Analysing Buildings from

Context to Detail in time
ABCD research method
Dr. Ir Hielkje Zijlstra
II ■ ABCD research method
Figure 1 (cover): UN building New York. Photographs by the author, 1990 and 2004.
Analysing Buildings from
Context to Detail in time
ABCD research method
Dr. Ir Hielkje Zijlstra
IV ■ ABCD research method
This publication is an extended version of my PhD thesis: Bouwen in Nederland
1940-1970, Continuïteit + Veranderbaarheid = Duurzaamheid (Building Construction in
The Netherlands 1940 – 1970: Continuity + Changeability = Durability). I wrote this
thesis between 2001 and 2006 at the Faculty of Architecture of Delft University of
Technology.
The thesis supervisors were Prof. F. Bollerey and Prof. A.P.J.M. Verheijen. The doctoral
committee included the thesis supervisors, the vice-chancellor and Prof. H.M.C. Heynen
of Catholic University Leuven, Prof. M. C. Kuipers of Maastricht University, Prof. J.M.J.
Coenen of Delft University of Technology and Prof. H.A.J. Henket of Delft University of
Technology.
Graphic Design by CO3, Woltera Niemeijer, www.co3.org
Translated by TechTrans vertalingen, The Hague
Published by
IOS Press under the imprint Delft University Press
IOS Press BV
Nieuwe Hemweg 6b
1013 BG Amsterdam
The Netherlands
tel: +31-20-688 3355
fax: +31-20-687 0019
email: info@iospress.nl
www.iospress.nl
www.dupress.nl
Legal notice
The publisher is not responsible for the use which might be made of the following information.
Printed in the Netherlands
© 2009 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.
ISBN 978-1-60750-020-9
doi:10.3233/978-1-60750-020-9-i
Contents
Introduction..................................................................................................................................VII
ABCD research method:
Analysing Buildings from Context to Detail in time:
1 Context....................................................................................................................................... 01
1.1 Period: 1940 - 1970..........................................................................................................02
1.2 Area: the Netherlands...................................................................................................11
1.3 Earlier research methods..........................................................................................16
2 Research themes....................................................................................................... 25
2.1 Technological observation.......................................................................................26
2.2 Research analysis...............................................................................................................39
2.3 Regenerative conclusions.........................................................................................43
3 ABCDresearch method: .......................................................................... 61
3.1 Frame of reference.......................................................................................................... 64
3.2 Matrix.................................................................................................................................................74
3.3 Application of the ABCD research method..................................75
Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden
4 Context....................................................................................................................................... 79
4.1 Brief..................................................................................................................................................... 79
4.2 Site........................................................................................................................................................87
4.3 Architect........................................................................................................................................ 98
4.4 Typology..................................................................................................................................... 101
4.5 Design process................................................................................................................... 125
5 Building: what was meant to be................................................... 139
5.1 Space.............................................................................................................................................. 140
5.2 Structure.....................................................................................................................................142
5.3 Materials..................................................................................................................................... 146
5.4 Services....................................................................................................................................... 152
6 Building: what has been............................................................................ 153
6.1 Space.............................................................................................................................................. 153
6.2 Structure.................................................................................................................................... 164
6.3 Materials..................................................................................................................................... 166
6.4 Services....................................................................................................................................... 169
7 Building: to be or not to be................................................................... 173
7.1 Space.............................................................................................................................................. 173
7.2 Structure.................................................................................................................................... 177
7.3 Materials..................................................................................................................................... 177
7.4 Services....................................................................................................................................... 179
8 Conclusions and ABCDresearch matrix.................... 181
9 Recommendations............................................................................................... 187
Literature and sources............................................................................................... 191
Index....................................................................................................................................................... 203
VI ■ ABCD research method
ABCD research method ■ VII
Introduction
Progress does not amount to destroying the future, but to
preserving its essence, to generate the impetus to do it better
today.
1
This is my free translation of a comment by J. Ortega Y Gasset.
It was quoted in its original form by one of my thesis supervisors,
Franziska Bollerey, in ‘Modern Heritage’ for Unesco in 2002.
My other thesis supervisor, Fons Verheijen, interprets it as ‘stand
on the shoulders of those who went before you to reach greater
heights.’
2
Working in the areas of history and construction technology,
the spirit of these statements guided the PhD thesis which I
defended in.
3
In my view, when studying buildings it is essential
to consider not only the art history, social and urban planning
factors, but especially the construction engineering aspects.
In this way, we can develop a deeper understanding of the
underlying design and building methods used in our built
environment. There have been many historical and architectural
studies of buildings in the Netherlands. The period since the
Second World War has received particular interest. Unfortunately,
most of these studies do not address the technical aspects of the
construction of these buildings. However, these issues were
covered by publications at the time these buildings were
constructed. See Figure 2.
1
Compare: Y. Ortega Y Gasset, Bespiegelingen over leven en denken, historie en
techniek (The Hague: H.P. Leopold N.V., 1951), 196.
2
F. Bollerey, “Innovation. A Critical View,” Modern Heritage, Unesco, (May 2005)
and F. Verheijen, Het schijnbaar onmogelijke en omgaan met de twijfel, inaugural
address, Delft University of Technology 2002.
