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**Consider a particle A of mass m moving through a fluid under the action of an
**

external force F

e

.

Forces that act on A:

F

D

= drag force

F

b

= buoyant force

F

D

F

e

F

b

F

e

= external force which can either be gravitational or

centrifugal

where a = acceleration of the particle

v = velocity of the particle relative to the fluid

where C

D

= the drag coefficient which is analogous to the friction factor

A = projected area of the particle normal to the flow

where ρ = density of the fluid

V

P

= volume of the particle =

Substituting,

or

Motion from gravitational force: a

e

= g

Motion in a centrifugal field:

A centrifugal force appears whenever the direction of movement of a particle is

changed. The acceleration from a centrifugal force from circular motion is

a

e

= rω

2

where r = radius of path of particle

ω = angular velocity, rad/s

Substituting into the above equation we have

Free Settling (Unhindered Settling): particle is falling in a gravitational field and

other particles present do not hinder its fall.

1

A

Terminal Velocity (Free settling velocity), v

t

: defined as the maximum velocity

attainable by a particle falling in a fluid. At the terminal velocity, the forces acting on

the particle balance and acceleration becomes zero ( .

As particles fall, velocity increases until the accelerating and resisting forces

become equal. When this point is reached, velocity of the particle remains constant.

For gravitational settling,

In motion from a centrifugal force, the velocity depends on the radius, and the

acceleration is not constant if the particle is in motion with respect to the fluid. In

many practical uses of centrifugal force, however, is small in comparison with the

other two terms in the equation below.

If is neglected, a terminal velocity at any given radius can be defined by

For spherical particles,

(projected area)

Substituting m and A in the equation for the terminal velocity for gravitational settling,

the terminal velocity for a spherical particle is given by

In general cases (i.e. for other shapes of particles), for the determination of the

terminal velocity, we must determine C

D

, which is dependent on the following factors:

1. Flow of particle: defined the Reynolds number,

Functionality of C

D

with Re

p

: drag diagrams

Flow regimes:

Laminar flow: N

Re

< 1.0 → ( )

D

Re

24

C

Stokes law

N

=

2

Terminal velocity for a

particle in centrifugal field

Terminal velocity

→

( )

2

P P

t

gD

18

ρ − ρ

ν =

µ

Transitional flow: 1.0< N

Re

< 10

3

→

0.6

D Re

C 18N

−

≈

→

5

8 3

7

7 7

P P

t 3

7

D 2g

27

] p p p | `

v ·

] ÷

p

. ,

] µ

Turbulent flow: 10

3

< N

Re

< 10

5

→

( )

( )

P P

D t

4 gD

log C log 2log

3

ρ − ρ

= − ν

ρ

→

( )

( )

3

P P

D Re

2

4 gD

log C 2log log N

3

ρ ρ − ρ

= − +

µ

→

( )

( )

s

D Re

2 3

t

4g

log C log log N

3

µ ρ − ρ

= +

ρ ν

→ equation of a straight line

2. Particle shape: defined by a shape factor such as sphericity ψ

Surface area of a sphere of the

same volume as the particle

Surface area of the particle

= ψ

Study Example 22.1 of Foust

CLASSIFICATION

→ separation of solid particles into several fractions based upon their terminal/settling

velocities

Consider two particles in a rising current of water with different settling velocities:

• The slower-settling particle will rise with the water

• The faster-settling particle will settle to the bottom

Consider a suspension being fed through a tank with a very large cross-sectional area:

• The slower-settling particle will settle near the exit

• The faster-settling particle will settle near the entrance

For a suspension mixture of two different materials with unequal densities and a large

size range (ρ

a

> ρ

b

):

If ( ) ( )

t t

b,l argest a,smallest

v > v , then no separation will occur.

The size range for both particles where separation is possible may be determined by

the diameter ratio for the particles having the same

t

v .

3

n

a b

b a

D

D

1

where n for laminar flow

2

n 1 for turbulent flow

1

n 1 for transition flow

2

| `

p p

·

÷

p p

. ,

·

·

< <

Study Example 22.2 of Foust

4

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