal subject expressed by means of 84: P3 the later absolute pronouns of <C__^> "Agreement made with so and p AAAAAA so AAAAAA || . _B^> 1 v\ a ^=__ ai A f\ A AAAAAA /^\ AAAAAA f\ /\ I I AAAAAA . . . without letting ijt (?)". 24 d. 3 Siut I. later formation (of. . 281. an infinitive 281. . . IN GENERAL. 282. hnC rdlt In . . . (especially for the sake of intelligibility) in this case In. SUBSTANTIVIZED FORMS. 42. hnC prt ntsn . a. IN GENERAL. can be converted into masculine and 1 LD in. 307. / \ O (\ AAAAAA { j^O \ . . 7. 1^ u "having set up"). 2 Eb. sdmf and sdmnf. I having made two great obelisks for him" (var. D A <> AAAAAA v^-fl-s/ <^ JJI II \7 I AAAAAA AAAAAA AAAAAA C (it) nn rdlt Sfryf "Cook seethe 2 in water..C. .

197). ^. wntf. itself. TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. the meaning of a perfect.y~- /wwvv sdmtnf "the fact that he heard" (with cf. in part a person or an object. gem. n wnntk "the time when you will be" time of the fact that you will be"). w. (cf. 283. TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. do" rditf. 10.118 |3. to which the action has reference (he who hears. to their stem. 1 "the I'risse 10. like). f. it is therefore -^u AAAAAA ^^~-. denote in part the action itself (the fact that he hears). . with thelllae .x K^_ prtf. t. J! ^^ irtf. feminine substantives by adding the substantive endings m. In the n. tr -^^ <d^!> I AAAAAA AAAAAA 1 C^ (lit. The forms which denote the action especially: are sdmtf "the fact that he hears". that which he hears and the B. with rdl "give" *^^ Only in the case of a future meaning do forms of the second group seem to be employed here. The formation sdmf is of the first group 172) used in this case with the form sdmtf. with Ir a "make. [3. e. *283. with the II ae inf. The "substantivized" forms thus made. the substantivized forms have disappeared.

95. glut I.(3.. 2 Eb. ^11 8. . like substantives These substantivized forms are treated precisely and are used with special frequency after prepositions. They gave him AAAAAA I this piece rmh <cz>A o AAAAAA AAAAAA 3 hnt r dltnf HSU before he had given to them". 119 284. giut I. Jy^tllll f\ fflOOB^>J m \ Y Ji \1 I msts "when she bore Srv <~r "1 .285. the absolute use of this substan. it adds to it an explanatory limitation: "Agreement. 289. where we would expect a conjuncE. If it follows a sentence.. that they give him a loaf <zr> A L\ AAAAAA AAAAAA f\ I o ^ 4 A / AAAAAA I rffitnf nsn firs he. \ Note. it precedes the sentence. Siut I. however. g. having given them . Srv tion with a dependent clause. tivized form. * iribrv hk3 274. a temporal qualification: If. TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. s] g\ 0| i i '- fzijy i I rdlti rvSt n rdrvlL 3 dmlnl 276. it contains 286. further. for it". 284 286. "on hft rdit New-years-day <cz> A a [3^3 AAAAAA pr n 2 ribf when the house -*^- gives '(presents) to AAAAAA i its lord".

that his majesty made the curred) probably to be understood southern boundary". . The substantivized forms which denote ence (he or thing to which the action of the verb has refer- who hears. e. e. identical with that of the infinitive. In general they are distinguished as follows: the infinitive is used where its (logical) subject is identical with the subject of the preceding sentence. "When came 287. Thus. i. 136h. g. whereas the substantivized form is otherwise chosen. "his maj.) are theoretically as follows: i Sin.120 Y- TO DENOTE A PERSON OR AN OBJECT. ''They were astonished when they came" lb\ Ja*v& L (j (I \ m r\ lit. the use of this form is for the part." 288. 2 LD II. made the southern boundary. that which he hears etc. m Itsn. 1 had given the way to my 1 feet. ginning of a text after a date. TO DENOTE A PEESON OR AN OBJECT. the person *289. fled). It sometimes stands independently at the bee. As may be most seen. (i. I to the wall of the prince". f\ I but "/ was astonished when they came" N|\ /WW\A A J\\ 111 Y. 287 i89. I in j ~n o-n r-Tv-i -n =^D as: "In the year 18 (octhe cirumstance. 15.

with the Illae with the form of therefore Irrtf. as object. do" diditf. with lit. 77.Y. sdmwnf f. it is forms sdmrvf and sdmtf 283). 291. m. sdmtf is sdmtnf in which the w-form The again used for the past. 149 c. 394. rdl "give" In the case of the II and III lit. 121 m. in the genetive. The forms ^ ^b\ sdmtf and ^ 1\ /wvv>A 291*. these substantivized forms are not to be distinguished from those of the first kind. On cf. Vv A ^X$Z fi a 2 mr Innt h^p "Overseer of that which the Nile i brings''. sdmtnf with the meanings "that which he hears" and "that which he heard" are the most frequent: I <=* v& nfr Irrtl nk "That which I do thee is 1 good". TO DENOTE A PERSON OR AN OBJECT. 290. as well as with all verbs in the n-form. Certain of them are furthermore employed with definite meaning. . or after a preposition. LD II. ^. with Ir "make. formation of the second group ( 184) is used for the (in contrast inf. precisely after the manner of real substantives as subject.^ mrrtf. 2 Sin. the use of these forms in relative sentences 290. sdmrvf f.

5. ' of mine who shall make this boundary 5 m (i. m. 113f. 2 6 sin. is noteworthy. 136h. 292. < Sin. LD II. sdmtisn almost always mean "he (she). 'K jp>^a^_ d. ** n "as something brilliant e. The archaic forms Sg. 6 LD II. f. J\ rvnnw 4 sndf ht whose fear comes after the lands". VERBAL ADJECTIVE. hft ddtnflm "according to that 1 which he had said about ing). it" (while he was fl still liv- AAAAA/Vv The not infrequent masculine"" ol 2 i i i dldlsn "that which they give" 292. PI. : *293. who will hear" and are employed both as adjectives and substantives: s3l rib srrvdtjf'i t-> pn "every son increase". 3 i ^^ smrvt "he. . 187. is The form sdmrvf denotes persons and almost only with nominal subject: 9 used "v\ hssrv ribf "he whom his lord loves".122 d. useful) for him who will hear i it". 34d. VERBAL ADJECTIVE. 44 Prisse 8. 3 LD II. 293. sdmt'if'i. sdmtts'i.

is cf. ^=^ Mrvtifi (cf. 11. Cat. 295. APPENDIX TO THE VERB. ^N . inf. r\ ^M\\ i i or oR /WW\A i o I /WWVA i I in the singular. 294 297. most part written: Sg. Ir "make. HJ ^K\ . l\\ \v I also occur. it could not originally govern an object. 151 A). . gin. the in. d'Aby. APPENDIX TO THE VERB. f. that it is the II ae gem. THE OBJECT. always double the second radical. ^3=^ has ^ rdl "give" has <=>/\ rdltifi. \\l i >^_ \\ /~\ r\ i or ^^_ or . The is to be recognisIf it is 296. On account finitive of its substantive character. 2 f. to be noted. 2 *. /WWVA \^ I the Illae in part take /\ rv for the ending of the stem. however. 75. 2 is Mar. always expressed by the old prono30. direct object (accusative) cf. mina absoluta. 123 In classic orthography. a pronoun it 337 sq. do .297. the endings are for the 294. m. PI. THE OBJECT. 807. ^O ^=** A/WV\A O l\\ rvnnfisi.11. C-~^ In respect of the formation. ed only by the order of words.

(cf. verbs. verbs which have no special object. according to 269. does not exist. ADVERBS. is 299. 117). ADVERBS. rh Iht "the one knowing (something)". 298 300. The of the preposition indirect object (dative) "^A* n (cf. A special adverbial formation Beside the prepositions stantives (cf. 1 e. expressed by means 306). 1. e. 2 glut I. t^ are often followed by the word Iht "thing" as a general object. . to make offering. PARTICLES. r mrt it" fthem). thus: i Siut I. PAETIGLES. 271. possessive suffixes. especially : not to be translated by us. e. which by good manuscripts. 303) and absolute subthe adjectives are used as ad- 300. r mrtf "for his loving". combined with the i. st "in order to love Transitive 298. do (something") ( z for the god.124 therefore. -<2>2* . . the wise man. is written 1_. 1. Note M i. 223. "in order to love him". before substantives. Only the neuter pronoun 1^ 82) can also follow the infinitive. Irt Iht "to i. st "it" (cf.

s3 "in the hack". IN GENERAL. PREPOSITIONS. 20. 2 Alone. a. verbs may be dependent upon them. to say. 37. 4 PREPOSITIONS. in part compound (m e. as is still clear in the case of Since they were originally substantives. Peasant 25. " ^* C3wn>rl very sorely". 302. 125 1. in the masculine. 3 < * "He wept "?\^ | 2. IN GENERAL. they are com- bined with the possessive suffixes (hrf "upon him" lit. 301. 17. . The prepositions are "with"). is in part employed like conjunctions also. hnC 301. 18.2. in the feminine (especially : with the intensifying wrt "very") (1 V*^^\ fl/^V^* >ml 21 1 ^ MI IwfkSsfCtt "He vomits often". They are that Cf. in the masculine or feminine r mnh 1 "excellently". 190 and for details * Eb- 66. 306 sq. 302. 2 Eb. i. "behind"). in part simple (m "in". 37. "his face"). a\ r C3t "very". With the preposition : r. or more rarely. many. <^> 2. 3 Eb. a.

The prepositional phrase (i. distinguish each as 7. i e. like * e n. with suffixes *na- C e. according to the connection. the rewards on the part of the king. 305. They are very often used as adverbs also. gsrv'i 2 i. 349). b. where or an adjective. e.126 303. f i. e. 310. e. The prepositional phrase vi i like a substantive also. b. the preposition and the word dependent it) is frequently subjoined to a substantive. g. e. they should properly have. with the suppression of the suffix. jj na 14. "entire" (cf. 304. Priase 2. 3 e. A/VW\A n is pronounced before nouns. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. e. 2 and the beginning c and ( n) Sin. i. according to their extent". SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. "this entire land". ~\] 4? M i O IM/WSA I mi kdsn "the two sides e. 3 . referring to brv "place": ("into" for smnf Im "he had gone into" Imf "into it"). "the entire sides". 303 306. manuscripts dating from the end of the m. which. something (cf. hr stn "the rewards of the with-the-king". we would employ a relative clause Note especially the expressions for C 152): S <n> I MAAAA T* <C_> 1 *^_ t3 pn r cJrf "this land up to its boundary". *306. of the n. i is sometimes treated vwwv i Tifi I A y I A ^ Q]\ y^V "| a AMAAA -C__J> i I ^~\ I hsrvt nt i.g.

belonging of something. of time. of any 1. 127 (n-). in the capacity of. ' is "within". 2. 4. out of something (inexact for W) 2. on the day and the like. (into) after the verbs "to be" or "to . 307. #s. in the to manner of. to 3. 1\ m is pronounced before nouns something (1 like 307*. 3. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS.b. in a period of time. in the year. something. itisused in particular: 1. empty of something 4. in particular to do then means: something (dative). make some- a condition. before suffixes *emo-. to bring or give some one. to say something to some one come to some one (only with persons). written 350). provid. v\ Im- (cf. As a conjunction and before the it 278) means "because". to among a number. The original meaning it is "for the advantage one". a command. C The original meaning of place. to something for some one. "because of". **w. ed with something. existent m. into . in 6. without any accompanying idea of direction. infinitive (cf. made something. because of a thing. like' according 5. con- sisting out of something.

therewith (by means of)". 7. without any accomIts panying idea of direction. . into 3. 2. hostile toward some one (in contrast 5. where 8. tool. > *erof t *308 ally <i^> (*'r. therefrom. thereinto. 308. thither to something (the most frequent mean. things". C 348) origin- meant "at" or "by" something. C 350. <^^ _/-l Man v\ ^TJ. ing) . usual meanings are: existent at or by something. ( As a con- means "when" and (1 "if" 391). As an "therein adverb it has the form v\ and means (there). . day". 175. ''per with n). SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. (cf. fl i % *^. occasionally for the introduction of direct disit course. ''every four days" and the 6. 1. like . J)k e. especially after adjectives ''more than". ~by remains untranslated. l\ _ZL l WYS "^ (1 I ^> v& 2ii Iwf m nds "He is *> a citizen" 7. 4. g. thereout. 1 _X-P^^ Im "the servant there" 2 (humbly * for "I"). to speak to something (inexact for m) as far as some one . 4) . means of a On m junction it before the infinitive 275. cf. 2 where we i Westc. cf. distributively of time.128 6. it is also joined to a substantive. gi n . 1. with suff.