3
H. Zijlstra, “Bouwen in Nederland 1940-1970. Continuïteit + Veranderbaarheid =
Duurzaamheid”(PhD diss., Delft University of Technology, 2006, Publicatiebureau
Bouwkunde).
The built environment is continuously changing. Changes
frequently have to be made when buildings are included in
regeneration projects. Such changes add value to the buildings
and facilitate new uses. Existing ‘historical’ buildings provide
continuity and form an identihable, time-specihc layer.
At present, the many buildings constructed between 1945 and
1970 are unlikely to be listed as National Monuments and have
little protection.
4
Based on their own qualities, which need to be
explained, changes can lead to ‘Preservation through development’.
5
My research covered buildings in the Netherlands, constructed
in the period 1940 - 1970. The issues considered were based on
the following themes: technical observation; research analysis,
and regenerative conclusions. My work included a study of the
relevant literature and sources, and covered seven buildings. It
also led to a new research method: building technology research.
Later I developed this into the ABCD research method.
Technology provides the hrst angle for any study - the design
and construction of buildings are greatly dependent on
technology. Transferring knowledge obtained by analysis also
provides an opportunity to learn from what exists already. As
architect Hugh Maaskant (1907-1977) put it ‘Building is a deed for
the future, using the information from the past.’
6
4
Normally, only buildings at least 50 years old are considered for national listing.
The National Service for Archaeology, Cultural Landscape and Built Heritage is
currently surveying the architecture of the reconstruction period. No monuments
will be listed during this period, barring exceptional circumstances.
5
This slogan is used by the Belvedere project office in Utrecht. It was set up by
the national government to guide the allocation of restructuring grants in the
Netherlands.
6
“Technikon, monument voor het beroepsonderwijs Ik ben een rustig mens,
interview with Maaskant, Van Dommelen and De Koning”, Bouw no. 52 (1971):
1891.
VIII ■ ABCD research method
The third theme concerns regeneration. This is where continuity,
change and durability meet. A regenerative approach provides
the conditions to add a further generation to the life cycle of a
building. Hence, the overall conclusion of my PhD thesis was:
Continuity + Changeability = Durability.
After obtaining my doctorate I joined the staff of the ®MIT
department of the Faculty of Architecture of Delft University of
Technology. I then felt the need to take the method I developed
for my thesis further, and to make it more accessible - this book
is the result. I also presented the method at congresses and
developed it in greater detail as Analyzing Buildings from Context
to Detail in time: ABCD
PhD research
I undertook my doctoral research in the Construction Engineering
department, with support by the Chair of Architectural History.
First I will discuss the context of the work: the period 1940 -
1970, the limitation to the Netherlands and an overview of
existing methods. Secondly, I will discuss the research themes in
greater detail. Thirdly, I will introduce the ABCD method
developed further to the work. The relevant concepts will be
introduced, and one example application will be developed.
In my PhD work I developed seven case studies which were
combined with a general section to form the thesis. This time
I will be using one example to explain the method: the building of
the Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden. This building was
completed in 1966 and extensively refurbished in 1999.
The refurbishment was managed by the original architect,
Piet Tauber (1927), based in Alkmaar.
ABCD research method
The ABCD research method can be applied in education as well
as in professional practice. ®MIT will use the method in the
follow-up research by the Faculty of Architecture of Delft
University of Technology, in the Design and History programme.
This programme aims to analyse buildings and intervention
methods. Architectural practices can also use the method for
design projects. This was conhrmed by my colleague Job Roos
who made the following comment when rehecting on the
profession as an ®MIT architect and the teaching process.
With respect to the regeneration of the Energiehuis in Dordrecht,
which had come to a halt, he commented ‘An unusual facet of the
rehection on the assignment and the research is that up to the
present this has led to a critical attitude that actually demands a
modihed less extravagant design.'
7
7
J. Roos, Discovering the assignment, (Delft: VSSD, 2007): 136.
ABCD research method ■ IX
Figure 2: Rijksverzekeringsbank (National
Insurance Bank) in Amsterdam under
construction, as drawn by Wim Wouters in 1938.
He made an artist’s impression of the building
under construction, showing the steel frame and
the outline of the building, and a sign proudly
proclaiming the name of the steelwork supplier:
De Vries Robbé & Co.
Municipal Archive Amsterdam.
X ■ ABCD research method
ABCD research method ■ 1
1 Context
History contains much, if not all, of what still concerns us today.
Without history we can never understand the present.
Many don’t like ‘history’ - they are wrong.
8
To dehne the held of my research ! hrst determined its context.
I should explain why I opted for Dutch architecture from 1940 to
1970. Many overviews of ‘reconstruction period architecture’
consider 1965 as the end of the reconstruction period following
the Second World War. I avoid the term ‘reconstruction period
architecture’ as my study concerned buildings from a period
which, in social and economic terms, was initially inhuenced by
the Second World War, then by the immediate post-war period
and hnally ended at a time of growing awareness of the results
and the consequences of the reconstruction of the Netherlands.
Furthermore, the study is limited to buildings in the
Netherlands. I refer to developments in neighbouring countries,
to place my work in an international context, but I do not
address them in detail. However, the approach and the method
operate at a level of abstraction such that they can be applied in
other countries. International theories and examples are also
linked to the themes discussed in Chapter 2 as these have had a
decisive inhuence on building construction and theory in the
Netherlands.
