A Guide to Small Arms

By desJaCkAl

©Military.com

12 Gauge Shotgun

Function: Manually operated (pump), repeating shotgun. Description: The 12 gauge shotgun is a manually operated (pump), repeating shotgun, with a seven-round tubular magazine, a modified choke barrel, ghost ring sights, and is equipped with a bayonet attachment, sling swivels and a standard length military stock with phenolic plastic buttplate (some models have wooden and/or folding stocks). This special purpose individual weapon is used for guard duty, prisoner supervision, local security, riot control, and any situation which requires the use of armed personnel with inherent limited range and ammunition penetration. History: Various models of shotgun have been in service use since 1901. The current inventory consists of four different 12 gauge shotgun models: Remington 870, Winchester 1200, Mossberg 500, and Mossberg 590 (weight and length of the weapon depend on the manufacturer. General Characteristics: Length: 41.75 inches (106.05 centimeters) Weight: 8 pounds (3.63 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 12 gauge Maximum Effective Range: 50 yards (45.7 meters) with "00" buckshot load Date Deployed: January 1964 Unit Replacement Cost: $600

AT-4 Viper

Function: Light anti-armor weapon. Description: The AT-4 is a Swedish-manufactured, shoulder-launched anti-armor weapon designed to defeat modern threat main battle tanks. General Characteristics: Manufacturer: FFV Ordnance, Sweden and Alliant Techsystems Length: 40 inches (101.6 centimeters) Weight: 14.75 pounds (6.7 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 84mm Maximum Effective Range: 984.3 feet (300 meters) Penetration: 400 mm of rolled homogenous armor Time of Flight to 250 Meteres: Less that 1 second. Muzzle Velocity: 950 feet (285 meters) per second Operating Temperature: -104 to +140° F (-40 to +60° C) Ammunition: Rocket with shaped charge warhead Unit Replacement Cost: $1,480.64

M16A2 5.56mm Rifle

Function: Infantry Weapon Description: The M16A2 5.56mm rifle is a lightweight, air-cooled, gas-operated, magazine-fed, shoulder- or hip-fired weapon designed for either automatic fire (3-round bursts) or semiautomatic fire (single shot) through the use of a selector lever. The weapon has a fully adjustable rear sight. The bottom of the trigger guard opens to provide access to the trigger while wearing winter mittens. The upper receiver/barrel assembly has a fully adjustable rear sight and a compensator which helps keep the muzzle down during firing. The steel bolt group and barrel extension are designed with locking lugs which lock the bolt group to the barrel extension allowing the rifle to have a lightweight aluminum receiver. Background: The M16A2 rifle is a product improvement of the M16A1 rifle. The improvements are: - a heavier, stiffer barrel than the barrel of the M16A1; - a redesigned handguard, using two identical halves, with a round contour which is sturdier and provides a better grip when holding the rifle; - a new buttstock and pistol grip made of a tougher injection moldable plastic that provides much greater resistance to breakage; - an improved rear sight which can be easily adjusted for windage and range; - a modified upper receiver design to deflect ejected cartridges, and preclude the possibility of the ejected cartridges hitting the face of a left-handed firer; - a burst control device, that limits the number of rounds fired in the automatic mode to three per trigger pull, which increases accuracy while reducing ammunition expenditure; - a muzzle compensator, designed to reduce position disclosure and improve controllability and accuracy in both burst and rapid semi-automatic fire; - a heavier barrel with a 1 in 7 twist to fire NATO standard SS 109 type (M855) ammunition which is also fired from the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW). This further increases the effective range and penetration of the rifle cartridge. The M16A2 will also shoot the older M193 ammunition designed for a 1 in 12 twist.

General Characteristics: Manufacturer: Colt Manufacturing and Fabrique Nationale Manufacturing Inc. Length: 39.63 inches (100.66 centimeters) Weight with 30 Round Magazine: 8.79 pounds (3.99 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 5.56mm (.233 inches) Maximum Effective Range: Area target: 2,624.8 feet (800 meters) Point target: 1,804.5 feet (550 meters) Muzzle Velocity: 3,100 feet (954 meters) per second Cyclic Rate of Fire: Cyclic: 800 rounds per minute Sustained: 12-15 rounds per minute Semiautomatic: 45 rounds per minute Burst: 90 rounds per minute Magazine Capacity: 30 Rounds Unit Replacement cost: $586

M14 7.62mm Rifle

Description: The M14 7.62 mm rifle is a magazine-fed, gas operated shoulder weapon, designed primarily for semi-automatic fire. It was the standard service rifle until it was replaced in the late 1960s by the 5.56mm M16A1 rifle. History: At one time the standard issued rifle for Marines, the M14 is now used primarily in the Competition in Arms program, or for drill and ceremonial purposes. The M16 replaced the M14 as the Table of Organization rifle for the Marine Corps during the Vietnam War. General Characteristics: Length: 44.14 inches (112.12 centimeters) Length of Barrel: 22 inches (55.88 centimeters) Weight: Empty magazine: 8.7 pounds (3.95 kilograms) Full magazine and sling: 11.0 pounds (5.0 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 7.62mm Maximum Effective Range: 1,509.26 feet (460 meters) Muzzle Velocity: 2,800 feet (853 meters) per second Cyclic Rate of Fire: 750 rounds per minute Magazine Capacity: 20 rounds Unit Replacement Cost: $576