~ . 309. at the time of the like. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. In the pyr. also in inexact specifications of place time. "face"). cook &c. 120. . 6. with something. A. and the like. anoint. use before the infinitive cf. Erman. 8. Egypt. nfr r Iht ribt T ~"<i^> .in correct orthography (C pecially: 1. and means existent upon something (the most frequent meaning). As a con- means "because". in addition to to pass by something. to deviate something from some. in the north and and and the like. on hr with the infinitive it 277. thing. its 7. it is also written (I <^Z> . also 253. "more beautiful than everything". 12. es- hr. 5. 1 As a conjunction it means "until" and "so that". cf. down upon something. upon each one. the suffix. pleasant for the heart. Cf. with or without hr (lit. distributively. On junction i use in the co-ordination of substantives cf. and the like. on its 276. 4. 3. gramm.' 351).6. because of something (frequent). Westc. 2. with suffixes is written 309*. 129 = would employ our comparative.

278. something done by some one. is also used of being laden (because the bearer is under the burden) and therefore often means ''carrying or possessing something". existent with some one and the like. to it according corresponding and also for. take something from some one. 4. as ously with.).130 b. also. 310 313. simultane"in front". some 3. C 352. : in the possession of] 2. hr. the most part employed for. jT"~ m (perhaps arising from mc in the arm") means 1. On mC 313. meant "m front of\ but to. ^ hr. "under" (also of direction). 312. "when". 311. rescue from some one. to receive obsolete and still something from some one. 7) originally hft (on orthography is for cf. As an adverb means conjunction. with the infinitive cf. receive from one. it is used almost only in specifications of reigns (under King X. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. cf. On its use in the passive 169. *310. lit. and the is like. Note further the simple prepositions: . Of. originally. because of a thing.

"behind". hntrv "before". head or the like) "upon" . it is obsolete. ml (in the pyr. as an adverb. tp (lit. COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. occiput). \) <^> mr) As a conjunction. imitrv (in the pyr. 120. 314. 131 _ i\ o ^\ of". compounded with a subof a part of the body). "like". 315. imrvti). since". c. 391). * srv ( as com P ensa ti n )5 " as re- I* . Many prepositions are stantive (usually the name Note especially: l^H pSb vl m ward for".C. with the passive and the infinitive. "as. 315. h3 JinC (lit. nose) "before" (rest or motion) . often if" (cf. A/WAAA rmT\ hnt (lit. \) (1 169. -W-t- 279. "between. with the infin. also "together with". 314. dr "when. in the (1 midst AA/WVA In only for the expression of the subject Cf. Cf. COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS.

"after". r sj*. "formerly". after". as an adverb. 385). as a conjunction. "after" s3 ("in the back") s3. "formerly". r also used as a conjunction. ^~^K^ m n mrtvt. ^ /7 ^r "in front of". . cf. m /WWNA m. also /wwvAtQ n s3. QOOO dr b3h as an adverb. vb\ J|vi m m "among persons". m hr-ib: "in the midst of". 1h\ an adverb. m skin". often as a conjunction. r A^^ as C 356). e. "in order that". As an adverb "afterward". "before some one" (also as an ad- verb). 1 hr s3 are used. AAAAA* 00 (for love). hr "behind. after".132 C. in the m. is 244. J\ 1 m Jit "behind. ^ If mhr "in front of". (cf. k~==^ o I hct (cf. C 357). C 359). m s:? r $. COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. J> <=> ^ ~=^ o hr hCt "at the summit". ^i^"afterward" . 315.

Suppl. u as * With hr d3d3 ("upon the head"). others. r drrv ("up to the boundary"). ^ hr gs: "be- "together with". very rare. ^ <rz> n/ryf r "as far vi^s. "between" 1 C Wb. (C 359. COMPOUND PKEPOSITIOXS. 354). 316. it. a word more exactly qualifying thus in: D X \N n rvprv | hr "except" (also for "but" con- junction). s. side". v. LE. in the e. and the old ^ rvprv r "except". as". there is prefixed to the preposition. ^ m "^ e ^ore some I o ne (1 > something". 316. 133 midst of". C 361. Brugsch. . ^ l(|(j ^\^=<cz> hrrv r "apart from". 317. 338). ~ r gs ("at the side"). ^\ far as". "upon" cf. j> A r fad ("i n order to separate"). in the m. as an adverb according to 307 1\ 1 _1_J' O (p w "formerly". there are such peculiar formations as: <==> l^ (cf. Finally. 317. frequent cf.C.

363.". <n> Jtf$7 *\ 1 1 " v\ r s& m ("in order to begin with"). . a. 6. a. mw m "as far as". "from" (cf. ^D^ I 6. 24 d. 348. 319. . ENCLITIC CONJUNCTIONS. 1 1 1 1 C ri M 355). 257. in part appear at beginning used as conjunctions.134 3. Apart from there are the conjunctions noted in the following. 2 LD IIJ. (I) the king " . 2 . 124.. enclitically joined 318. IN GEN. 306 sq. to its The conjunctions are in part the first word of the sentence. 1 ("in order to remain with").. On those prepositions which are 302. 318. CONJUNCTIONS. also. IN GENERAL. 3. CONJUNCTIONS. (j<=> 347. 349. cf. 35. others which are treated elsewhere. II. 319. ENCLITIC CONJ. (11 is serves for the most part (like our "namely") to introduce an explanatory addition: "I made LD it for him . thus < and 121.

321. who &c. ." 3 dltrvs hr its is I I fruit is laid upon bread (or "Further.320. )wv J\ I the opposite of that which precedes: press "All j\ srvt and v \ hm ' (like our "but") ex. 18./vww\ h3 mrv Ims but rule. AAAAAA "If the 321. this later language cf. 1 97) ribt but all men (who preserve But this contrast is sometimes so weak that these conjunctions really serve for the attachment of the clause only. In the pyr. 9 as a restricting adjunct."). (1 ^K t3 ^ ^ but f. 51. ENCLITIC CONJUNCTIONS. 8. (l^1 if ^ it 7~^ o Rj **?\* v\ -J^ *"w* it Q^ f\ I (I 1 rr^. joins an explanation or a continuation. (cf. is is very frequent. . water comes out of _ci^ &c. 56. its laid upon Siut I. r\ N^ W% JT Illl I TA \_/ I ^ f-^ "^ im I 9 rt P rts &c. Ci f\ e. b. 3 Eb. <rz> grt. 135 On the other hand -n-J i i I n Is means "but not". also properly means "but". g. 225. F\ eye bleeds. then ir grt . (1 <d> I "v\ _zl g c\ M c it. 2 5' ^\ I As a of "but": however. . like "further" or our weaker use "This plant Qrv A ta[ fl is " (_ employed so and ' so. 320.)". A.b. & srvt who rmtt &C. on the is of the 323 B. 2 Eb. men who i^r i injure the tomb.

). 323. 2 ib. ist. 348. is especially used. CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC. 323. 322. 8. flp^ 5 &! flP^ ( lder P *=* **$ specifies the circumstances under which anything happens: ml m s3b . . (T| \\Qh ms in direct discourse. C. his . designates that which has been stated as something self-evident or well known. CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC. Rarer conjunctions of 1. Since the m. where these circumstances are to be emphasized as remarkable. this kind are: The archaic ^\~~ wC 1 ... 349): n \\ > ist rf ddn sht'i pn peasant said (this) however.. made me made me f. c. rdl ml hnf m smr 2 "I his majesty maj. (i. was judge . .136 322. 45. at the time of king Nb-k3"? "this Una 5. . it is employed for the introduc- tion of parenthetical or incidental remarks. then when I was j. j/ r\ j> 2. 3 Bauer 71. which seems to intro- duce the sentence as the result or consequence of that which has been previously narrated. e. friend" e. especially with following rf (cf. .

2 Westc. threats and 326. directions. . with is many varied meanings. 324326. Mast. (like the more frequent the circumstances under which. or the time at which something occurs: "He erected this tomb for his son child". LE it is written the late Egyptian 1st. Copt. 9 ( 17. 3 ib. ^=^> N\ ^A k3 used in promises. 137 A. 3 1 Mar. 9. Jir r m ht nn "Now. with much weakened significance. is also. I will cause water to be". duced a substantiating clause (like for or because). ist-w.C. The pyr. In -) 1st enclitically also. after the days had passed by hr is then &c. CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC. 12. 120 A. older n 2?^ Ihr originally intro. cf. 1 I ^i^* 1 ^\ v\ T 2J) sk stv m Tird when he was a Sr^. Then.325." 2 B. 200. use B. it also introduces new paragraphs of a narrative and precedes especially temporal clauses: >o J *<=>Jf\\\A hrrv srv3 this. in order to strengthen that > B which is stated: tt O Vfo SSt w$ ^i <dZ> /wwv\ /wwvs A/WWV k3rduhprmtv Sure- ly. seems to have arisen from I [1 ^z^s Isk (older I ^^z> tsf) Isk) mostly designates 324. In : LA very frequent.

1 ^^l l^^T^^"^ is *** &ck " Tllou A. . 2 Louvre C 172. Occasionally it receives the suffix of the 2 m. ( and is especially frequent after mk "behold" 183). while a noun or absolute pronoun. 14. whose predicate then a substantive. its subject is The sub- 328. 1. THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. * Sin. a. 4 Westc. By the (pure) nominal sentence sentence without a verb. It is used in assertions : ^^ A 2 Inrvk rib ImBt "I am the lord of graciousness". 263. where the old pronouns of as subject: 80 are then employed m b3hk "Behold I (am) before thee". understood a is *327. is THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. THE SENTENCE. 328. ject precedes the predicate. rrik ^=^>t nfr "Thy name is 3 beautiful". 3. adjective or prepositional phrase. 3.138 la. 327. 3 p ri sse 5. In the oldest language k3 also used enclitically. : ^l^) throw". THE NOMINAL SENTENCE.

136 h. in violation of the rule. 139 11 AA/W\M "^ = iTT . 51. 330. are under the place of thy n ihwt . Snwtt" (for: rws snwtt).J 1 /I\ rl "^ L. e 2 8 Sin. 23. hr st . 269. THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. further. cate precedes the subject.\ ^~\ v is ^ 4 ^z> jQ r\ ^ \\ ^ JS^lll QA ' sm snw M rns an herb whose i " name 2. 51. 393): man on whose neck are swellings". r\ ' Thus <z^ : in expressions with rn "name". . It is. I ' w r/w^ : !s w# sft st ft). "- ^^ I I \ hrk "Behold these things are under thy charge" 1 (lit. .a. 83. 15. the predicate is thereby emphasized. the predi. 1 dpt mrvt nn "This is the taste of death". when the subject is a demonstrative or an ab- solute pronoun: ^ ^AAAAA QA 1\ ]^k iv" I j. 1. 5 ^"* ^^ l^^ v i i 9\ f\ r\ I i /^ ^-^-^ g 2TSli i Z! (] 1 ^= 1 r\ a S. 1 [I m . 19. "They are not people of strength" (for n i 6 st rmttnt Slut I. LD II. . and often also as a relative clause (cf. often used in descriptions: 329. 3 Eb. * Eb. like I I A/wwv . 329. face). . <=> fruits are ^i^^ d o I ^' 2 ' ' I 1*^- dkr nb hr upon its trees".330. 3 Occasionally. A <=s. Sin.

b. In the pyr. In i ? < <-<"> ^ n\ wBtf hr way was under water".). this ending is written v\ or X b. 2 Butler 16.140 *331. . sometimes introduced by "to the auxiliary verb (1^ trv be" (cf. 220 sq. 1 Bauer 3.Ul v <n> Jl face!" ^_^> nfnv'i hrk "How beautiful thy A. " 2 the popular language of the m. 331. which perhaps lends 1 it a special emphasis: is J. the pronoui where they would stand as the subject of a nominal sentence are superceded by the forms of this verb : (I V\ M for inwk &c. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE INTRODUCED BY ilV AND WU. 332.. especially when the predicate tional phrase: is T mrv "His one B. a preposi- 246 sq. This inverted order the predicate is is especially frequent. 332. e. where an adjective: A nfr mtnl "My way is In this case the adjective often receives an ending -s\\\ v\ rv'i. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE INTRODUCED BY Iw AND The nominal sentence is ivn.

ptv /W\AA* <xgft may be inserted within it: a^\ a remedy of n i\ C -^x><=^7 /wwv\ 5 phrt ptv nt rvn-mBC "It is H U truth" (cf. 334. This t3'i. properly have as subject. 12. the demonstrative ptv "this". 103). 1 (for st nfr 330. to expression. "it" or "they". NE probably arose from this. 250 sq. 333 it is 335. in order to render This construction is i Prisse 2. 75. 223. 136h.) as in &* ' 1 /WWNA /WW\A 1*"" <C__^> a^n I I MWV\K wnln nfr I st hr Ibsn "It was good for cf. 6. then used to emphasize the 335. pw is already supevceded by the demonstrative p3'i. 2). 5 Eb. y^v introduced by the auxiliary verb 333. where rvnln precedes. which follows is the predicate according to 330. | 4 ^^ ^\ ^^ ^ ^K Jirvrrv ptv "They are paupers". TE. the similar word TIE. e. 2 . c. 2 Sentences like >O n^\ EC pw 3 "It is Ret". THE NOMINAL SENTENCE WITH ' pw. 3 ib. f c J) D %> JW* pw "It is Bast". THE NOMINAL SENTENCE WITH pw. II. nB'i in the LE.C. 2 Mar. i i i their heart". 25. Ab. an unchangeable word having the meanIf the predicate is a long "she". . predicate of a nominal sentence. 4 LD II. 141 More rarely tvn (cf. g. B. but this prv now weakened ing "he".