After analysing existing research methodologies, such as
architectural history research, ! dehned the requirements to be
made of a new research method. During the research for my PhD
I gradually developed the ABCD research method. Hence, it
incorporates aspects from the other methods, and it is the result
of the need to develop another type of method.
8
J.J. Vriend, Links bouwen rechts bouwen (Amsterdam: Contact, 1974), 12.
The concept of ‘context’ is also considered in the method itself,
and the structure of the research and investigations.
By analysing the context we can dehne the area being
investigated. We start by broadening the perspective of the
investigation and then develop it in depth. When dealing with an
existing building which is to be changed, the building sets the
context.
At times we will consider the parallels between buildings and
people. The human body has a stratihed structure: skin,
skeleton, muscles, organs, nerves, veins and brains. These may
be compared with: wall cladding, load-bearing structure, spaces,
interior furnishing, cables, pipes, building services plant and the
way they are used by people. The Exner brothers, Johannes
(1926) and Inger (1926), took the comparison a step further,
and this also relates to the themes of my research:
Buildings are like human beings. They are born and
develop; they become ill and are cured; they grow old,
waste away and die. They show the inhuence of events,
people and adversities. They change from the freshness
of youth maturity, sometimes attaining beauty in their old
age. Thus their identity is not only the one that was
given to them at birth by the architects and artists who
created them; it also rehects all the changes, additions
and inhuences that they have experienced during
their life.
9
9
J. Exner, “Koldinghus: the conversion of an old Royal Danish Castle,”
Monumentum no. 4 (1984): 285.
2 ■ ABCD research method
1.1 Period 1940 – 1970
The post-war period resulted in a wave of construction projects
which demonstrated that, although construction technology did
not avoid the challenge posed by architectural concepts, in many
areas it failed to deliver. Similarly, we have found that during this
period the hexibility required to learn from our mistakes was
rarely there. Furthermore, we now know that during this period
the emphasis was on minimising the investment, and that the
cost of maintenance was disregarded. […] Many aspects of this
period are particularly interesting, partly due to the economic
and social aspects, which we cannot discuss here. It has proven
to be a learning opportunity, from which many did learn, and
many more made money. We can call it a learning opportunity
because of our conviction that construction in the Netherlands
will become more dominated by engineering, and that individual
ideas of what is or is not responsible will become less dominant.
Seen in that light, it was a wonderful period.
10
In 1965, J.C. Spek drew this conclusion in a study of twenty
years of postwar architecture in the Netherlands. I found this
‘wonderful period’ to be an interesting and enlightening subject
to study, and it inspired me to develop the ABCD research
method.
I decided to restrict the research for my thesis to the period
1940 - 1970. It was not possible to draw a sharp line to
determine the period within which buildings to be included in my
study were created. When I started my research project,
buildings constructed in 1940 and later could not be listed as
national monuments. Hence, the analysis of these buildings
would not be affected by possible listing. However, the options
for listing buildings from this period from the listing system were
being discussed at that time. As these buildings in particular are
10
J.C. Spek, “Bouwkunde 1945-1965,” Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. 1 (1965): 12B.
likely to be considered for regeneration in future, I will also
discuss the choice of this period in the context of the ABCD
research method.
1940
Starting the period in 1940 appears a logical choice to me.
Buildings constructed in the Netherlands between 1850 and 1940
have now been surveyed by the National Service for Cultural
Heritage and the national monuments have been designated.
11
This resulted in the designation of 14,000 recent monuments
among the total of some 60,000 nationally designated
monuments in the Netherlands.
12
11
This name is used after May 1 2009. Before that it was called National Service
for Archaeology, Cultural Landscape and Built Heritage (Rijksdienst voor
Archeologie, Cultuurlandschap en Monumenten, RACM) and before that National
Service for Heritage Care (Rijksdienst voor de Monumentenzorg, RDMZ).
12
A.M. ten Cate, “Wennen aan wederopbouw,” Heemschut no. 4 (2000): 4.
See also: M.H. Voigt (ed.), Restaureren. Toekomst voor verleden. (Rotterdam:
BNA 1998), 8-9: ‘Wat is een monument?’. Here we read: ‘According to the
Monuments and Historic Buildings Act 1988, monuments are constructed ob-
jects, at least 50 years old and of national interest given their beauty, scientific
value or cultural-historical value. If a building meets these conditions it can be
included in the register of protected national monuments. This is generally know
as “listing”. The Monuments and Historic Buildings Act also defines conservation
areas in towns and villages. These are groups of buildings and other structures
which are important because of their beauty, spatial and structural coherence, or
their scientific or cultural-historical value. These groups may also include one or
more monuments. The aim of this protection is to maintain the historically grown
structure of a town or village.
In 1961 the Monuments and Historic Buildings Act was passed, to address the
statutory protection of monuments and conservation areas. This was the first
time that the powers of the authorities and the responsibilities of the owners of
protected monuments were defined. In 1988 this act was replaced by the
Monuments and Historic Buildings Act 1988. Initially, the care of monuments and
historic buildings was centralised. However it has now been decentralised and
many central government tasks and powers have been transferred to municipal
authorities. For example, they now have greater responsibility for restoration
projects and are required to inform and support owners, building managers and
others.’
ABCD research method ■ 3
After completing its initial survey of monuments (MIP, 1987 -
1994), the National Service for Cultural Heritage decided that, in
principle, no further monuments would be designated until 2006.