M1911A1 .45 Caliber Pistol

Function: Semiautomatic Pistol Description: The .45 caliber semiautomatic pistol M1911A1 is a recoil-operated hand weapon. It is a magazine-fed semiautomatic weapon, which fires one round each time the trigger is squeezed once the hammer is cocked by prior action of the slide or thumb. This design is referred to as "single action only." The thumb safety may only be activated once the pistol is cocked. The hammer remains in the fully cocked position once the safety is activated. (Note: More modern pistol designs of the "double action" type will allow the hammer to move forward to an uncocked position when the thumb safety is activated.) The M1911A1 was widely respected for its reliability and lethality. However, its single action/cocked and locked design required the user to be very familiar and well-trained to allow carrying the pistol in the "ready-to-fire" mode. Consequently, M1911A1s were often prescribed to be carried without a round in the chamber. Even with this restriction on the user, numerous unintentional discharges were documented yearly. History: The M1911A1 had been the standard handgun issued to Marines for many decades. Selected weapons were modified in the 1980s to meet the requirements of the MEU(SOC) in lieu of arming them with the M9 9mm pistol. General Characteristics: Lenght: 8.625 inches (21.91 centimeters) Length of Barrel: 5.03 inches (12.78 centimeters) Weight: Magazine empty: 2.5 pounds (1.14 kilograms) Magazine loaded: 3.0 pounds (1.36 kilograms) Bore Diameter: .45 caliber Maximum Effective Range: 82.02 feet (25 meters) Muzzle Velocity: 830 feet (253 meters) per second) Magazine Capacity: Seven rounds Unit Replacement Cost: $242

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun

Description: The Browning M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun, Heavy barrel is an automatic, recoil operated, air-cooled machine gun with adjustable headspace and is crew transportable with limited amounts of ammunition over short distances. By repositioning some of the component parts, ammunition may be fed from either the left or right side. A disintegrating metallic link-belt is used to feed the ammunition into the weapon. This gun is has a back plate with spade grips, trigger, and bolt latch release. This gun may be mounted on ground mounts and most vehicles as an anti-personnel and anti-aircraft weapon. The gun is equipped with leaf-type rear sight, flash suppressor and a spare barrel assembly. Associated components are the M63 antiaircraft mount and the M3 tripod mount. History: Numerous manufacturers originally produced the M2 Heavy Machine Gun. General Characteristics: Builder: Saco Defense Length: 61.42 inches (156 centimeters) Weight: Gun: 84 pounds (38 kilograms) M3 Tripod (Complete): 44 pounds (19.98 kilograms) Bore Diameter: .50 inches (12.7mm) Maximum Effective Range: 2000 meters with tripod mount Maximum Range: 4.22 miles (6.8 kilometers) Cyclic Rate of Fire: 550 rounds per minute Unit Replacement Cost: $14,002

M203 Grenade Launcher

Description: The M203 40mm Grenade Launcher is used while attached to an M16A2 5.56mm rifle. It is a lightweight, compact, breech loading, pump action, single shot launcher. The launcher consists of a hand guard and sight assembly with an adjustable metallic folding, short-range blade sight assembly, and an aluminum receiver assembly which houses the barrel latch, barrel stop and firing mechanism. The launcher is capable of firing a variety of low velocity 40mm ammunition. The launcher also has a quadrant sight which may be attached to the M16A2 carrying handle and is used when precision is required out to the maximum effective range of the weapon. History: The M203 was designed and procured as the replacement for the M79 grenade launcher of the Vietnam era. General Characteristics: Weight: Launcher: 3 pounds (1.36 kilograms) Rifle (M16A2): 8.79 pounds (3.99 kilograms) Total (including 30 rounds): 11.79 pounds (5.35 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 40mm Maximum Effective Range: Area target: 1148.35 feet (350 meters) Point target: 492.15 feet (150 meters) Maximum Range: 1312.4 feet (400 meters) Minimum Safe Range: Training: 426.53 feet (130 meters) Combat: 101.71 feet (31 meters) Inventory: 10500 Unit Replacement Cost: $601