Ipt then follows as apposition to D r| Iht III prv Ipt "It is is the i dl 1 horizon. 336 Iht "horizon" in 339. e. 2. THE ORDER OF WORDS. indirect object _ (cf. the sentence Iht pro "It first the horizon" made. THE PARTS OF THE SENTENCE. In the preceding part of the sentence the order in principle: 1. subject. to be analysed. *339. 299). THE ORDER OF WORDS. a. direct and in- and one following. 24 d. 4 are partly substantives and] partly pronouns. E.142 2 a. divided into two parts: one pre- ceding. i. emphatic the word is is Ipt Iht is "Karnak the horizon". the pronouns precede the substanif But parts 2 tives. . 2. containing the verb. is 4. subject. verb. that is to be especially noted. it is The order of words often the case. j-ram <=> a '} I F^\ AAA/VAA /WWW I O O O 'JL^'**. *338. containing specifi- cations of time and place and the like. 3. is The sentence direct object. for alone indicates how a sen- tence 337. ^^ -/-i stn no n\ bkf "The king gave his servant gold". E. direct object. Karnak". is it 336. and C2J <z pro "it": n D%[] Ju. g. "The horizon Karnak".?* SL-^ vra /WWVA (^j. g. viz. LD III.

340*. " ^~ ^ i rdlnl sn>3 1 nrl T i i i "I caused that his weapons pass by me" hrl). however. . 340 342. <d^^> AAAAAA AAAAAA O . 343 sq.a. a AAAAAA 1 I vi J> I /WWVA AAAAAA ^^ _7J.The king gave me gold".C\ xA 1 v^ rdlnf nl srv "He gave it to me". may be inserted by exception. in the part which precedes: t ^ AAAAAA V < O Jf\ lj stylistic purposes. that the pronominal suffix precedes the absolute pronoun: a SA 1 "v\ I rdin nl sw stn "The king gave it to me". /^i. (for A vocative stands as a rule at the end of the 342. sentence: Sin. Except for the sake of emphasis (cf. the indirect precedes is. the direct. If both objects are pronouns. 136. 143 rdln nl stn I rib AAAAAA O O O . for an expression which belongs in the latter part of the sentence.) the above laws are inviolable.. . THE ORDER OF WORDS. 341. 2^ AAAAAA v& SL rdlnf nl O O O rib "He gave me gold". under certain circumstances. ^^~~- ^ ^n r sw stn n bkf "The king gave a it to his servant".

344. 2 Bauer 74. like QA . e. peasant. (3." If it 1 be placed at the beginning of the address. Sr ~ir SO *^ m k w i 2 r n ty m ^k. (1 it is then often introduced by an interjection. and as a rule resuming ence. Emphasis consists in placing before the sentence. IN GENERAL. 335. 343. 344. to It is by a pronoun in the sentvery frequently used and often contrary our sense. also 330. a. I will take away thy ass. Of. WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. 2 it is somewhat ceremonial. I have found". IN GENERAL. . because he devours &C. g. 331. : phasized word without further introduction. a word to which it is desired to attract attention. hr wmf "Be- hold. 343. the word 'king' is often emit phasized without reason. 0. method of emphasis leaves the e. EMPHASIS. WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. thus.144 ba. . as in lord. The original emg. b. sht'i. 1 Bauer 11.

expired". ra vA (I v\ I smt ribt rrvtnl rs. AAAAAA . he drinks (it) if thou wishest". 2 LD II. * Sin. gramm. 101. 3 Sin. 8. rrvtnl The resumptive pronoun especially in poetry: occasionally omitted. m Itrrv srvrif. I had done it to him" 2 (for Irnl Irt st rl rf). 345. 145 D it hsti phs pt "My praise. l reached heaven" (for ph hsti pt). 345. . formed. . Egypt. ^hCn hn n sin rjj% J&> ^^~^ mlnnf "The majesty of the king of upper and V A AAAAAA G* TSR ^=> AAAAAA i] ' I I lower Egypt i 5 . Erman. stands before the emphasized word: a >lt'i . k3tnf Irt to do it st rl Irnl st rf "That which he had thought k3tnf to me. K . WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. I was a hero(?) therein" 3 rs). .(3. 233. is Iw Irnl hd m smt nbt. If the sentence has forms as its one of the compound verbal the auxiliary verb with which it is verb. 144. mrk "The water 4 in the stream. Sin. 122 a. ln> Irnl hd Ims "Every land (for to which I went. 346. 346. Prisse 2.

12. 347. also. 228. 4. 2 Una 42. B. Here to m. Of. e. 30C . 3 p ri SS e 2. in the case of the subject of a nominal sentence. "All that is written. * I rvnln hnf bf rv3 r hrvt(?) firs it". superceded all the other methods of emphasizing. _S 3 YP> 1=1 P3 H ir ntt nbt I a ^^ I v\ fiR^ V\ \\c\ >WS fflv^l it" 3 -fv m s. Y. 346. the resumption of the emphasized word by means of a pronoun is only occasionally suppressed. also I entirely completed". but in the n. AA/W^ lii ee nnn Ir hrrv 1 n Jit Jr ntr. 9. ww hprni ml kd "All that his majesty 2 commanded me. ir-. it (often in legal style). 1 "The heart of his majesty was sad concerning AAAAAA U rv V Pi ^ 7m/". 347. hear " u qn<^>nnn n /T\ VAv/wv^J I ra i .146 Y- WITH ir. i "Westc. an auxiliary verb is still is treated according This construction regarded as ceremonious in the e. WITH ir. (that) 4 is /360 of the year". g. AND Ir is In. Siut I. AAAAAA X. r- AND in. r 360 prv n rnpt "A temple-day. r-. Ir-. zr> e. The emphatic particle ^1 used with every kind of sentence.

rf. this lr takes the suffix corresponding to the subject of the sentence: Irl.y. '3 Peasant 29. Irs. 3 J " A. irk. 2 LD III.349. is written (1 follows the word self". lr-. Peasant K* . r- AND in. 349). Irf. Sin. A. 7. 348 350. 356) and with imperatives and optatives. rf: ** ZT| 4 Mn "The earth became light". cially those of going) at the beginning of short sec- tions seems to be different from rf t3 irf. That rf. 52. A): J ^^_ AA/WV\ J-l irf tn "hear ye".had originally changeable suffixes also. in many texts 348. to 1 be emphasized -TT| dsk irf "thou thy- It is often used in interrogative sentences (cf. WITH ir. J\ ^ (1 /wwvs 5 W> in in rf sht'i pn 'This peasant came". The subject of a sentence i is often emphasized by 350. 248. which is added to the verb (espe. In the pyr. This r. 4 Westc. 147 The emphatic word (like that of (I irf. 8. I I I 2 > -M -v -M dik rk ni "give me". which. 24 d. in the last case it often still has the archaic form rk (cf.

in the second member. 351. tive The frequent ellipses (i. V\ e.148 C. 351. the omission of effecwords as dispensable) often render the under- standing of the text very difficult. THE ELLIPSE. They are found first of all in the parallel members in poetry. where. are substituted for In and the pronoun according to leads me". AAAAAA C\ I 2 A /wvwv -<2>I AAAAAA o who do /WVAAA I v^ ST ntsn Irsn nl "It is they it for me". 3 e (i. . ntf &c. 289. e. 24 d. 2 LD III. 308. one or more indentical words are suppressed: 3T AAAAAA I I I AAAAAA 2i/ JU J5*^ III I '"A" III! I I I I I 1 Sin. B. If the subject to be emphasized 84: a pronoun. THE ELLIPSE. the pronouns ntk. the resumpself pronoun ^^AAAA W for the most part omitted as evident: [I A caused that ~^S~ In Jinf rdl Irtf "His majesty it be made" 1 (for In Imf rdlf is Irtf). In LE this in is written: 4 c. 4 Sethe. 3 Siut I. means of tive ij In (old writing is (1 I AAAAAA J> J\ In) . n according to late pronunciation).

3 Mar. 2 him who speaks truth. head (to) those who speak Similar is the ellipse in comparisons. e. 352. THE ELLIPSE. 353.C. Ab. (lit. 176. . broadens) the heart of the servant there 3 mine) like (the heart of) the prince of any land". 1 ^ ~^~^ J\ I *_< f ^^r ^ tms Jirf r dd m&t.smt ribt "He re- joices (i. the latter sometimes written with the only. II. several successive verbs have the is same subfirst 353. When ject. thus in animated narrative: A _Q Q 2 h3knl hmrvtsn. (Establish) my memory with your children". where found in the second compared member: it is 352. 31 Louvre C gi n . /^ sfrvf ib n bk im ml hk3 n. 149 imi rnl m r n hnwhi sh3l hr msrvtn w w "Establish my name in the mouth of your servants. mkh3 ddrv grg "Turning his countenance to (turning) the back of (his) lies". 26.

to lift up)". . ( () Thus. (lit. is the ellipse of "^| dd "say" in ex- hrtrv "it is said". stole his ass. ntrrv hr dd.-~ ( ^Ir-sn [iVrf \ *c=^_ V*X AAAAAA <=> _V jff ll ^=. 24 d. I led away their people. (I n7\ later written for inf. it An is object may likewise remain unexpressed. he drove (him). ^ . 20. B. g. C. pr r hnmrvtsn.shprnf 1 1 (for shprnf s'i) r rv[s hCrvf 3 he created (her) to wear his diadem 355. with accompanying ellipse of the subject) into his village". Another form pressions like: fv ^^K ^. where clear from that which precedes. 354. * Eb. 354. THE ELLIPSE. slew their steers. ddlnsn. rdl sdt Im "I went captured their women. 355. 136h. n "*"* I "~ Insn "they say". set fire thereon". e. p [\ ntrrv lir "the fiir is gods say" 7 5 These stand jQ AAAAAA ddhrtrv. i 5 LD II. 2 Peasant 24. 3 LD III. 4 /vwws (I O in R "saith Re". "He sCk "|^ s^k for srv. to their wells. Stele from Kuban. cut down their 1 barley. 9. hrv k3rvsn. wh-> Itsn.150 Inni hrrvsn. 2 "She takes Egypt like the god .

356358. 151 3. As a rule. KINDS OF SENTENCE. is The indication of the question by the accent alone very rare. as a rule it is externally marked. (|A/VW\A 357*. m(? m? cf.1. r\ I AAAAAA 2 / |0 \ truth?" B. 202. 8. introduced by means of fa or AAAA (1 (] Vs\ Cw3twl rf 1 m r\ . 1b\ The most common inter- rogative pronoun ing. . 2 Westc. who?": S\fl phnk nn hr m? "Why (on 3 ac- count of what) have you reached this (place)?" ^o J. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE.3 fl. the sentence C is 392). a. . (cf. the interrogatives stand at the end of 358*. . tf "Shall I be robbed upon his land(?)?". 356. on the read- 34) "what?. characteristic of the inter- rogative sentence. Freis quent emphasizing whether of the verb or of the interrogative particle. 4 ib. If the sentence contains it is no special interrogative. in iw is D | | ^H In iw I m&t pw C 394. 3 sin. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE. 35. cf. 3. "Is it perhaps preserved in FNF. y is (1 l^r~~ trtrv nn mi m? "Like what this done?" 4 Peasant 18.

what?" e.: Cf^ I fw irftn ? "Where is it ?" 7 (with emphasis). O^O 52 Is " (?)-nw When?" "What of the time?"). 35. la cf. 60. Schlr. ib. C 60. ' A^/^/^A^ )~^f ^3 Cc^ I Irt r tn? "Whither goest 2 f. 359 361. B. 9.152 B. are Cf. 4. 46. is "What D isy(1) pn> is it? who 5 it?" 4 "Who ^ry is it?" /WW\A Here belongs also ~TT (lit. 6 Westc. Sin.?). 9. \\ 360. Other old expressions for "who?. C m fl is already superceded by (I Ih "what?". 2 sg. .). The interrogative for "where?" is < fl I ^> // ft | ^== AAAAAA } I T& <T^ ^^ AA/VvV\ T^^Sto. 14. Cf. A/WW\ v^ST"" 3 . a new word 2 |A mm "who" NIM (cf. in already written at the end LE there has arisen from In m. VfckT as su kJ ec t w ^h In the mean i n g "who?". INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE. Hdb. Eb. thou?" 8 5 "Toward where makest thou". C i ^^z^ (lit. 12. Hdb. 7 ib. 15. 2). C. 35. 3 Math. v\~~ ra "^ fl I ^\ A m ddstv? "Who says it?" -F\ 1 (I /WWVA _ ft <dl> O 2 AAAAAA ^] | ^ ^^ (I VS\ in m irf inf srv { "Who brings it?" is (with double emphasis). 30. * Totb. 126.. This in Wl of the m. C * 361. 10. . 350): is usually emphasized by in /vwwv (1 ft (cf. LE. 58. AAAAAA e. Math. g.