Similarly, since 2005 the central government has emphasised the
preservation of designated monuments, rather than increasing
their number. Since then, the National Service for Cultural
Heritage has considered buildings from the period 1940 and
beyond and has published its surveys in a number of reports.
13
On 15 October 2007, one hundred buildings were proposed for
designation as national monuments.
14
The 63 buildings I considered for inclusion in my project counted
one opened in 1940, the Rijksverzekeringsbank in Amsterdam,
and one opened in 1941, the Schouwburg theatre in Utrecht.
The next one was the BIM building in The Hague which was
opened in 1946. I did not consider buildings which were
constructed specihcally for the war, such as bunkers, given that
they were designed for one specihc function and therefore less
relevant to the development of a general research method.
As far as the architectural history of the period until 1970 is
concerned I refer to a number of books and articles which
provide a good overview of the context within which the research
was set. My research included an extensive consideration of the
contextual aspects relevant to the creation of a building.
15
I chose 1940 as the start of the period covered by my
research. Hence I started my research with the Rijksverzekerings-
bank in Amsterdam (1935-1940). Early in 1940 the architect and
13
See: A. Blom, A. et al., Wederopbouwrapporten (Zeist: National Service for
Cultural Heritage 2004 and 2005). Town halls, railway stations, schools, sports
facilities, care facilities, churches in Noord-Brabant, theatres, homes for the
elderly, provincial authority buildings, detached dwellings, monastries, shopping
centres and bridges.
14
J. van Santen, M.C. Kuipers, et al, Monumenten van Herrezen Nederland
(Amersfoort: National Service For Cultural Heritage, 2007).
15
Dutch architectural history: K. Bosma et al, Bouwen in Nederland 600-2000
(Zwolle: Waanders Publishers, 2007); H. van Dijk, Architectuur in Nederland in
de twintigste eeuw (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers 1999); J.P. Kloos, “The Dutch
Melting-pot. Recent Architecture in Holland,” Architectural Review no. 616
(1948): 137-156; J.H. van den Broek, “50 jaar Nederlands bouwen,” Bouwkundig
Weekblad (1958): 581-604; J.H. van den Broek, “Stroomingen in de Neder-
landsche Architectuur, ”Bouw no. 1 (1946): 4-11. For developments outside
the Netherlands, see: J. Buch, Een eeuw Nederlandse architectuur 1880-1990
(Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1993); W.J.R. Curtis, Modern Architecture since 1900
(Oxford: Phaidon, 1987) and, with an emphasis on developments in construction
engineering, B. Addis, 3000 Years of Design Engineering and Building Construc-
tion (London: Phaidon, 2007).
builders handed the Rijksverzekeringsbank over to the users.
In terms of the engineering of its time, just before the start of
the Second World War, it provided an excellent starting point for
my research. Over time it also proved to be a good frame of
reference for a range of important qualitative aspects.
16
In February 2002 I wrote an article ‘Integratie als uitgangs-
punt’ (Integration as the Starting Point).
17
In this article I
considered not a building completed in 2001, but the Rijks-
verzekeringsbank. After analysing this building I concluded that
even today, it would provide a good reference for a schedule of
requirements for an ofhce building. !n 2003 ! read an article
about the new buildings for the Ministry of Justice and the
Ministry of the Interior to be built in The Hague. This included
the following section:
There is now more information about the exteriors of the
new buildings of the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry
of the Interior: one tower will be masonry, the other one
stone. A small park will form the entry to the atrium, four
storeys high, which will form a covered courtyard between
the two buildings. The complex will include some
innovative details, such as ceiling cooling and windows
allowing natural ventilation. Concrete core climate control.
This is one of the major innovations which will be used in
the new buildings for the Ministry of Justice and the
Ministry of the Interior. Concrete core climate control?
Project Director Hans Heemrood of the van de Government
Buildings Agency explains: ‘Unlike houses, which need
heating, ofhces need cooling. Especially in summer,
ofhces soon get too hot because of all the equipment in
them. We will incorporate hoses in the concrete ceiling
slabs which cold water circulates through, to cool the
room. !t's rather like underhoor heating, but in reverse.
Of course, there will also be small radiators to heat the
rooms in winter. So far, concrete core climate control has
not been applied on a large scale in the Netherlands.
16
Seen internationally, the Second World War started with Hitler’s invasion of
Poland in 1939.
17
H. Zijlstra, “Integratie als uitgangspunt. Een voorbeeld van Nederlands bouwen
in de twintigste eeuw, De Rijksverzekeringsbank van architect ir. Dirk Roosen-
burg,” TVVL Magazine no. 2 (2002): 22-29.
4 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 3: Sectional drawing of Rijksverzekerings -
bank, 1940, showing the heating and cooling
integrated into the ceiling. From Copius
Peereboom, 1939.
Figure 4: Diagram of a ceiling cooling system
suitable for refurbishment projects.
From Cofaigh, A Green Vitruvius, 1999.
ABCD research method ■ 5
These two ministries are the hrst. Although it will greatly
improve the indoor climate, it makes the acoustics
worse. Acoustics and hard ceilings conhict: in future we
will have to hnd sound attenuating alternatives for this.’
18
This article is incorrect in claiming a hrst. When the Rijks-
verzekeringsbank was completed it included a similar system.