M24 Sniper Rifle

Function: Primary U.S. Army sniper rifle. History: : Introduced in 1988 as the Army's designated sniper weapon system, the M24 SWS the first bolt action rifle to see dedicated service with the US Army since the .30-06 caliber Springfield Model 1903. With the withdrawl of the Springfield 03 during the Second World War, all army sniping activities have been carried out, more or less, with either scoped regular-issue rifles (in the case of the M1C and M1D) or match-grade variants of issue rifles (as in the case of the M21 sniper rifle.) While the use of issue rifles has eased the logistical demands on the army supply system, the use of semi-automatic rifles for sniping applications is not with out serious drawbacks. Although the M21 is a very accurate weapon, it is not designed to stand up to battlefield abuse. The wood stock was subject to warping, the gas operating system was subject to fouling and contamination, and because the weapon was semi-automatic there was no way to ensure every round was chambered in exactly the same way. All of these conditions could grossly affect the accuracy of the rifle beyond 500 yards. In light for these limitations, the Army initiated a program in the 70's to re-introduce a bolt-action sniper rifle to its inventory. Eventually, the weapon the Army settled on was the M24 bolt-action rifle. Chambered for 7.62mm NATO (.308 Winchester) the M24 is based on the Remington Arms 700 action and is very similar to the civilian 40X target rifle and the Marine Corp's M40 series rifle. As with the M40, the M24 utilizes a custom-built fiberglass stock but with an adjustable cheek pad as well as an adjustable pad on the butt stock to adjust length of pull. Both utilize an internal 5 round magazine, are scoped, and are adaptable to the use of night vision devices and weapon scopes. The greatest difference between the two is the fact that the M40 is a "short" action and the M24 is a "long" action. The reason for this difference is the Army ultimately wanted to adopt a more powerful .30 caliber cartridge (such as the .300 Winchester Magnum) which would require the "long" action to extract the larger cartridges in its re-chambered sniper rifles. Description: The M24 Sniper Weapon System is a bolt-action rifle chambered to fire 7.62mm NATO (currently either the M118 Special Ball Cartridge or the M852 Match Cartridge, though it can fire any standard NATO 7.62mm cartridge.) The Kevlarreinforced fiberglass stock is custom built by HS Precision and incorporates an adjustable cheek pad and as well as an adjustable pad on the butt stock to adjust length of pull. The 24" barrel is bolted to the full-length aluminum bedding block in the stock to reduce

vibration and loss of zero. The scope is a Leupold & Stevens Mk. IV M3A day telescope and is mounted on the rifle using Mk. IV rings and base. General Characteristics: Manufacturer: Remington Arms Company Length: 43 inches (109.2 cm) Barrel Length: 24 inches (61 cm.) Weight: 12.1 lb (5.49 kg) empty, without scope Bore Diameter: 7.62mm (.308 in.) Maximum Effective Range: 800 meters (3250 feet) Optics: 10x42mm Leupold Ultra M3A telescope sight (Mil-Dot), plus detachable emergency iron sights. Magazine Capacity: Five rounds Unit Replacement Cost: $3500

M-240B Machine Gun

Function: Deter, and if necessary, compel adversaries by enabling individuals and small units to engage targets with accurate, lethal, direct automatic fire. Description: The M240B is a general-purpose machine gun. It can be mounted on a bipod, tripod, aircraft, or vehicle. The M240B is a belt-fed, air-cooled, gas-operated, fully automatic machine gun that fires from the open bolt position. This reliable 7.62mm machine gun delivers more energy to the target than the smaller caliber M-249 SAW. It is being issued to infantry, armor, combat engineer, special force/rangers, and selected field artillery units that require medium support fires and will replace the ground-mounted M60 series machine guns currently in use. Ammunition is fed into the weapon from a 100-round bandoleer containing a disintegrating metallic split-link belt. The gas from firing one round provides the energy for firing the next round. Thus, the gun functions automatically as long as it is supplied with ammunition and the trigger is held to the rear. As the gun is fired, the belt links separate and are ejected from the side. Empty cases are ejected from the bottom of the gun. A spare barrel is issued with each M240B, and barrels can be changed quickly as the weapon has a fixed head space. However, barrels from different weapons should not be interchanged. The bore of the barrel is chromium plated, reducing barrel wear to a minimum. Entered Army Service: 1997 General Characteristics: Manufacturer: FN Manufacturing (Columbia, SC) Length: 49 inches Weight: 27.6 Pounds Weight of tripod-mount M122A1 tripod with/flex-mount, complete: 20 pounds Maximum Range: 3725 meters Maximum Effective Range: 1100 meters with tripod and T&E Height of M240B on the tripod mount M122A1: 17.5 inches Ammunition: 7.62 mm ball, tracer, armor-piercing blank, dummy. Armor-piercing round is not authorized for training. Tracer Burnout: 900 meters Rates of Fire: Sustained: 100 rounds per minute fired in 6-to-9 round bursts and 4-to-5 seconds between bursts. (Barrel change every 10 minutes) Rapid: 200 rounds per minute fired in 10-to-13 round bursts and 2-to-3 seconds between bursts. (Barrel change every 2 minutes)

M240G Machine Gun

Description: The M240G Machine Gun is the ground version of the original M240/M240E1, 7.62mm medium class weapon designed as a coaxial/pintle mounted machine gun for tanks and light armored vehicles. The rate of fire may be controlled by three different regulator settings. The M240G is modified for ground use by the installation of an "infantry modification kit," comprised of a flash suppressor, front sight, carrying handle for the barrel, a buttstock, infantry length pistol grip, bipod, and rear sight assembly. While possessing many of the same basic characteristics as the M60 series medium class machine guns, the durability of the M240 system results in superior reliability and maintainability when compared to the M60. Background: The Marine Corps is replacing the M60E3 with the M240G. The ground version of the M240 allows for a common medium machine gun throughout the Marine Corps. General Characteristics: Manufacturer: Fabrique Nationale Manufacturing, Inc. Length: 47.5 inches (120.65 centimeters) Weight: 24.2 pounds (10.99 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 7.62mm (.308 inches) Maximum Effective Range: 1.1 miles (1.8 kilometers) on tripod mount Maximum Range: 2.31 miles (3.725 kilometers) Rate of Fire: Cyclic: 650-950 rounds per minute Rapid: 200 rounds per minute Sustained: 100 rounds per minute Unit Replacement Cost: $6600