In the pyr. and in LE. 17. means "whither?. \) The usual negation v^w (more rarely/ good orthography: ^/w. whence?" B. 3 it is written tri. 153 it is written. Their pronun3 Totb. tt. NEGATIVE SENTENCES. which are usually distinguished in ^^. a. . the beginning of the sentence D u ^^^ pti hat is his f !sk I ^: ^ ' *w ^ Wnat is field?" 1 D { ^ ^I'V pfi rf sw " it? " 2 ( with emphasis). 31. which follows the first word: Ln "Didst thou remember?" A. in two different forms. pir. C 364. ed. The common word. and even without a pre- position. archaically written 362. tmc. A. Q7\. T(DN. 2 appears 304*. 362 364. NEGATIVE SENTENCES. As a characteristic of the interrogative sentence. WITH n AND nn. Eb. 2. 49.6. tnl. but generally J a \\ \ i 2i/ ^A pt'L * ispro- bably not an interrogative. WITH AND W. b. In LE. Nav. tn. Copt. "show" or the like. 363. but something like an It always stands at imperative. (1| SA <n> 2A/ i I ptri. B. Cf. note further the particle trw. and Math. 3. Hdb. In the pyr.

has the meaning of a future (that cf.): - 1 X *^ nn pssf "He shall (will) not di- vide". always has %^%'. NEGATIVES SENTENCES. the negation preserved 365. 1 "Lay (1 this upon the snakes it hole. v^-iw. C 389). 97. was perhaps approximately n and nn or similar.. when is. in Copt. WITH U AND nn. I nn rdlt hr gs "Judgside" 4 (i. without being partisan). U9e. 19. is as it is : used with the verbal form sdmf. Sin. 365 367. belongs to the second group. a. . 366. in so far not future in meaning. H 184sq. 4 LD II. (cf. as ^-A-^. J\ ^^ n prnf Im then " will 2 not come out".<?. LE. A. is N-. both forms are written B. AAAAAA however. without causing": * I . In the pyr. without putting upon one e. (Of. 3 ' Before the absolute infinitive used.154 elation b. 2 Eb. 311. ing. ww. 114. 3 Siut I. and always with the tt-form n rhl sw "I know him not". 367. 280) " is AAAAAA Especially frequent in this case is AAAAAA ann t^ rdlt "without giving. it is used with the form sdmf.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES.369. 368 370. the same meaning: AAAAAA AAAAAA ^^ (cf. Siut I. stands before the nominal sentence. 13. a. and only means "without" (e. nn ^ hms "A ship which has no rudder". Eb. 17. \^ ' U O nn rdlt m33s 1 sn> without permitting the sun to it". nn rdlt pssf ^-^-^ "without his dividing it"). 272. 267. Note further the combinations not" and ^-n. is very frequently used with a fol. 69. ^ ^ 2 n grt "however not" (weaker than the former): i Eb.^ <i "^^ ^\ ^V ywv \i 5 wsht. sfi this case when the subject is a pronoun. . 155 "Set "\\ see it where it is cool " a^^ $^. rdlt has sometimes lost its causative meaning. WITH 11 AND nn.b. the later ab84): a solute pronouns are used o-H-o is (cf. In this combination. 3 Sin. o D ^\ 3 vb\ **2 n ntf pw m m^t "It not really he".-cgv. 4 I . 43. g. 5 Sin. I am I I not there". and in 368. however. 6. 80) for "it nn rvn also appears with A/ AAAAAA AAAAAA lm "There "v\ _zi I is no water there.^ -n-^(l I n Is "but 370. ~" lowing noun or old absolute pronoun does not exist".

390. WITH im-. . 18. pi. f. 371 373. 4 Una 37 Grebaut. m. 2 371. THE CIRCUML. 8. The usual negatives are avoided with forms of the verb. ^A-& v\ _a D 378). 6 p. 4 (cf. A strengthening of the negative. /wwv w ws$ Is prv "It was narrow. musee Egyptien. WITH n AND nn. certaii 373. m. probably obsolete in the classic language. the subject of such a sentence is often emphasized by means of the demonstrative p3.156 a. Mast. |3. 104. but it was not wide". ~ 7 tm-. ^ hut sn with an old negative Iwt also occurs 372. im-. p3t: n sp p3t irt mitt "The like was never done". v^wO p^^o II <^> : rvrt but not much". 149 e. 2 Eb. since the time of the god". THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH im-. Mar. In old texts. n Is 1 "His skin grows. 5 /WWSA d yC ^ nfr n irt mitt "Never was the like done".3 A. 3 LD 6 II. and replaced by circumlocutions i Butler 15. is found in nfr n\ In nfr n "If it is wnn mQn not in your possession". v ^ru " c/ n sp means "never" H u-~^ x D ^-y Jas& A/WV\A h3 mifif hr smt tn dr rk ntr "One like him never came 2i I I ~J L- "?L r^ HJ V\ n V ^ o x/x/ ^ ^^^ O Y ^ ^_ f "^ l n sp I down in this land.

Nav. the Illae inf. 374. serves for the negation of imperatives and optatives with a nominal subject: 1\ be proud". 3. m. which is written 375. B 3. 91. tm-. 6.(3. . optative or final in meaning and has a pronominal subject: "Treat it with cold (j |\ > ""^na |\ f^fi 1 V smm (1 that 1b\ it may not become hot". * Totb. are not doubled and rdi "give" has the form Im is used when the verb to be denied is 374. 3 p r sse i 5. These are lowed by a (participial?) form of the verb. ed. Wl.and tm-. in which the II ae gem. 8. I I I Imk * Ir iht rs "Do not do anything for it". 1 J^^Hx& ~"<g>-r-^-. THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH I'M-. 2 Eb. they have also a i Eb. 3 1^1 ^^ 1 m c^ ibk "Let not thy heart mtrrv "Do not stand against me as a witness". 375. In the pyr. 110. 157 fol- with the obsolete verbs Im. 30 A 2. written V^ . 4 ELvWW/ it is A. are doubled. 2 The imperative v\ of the old verb.

in the form sdmhrf (cf. The circumlocution ^nnr v\ tm rdl. employs the cir- cumlocution V\ C -<S>- m Ir "do not". is very often employed to substantivize a negative clause of intention since tm is then an infinitive. bination . 305. 3 T \ pL <^ _B^A _ ^* D /WWW I A J Jl T Eb. ^101 v\ tm-. m AND e. 7. (cf. : among other uses. MlTp. 2 is erected <=ii>'^=^ vs. 7. the use of which in is more extended.mi is -i also construed as such: T i "The boundary Eb. 2 and in the verbal adjective 293): o J\ \\ fhtf'i srv. 6.158 B. the conditional found. m the language of the n. tmtf'i ^-T _" Qi3 lirf "He who unlooses for it". which according to the above means "not to cause that". 25. 376. THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH Instead of pr) im-. 204) : *=*t^ t^ P S^*_B^<^>!P <z>_B^XI-J i I I tmhrs *Pr m hsbt "If it does not become worms". LD II. P. 25.. 377. 377. is Cf. 136 h. from Avhich arose the Copt. tm-. 376. this com. . 3 ^^ -^ ^ A <=> it (the boun- dary) and does not contend further as an optative in final and interrogative clauses. sentence =>ta " _M^ IA^^^ ^f=^\^lr tmfwst _a r-^-i 1 I st "If he does not discharge it".

^^l^s' rdi hnp drtvyt prv "It is w VQ^ j^ ^ D (i. 2 LD 1361. In such combinations Copt. g. In the popular language of the n. 8. it"). as 1 has also been preserved in the AT-. e. <=>. 3 Westc. 159 in order "to cause r tm rdi sn srv nJisi rib that no negro at should overstep that not any negro should overstep D all it" l (lit. 98. Y. ^^. did not see thee". 378. irvt'i. 11. tm something e. a book without V ^^^\ rD * V jP^iJ. and is derived from the ne- 371 A. 2 a remedy) in rdi occurs with I order that the vulture weakened meaning. Cf. its 4 writing". write it - A. f!1k v\ ^-fi-^ 1 iivti. C 89. 5 Peasant 64. Iwfimtvtffae motherless one". The pyr.(. : "not having". the rare writing h (I old. The adjective which belongs to the 378. it 5 sti also seems to be \\ B. B. . 1 "A book i i i I which has not writing. U. 3 . formations of gative iwt of 132 sq. for simple negation: tm tm rdi tn3ni tw "that THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE. 30. 4 Eb. may not steal". THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE. e. originally meant something like e. 5. I I ^^ ^Jfi ^n IS c*d W/ c:: ~ $ct Irvtt sss i. Eb. 7.

is this a often employed as a substantive also. 149. and that which not" 1 * e. 3 LD II. the usual case of the dependent clause. Nav.) and like the latter kinds ^ : attaches clauses of all % I- trvy nt >Aw(?). It C. 79. 380 As is observable from the examples cited. 379 381. On a verb dependent upon c. CLAUSES. 1 1 where dition it (cf. 2 ib. AND SUBSTANTIVIZ. 4). .160 379. is a remarkable fact that this Iwt'i is used in the old language as a negative companion to the relative adjective nil (cf. it PI means "that which is is not": is AAAAAA (Ci "that which (i. on which there no navigation" l (with junction of the nominal sentence skdrvt Jirs "Navigation is upon "" it"). where is 381. rdl "to cause" cf. DEPENDENT AND SUBSTANTIVIZED CLAUSES. 401 sq. J&JL&\\ C U vS I 1 _S^ l^\ Iwt'irv rh brv nt'i Im "Those whose place is not known". (clause: rh 2 Tjrv "The place is known"). ed. c. stands in the feminine entirely without ad95. everything). 149 17. Totb. DEPEND. 5. iwtt skdrvt hrs "This place(?) is of the spirits. i V\ O -^st I r-^-.

24d. Erman. 179. take the 382. 383. 2 glut I. DEPEND.C. The substantivized forms of 282 sq. L . 72. parallel with these. 302. gramm. pronouns of 80: V^T cause of the fact that 1i^ V cir^ r nttwlrhkwi "BeI know" (i."* that Karnak is a region of light". place of a great part of the dependent clauses of our own language. Eg^ypt. e. A ntt rdisn tB-hd I If ^ L a sentence of the kind treated in ^ 246 ( (1 ^\ 383. by prefixing ntt. AND SUBSTANT1VIZ. Totb. 161 cf. 5. 311. ed. A^/w\A * n I r\ A A/WVAA I \_7 i Li AAAAAA C Ui 2 pn "Because they give this white bread". "because I know"). 382. U means of this h^^ Jr ^1 \>V\?* ntt. irvi rhkrvi) be substantivized by the subject is not expressed by the but by means of the old absolute auxiliary verb. On On clauses dependent upon other verbs the dependence upon conjunctions cf. Nav. 1 LD HI. 190. every sentence a substantive and positions: may made dependent upon be converted into verbs or pre- iwi rlikwi ntt Hit 1 pw ipt "I know I . 189. <i^> Cl /\ A Q fir . is of substantivizing used in the same manner. CLAUSES. another method viz.

The temporal clauses which are introduced by the conjunctions (really prepositions) ' hft 4 "when. n | ' . we say "at work") a wicked speech". is it 384. 385. 1 m "When those who it are in Egypt heard earth".162 d. 20. they laid their heads upon the More rarely follows the principal clause : Iwf hr mdwt bmt "Be not silent. 298. 5S can be recognized as such As a rule it precf. 2 it. when he 3 is at (? as 385. ~ as "> 1^ J\ty "after". Prisse 5. * Siut I. cedes the principal clause. "As the earth became came to Ptn". follow the principal clause: smsl "I i followed 2 my 149 f. e. oRlP r si "after". d. as a rule. LD 122 a. 14. LD II. 384. g. I . TEMPORAL CLAUSES. used for the introduction of only by means of the connection. 5 lord as he sailed up". 3 " Sinuhe II. If no conjunction the temporal clause./A 2 light. . TEMPORAL CLAUSES.