This is still present in the building but has been decommissioned
and is now hidden by a false ceiling. In the context of
sustainability and repurposing, a publication in 1999 referred to a
similar ceiling system as an example which is particularly suitable
for retroht applications (see Figures 3 and +):
Capillary systems, consisting of a hne grid of small-bore
plastic tubes installed under a wall or ceiling plaster or
imbedded in gypsum board. They provide an even
surface temperature and have an intermediate heat
storage capacity between the other two types of system.
They are ideal for retroht applications.'
19
Concrete core climate control and cooling through additional
ceilings are now widely used in both new construction projects
and the regeneration of existing buildings.
1970
For the end date of the research period I could have chosen
1965, in line with the National Service for Cultural Heritage.
Marieke Kuipers (1951), who works at the National Service for
Cultural Heritage and was a professor at Maastricht University
until September 2008, when she joined Delft University of
Technology, also chose 1965 as the cut-off date in her book
Toonbeelden van Wederopbouw when selecting objects from the
reconstruction period.
20
She chose this year as this was when
18
J. Huisman, “Man en vrouw in het Wijnhavenkwartier. Definitief ontwerp voor
torens Justitie en Binnenlandse Zaken laat meer verscheidenheid zien,” SMAAK
no. 14 (2003): 51.
19
E.O. Cofaigh et al, A Green Vitruvius. Principles and Practice of Sustainable
Architectural Design (London: James and James, 1999), 110.
20
M.C. Kuipers, Toonbeelden van de wederopbouw (Zwolle: Waanders, 2002), 9.
the Dutch government decided that the Ministry of Housing
should no longer be specihcally dedicated to reconstruction.
Given that the time it takes to construct a building, in my
dehnition, amounts to at least hve years, and also given the
situation in Dutch society ! decided to move my end date hve
years forward. The architecture and urban development after the
Second World War illustrated the positive attitude of the
construction industry, which was focussed on production.
In this period, construction engineers still had a wide variety of
materials available, which could be used by skilled workers at
relatively low labour costs. When wages started to rise and the
costs of construction had to be reduced, the construction
industry focussed even more on production. In residential
construction in particular, rationalisation and standardisation
were introduced in the form of ‘system building’. The lack of
building materials immediately after the war meant that concrete
was widely used. The large scale of the projects emphasised the
optimism of quantity, space and modernity. In urban design we
see that house plans are still developed rationally, but that the
blocks of dwellings are arranged in honeycomb patterns and
lines which are anything but straight. Examples include the
Bijlmermeer in Amsterdam and the Slaaghwijk in Leiden which
has a completely chaotic plan. One of the drivers for this was
that the Dutch government provided generous grants for the
system building of dwellings, through the Stichting Ratiobouw.
The change in architectural and town planning philosophy is
clearly illustrated by the plans for extending cities. In Delft, Jaap
Bakema (1914 - 1981) made a plan in 1969 for the Tanthof district
which was still based on rectilinear, crossing structures of tall
buildings. In 1972 this was replaced by a more diverse plan with
mostly low-rise buildings placed in an apparently chaotic urban
plan.
21
21
K. Mans, K. and W. van Winden, Architectuurgids van Delft (Delft: Publicatie-
bureau Bouwkunde, 1992), 41.
6 ■ ABCD research method
This change happened around 1970. As part of the reconstruction
of Rotterdam, where the Chamber of Commerce and a number of
industrialists, organised in the Club Rotterdam, had a major
inhuence on the plans for the construction projects, Len de Klerk
noticed this change in 1970:
The consensus about economic development lasted until
around 1970. Increasing environmental problems
(Rijnmond was designated as a remediation area), the
rise of the environmental movement and radicalisation of
local politics brought its end about. De Goey concluded
that the distance between the municipality and industry
had to be increased, as a result of which the
effectiveness and speed with which decisions were taken
(which characterised the period 1945 - 1970) were largely
lost. For example, since the 1930s there had been an
advisory committee on the harbours which included
industry representatives, but this was replaced by a
committee of town council members only.
22
According to Cor Wagenaar (1960), there was also a change in
the 1970s which was related to the reconstruction of Rotterdam:
In the 1950s and 1960s the reconstruction was indeed a
mirror of the development of a new society, the welfare
state. In this heroic phase, which as the 1950s progressed
was characterised by increasing optimism, the Basic Plan
became rather like a manifesto of innovation, through
which modern architecture and town planning could fulfil
the promises they had made before the war. The colour-
ful Lijnbaan, the imposing Groothandelsgebouw, the
generously laid out districts with extensive greenery, the
cautious increases in car-ownership and with it access to
ever larger areas for recreation - they were all ingredients
of an evocative image which the Basic Plan appeared to
be leading the Netherlands to. This course only seems to
22
L. de Klerk, Particuliere plannen. Denkbeelden en initiatieven van de stedelijke
elite inzake de volkswoningbouw en de stedebouw in Rotterdam, 1860-1950
(Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1998), 295.
become less attractive in the 1970s. It is not a
coincidence that in this period the uniform image of
modern architecture and town planning, the International
Style, was finally buried by the diverse architecture
inspired by the ‘other story’ of the Forum Group.