M249 SAW

Function: Hand-held combat machine gun. Description: The Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW), or 5.56mm M249 is an individually portable, gas operated, magazine or disintegrating metallic link-belt fed, light machine gun with fixed headspace and quick change barrel feature. The M249 engages point targets out to 800 meters, firing the improved NATO standard 5.56mm cartridge. The SAW forms the basis of firepower for the fire team. The gunner has the option of using 30-round M16 magazines or linked ammunition from pre-loaded 200-round plastic magazines. The gunner's basic load is 600 rounds of linked ammunition. Background: The SAW was developed through an initially Army-led research and development effort and eventually a Joint NDO program in the late 1970s/early 1980s to restore sustained and accurate automatic weapons fire to the fire team and squad. When actually fielded in the mid-1980s, the SAW was issued as a one-for-one replacement for the designated "automatic rifle" (M16A1) in the Fire Team. In this regard, the SAW filled the void created by the retirement of the Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) during the 1950s because interim automatic weapons (e.g. M-14E2/M16A1) had failed as viable "base of fire" weapons. Early in the SAW's fielding, the Army identified the need for a Product Improvement Program (PIP) to enhance the weapon. This effort resulted in a "PIP kit" which modifies the barrel, handguard, stock, pistol grip, buffer, and sights. General Characteristics: Manufacturer: Fabrique Nationale Manufacturing, Inc. Length: 40.87 inches (103.81 centimeters) Weight: With bipod and tools: 15.16 pounds (6.88 kilograms) 200-round box magazine: 6.92 pounds (3.14 kilograms) 200-round box magazine: 6.92 pounds (3.14 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 5.56mm (.233 inches) Maximum Effective Range: 3281 feet (1000 meters) for an area target Maximum Range: 2.23 miles (3.6 kilometers) Rates of Fire: Cyclic: 725 rounds per minute Sustained: 85 rounds per minute Unit Replacement Cost: $4,087

M25 Sniper Rifle

Function: Special operations semi-automatic sniper rifle. Background: Originally developed by the 10th Special Forces Group at Ft. Devens, the M25 was built as a joint services system, meeting the needs of both Army SF and Navy SEAL sniper teams for a semi-automatic sniper rifle built on the same lines as the match grade M14 and M21 semi-automatic rifles. The M25 is not a replacement for existing bolt-action rifles, such as the Army's M24 and the Marine Corps' M40A3, but rather the M25 is intended to serve as a sniper support weapon for the sniper team observer. The M25 will provide the sniper observer with a more effective support weapon than the M16/M203, capable of delivering very accurate fire out to 500 meters. In addition, the M25 will fill a mission specific role as an urban area sniper rifle, where ranges are limited and high rate of fire is the primary concern. Chambered for 7.62mm NATO (.308 Winchester) the M25 is capable of firing any 7.62mm ammunition, though it was designed to fire the same ammunition (M118 and M852 Match and Special Ball ammunition) that the M40A3 and the M24 currently fire. Description: Physically, the M25 is very similar in appearance to the M14/M21 semiautomatic rifle. The M25 uses National Match grade components, to include barrel, receiver, trigger assembly and spring guide, and a custom built gas cylinder. The barrel is glass bedded to a synthetic McMillan stock and the Advanced Scope Mounting System is manufactured by Brookfield Precision Tool. The M25 has been equipped with a number of scopes, to include the Bausch & Lomb10x Tactical scope, the Leupold Ultra MK4 series (M1 and M3)as well as the Leupold VariX-III LR M3. General Characteristics: Manufacturer: Springfield Armory Length: 44.3 inches (112.5cm) Barrel Length: 22 inches (56.4 cm) Weight: 10.8 lbs (4.9kg) Bore Diameter: 7.62mm (.308 inches) Maximum Effective Range: 800 meters (3250 feet) Optics: 10x42mm Leupold Ultra M3A telescope sight (Mil-Dot), plus detachable emergency iron sights. Magazine Capacity: 20 or 5 round detachable box magazine Mechanism: National Match M-14 rotating bolt, gas operated, semi-automatic. Unit Replacement Cost: $3500

M4 Carbine

Function: Deter, and if necessary, compel adversaries by enabling individuals and small units to engage targets with accurate, lethal, direct fire. Description: A compact version of the M16A2 rifle, with a collapsible stock, a flat-top upper receiver accessory rail and a detachable handle/rear aperture site assembly. The M4 enables a soldier operating in close quarters to engage targets at extended range with accurate, lethal fire. It achieves more than 85 percent commonality with the M16A2 rifle and will replace all .45 caliber M3 submachine guns, selected M9 pistols, and M16 series rifles. Entered Army Service: 1997 General Characteristics: Manufacturer: Colt Manufacturing (Hartford, CT) Weight: 7.5 lbs (Loaded weight with sling & one magazine) Ammunition: 5.56mm Maximum Effective Range: 600m (area target) 500m (point target)