. "If you examine again 1 (lit. 36. 188): D Eb. 244). iwi mlikwi "A third of full". 36. repeat the examining) then say &C. . . It may be introduced by means of a particle like Ir and mi. It is always left tains any other verbal without a particle. 388. THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. 325. 386. ddhrk . Hdb. 163 On the other hand the clauses with after" so J\ hr mht "now common (cf. can likewise be form then (cf. 204) or a nominal sentence: x rvlimhrk mB . without a particle. Jiri. 2 Math. 2 me (added) to me. the verbal always belongs to the "second group" left 184. THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. L* . at beginning of paragraphs. always precede e.e. . sdmhrf cf. 35. 15. when it conform than sdmf (frequently is 337. 386 388. but may also stand without such in- troduction. The conditional clause precedes the principal clause.". then I am it If the conditional clause contains the form sdmf.

. hprt prv m r 360 1 "If now ye divide all . . "If you examine a man who is diseased in mach (?).164 6. . . this case the verbal introduced by <::::> ir\ in form always belongs to the "first group" : w\~~ ^\ Ir gmk . and you find it upon his back (abbreviation) s hr . s 389. 40. it (the result) is i/seo"- As a rule. is far more rare: I) (1 Siut I. 2 Prisse 5. . In the pyr. 3 means i The introduction of the conditional clause by of mi or 1\ m. THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. . however. . 389 391. . 390. gmmk st lir psdf. nnn psstn grt Iht nbt . then say &c. .. h3m (-rvik "If - thou findest a wise (out of reverence). 5. ddhrk his sto. . 10 11. 286. is employed only with the to first. while the second treated according 388: nr> mn r3-ibf. 300. d3lsw . . a conditional sentence conis taining the form sdmf. 391. 3 Eb. the construction with ir as a rule. . If a number of conditional clauses are connected. A. is.". a [I man /www then bend thy arms" In is used instead of Ir.

165 I AWvV\ i j^Xsi <^^> n Ifd n 3ht n ht 1 ^i Ksk $ ' *^ m ' $d nk: 10 r ht 2. in this manner. A CON. VERBS. EELATIVE CLAUSES. is rare and doubtless obsolete. 249 Nominal to a clauses. noun 227. cf. however. and 0. WITH SOBST. 392/4. directly to a noun. 245. 49. . REL. . Hclb. . 711. pti 3htf "If there be said to you: 'A square of field of 10 measures by 2 measures'. 2 . 2 They are co-ordinated with the at the same time agreeing 3 Mar. 330. The custom of joining one of the usual verbal forms as a relative. WITH. The peculiar verbal forms of the usual clause. are identical with the substantivized forms treated in 289 sq. 392. Cat. |S. 159. 329.3 are frequently joined 393. 'Inprv . WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS. The pseudoparticiple is thus "The land in which I was born". what is its content?" 1 (lit. WITHOUT A CONNECTIVE. CLAU8./. Sin. d'Ab. . noun 1 as an apposition. Math. . = > m mrrtn WSAA . a. its field). say". fldtn "If ye love Anubis /. relative 394.

Cnhwsn imf "that 396. whom I love". WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS. 184) of the form it is sdmtl belong to the second group sdmf. In the pyr. it is not everyId ' where uniformly inserted A. hence. g. the tv is 96). the masis in the form sdmrvf not usually written out (most frequently with a nominal subject. stands quite within the word. (cf. 395 397. 395. pw n CnJj. AAAAAA in the case of the Ilae gem. frequently written. Furthermore. an at- tributive participle 1 as a rule. 197. the also. The masculine which is in the n-form. for "the woman whom the one I love" I . with love" it in gender . . Corresponding to the statement in forms derived from the w-form have here always the meaning ending rv. nearly of the past.166 |3. is said hmt mrrtl "the but "the brother mrrrvl. ( the forms sdmrvi. therefore prrtf. In those sentences in which the subject of the relative clause would be indentical with the substantive to which the relative clause is. tree of life. used in its stead Merenre' 616. ^^ Ol *^~~ <^__> r2i J\ rdl "give" culine ending rv diditf&Lv. when written). 397. here never written out. woman. must be written sn As was remarked in 289. e. rvnntf. is connected. just as in other cases. Illae inf. from which they live" .

There are. i \\ i n y A n ^\ Jm>l t3s pn irn 5 1ml "this boundary which ft my ft * ikllcz^ O y-fl struction which he (lit. 136 h. 1 ^n hr psdf "li is the ills(?). 398. 167 (cf. in which. 599. . position. a relative clause seems to be used.) O majesty hath made". -<3 refers to the substantive to 398. examples.(3. Hr-hwf 5 C. 260). 6 if it is On the other hand. Eb. they I 4 govern". Una 108. II. TBANSL. which have invaded his back" 2 (for thnsri). which are laden with incense". LD * II. ye give (IAA^VVS I me" 3 (for didiwtn nlsw). Mar. is almost always if it is *yi D [/>& ^ J^\J ^A ^-y the object of the relative clause*: (S i f\ A I T A A/A A _ n fN g 't A^VWA \> v^ OJI/WWSA ^f p3 tB-M. dependent upon a prefor the most part. dldl- ^"this white bread. 4. WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS. Abyd. to be sure. c3 I II !<=> C^ 300. xrtr>. 40. Itptmsntr oo o "300 asses. whose pronominal subject <^=(p(p " is. is joined. 276. AAAAAA ^ 6. nwt hkltsn "the ^ villages. As often in English. 25. Siut I. however. S&J> ^ ^ "^ ln " made". The pronoun which which the relative clause wanting. expressed: 3 399. the pronoun 2 6 is. omitted: ng "> even in this case.

3 Sinuhe 309. it is often wanting: J "the place in which yf (] ^. nfi. Ace. to ei whom the like done" 3 (properly. 400. 0. bw wrsw 2 Ibi Im my heart tarries". A <=> i o Ji \ A . ticipial construction treated in g.. especially if the subject of the relative clause was identical with the noun to which it was joined: Sin.168 . "by means of" &c. ntl. PARTIC. 2 Sin. WITH A PASS. was originally used in purely nominal relative clauses without a verb. 158. WITH THE ADJECT. attributive participle for also 400./A s*r =:> I swtf 1 nbt* rrvtni rs every land to which I journeyed". e. . Only with the preposition m "in". 401. The adjective nfi "which". this is the par261. try nfmttt "There is is no humble one. WITH THE ADJECTIVE 401. 7. idem). WITH A PASSIVE PARTICIPLE. The substitution of an a relative clause 397) to clauses is extended (in violation of substantive to whose subject is different from the which they are joined. which belongs to those treated in 132 sq. to Sethe. parvus factus 8. 101.

rnW \ bn> nt'i st im "the place where AAAAAA 4 they are" (with a different subject). it first loses g. the plural (e. msw nt'i m ChCf "the children who are in his palace" 6 instead of nt'iw). 176. 00 are in his body". 8 Louvre C . forntiw. 3. 21. 402. n ^y =O Jl 'I AAAAAA r\ pa O _ \\ \\ MoU N I I YX}\. 32. I. 169 r\ rj /www . 2 Eb. - 9 \\ v^ _ 7 1 /( i s ntt hr mn "a man who I suffers with heat". later also the feminine. 6 gin. * Sin. 495 = P. 9. made after the analogy may also be so joined. 303. s ntt mr "a man who is ill. 2 ddft nbt. 35. In the pyramids f~\ is written for AA/WVA I 5 nt%.0 N i &n Vfo^i7 Si ^ \<=> K^_ 1 ir'i-Ct nb. WITH THE ADJECTIVE r> ntt. The sentences of of the pure nominal sentence. ntt m htf "all worms which ntirv Jir Jirt "the overseers of the works. * Westc. j B. 8 Eb. 20. AA/VAAA A. l^v rV'S. ntt early becomes an unchangeable particle. their verb is always in the pseudoparticiple or the infinitive vft with hr: I 2T ^ \\ /WAAAA i /WWNA ^.s. nt'i hrf "every officer =i I who was with I I him". 172. 240 sq. . 3 T\ who are upon the mountain". Another archaic writing for nt'iiv is ^ ^N JT I. 402. 262. 7 Eb. ^ T \\ 1\ ^. 10.6. 8.

403. * Prisse Eb. II. with negative clauses. was then further used to connect verbal rela- tive clauses also. 2. ~^=6 *^~. w^' rrfm n^w sw "this bread and beer. and which I have given you". which the officials deliver to 404.170 403. 3 Mar. . nt'i 0. in whose body there are i ills". Eb. as a substan(f. e. but it occurs elsewhere also. srvriln nt'i mrwt m htf "Let 5 him drink (it). 404. I. ntt nbt m ss "all that was in writing" (i. tive "he who" I I ^ ntt "that which"): -/J nt'trv AAAAA^ ml 3 m smsf "those who are in his following". 4. 295. 18. Ab. 4 written). 25. nt'i is 2 me. this is always the case . also often used independently. where a misif understanding might be apprehended no express connection : there were A/WSAA 7-y gl <^"~^> ^"^ T sick'V vi^.n ^ n mrf " w^ A ^AAA *s no ^ AAAAAA > !^ ^ t$ hict^ IIP* JjU III AAAAAA r~\ \\ 1 AAAAAA AAAAAA ?*r <=>/\ v& /i\ g S f\ I *\ Vs\ /T AAAAAA p3 lrrm n l tz I A-n&f. 14. 47. WITH THE ADJECTIVE nt'i. 5 2 Siut 6.

with the meaning "that which is" is alone.0. especially in the idiom cited in On On the use of ntt to substantivize clauses v cf. . 404. 379. 382. the relative use of ""^^ cf. 171 also used 380. WITH THE ADJECTIVE ntt.

10 y& Phon.. value as a determinative 45 47). rejoice... the phonetic value as a syllabic sign or as an alphabetic sign ( 32-35). . of Thein- The phonetic values are given as exactly as possible (distinguishing between d. MEN. SjTDet. Det. dtv3 supplicate. in. Ort. Abb. meaning as an ideogram ( most frequent transferred meaning ( 40). The abbreviations signify: Prop.TABLE OF The more important signs SIGNS. high. Com. supplicate. that the determinative occurs at the abbreviation of a word ( 68). t). the 36 39). in list and meanings are taken up.. orthographic compound. but there are many details here which are still uncertain. k3 high. Phon. it was not the intention to enumerate all the homophonous words for which each sign can be used. The feminine ending is separated from the stem.. ( Det. 7 'jj K Det. d. indicates the origin of the sign by the combination of two others. t. A. Abb. rejoice. the proper Trfd. or the syllable which the determinative always accompanies ( 52). 1m to praise. tew adoration. Abb.. the order and with the numbering current in the hardt even where this is probably incorrect.

173 15 .