23
According Hans van Dijk (1948) the city of Rotterdam had not
been completed by 1965:
In 1965 it was not just the Coolsingel which had been
torn up to build the metro, but several other projects
were also underway. The last of the blocks of flats on the
Lijnbaan was being finished. The De Doelen concert hall
was close to completion. At Lijnbaanplein square the
extension of the shopping area was almost finished.’
24
With respect to Amsterdam, Richter Roegholt (1925 - 2005) also
mentioned a number of developments linked to 1970:
In December 1966, the Municipal Executive still managed
to get the ABN plan [Algemene Bank Nederland] adopted
by the Municipal Council by a large majority. However, as
Roel de Wit [council member responsible for public
works] immediately realised, it was no more than a
pyrrhic victory, a victory which would only be repeated
occasionally, if ever. He was still successful in 1968.
But in the same year the municipality did not manage to
transfer the Barlaeusgymnasium from the centre to an
outlying area. We almost wrote ‘banish’, as that was how
the plan was experienced by the students and their
parents who wanted to preserve the quality of life in the
old, familiar city centre and did not want to be displaced
by ‘clumps of offices’. 1968 was still a year of successes:
the IJ tunnel; the first house in the Bijlmer; the plans for
the urban railway (metro) were accepted; the offices of
23
C. Wagenaar, Welvaartstad in wording. De wederopbouw van Rotterdam
1940-1952 (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1992), 315.
24
H. van Dijk, “De gezelligheidsrevolutie 1965-1970,” in: M. Aarts, Vijftig jaar
wederopbouw Rotterdam. Een geschiedenis van toekomstvisies (Rotterdam:
010 Publishers, 1995), 161-208.
ABCD research method ■ 7
Mobil Oil and the Dutch Central Bank were opened; the
Confectiecentrum garment centre and the Lucaszieken-
huis hospital; homes for the elderly; Purmerend as a
centre for expansion; adoption of the Noordzeekanaal
regional plan and the Spaandammerbos woods. […]
The design of the Bijlmer housing estate was meant to
be welcoming but initially made the opposite impression.
Visitors were confronted with impersonal concrete walls
of dwellings without clear visual relationships, and
buzzing motorways, apparently not leading anywhere.
This technical mass production, the separation of
functions - what convictions did they spring from? Here
they were building an urban district for the 1980s based
on the ideas of the 1920s, as defined in the Charte
d’Athènes of 1933. But was it not especially around the
1970s that there was a reaction, a longing for traditional
designs, smaller scales and mixed functions? The Bijlmer
was not the only new town in Europe created from
nothing in the 1960s by technocrats riding the wave of
economic success. The Bijlmer generally compares
favourably with other such towns as its designers did not
give in to the seduction of artifice and technical
exaggeration, but stayed sensible and clear-minded, as is
their national characteristic. In the long term this will
undoubtedly prove advantageous. Furthermore, the
houses are larger and more varied than we have seen in
similar developments in other countries.
25
25
R. Roegholt, Amsterdam in de 20
e
eeuw. Deel 2 (1945/1970)
(Amsterdam: Aula 1979), 295 - 298.
Changes in demand
However, what had to be built also changed: reuse and
refurbishment of existing buildings became more common. In the
Netherlands this was especially apparent in the growth of urban
regeneration projects. During the reconstruction period,
repurposing was hardly considered as a credible option. This was
forcefully argued by J.P. Mieras (1888 - 1956) an important
architecture critic of the period:
The purpose of an architectural work cannot be changed
without affecting its architectural qualities. This is the
difficulty with preserving an old building where, to make
preservation possible, its purpose has to be changed.
Practice may occasionally prevail over theory, but usually
when the purpose of a building is changed its architectural
value will be diminished.
26
The year 1975 was designated as European Architectural
Heritage year and in addition to the restoration of designated
monuments, there was a growing interest in the repurposing and
refurbishment of existing buildings which could not be demolished
because of their cultural-historical or technical qualities, but
which instead were to be regenerated into new buildings with
additional qualities related to the new context: the existing,
historical layer.
I selected 1970 as the end of the period to be covered by my
research. However, there is no one dehnite time which can be
identihed, given the time it takes to realise a building. The 1970s
were the start of a new period, also for other reasons. After the
development of social awareness and a trend towards smaller
scales towards the end of the 1960s, shortages would again have
a signihcant impact. There was an oil crisis in 1973 and greater
interest developed in energy efhcient building. !nitially, this was
limited to improving thermal insulation and using more environ-
mentally acceptable energy sources.
27
Integrated solutions were
developed later, and ‘sustainable building’ became a common
term.
26
J.P. Mieras, Naoorlogse bouwkunst in Nederland (Amsterdam: Kosmos, 1954), 17.
27
Roegholt, Amsterdam in de 20
e
eeuw. Deel 2 (1945/1970), 179-185.
8 ■ ABCD research method
Various statistical indicators show a clear change around the
year 1970: the numbers of marriages and divorces approached
each other, the current account balances increased rapidly after
1970, the number of televisions sold and the number cinema of
tickets sold approached each other, and car ownership increased
steadily. Similarly, the number of square metres of living space
per resident increased continuously in the Netherlands, from
10 m
2
in 1900 to 34 m
2
in 2004.
28
The development of the raptor population is another clear
indicator. The number of birds of prey rose rapidly after 1970 as
the consolidation of agricultural land ended, and the insecticide
DDT was banned under pressure from the environmental
movement. Nature was given an opportunity to recover.