M40A1 Sniper Rifle

Function: Primary USMC sniper rifle. History: Introduced in 1966 the M40 sniper rifle is the precursor to all modern American military sniper weapons. Before the M40 was introduced, sniping functions were performed by battle rifles that had been adapted (match grade components and barrel, quality optics) for the purpose. The original M40 rifles were military grade Remington Model 700 bolt action rifles chambered to fire the NATO 7.62mm (.308 Winchester) cartridge and built to Marine Corps specifications and delivered in 1966. By the mid 1970's the weaknesses of the original M40 had become evident and the Marine Corps initiated a program to refurbish and improve the M40. Designated the M40A1, the improved rifle incorporated a fiberglass stock, which not only made the rifle lighter and more durable but also made the rifle far less susceptible to atmospheric influences such as temperature and humidity. In addition, the rifle's original scope was replaced by one custom built for USMC sniping applications. This refurbishing was performed completely "in house" by Corps armorers at the Quantico Armory. The M40A1 underwent another upgrade in the late 1990's, and was re-designated the M40A3. The M40A3 is still based on the Remington 700 action, though many of its components are after market (non-Remington), and custom built. The M40A3 retains the same optical sight as was built for and used on the A1, and the new fiberglass stock is adjustable for length of pull and is equipped with an adjustable cheek pad. In addition, the M40A3 is the first USMC sniper rifle to incorporate an attached bi-pod. As A1's rotate through the Quantico Armory they will be upgraded to the A3 standard. Description: The original M40 was a direct adaptation of the Remington 700/40XB match-grade target rifle fitted with a Redfield 3-9x accu-range variable power scope, and chambered to fire the NATO 7.62mm cartridge (.308 Winchester.) The M40A1 saw the introduction of the McMillan fiberglass stock and replaced the Redfield scope and mounting ring set with a 10x scope custom built for the Marine Corps by Unertl. The M40A3 replaces the original McMillan fiberglass stock with the newer McMillan A4 model, which incorporates adjustable length of pull and cheek pad. The original trigger and Unertl base assembly has been replaced by ones custom built by D. D. Ross, while the Unertl scope mounting rings have been replaced by ones

manufactured by G &G Machine. The A3 also incorporates a Harris bipod and accessory rail, which is also manufactured by G &G Machine. Though the M40 series rifles are capable of firing any NATO 7.62mm (.308 Winchester) round, the Marine Corps has developed the M118LR cartridge for sniping applications. General Characteristics: Manufacturer: Specially trained armorers at Quantico, Virginia Length: Specially trained armorers at Quantico, Virginia Barrel Length: 24 inches (61 centimeters) Weight: 14.5 pounds (6.58 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 7.62mm (.308 inches) Maximum Effective Range: 1000 meters (3250 feet) Muzzle Velocity: 2550 feet (777 meters) per second Chamber Pressure: 50,000 psi Magazine Capacity: Five rounds Unit Replacement Cost: $2105

M60 7.62mm Machine Gun

Description: The M-60 series general purpose machine gun is a light weight, belt fed, gas operated, air cooled weapon with fixed headspace and timing to allow for the rapid exchange of barrels during sustained firing situations. The M-60 can be carried and operated by one individual, though it is common practice to assign the weapon to a fire team (gunner and assistant gunner, who carries an additional barrel and ammunition). The M-60 is equipped with an integral bipod assembly which can be used to stabilize the weapon during offensive operations. Optionally, the M-60 can be set up on a tripod for increased stability and long range accuracy. In addition to the basic M-60 there are two variant models; the M-60 C/D (for use on helicopters) and the M-60E3, a lighter version of the basic model used by the Marine Corps and U.S. Special Operations Forces. General Characteristics: Length: 42.4 inches (107.70 centimeters) Weight: 18.75 pounds (8.51 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 7.62mm (.308 inches) Maximum Effective Range: 3609.1 feet (1,100 meters) Maximum Range: 2.3 miles (3725 meters) Muzzle Velocity: 2,800 feet (853 meters) per second Rates of Fire: Cyclic: 550 rounds per minute Rapid: 100 rounds per minute* Sustained: 100 rounds per minute* (* with barrel changes at each 100 rounds) Unit Replacement Cost: $6000

M82A1 Caliber .50 SASR

Function: Long range counter-sniper, anti-material, explosives disposal firearm. History: Procured by the U.S. Army during the Gulf War for combat engineers performing explosive ordnance disposal operations, the Barrett M82A1 Special Application Scoped Rifle (SASR) soon began to see service with Special Operations Forces as a long-range counter sniper and anti-materiel weapon. Since the Gulf War, the M82A1 has been replaced by the bolt action M95 caliber .50 rifle for use in engineer EOD operations, yet remains in service with SOF and peacekeeping forces as a countersniper, anti-material weapon. Description: Produced by Barrett Firearms Manufacturing, the M82A1 Special Application Scoped Rifle is an air-cooled, semi-automatic rifle equipped with a 10x Unertl scope mounted on a mil. spec. sight rail and 10 round detachable box magazine. Firing M2 Caliber .50 Browning Machine Gun cartridges, the M82A1 is capable of engaging man-sized targets out to 1500m, armored targets out to 2000m and is capable of penetrating up to 30mm of steel plate. To keep the felt recoil to a minimum, the M82A1 utilizes the short recoil principle developed by John Browning, which diffuses the recoil energy over a longer period of time. To further reduce recoil, the rifle barrel is equipped with a double-chambered muzzle brake, which redirects expended cartridge gasses to the sides and rear of the muzzle. Though the primary round for the M82A1 is the Raufoss Grade A match-grade multipurpose cartridge, the M82A1 can fire all types of caliber .50 BMG ammunition, with the exception of the M903 SLAP (Saboted, Light Armor Penetrator) and the M962 SLAPT (Saboted, Light Armor Penetrator- Tracer.) General Characteristics: Manufacturer: Barrett Firearms Manufacturing, Incorporated. Overall Length: 57 inches (144.78 centimeters) Barrel Length: 29 inches (73.67 cm) Weight: 32.5 pounds (14.75 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 12.7mm (.50 inches) Maximum Effective Range: 4875 feet (1500 meters) for man-sized targets. 6500 feet (2000 meters) for armored targets. Unit Replacement Cost: $6,000