Abb. Det. 7 WOMEN. pregnant. king. . Abb m&-t goddess M. s3 break. revered dead (masc. son to (corresponds 131 89). 9 Det. Abb. Trfd.174 110 B. 31 QO Det. Abb. Det. Abl).Abb.'/wwAmon. revered dead (fern. lir fall. 129 113 Det. fall. ms bear. Abb. C. s3 watch over. Det. GODS. B. existent at. Abb. sps glorious or sim. WOMEN.. a 14 /f Det. bear. dJ. truth. Det.). ! Det. Pth Ptah. A Trfd. Thoth. GODS. 55 Det. 12 Trfd. revered dead (masc. 27 RC Re. 128 Prop. Det. St Set. Abb.woman (corresponds to A 89).). Ir'i C. WsJr(?) Osiris. and Abb. 119 Det. 15 I)k3 pregnant. Dhwtt 4 11 Det. s3 shepherd. revered per- Det. Det.). Det.

hnt nose.wr destroyed. tp breath T 26 and F 4). mdtv speak. Trfd. shn embrace. 33 Det. Det. 40 o Prop. Trfd. m3 see. MEMBERS OF THE BODY. 13:^>=Det.D. color. 31 lip. 3 Abb. CH beautiful. see. wsr Prop. Phon. (cf. N 30.mr-/(?) eye. 37 >^ Det. eye. r-5>(?) mouth. breast. Phon. .Prop. 35 |i Trfd. Det. F5 > \ iibtr. eye cosmetic. cut up. mnC-t nurse. Det.^r arrive at. 5 ^ destroyed. lr lr. in hair. hr face. 39 ^7 Det. i () Prop. @ $ Prop. Abb. Det. Det. fnd nose. Trfd.Det. Confusion rib . hr upon. eye. with Trfd. do. hair. tp-t head. upon. 13-t back. w^(?). eye. pg3. hr. d3d3 head Trfd. > divine rvd3-t Abb. that which flows from the body. 10 <e>. BODY. rm weep. head. the back. Phon. 17'^g Det. embrace. shn happen. . divine Abb. 12-^. Abb. Cn. Phon. r. 175 D. nose. ISC^BTrfd. Abb. hnt in front. lr. 1 MEMBERS OF THE . 28 /p) Prop. 42 A Variant of D 47. lr pupil (of the eye) Phon. weep. nurse. 29 Prop.

that arm. a T Phon.ft ell. demands strength. I Trfd.#^ mas. kind of spirit Phon. mi give (impu. Q^y Prop. com- 82 ti Det. grasp . 11 mtr .). middle. 63 & nProp. fist. rmn fus. ion with culine. 51 \^ Prop. Abb.tfsr splendid Det. nht strong." Tfrd.000. Prop.). w> Abb. dl give. Phon. 49 W ^s/ Det. correct. masculine Abb. 52 hn. 46 [_J Prop. hand. MEMBERS OF THE BODY. 47 _ru. 65 -Q OProp. hn to row. dbC 10. 84 \ ) reign.' Q 12. Phon. rect. wr middle. 93 S-lfc Incorrect for T 20. Prop. Phon. . mt\ Det. blh phallus Phon. Det. rmn arm ConTrfd. Abk. 3m grasp. d-t c^. A-5> 72^ 76 to flProp. that 1).176 D. n (nn) not. c. carry. ml give 66 Prop. k3 steer. A9. Det. . . Ck3 (= D 62 63). k3. bat. Jink to present. Ch3. 90 r=a Prop. negation. rf&c finger (cf. witness. (impv. "Prop. Prop. that which J or sim. n (nn} . Irvti not having. which strength demands Det. cor- (=D69). hrp to lead. 59. Prop. which is done with the arm. m. H 17.

ll llinic=>i r "? v< jQ s AWVAA^ 1 4 LsJm^^ (r\ \S\ '^^^^T "?i ^\ <^ X P: ^ XP (I passed by the red mountain. is wanting. ( Part. Sl-nhf). VI.From the Story of Sinuhe.).) S* fl: I I I I is a n by means of" or sim. c!. Amen-em-he't I.) (11. o r\ I JO. Sinuhe. 104 seq. suffix 1 sg. gramm. L. 17* Second From the Story of Sinuhe (Epic J. is hk3 written defectively in this old name. a man of high position at the court of 2100 B. (c. this news. for unknown reasons. learns the death of his king. Bb . while on a campaign against the Libyans. D. b the peculiar ending explained by the coming together of the dual ending and the c Name of a fortification on the isthmus of Suez. Published ra poem 12 of the middle empire in the archaic language. so terrifies him that he immediately seeks flight to Palestine. Egypt. Erman.) 34.

referring to a collective n the guard*.. e p3 like a noun.. or . f "Ek I'Tmli ^ i a poetic for . Z> the sentries.f (At the 211.gather one's self".18* From the Story of Sinuhe. in apposition with mtn. III D J o ^ I JL I I I I o .pull one's self together".) w OO\J. 330.2 286 n =5 I om^l' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 > ( V\ ' (] QTV s * n ^. . c construed as if it were fern.I concealed myself". d like our vulgar . 243 Km-wr I fell down for thirst..

330.a half year"? . heaped with benefits by the prince of Tmt.a year and a half"? e probably ..) Sinuhe. 6 read whwt. a perhaps to be corrected . d . c cancel r in Irtnsn according to 151.From the Story of Sinuhe.he cooked for me"..thou art prosperous with me". .. f 125 B. 19* A/WV\A A AA/WNA n i i i I I I ^3z> n MWM I Vv 1 o ll*^ \ o AAAA/NA ^ f c=a I I I AAAAAA 7J. (11. 80.. lives man}' years with him. 78 94.

) n t ) Q.20* From the Story of Sinuhe. I c The determinatives to the entire expression. of d3b can not be read with certainty in the hieratic. n^ I D ^z X r=> o AAAAAA A/VSAAA Dill D I o AA^VAA C^ I I - n C^ (He also made me prince of a tribe. . Qft/ww^Q n<rz>O D R I I I ^ t^ -n- 10 a the determinative applies tvnt refers to the land. b 125B.

cf. . (11. AAAAAA AAAAAA AAAAAA (I accepted the challenge and prepared my weapons. c the land of Tmo.) 21* (By means of the hunt I also gained a great a Ol I I 0| P-IJ i i i AAAAAA f 1 AAAAAA I I I 1 I I III.) 210 3S I AAAAAA a the word is wanting in the manuscript. deal.From the Story of Siniihe.) Sinuhe defeats a hero in single combat. 98. b scil. 351. 7*pr. 109 145.

78 i\\ o\\ 242. 397. fell to] 6 after". the ground useless". . c inexact s cf. stepped upon his neck. e m lit probably as an adverb n thered a verb is probably wanting: .3 O ill iii (He seized his weapons and the combat began.22* From the Story of Sinuhe.) a like a relative.[they he shoots him therefore from behind.. 161.) i i I I 31 I n ^^ | 1 (I --. 22.

From

the Story of Siiiuhe.

M
AAAAAA

n
i

\\

i

AAAAAA

AAAAAA

AAAAAA AAAAAA

D

Q

^
I I

00

A AAAAAA

JJ

^AAAAA ^-1 6

1

AAAAAA AAAAAA

JF.

(Z. 241

257.)

As an

old

man

Sinuhe-receives from King War-

tsn

I.

the permission to return

home and

goes to Egypt.

?^ J\ v&SP A<=J JE>
II

?
'

f^-n
1 I 1

r=s=i f\

AAAAAA^i

I

~^

JT j^^rH

V$\

MVQi

/

O

O

t\

d ^.B^
AAAAAA

i

d

I

J5

I

I

I

168
<T

<^-y

~3

yBo
I

^>
AAAAAA

^^ ^ ^
I
I I

^
AAAAAA
|

AAAAAA

1 AAAAAA
ffi

[_ _j

7\

A

1

a the people of the dead man.

b emphasis, 344.

24*

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

N

vA
i

Ji

^
i I

/\
i
i
i

6

I

I

(He goes further to the city of the king.)

IE

a.

iS^s*
(I

A fk

qpi

trod the palace.)

i

^n? D
i 1
1

,o

AAAAAA /

fcjf
251

Q
I
I

AAAAAA

a
them,

,,-who

had followed me, while they

c Impersonal; one expects r 13.

led me". 6 he presents d indicates the action of

the people who lead him forth, e Nominal sentence, f old writing according to 109. f the order of words is free according to 341.

From

the Story of Sinuhc.

25*

(then terror seized me)

~i&W
182 B.
I

I

I

V. (Z. 263
168

269.)

The king

presents Sinuhe to the queen, - A

O

ra

l

1

1

X

JJl'

I

I

JU II'
O
\
A/VWV\
I

Q

AA/VAAA

A AAA/

\\

I

I

I

I

Ir^fl" 111
\
I I

I

I

I

vwv\

1

P
1

I

I

I

a Perhaps relative sentence:
b
hieratic

,,as

an Cj'm
c

whom
i.

the S. made".
n altogether".

d for
cf.

unknown meaning. they had brought them with them,
sign

of

e.

e n in their

hands"?

312. 76.

Bb*

26*
VI. (Z. 279
310.)

From

the Story of Sinuhe. intercession of the queen, Sinuhe

At the

is

pardoned and concludes

his life at the court in great prosperity.

I

I

I

I_CT<VS

I

^3

&

_ii

IA/WWVA

(and there were other good things therein)

J-FN.

O

5 1
III
I

^
AAAAAA

X

a for

mm

315. & passive, c read <=>'^

s>
"?

d 329 as accom-

panying circumstance, e read ni and C^-i'. f read mrrf? ,,P. whom the king loves"? # ,,they caused" (impersonal ,,they".)

From

the Story of Sinulie.

27*

iW
I I I

f:
\
I'

3S

I

.

/^-l

I

A. /wwv\

n _J 1_
I I I

(and there was built for
e

me my own
o
ra

house)
n

/wwv\ AA/VW\

-CT

n

fv-.-n

m

ra

tko

O

*

J
gave"; the sense is, ,,the dirt etc. I now resigned b i. e. the coarse ones, c upon which I had
liiikyt.

a
to

n they

the

desert",

hitherto slept, in contrast with

d

in contrast

with

tpti;

read nt.

e passive,

f read

Inus.

Soc. and rob him of his ass. so charms the latter by his eloquence. passive. 1892. that.) Content: a Peasant who complains of an injustice done him. Bibl.) An inferior official meets the peasant as he desires to journeys toward Herakleopolis. D v\ \\ a which he needs for his grave. Proc. b the statue. (Butler 2 13.28* (it Prom the Story of Sinuhe. the beginning by Griffith. before Mrwltns'i a prince of Herakleopolis.. (Prose text of the middle empire in language not so markedly archaic. Archaeol. only the speeches of the peasant are poetic. with the King's assent he prolongs the peasant's affair in order thus to prompt him to further discourse. I. expects the plural. was furnished with the best) From the Story of the Eloquent Peasant. c one d 50 B. Published LD VI 108 seq. -T=7-> e read < ^> A f read .

. f here he begins direct is discourse.Story of the Eloquent Peasant. e. g The situation must side on the other. upper a field. 1-CTZU ^" I ^ \\ ' I A 21 A^WVV I $ S I I A/WAAA AftAAAA man e a a hieratic sign of unknown meaning. for me be: a narrow road... 29* II. 6 the name of the wanting. on one side water.one edge of the road". d temporal clause. e. one of the peasantry. .. the asses which pleased him or sim.) The official plans a stratagem for him. probably . (Butler 13 19. c i. /* n his one way" i. The following is probably an elliptical !" oath: may every excellent image [of a god] .

ffi \\ I I I I A/WNAA ' ^\ ' (and spreads out the clothes in the way.. d . (Butler 2223.JK "" \\ V\ <CZI> L WvV J AAAAAA I is wanting.have a care" or sim. .30* Story of the Eloquent Peasant.) robbed and derided.. Berliner Papyrus Z.) III. a passive. c . The peasant b is A Y\ U- I AAAAAA I M"& ^ I ^^a I I vV C__L A^AAAA I I I C^ t-"=~a I I ^\ _/J C_I AAAAAA \\ \\ I I 12 ^-^v f . & the middle of the road.[Take care] my fruit is on (<=>) the road". 124.

31* AAAAAA AWWS i i I /wwv. Jl J \\ \\ x AWVAAA AAAAAA I I I A/VAAAA ^1 f li) d 1 J a [The lower part of the road is] under water.Story of the Eloquent Peasant. I will go along its [upper] edge..Will since obstructed. b you not let us pass by then!" c meaning something like: one [lower path] d read mhtnl is . . AA/WVV | I I III X /WW\A.P I I I I I V ^ " ~ ^ i /WW\A B).

\\ ~\ V AAAAAA /WWW m 'ft" D /WW\A (T i I ^^* r\ AM/W\ AAAAAA ft v /www i\ r > flfl^^ 1 9 a 00353 /WWW AA/WW pa . . b probably a proverb: instead man one makes mention of his lord. . _fi n <-= <=== r C? J^ u) JF. e peculiar infinitive. 24 32. read the n-form.32* Story of the Eloquent Peasant. you think first of d the tamarisk was not dry rf is probably corrupt. of the poor a relative belonging to hn. c meaning: though you should address me. Z. my e lord. (ib.) The peasant implores the f official in vain.

d c perhaps an invocation. 3242). f against the injustice.. prince and relates to ^2 A\ D "| C_i /WW\A \\ T AAAAAA O A a .Story of the Eloquent Peasant. Z. Qc . Egypt.. e probably error for O or O. E r man. to be connected with the following.you are to" for . the meaning of the sentence is not clear.you go of the dead one must not to". (ib. b in the place of the god make noise. The peasant goes to the him his matter. 182. gramm. 33* d D AAAAAA ol\\ iCV A |M AAftAAA A\ a V S I \ s < Ml F.

AAAAAA AAAAAA D AAAAAA I C? AAAAAA I ^T I O \\ I I I o As the prince detain him. 4251. 6 him.34* Story of the Eloquent Peasant ra l\\ D ra 1 ^J^fl ra D I YV ^J (ib. AAAAAA I VI. desires to sail it is they mean: .) The prince questions his counsellors. Z. who away the peasant would not prohably a peasant subject to unlawfully desired to deliver his taxdues to another.