29
See Figures 5 - 9.
28
C. Terwindt, Meervoudig en Intensief Ruimtegebruik in de Stad, public lecture
13 October 2004, Hogeschool van Amsterdam. (http://www.hva.nl/lectoraten/
ol05-041013- cilianterwindt.pdf), 11-12.
29
E. Taverne and K. Schuyt, 1950 Welvaart in zwart-wit. Nederlandse cultuur in
Europese Context (The Hague: SDU Publishers, 2000), 160-161 and J.L. van
Zanden, Groene geschiedenis van Nederland (Utrecht: Spectrum, 1993), 49-51.
1970 = 100
300
275
250
225
200
175
150
125
100
50
75
25
0
1956 1960 1965 1970
Televisons sold
Cinema visits
per 1000 married couples
Marriages (left scale)
Dissolved marriages (left scale)
per 1000 unmarried men age 15 year or older
90
75
60
45
30
15
0
24
20
16
12
8
4
0
1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
Figure 5: Numbers of marriages and divorces, 1800 – 1999. The two curves met around 1970.
Adapted by the author from Tweehonderd jaar statistiek in tijdreeksen 1800-1999, 2001.
Figure 6: Number of televisions and cinema tickets sold, 1955 - 1975
These curves also met around 1970. Adapted by the author from 75 jaar
statistiek van Nederland, 1975.
ABCD research method ■ 9
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
100
1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985
hawk
buzzard
sparrow hawk
honey buzzard
1970 1965 1960 1955 1950 1945
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Current account balances on transaction basis, in 1000 million guilders
Current account balances on transaction basis, progressing 3-year average
1 guilder = 0.45 Euro
Registered surplus labour, in percentage of the total manpower
1930
0
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5
350
3,5
4,0
1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970
Cars
Commercial vehicles
Figure 7: Number of cars in the Netherlands, 1930 – 1975.
This curve rises continuously. Adapted by the author from 75 jaar
statistiek van Nederland, 1975.
Figure 9: Dutch current account balances, 1945 – 1975.
The balances increased enormously after 1970.
Adapted by the author from 75 jaar statistiek van Nederland, 1975.
Figure 8: Raptor pairs in the Netherlands.
Their numbers increased greatly after 1970, when the consolidation
of agricultural land came to an end and the pesticide DDT was banned.
Adapted by the author from Van Zanden, 1993.
10 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 10: Hangar designed by Alfred Hardy, in Grimbergen near Brussels
(1947). From Strauven, 2002.
Figure 11: Detail of the administrative building of the municipal executive
(1957 - 1967) in Antwerp, designed by Renaat Bream.
Photograph by the author, 2003.
Figure 12: Cross-section of Hardy’s hangar in Grimbergen. In his book about Hardy, Strauven (1974) also discusses the experimental concrete structures.
From Strauven, 2002.
ABCD research method ■ 11
1.2 Area: the Netherlands
My PhD research concerned buildings in the Netherlands
constructed in the period 1940 - 1970. To provide a broader
context I also looked at some surrounding countries, again
largely focussing on buildings built in this period.
30
The Netherlands
In the Netherlands, the reconstruction period has regularly been
covered in books and exhibitions. Currently, the buildings from
the period 1940 - 1970 present a number of unique aspects
concerning their preservation and possible reuse. These aspects
are mentioned in the literature, in relation to the Netherlands in
general. However, in my view there is little specihc information
about the buildings constructed in this period. Nevertheless,
there are some surveys covering particular towns or themes.
Marieke Kuipers made the hrst list of Dutch examples and in
1993 Hans Ibelings (1963) wrote an architectural history treatise
accompanying an exhibition at the Netherlands Architecture
Institute (NAi) on the 1950s and 1960s.
31
This included
descriptions of the historical and current condition of the
buildings, and the conditions under which they were created.
In 2004 a list of government buildings in the Netherlands, from
the period after 1940, which demanded special attention was
published under the leadership of the then government architect
Jo Coenen (1949). He took the initiative of adding a new building
every year to the list of buildings which the Government Buildings
30
For a general international overview see: S. Ward, Planning the Twentieth-
Century City. The advanced capitalist world (Chichester: Wiley, 2002).
31
Kuipers, Toonbeelden van de wederopbouw and H. Ibelings, De moderne jaren
vijftig en zestig (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1996).
32
W. Rölling ed. A. de Back, J.M.J. Coenen and M.C. Kuipers, Gesloopt Gered Bedreigd.
Omgaan met naoorlogse bouwkunst (Rotterdam: Episode Publishers, 2004)
Agency will protect.
32
In October 2007 a list of 100 monuments
which, in the view of the National Service for Cultural Heritage,
deserved to be designated as national monuments was presented
to Ronald Plasterk, Minister of Education, Culture and Science.
33
Germany and Belgium
Several surveys of the architecture of the reconstruction period
have been made in countries bordering the Netherlands.
In Germany a website is being made of the buildings of this
period in Nordrhein-Westfalen. This project is led by Uta Hassler,
formerly with Dortmund University.
34
In Belgium, a book was
published with a list of buildings constructed between 1945 and
1970. It also included studies of a number of high-rise projects in
Brussels built during this period, and plans for their regeneration.