M9 9mm Pistol

Function: Semiautomatic Pistol. Description: The M9 is a lightweight, semiautomatic pistol manufactured by Beretta and designed to replace the M1911A1 .45 caliber pistol and .38 caliber revolvers. The M9 has redundant automatic safety features to help prevent unintentional discharges. It can be fired in either double or single action mode and can be unloaded without activating the trigger while the safety is in the "on" position. The M9 pistol has a 15-round magazine, and may be fired without a magazine inserted. This weapon can have the hammer lowered from the cocked, "ready to fire," position to the uncocked position without activating the trigger by placing the thumb safety on the "on" position. Background: The 9mm Pistol Program was a Congressionally-directed NonDevelopmental Initiative to standardize DoD with NATO and field one handgun for all United States armed services. Beretta of Italy was awarded a multi-year contract for delivery of over 500,000 pistols. The contract award stipulated that production of the weapon must transition from Italian to US production after two years. The US Army is the lead service in this program. General Characteristics: Builder: Baretta and Baretta USA Length: 8.54 inches (21.69 centimeters) Width: 1.50 inches (3.81 centimeters) Height: 5.51 inches (14 centimeters) Barrel Length: 4.92 inches (12.5 centimeters) Weight Fully Loaded: 2.55 pounds (1.16 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 9 mm (approximately .355 inches) Maximum Effective Range: 152.5 feet (50 meters) Magazine Capacity: 15 rounds Muzzle Velocity: 1200 feet (365 meters) per second Unit Replacement Cost: $263

MEU (SOC) Pistol

Function: Modified .45 caliber pistol. Description: This weapon is a modified M1911A1 .45 caliber pistol sometimes referred to as "near match" or "combat accuratized." The MEU(SOC) Pistol is the designated "backup weapon" of Marines armed with the 9mm MP5-N Close Quarters Battle weapon. The M1911A1 was chosen for this role (and its modifications generated) because of its inherent reliability and lethality, and because the MEU(SOC) modifications make the M1911A1 design more "user friendly." The unique characteristics of the MEU(SOC) pistol are: commercial/competition grade ambidextrous safety, precision barrel, precise trigger, and rubber coated grips, rounded hammer spur, high profile combat sights, and an extra-wide grip safety for increased comfort and controllability (which aids in a quick follow-up second shot). The issue magazines are replaced with stainless steel competition-grade magazines with rounded plastic follower and extended floor plate. Background: The weapon modifications were designed in 1986 to meet the requirements of the MEU(SOC). Each pistol is hand-built by specially trained armorers at the Rifle Team Equipment (RTE) shop, Quantico, Virginia. General Characteristics: Builder: Specially trained armorers at the Rifle Team Equipment (RTE) Shop, MCB Quantico, Virginia Length: 8.625 inches (21.91 centimeters) Length of Barrel: 5.03 inches (12.78 centimeters) Weight: Magazine empty: 2.5 pounds (1.14 kilograms) Magazine loaded: 3.0 pounds (1.36 kilograms) Bore Diameter: .45 caliber Maximum Effective Range: 164 feet (50 meters) for specially-trained user Magazine Capacity: Seven rounds Muzzle Velocity: 830 feet/252 meters/second Unit Replacement Cost: $600

MK19 40mm Machine Gun

Description: The MK19 40mm machine gun, MOD 3 is an air-cooled, disintegrating metallic link-belt fed, blowback operated, fully automatic weapon and is crew transportable over short distances with limited amounts of ammunition. It can fire a variety of 40mm grenades. The M430 HEDP 40mm grenade will pierce armor up to 2 inches thick, and will produce fragments to kill personnel within 5 meters and wound personnel within 15 meters of the point of impact. Associated components are: MK64 Cradle Mount, MOD 5; M3 Tripod Mount; and the AN/TVS-5 Night Vision Sight. The MK19 also mounts in the up-gunned weapons station of the LVTP7A1 model of the AAV and vehicle ring mounts. Background: The MK19 was originally developed to provide the U.S. Navy with an effective riverine patrol weapon in Vietnam. A Product Improvement Program was initiated in the late 1970s resulting in the MK19 Mod 3. General Characteristics: Manufacturer: Saco Defense Industries Length: 43.1 inches (109.47 centimeters) Weight: Gun: 72.5 pounds (32.92 kilograms) Cradle (MK64 Mod 5): 21.0 pounds (9.53 kilograms) Tripod: 44.0 pounds (19.98 kilograms) Total: 137.5 pounds (62.43 kilograms) Muzzle Velocity: 790 feet (240.69 meters) per second Bore Diameter: 40 mm Maximum Range: 2200 meters Maximum Effective Range: 1600 meters Rates of Fire: Cyclic: 325-375 rounds per minute Rapid: 60 rounds per minute Sustained: 40 rounds per minute Unit Replacement Cost: $13,758