35* ^_F* r\ AAAAAA I -F\ 'II I D^ I I ^ 1 1 O f\ AAAAAA n 1 1 1 1 1 ^ - 7 -1 AAAAAA 2:1 AAAAAA 111 r\ o x ^T . (ib.) The i first complaint of the peasant. ^l\\ AAAAAA AAAAAA rn AAAAAA vii/ I I I lU i^i.-~-. D AAAAAA. I 1 D n - "~ ^ /\^. 5271. . he should be punished because of the natron etc. I I I I T I I I I AA/VAAA Ci Fill. a Sense probably. or.Story of the Eloquent Peasant. he must pay this as a fine. Z. (with which the asses were loaded)? b His reply is not given. -j 1^1 O /NAAAAA j jx \\ >$$ \\ ^ mj X VII.

89S I I I I I f sic AAAAAA ra a read nit. . O 2 * AAAAAA A M O . . ff\ f) V 1 vft 1 f/Ki . prove. c imperative. J4 yj X 6 AAAAAA A/wv TQ pyb^^jaH kAAAAA I AAAAAA v7_ fW a ^ D rn >^*S^ n 1 S AAAAAA i O ^^ <Z2> >&> AAAAAA fl ^ ^nnr S I O \ fiU?! >0\ I ^ S96.O ' O ^~^ ' AAAAAA \J _CT* ffl r\ JJ ^"^ J ^ f\ > n AAAAAA V -. d imperative. N >TI ^ 1 1 n^>i\ %c I -fcr\mj?- i I I (Thou /3)AAAAA^ AAAAAA * I ^ ^ 4*_$ J^J$^$' ^ ^ ^^J * HP AA^r-U w ^S^ 10 1 f\ f| O ^^ wilt be fortunate in everything) . I f ^& 5> wanting. b treat me so justly that I shall prefer thy name is to all laws. g sense is probably. how much have to bear. e imperative.Story of the Eloquent Peasant.

. to the Authorities in Elephantine. 29. llf it XI A. Ztscb. A writing of Thutmosis I. Announcement of the coronation. I (& I \\ The . Published Aeg. 117 from a copy of Heinrich Brugscb. n ^^ \ff . ' I I I 6 sense optative. VIII. (Stone in the Cairo Museum.Story of the Eloquent Peasant. 37* it Z. Q i i i Supplement. (ib.) J. JX a passive. titulary of the new ruler. 71 77.) The prince announces to the King. (The king writes to you) 1 O o_zr II.

fk di^i_0 V\ AAAAAA "T" AAAAAA f\ AAAAAA F. At JF. Concluding formula.. e 2 passive. . defectively . 6 lit.cause that one cause that the oath written. a AAAAAA O I ra"kJ^ M a read Q.38* f$ g) A AAAAAA writing of Thutmosis I. f writing purposes". . c 259. III. likewise further that etc.. What name is to be used in the cult. What name is to be used in taking oath. remain".this d formula of that which is correspondence for communicated.

(Written in abbreviations throughout. Wsrtsn I. for explanation compare the titulary fully written out in the preceding letter. nsn Sill ^ o Oi frtrhtr . O 1C \ AA/WV\ / Thutmosis HI. (ib. Date. Konigbuch 177).) I. 349). 1 /c^_M^ ^ n II. 39* m i i V 5 il i i Examples of the Royal Titularies. Titularies. (Lepsius.Examples of the Eoj^al VI.

b optative. . (ib. c relative clause. (Filled with abbreviations throughout. Di I T H. (Gravestone in Florence).40* Examples of Grave-formulae. Kamses II. . '?J ^ a unintelligible formula. 420). and often in barbarous orthography) I. III. O & '8. (Gravestone in Alnwick Castle). The same in another form. The sacrificial formula. iJl CO Examples of Grave-formulae.

in different form (BIH 16). this b 259. c 2. DIM ^n^ ^i^n^ ^11^ a 259. d. III. 291 ' 41* 291 O AAAAAA A AAAAAA X AAAAAA I AAAAAA . shorter (Gravestone in Turin). formula procures the deceased Cc* . The same. a n A t I < I &c. V.Examples of Grave-formulae. u IV. Impv. The same. plural. Invocation to the 6 visitors to the grave (LD II. u \ passive defectively written. 2 active. 122). the pronouncing of nourishment.

refer to the grammar. 1. pr. n. With proper names m. Abydos. n. 3b-dw T I ^ n. n. as archaic. pr. and are not taken into considera- To a considerable extent The meaning of tion in the alphabetic arrangement. designates a writing as an abbreviation in accordance with 63 68. the meanings can be only approximately determined. The correct orthography occupies the first place'. The cited construction of the verb has been added by cc. . name of a a woman. The endings are separated by -. that of ^ 3b-w _B&\ T 1 <\ -\D (48 ' for ^ hour. the causative has been subjoined. to such icords. arch. or sim. Compound words are to be found under the first part of the compound. only ivhere it The does not entirely correspond to that of the simple stem.GLOSSARY. phantine. that of a man. has been added. I. goose (abbr. cease. abbr. place. or sim. denotes the f. PREFATORY NOTES.

\\ i (cc. 43* perish (abbr. 246. existent in. 253 venerableness. . d) \ U Y heart. n) call. 160) come. 157) tent. fruit.) 224. 220. f. AA/\AAA Amon. 379) he 100) honored (cc.) give. (abbr. to outrage? be angry ? 0! (abbr. cc. to anyone. ^ Ijj^ \ 1 ( 256> twf tb ( 64A) meat> Imn fl ^^ J set. im J^branch. by anyone). IW to be. A J^ A A f ( count. ( 168. Iw J^ ( come ( 160. Im-'i 307. Iml () 182 B. someone.n) walk. orsim.GLOSSARY. grow old. hr: who Iwt-t has not.) to load. wn. (abbr. 111 1\ cf. cause. orsim.) month. > 4k: i 'U old age. 1. Ifd n. 378.

Imn-y .44* GLOSSARY.

great. m. tit tt? toward. Itn ntr kind of priest. <? hoof. " AAAAAA ikr * excellent or sim. o barley. CCi ^ comb? cry out. it. chamber. tp'iw Cw'i ancestors. small hr) to please? Bedouin -t or house (as part of pr). pr. tely. or sim. large. or Z>U It be excellent. n O sun - strike or sim. or Thutmosis' I.^"^.45* < isr-y %(?) itf cf. king or sim. Lbbr. Issl n. ( 31) father. istw O d Ij ltn-w 323. o o o "7r~V n ta ^ e away. P*T sim. uninjured. refractory sim. ^ it spend (time). hr-Cw'i ' immediaass. Y\ hr-C t ) arm. CCb braid? . -t Q member.

I numerous. CA: enter. Crr-yt lace or sim. or sim. CJc-w goat. C=D I i | Plur. AAAAAA or sim. fly. ( 109 ) AAAAAA.*46 GLOSSARY. Cr . . or Cwn-lb deceitfulness. O myrrh. \. V& Cwn AAAAAA Ch3 a combat. many. (pi. m on anything). IL_^H pa- f\ Ch3 ) rob. al tablet. Cr. pr. n. or sim. healthy" (as adjunct to royal name). royal chamber. 1) ( 70). Q CnJj AAAAAA oath. ChC ChC Chn-wtl kind of ship. ChC stand. Q i i time. sound. or sim. Cnh Cntiw ear. live (cc. abbr. Cw-t _ ~~L animals.: food. palace.. arrow.) AAAAAA AAAAAA ^ n ^ ChC-w tk Tf <=?=> I quan- tity. robto contend. m.number. J Cm-mw'inn-sl -J -i sacrifici- J\ ChC-w IV Jr ChC-n a 230 ff. J>1 ber. SoV)i U V\A . Q Cnli 1 AAAAAA (abbr./I i snb : "living. . plunder. or sim. sim.

or sim. aus A praise. 223. 47* I (sic. (Ilae gem. 250 sq. wC abbr. contrary to wt 3S51) district. cc. w\^ ^ I I ' | | | \ n. "* finni to praise. (5^ late. (abbr. to bend. < v (abbr. (^i GUI . Jo I \k\ (nfl) [ | wp-wt Y^ QA Ill message. Wp-t0. or sim. A h-i X ) to increase. 1.). ^1 or sim. o or sim. ^ by something.). ) name of a god of the dead. ) wCf <~> V \i ^. servant. cook. Abes.teA/3fec ^a. (abbr. - applause. chamber in the palace. j tow^crj green. verb. V <j> <_ -^-ai ^. wCb Hr 1 I T pure. hr pass (116) one (as subst. |) X caus. rJ ") I wC ( way. or sim. y^ wCb abbr.GLOSSARY. or sim. priest. 143) one (as adj. .) to be . aux. Q \> clean. or sim. wn green cosmetic. caus. wbl 5 household sif-sYi to visit. road.

or sim. one?? .48* GLOSSARY. xgj& \ " i-nfr^x wnn-njr-^^" A AAAAAA XX/VvAA AA/WAA V I \ i also of itching. polite phrase for Bedouin tribe. -f* nam to wSb /answer. or "^^ also (^^ o . or command. in titles sim.) strong. wssC bite. v*. priesthood. Sivd3 tb hr to rejoice the 100) i I l heart concerning something. anoint. lay I I I i. indolence. O I wd (57 Illae inf.) name II. be fortunate. ivsh (abbr. of Osiris. >u wsrtsn hour. fj some- silver. ^ ' the or sim. magnate.) throw. of Bamses n. f i pr. Osiris. -C j (abbr.) to rest. or sim.m. wd ^K^ ' (Illae inf.gold 1 1 1 A forsaken alloy. sim. weakness. TO) great. ' wdn " ' wr wrd spend day. or sim. be well. communicating thing. AA/VAAA \7 broad. (also of emission of a cry).

P a Pr C-D . 49* 1 1 branch. bw bnrl place ( 103). silyer house" flea.GLOSSAEY. (28) date. e. i. bnrl-w / date wine. ' c==a | ) mm . [333 ? A [- -. (abbr. pw 0%. thicket. gramm. dr b3h 315. / ( \ C ] J house.." 8 P elt (kind Egypt. D (1 U pr-hd 87. (Hlae depart (from pn * AAAAAA D ps. AAAAAA inent?? Erman. ' servant oil.) Pr Cookerv cf. also for possessions. servant honey. orsim. treasury. blk cf. inf. king of lower bd-t there" e | I bi-ti ^ ^^ 3 "I. calf.). the way. Ill . or sim. Eg^pt. VI. '\ 8 86 "' Ztf Prom- mouse. i o o o of wheat). u. &c. D pt ^ heaven. bad. bk I im i. Dd . "the e. - SLA go out. fcjfc.

O) remedy. m 307. {^\\^ glad". cf. sents. pk-t 1o D ' \ | j linen. Negation 375. go fur- fw-tC <f^k ~ pre- J\ NX ther. f . attain to J\ ph-tt . ^^ . Q? ~^^f ( abbr - ptn pth-htp C= dual: strength. fd pull out. "hair Mil phr-t(?) I fruit" fruit.) offering D finest for the dead.. troop. or sim. large. pri ffl f> ^ i. ^ pjS | "Ptah ph3 nl X divide. m. fw pr. =-w arrive at. n. := | pr-t ^=^.) fruits. caus. as name ^ of a ^M g ^ I I I I D ps _ Q '-(7 ( 159) to cook pfst.7 | p/lr~(/ pr-t (abbr. or sim. belong. of the heart "be fnd CJ i. m. sph3 purge. broad. bite. pr.r\ winter (one of ^ the three seasons). prt- (abbr. ' ~ ' ' . or sim. (Ul) I (abbr. .50* L GLOSSARY. _c!c^ U lit is satisfied" n. .

lino n ) "true of m 8 voice" i. ml' tt (something).GLOSSARY. cat. "^ etc. / mni. of mother. ml (abbr. U) 314. abbr.) diseased place.) just. mn-t Dd* . of. burn or > II obj. renew M.) see. AAAAAA true.: \fc^. declared mn remain. 183 behold. mwt truth. ~" 312. justice. 1 i daily (food). self. for (111) water. is U recur. offer ~ up something. (abbr. obj. mitt "likewise". (II like m w:? ae gem. appellation of the dead.^. like ( 135. 51* mnew. suffer (cc with something. fc die. in j rdimfCcc. e .) goddess truth. mUw one 137).