MP-5N 9mm Submachine Gun

Description: The MP5-N fires from a closed and locked bolt in either the automatic or semiautomatic modes. This gun is recoil operated and has a unique delayed roller locked bolt system, a retractable butt stock, a removable suppressor, and illuminating flashlight integral to the forward handguard. The flashlight is operated by a pressure switch custom fitted to the pistol grip. This is the same basic weapon used by the FBI's Hostage Rescue Team and other world-class counter-terrorist organizations. The present inventory includes both suppressed and non-suppressed versions of the MP5. The basic configuration of this weapon makes for an ideal size, weight,and capable (accuracy, lethality, reliability, etc.) close quarters battle weapon system. Background: This weapon is manufactured by Heckler and Koch and is presently fielded to Marine Corps Force Reconnaissance Companies and Marine Security Force Battalions. It is currently considered the main weapon in the close quarters battle (CQB) environment. General Characteristics: Manufacturer: Heckler and Koch Length: Collapsed stock: 19.29 inches (49 centimeters) Extended stock: 25.98 inches (66 centimeters) Weight: 7.44 pounds (3.38 kilograms) with 30 round magazine Bore Diameter: 9mm (.355 inches) Maximum Effective Range: 328.1 feet (100 meters) Rate of Fire: 800 rounds per minute Unit Replacement Cost: $894

SMAW

Function: Portable anti-armor rocket launcher. Mission: To destroy bunkers and other fortifications during assault operations (as well as other designated targets with the dual mode rocket), and destroy main battle tanks with the HEAA rocket. Description: The SMAW is an 83mm man-portable weapon system consisting of the MK153 Mod 0 launcher, the MK 3 Mod 0 encased HEDP rocket, the MK 6 Mod 0 encased HEAA rocket, and the MK217 Mod 0 spotting rifle cartridge. The launcher consists of a fiberglass launch tube, a 9mm spotting rifle, an electro-mechanical firing mechanism, open battle sights, and a mount for the MK42 Mod 0 optical and AN/PVS-4 night sights. The High Explosive, Dual Purpose (HEDP) rocket is effective against bunkers, masonry and concrete walls, and light armor. The High Explosive Anti-Armor (HEAA) rocket is effective against current tanks without additional armor. The 9mm spotting rounds are ballistically matched to the rockets and increase the gunner's first round hit probability. Training is accomplished with the MK7 Mod 0 encased common practice rocket and the MK213 Mod 0 noise cartridge. The SMAW MK153 Mod 0 launcher is based on the Israeli B-300 and consists of the launch tube, the spotting rifle, the firing mechanism, and mounting brackets. The launch tube is fiberglass/epoxy with a gel coat on the bore. The spotting rifle is a British design and is mounted on the right side of the launch tube. The firing mechanism mechanically fires the spotting rifle and uses a magneto to fire the rocket. The mounting brackets connect the components and provide the means for boresighting the weapon. The encased rockets are loaded at the rear of the launcher. The spotting cartridges are stored in a magazine in the cap of the encased rocket.

History: The SMAW system (launcher, ammunition and logistics support) was fielded in 1984 as a Marine Corps unique system. At that time, the SMAW included the MK153 Mod 0 launcher, the MK3 Mod 0 HEDP encased rocket, the MK4 Mod 0 practice rocket and the MK217 Mod 0 9mm spotting cartridge. The MK6 Mod 0 encased HEAA rocket is being added to the inventory. The MOD 0 has demonstrated several shortcomings. A series of modifications is currently planned to address the deficiencies. They include a resleeving process for bubbled launch tubes, rewriting/drafting operator and technical manuals, a kit that will reduce environmental intrusion into the trigger mechanism, and an optical sight modification to allow the new HEAA rocket to be used effectively against moving armor targets. Recently fielded were new boresight bracket kits that, when installed, will solve the loss of boresight problem between launch tube and spotting rifle. During Desert Storm, 150 launchers and 5,000 rockets were provided to the U.S. Army. Since then, the Army has shown increased interest in the system. General Characteristics: Length: To Carry: 29.9 inches (75.95 centimeters) Ready-to-Fire: 54 inches (137.16 cm) Weight: To Carry: 16.6 pounds (7.54 kilograms) Ready-to-Fire (HEDP): 29.5 pounds (13.39 kilograms) Ready-to-Fire (HEAA): 30.5 pounds (13.85 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 83mm Maximum Effective Range: 1 x 2 Meter Target: 250 meters Tank-Sized Target: 500 meters Unit Introduction Date: 1984 Unit Replacement Cost: $13,000