O fabbr. give A <y. inf. n. ms (Illae inf. cellent. canal. "beloved of god". anyone). gen.) mr T _B^ I ^ bear. L .. u ( 62) mr-t(1) eye. . ww/i AAA/WA A sim. mni (mini) mr (euphemistic for die) C abbr. tnn-tt. or sim.). make god of war. (wtme?)OOO monuments. sick. .) I oil. excellent. mry-t mrh-t overseer.) tnnl-t Z^h ^ww H . north ( 137). py ramid - birth to. dyke. desire. mh-ti \\ northern. (mm 1) AAAAAA marry. mry ntr Ci [[iiiii ( 104 A) plur. n 1 1 1 1 1 mnnrn-t AAAAAA mrl to > Egypt.52* GLOSSARY. grease. fnr mournin g suffering. m. pr. fa kind ^11 . . be full. be f be sad. or fill. m: Thou (belongs perhaps to an other word of mas. (cc. priestly title. sim. of to (mlntl) musical instrument.^ (Ulae love. \> mr mr Ja SIM people. or ex- mrwi- Jl \r^ caus.

GLOSSARY.

53*

mtn
/WW\A
[childj

ren.

way, road.

^
ms-yt
rn

I

I

mtn
I i

inn

kind

of

sheikh of the Bedouins,
food which was eaten
or sim.

on stated (?) evenings.

mtr
\

NN Jl
3

give gi
obj.

testi-

bring

mony
on or near; play (an
instrument).

(cc.

about
J3
\

anyone).
.

-ST.

to

msdm-t
cosmetic.

eye

IS

challenge?? to insult??

mdw
msdd
to hate.

md-t
speech,

mk
tect.

(mdw-tt)
matter,
affair.

organ (of body.)

n
n't

/WSAA*

(

)

306.
cf.

nd.

/wwv\ of the gen.

125.
,

*

'(?)
III

abbr. powder, or
f-\

O
* h

sim.

AAAAAA
r,

u

,

,

n-*(?)

city.

kernel, grain,

S

>]

III

or sim.

n-n

H

134 urban.

AAAAM

n*

^

94.

7

)

lord, master.

54*

GLOSSARY.

55*

triturate:

56*

GLOSSARY.

abbr
-)
hereditary
sim.
(title

rnp ~*
i

f? (f
year.

f

['

fo)

prince,

or

of the no-

rh

know, be learned.
^??i
*

bility).

caus.

de-

nounce.

r-pw
I

121.

rh

^=> scholar, wise man.

r-pn-t
local

unknown
rs

W
t south,

name.
rs'i

cf. tp-rs.

r-pr
I I

southern grain,
barley.

i. e.

temple.

rm
weep.

Joy
(Illaeinf.)
'

-

,

,

,

>

time of anything, epoch.
tf tf

rmt
rn

'^^
I

(

64.

97)
legs, feet.
J, J>

|

|

people.

\(

\ name.

.'\AAAAwy

( \&
ra
hi

_07
(

flJ

descend, (also

&
to

15) hus-

>T band.
of going on board ship) ;
enter.

hb

plow?

^
ra

jj^ ^>
J

Pi-

time

hp

ra

law.

or place of a thing.

hnw
send

earthen vessel.

ra^\

M^

send

as messenger.

(O abbr.)

day.

GLOSSARY".

57*

h

-

large house, castle.

lib

I

A^JJ vJL^
ntr temple.

Urn feast cf.hr-hb.
<
mourn for?

lit

B
aim.

^m^

Particle

(?)

of wishing: "if only", or

hbs

"yfto
hbs

clothe.

plur.

:

increase, addition.

h3k
hC
AC(?)

>

\]F

'^\
ll
I

^
body.

T.
I

\ garment.

ta ^ e

as

embrace.

serpent.

==^cc.
(as superscription).

Am

rudder.

JiC-t

o

^
I

beginning; and hr hCt

m

hm-t
hCt

woman,

wife.

315.
salt.

7tC-<i'

^ abbr. prince,
fl

(as title

I

of the nobility).
n AAAAAA

obstruct, sim.

or

J

AAAAAA Nile. AAAAAA

hn

U

I

A

majesty or sim.

(cir-

ACS

o\\ v
}

heart.

cumlocution for king),
slave, servant.
i

strike.

314. 120. 279.

hwr-w
pauper.

Attic

O
I I I

things,

or sim.

hk-t I 1 abbr. AAAAAA/ " cf. existent hs approach. praise. '1 Q * part. ) ) natron. superior. Ci hntSsw or sim. prince. hsy praised. ^ws V /\ AAAAAA ^X [1 I narrow.) (Heracleopolis). overlord. 316. A Y 1 o^ / ^j) " ) approbair present. j ruler. . sign of favor.l. X c I P hstf "do according to AAAAAA his wish". hk-t ^.58* /> GLOSSARY. 315. abbr. to praise. j beer. hr-nb title O \ i \J ) of the king. hr-w hr-dJdJ'Q hr'i-d3d3 tp-hsb. hr king. or J\ hsb 3 sim. Q n r"^"! /-i I I I XI fy chief. name of a J^D goddess. AAAAAA Alll vi^ \M O Vv!i. 1 bed? hsst . hr hr-i 309. above. hrik-yt tion. c I hst o I 7m& 9 \J a I /N AAAAAA W to offer.4 lizard. abbr. . reckoning. hnn-stn I S) JJ AAAAAA Jl n. cf. (III ae inf.

.

60* .

m st ^ back. hd (niae inf. goose (cf.. sacrifice. journey be wretched. n) punish anyone. (cc. 8-t M | | seat. son of the sycomore. ht 111 abbr. a daughter. ** 61* D be first. place . future. . ^\mht yj \ Q ^ J\(^ o/ - 315 . J s-t-C ll KSK) imiw st-C sor n i s3-nht kind of s-t-wrt priest. obj.) ^tjflf. and man. y children. afterward.) to re- position. (j-<2>- Ws-lr. offer. /^\ I wood. neck. of kind of priest. to journey hs . hrp ib hrp possessed of a good dis- understanding and MH pulse. hr-hb 8 8 J J) /ft V&(for ^ hsm holy holies in the temple. ! [st-lr] cf. 1 s-t-Hr ^ the J Jthrone. or sim. (cc. or sim. toward north. y down stream. Jit tree. m s3 315. tr'i correct.GLOSSARY.

(substantive?) designation of anything bad. proposal ("here is . an opportunity to . s * sbs n 1 1 n door. yesterday. * ito teach: cc. sp pw for the intro- duction of a courteous 1. slB ( J abbr sp - time . 5. preceding word to be repeated in reading. . cry out. Jl inspection. or sim. n for rive at. -^J land. sf n r^. . (trans. sb-t -^T- A \l spr lL* (cc. r train as.62* GLOSSARY. iLtk A draw together. defend one's self against. 62) recognize. arrive at. sb A lead. PS4 TT 4 II to drink."). sw SMM? swrl n.. sign that the is D sip-t'i . ri) request anyone.) sb3-w -^ \b\ ^c\ Ml teaching.

^ a rank at court. 8l - sn-mv ( the second 1). to AAAAAA r\ land. "uniting of local unknown designation. (desig- nation of an officer of sn n to trespass. I sm3-t3 1 M/s land". warm. j ^n. smt I y III cream. lit. ther. cpnsp "Per- 1 to fear. ssn prince. or ' ' / om-i . 63* ^=^-^5& be mild. m. pr.GLOSSARY. w . pr. /^ fill sntr blood. desert. i. or sim. sm-> AAAAAA ^\ ^Jl? I \\ to slaughter. m. smwn ' A proJ AAAAAA <if bably an expression of deprecation (like. fear. Egypt. cook. or sim. of upper and lower A A AAAAAA | P> (I n. or sim. ^ | ) 5*\l sim. Cnh. . mit me") or of doubt (like. <) breathe. sm3-wt'i J^j uniter. foreign companion. e.)*e of. lord healthy. "perhaps"). n AAAAAA n ^r> (1 J |((Ub. rank).

) r-^-. sh-tt peasant. leader. women skm sdm Kl growI 1 sdm metic to. ing grey (noun). D (\ V I . (medically) or sim. stny-t i kingdom. ^ stn 1 I I VJ abbr. to sleep. D abbr. nd. I 17 "^ remember anything. scribe. j bring on. sdr shoot. or sim. to treat slir overlay P with. w ssm ssm-w Q select. ** \ \J2. ^~i ) king of upper Egypt. king. V ) (cc - obj<) 1 y$r 1 Bedouins. instrument of the (sistrum?). si-f I swelling. I P slim () 11 memory> ^=J1 mighty. 1. or sim. ( . 82. be at night. .64* GLOSSAET. hear. ' 1 sd sical '"Vi' i 1 1 clothe. l^^V^Q " stp fl I J\ r-rc-i cf. open. .

or servant. is splendid. ^-"-i that which I I I >$ LA courtiers. foUower e. -^ anj'one. as designation of food \* i furnished by the king. from. AAAAAA & hum- abbr.GLOSSARY. I I I I the three seasons). / ) (IHae go. sndy-t itch. sms-Hr of Horus. m) free revolve about. O I I of the locality "margin" or sim. \\ i sC sand. Erman. i. ^ AAAAAA t Tj /i (nae 8 em ') -'I Sw (cc. sfw-t I snC AAAAAA U-^-sl designation like. \v i ihnw AAAAAA AAAAAA summer be small.) to apron. or sim. 65* sms-w sib or sim. of mythic time. dig. or sim. gramm. people ^^ i 1\ sim. Egypt. food. go go away.J hair. i inf. ble one (not of highest I I "groundhair" rank) ? name of fruit. (one of fine linen. 1-77-1 9 (ATI* "V s abbr. or sim. Ee . i ^ i i i coll.

D circle. \\ kt-lht steer. skd to sail. f. i > U I I dung. . ) create. human spirit. J boat. bad. or sim. m Ksb 315. another. . or sha. f. Icsw crouch. n. I of o H6. east?) kind k-y im. or sim. k kl-t A km3 height. pi. a receive. ! HJ d33 (lit. form.. X ksn be strong. obj. 01 abbr. " ~3 7 fed A r-= Caus. figure JSSc D _ of a god. ft/ form. think (of something)..66* GLOSSARY.) black cf. cleverness. or sim. (cc. or sim. skm. perhaps "bath"? kdtn cooling. pv. or sim). or sim. personality. o o Ui others.

of something injurious. giw gm gmh gmv .. designation s nb-sgr be silent.67* ks-w ^^\\^\rn Jl \J\ I inoli- Egypt. perhaps. or. sgr to silence. ivc/3. need. Kaus. nation of the body. g 1 S gr gl't *. name of Osiris. lack. 5 6-Sfcs.

^rr-rr (cc. ts or sim. tp-tt olll oil. lift up. constrain. or sim. of ra. or sim.68* tp I tp rs southern pro- vince. tr tp-t D<? I time. male child. m) ap- 376. man. pr. 3 ts A E= ==1 I raise. .). V I th to trespass. 1 or sim. (vizier. dress hair. figs. tp-i tp'iw- O I I ^ D \\ / k tnw n. or sim. compel. first correctness. T\ r\ head. 1. vertebra of the spinal column. tsw ^ officer. m. . tsm hound. tsw v\ -Jf I I I proverbs. the-first. tkn sim. ^\ _cr^ tm rdl Negation 377. tp hsb o tn AAAAAA I 80 correct computation. /^ r\ tu /^~\ (I i n. proach. tnl ancestors. O^ f\ \ month. s highest official. take.

sail across. give back express. or sim. r rdlt in order that. vanquish. or sim. hr) expell from. or deliver over. 69* di A rdl. permit that. o name of III . aim. cause that. (cc.GLOSSARY. III see. horn. lay db3 stop up. set down. m. pay. . dmi to to name. Chnwtt dio3t the palace. or siin. **J\ restore. peasaut- wise man./ \ A taste. dpi _ . dkr A <^= => ' fruit. /\ part of dmi CIty ' spread out. I I I didi 160): give. at eternity. & D. or sim. dm make mention. cf. i/ \ kind Apt ship. of didiw \ Jr pr. c^^ U (I ^ fl touch. !^ O X a fruit. d-t vill ^^| coll. income. c down. Q) (also J' payment. " ry. praise : meet with. morning.

or sim. . sdsr beautify. UNKNO WN READING. name of the speak. kind of vessel. O the day (only in village. ol (Busiris).. cf. or sim. Caus. kind of cry. ^\ <z> U (Wabbr. dr ftft w n. tB-dsr necropolis. dfl food. dates). A dw ). LEIPZIG. to talk. dr dliwff- 314 b3h.70* GLOSSARY. self. its end) e. dnv boundary. x /" ^ \ clothin g> 4 AvV&y/or sim. semble".. or sim. DKUGHLIN. ds- "^ 85. db*>. end. whole. Caus. 1. . UNKNOWN PHONETIC name of a musicalj VALUE. & ( & r drf as far as i. cf.) v or sim. say. I I ' instrument. PRINTED BY W. magnificent. all. official. as parallel occurring to "as- ms Thutmosis. ? dsr wind.

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Breasted \***&\^" .PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SUPS FROM THIS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY Erman. Adolf Egyptian grammar with table of signs.. t..

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