AK-47 Rifle

Function: All 7.62-mm Kalashnikov assault rifles are very dependable weapons. They produce a high volume of fire and are simple to maintain and produce. Description: The "Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g." or AK-47 is a gun designed by Mikhail Kalashnikov and produced by LZh, widely used by the USSR armed forces from the 1950s through the 1980s. It is classified as an assault rifle, a mid-caliber rifle (7.62 mm, which is approximately equal to .30 caliber) that can be fired semi-automatically, or in fully-automatic bursts. It is intentionally smaller and shorter-ranged than WWII battle rifles. The AK47 was cheap, light to carry, and easy to clean and repair in the field. It was mostly reliable but the ejector pin sometimes broke. Derivative designs replaced the AK47 during the 1980s. It was favoured by non-Western powers because of its ease of use, robustness, and simplicity of manufacture. Copies were made by many factories in other countries including Israel, Finland, Hungary, China and Poland, where they remain in production today. AK47 and AKM have been extensively modified and improved upon since their first designs. Standard Kalashnikovs include: • AK-47 1948-51, 7.62x39mm. The very earliest models had a stamped sheet metal receiver. Now rare. • AK-47 1952, 7.62x39mm: with a milled receiver and wooden buttstock and hand-guard. Barrel and chamber are chrome-plated to resist corrosion. Rifle weight 4.2Kg. • AKM 7.62x39mm: a revised, lower-cost version of the AK-47; receiver is precision-stamped sheet-metal. Rifle weight 3.61Kg. • AKS-74 5.45x39mm; note the new, much smaller ammunition. • AK-74M 5.45x39mm folding stock (for motorised infantry) • AKSU 5.45x39mm, tanker's self-defense weapon, folding stock, short barrel, altered sight and gas mechanism. Later Designations: • AK-101 5.56x45 mm round (NATO round) • AK-102 short stock 101 • AK-103 7.62x39mm round

• AK-104 short stock 103 • AK-105 5.45x39mm round (short stock)

General Characteristics: Names: AK, Kalishinkov Date of Introduction: 1949/1961 Proliferation: Widespread (over 50 million) Weight (kg): Loaded (with magazine): 3.8 Empty (w/o magazine): 4.3/3.14 Length (mm): 870/880 Rate of Fire (rounds/minute): Cyclic: 600 Practical: Automatic: 100 Semiautomatic: 40 Ceiling: 18000 meters (59055 feet) Operation: Gas Feed: 30-round curved box magazine Fire Mode: Selective, automatic or semiautomatic Sights: INA Type: Fore, pillar; rear, U notch Magnification: None Hardpoints: 14: 2 wingtip, 6-8 underwing, 6-4 conformal underfuselage

MG3 7.62mm GPMG

Function: General purpose medium machine gun. Description: The MG3 is air cooled, belt fed, short recoil operated, and capable of firing on full automatic only. It fires from the open bolt position to facilitate cooling. ROF exceeds 1200 rounds per minute. Barrels are changed every 150 rounds or so to extend barrel life and prevent thermal damage to the barrels. Barrels are replaced by pushing the barrel locking lever (located on the right hand side of the receiver) forward to unlock the barrel. Once unlocked, the barrel can be withdrawn and a cold barrel inserted and locked into place. This entire process can be accomplished in as few as 5 seconds. Since the weapon fires from the open bolt, the chamber remains empty, which helps facilitates these quick barrel changes. The bolt operates off of a dual roller principle, where by the bullet cartridge pushes out a pair of rollers when chambered to lock the bolt and barrel together. Once fired, the barrel/bolt group recoil a short distance whereupon the spent cartridge is extracted, unlocking the rollers, and allowing the bolt to travel freely to the rear, ejecting the spent casing.

History: The MG3 (an abbreviation for the German word Machinengewehr meaning "machine gun, model #3") is a direct descendent of the WWII era German machine gun, the MG42, which was in turn, an improvement the MG34, originally developed by Metall und Lackierwarenfabrik Johannes Grossfuss AG, which entered production in 1942. The MG42 was one of the most terrifying infantry weapons of its time (nicknamed "Hitler's chain saw" and "Hitler's zipper" because of its high ROF.)The original MG34/42 was chambered to fire 8mm (7.92x57mm) Mauser ammunition, the same rifle ammunition used in the Mauser K98 bolt-action rifle service rifle. In 1959 the MG42 was rechambered to fire 7.62x51mm NATO and redesignated the MG42/59. In 1968 the MG3 officially entered production. The MG3 is still in production and in service world wide. It is one of the most popular MGs ever produced (it is one of the most reliable weapons in service today and has one of the highest ROFs for any single barreled machine gun.) The MG3 currently serves as the primary MG in the German army (Bundeswehr) where it serves as an infantry support weapon (it can either be carried and fired off of an attached bipod by an individual soldier, or tripod mounted and fired from a defensive position.) as well as a vehicular MG

(the MG3 is used as an anti air/ GP MG on all German armored vehicles, such as the Leopard II and the Marder.) General Characteristics: Length: 47.75 inches (122.5 centimeters) Weight: 25 pounds (11.5 kilograms) Bore Diameter: 7.62 x 51 mm (NATO) Maximum Effective Range: 1000m Rate of Fire: Cyclic: 1,200 rounds/minute Sustained: 250 rounds/minute Barrel swap: every 150 rounds Date Deployed: 1968

Acknowledgments
Firstly, I would like to thank everyone who has taken the time to download this document, and I thus hope all of you have found it useful in the knowledge that it provides. Although it has taken me some time to put this book together and arrange it in what seems to me a very user-friendly way, I would like to emphasize that none of the included material is of my work, and that all I merely did was to copy and arrange the material I found on the following site Military.com. This site has been of great use to me and I would thus like to take this chance to thank its developers for the great effort they’ve placed in it. Lastly, I would be most obliged if anyone who has read this book would like to send me his/her opinion on it, and any other comments & suggestions on the following address: desjackal@yahoo.com.

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