35
The Atomium in Brussels (1958) was restored and there was
some interest in the architecture of Renaat Bream (1910 - 2001)
and Alfred Hardy (1900 - 1965). Iwan Strauven discussed some
technical aspects of Hardy’s architecture.
36
See Figures 10-12.
England
The situation in England needs to be considered in greater detail
as progress there has been greater as a result of detailed studies
and research. These provide more detailed information about
33
Santen, Monumenten van Herrezen Nederland.
34
“Über Risiken des Verschwindens und Chancen intelligenter Schrumpfung.
Ein Gespräch mit Uta Hassler.” Detail no. 10 (2002): 1212-1217.
Web site: www.nrw-architekturdatenbank.uni-dortmund.de.
35
G. Bekeart and F. Strauven, Bouwen in België 1945-1970
(Brussel: Nationale Confederatie van het Bouwbedrijf, 1971).
36
I. Strauven, Alfred Hardy 1900-1965 (Gent: GUAEP, 2002).
12 ■ ABCD research method
buildings from that period than is available in the Netherlands.
37
See Figures 13 and 14. In England a building can normally not be
listed within 30 years of its construction. A number of congresses
and publications addressed this issue and an overview of listed
buildings from this period has been written.
38
The eighth
Docomomo congress in 2004 followed this up with the theme:
Import – Export: Postwar Modernism in an Expanding World,
1945 – 1975.
39
With respect to the listing of buildings as monuments, Martin
Cherry made the following statements:
There is a misconception that listing ‘freezes’ buildings.
Changes have taken place. We have to be concerned
about managing change rather than fossilizing buildings.
It is an inherently flexible system which flags the
architectural and historic character of buildings in order
to ensure that it is taken fully into account when changes
or demolition are proposed. Structural and technical
problems, costs of repairing, list buildings which are
considered to be of special architectural and historic
interest. It does not necessarily mean that a building
must be preserved whatever it costs; its main purpose is
to ensure that care is taken over decisions concerning its
future. […]
37
E. Harwood, England. A Guide to post-war listed buildings (London: Ellipsis,
2000); S. Macdonald, Modern Matters. Principles and Practice in Conserving
Recent Architecture (Shaftesbury: Donhead, 1996); S. Macdonald, Preserving
Post-War Heritage (Shaftesbury: Donhead, 2001) and E.M. Stratton, Structure
and style. Conserving Twentieth Century Buildings (London: Spon, 1997).
38
Ten Cate, ‘Wennen aan wederopbouw’, 4-6 and Harwood, England. A Guide to
post-war listed buildings.
39
Contribution by H. Zijlstra: Groothandelsgebouw Rotterdam Revised, Paper
presented at the Docomomo International Conference: Import – Export: Postwar
Modernism in an Expanding World, 1945 – 1975, 28 September 2004.
Opposition to listing revolves around four principal
premises:
„Statutory protection unreasonably erodes private
property rights.
„Listing is inherently anti-democratic, a fait accompli.
„It inhibits much-needed development.
„The fear of terminal decline and the creation of a
museum culture. […]
But the protection of recent buildings raises further
specific issues:
„It concerns objectivity and distance. Are we really far
away from the period in question to assess the
buildings dispassionately? How long is a cooling-of
period?
„Public perceptions are difficult to gauge. Will modern
buildings ever be widely accepted as cultural products
worthy of protection?
„Understanding of historic buildings.
„The intrinsic character and use of materials.
A revolutionary change in building form.
„Economic viability. The economic performance of listed
commercial buildings can equal (ore exceed) that of
unlisted buildings.
„Listing affects a building’s value. Temporary dip in its
longtime history.
„Procedures needed interests of the owner and the
wider community.
„Listing does not necessarily occur at a time when there
are proposals for change. […]
ABCD research method ■ 13
Three main ingredients in a successful conservation
policy are:
„The selection of buildings is safe and sound, based on
rigorous research, and that the designation is
appropriate.
„Public support must be secured through debate and
education.
„Planning environment must facilitate sound
management and reduce unnecessary delay and
uncertainty. […]
The main thrust of English Heritage’s listing survey work
is the programme of research-based assessments based
on specific building types. Only by providing an
academically watertight basis for our recommendations
for ministers will they feel able to take our advice. This is
particular important with unfamiliar or contentious
buildings, and this thematic approach to listing will
continue to characterize our strategy for some year to
come. Use media: exhibitions, conferences and
publications. Besides listing are important factors: the
economic performance, social benefits, historic
environments and sustainability. Also management is
important. Listed buildings consent procedures especially
in relation to the larger and more complex sites.
Fully understanding the building in question, its historic
interest and character and the nature of its construction
techniques and the performance of the materials used,
especially those pioneered in the twentieth century, is a
central and urgent requirement.
40
40
M. Cherry, “Listing Twenty-century Buildings: The Present Situation,”
in: Macdonald, Modern Matters. Principles and Practice in Conserving Recent
Architecture, 7-14.
Figure 13: Heinz Headquarters by SOM in London, England 1962-65. From
Macdonald, 2001.
Figure 14: Detail of the Sanderson showroom by Slater and Uren in
London, England 1950. The work also included construction engineering
studies, in this case into the development of clad frame constructions,
by Peter Ross. From Macdonald, 2001.
14 ■ ABCD research method
These quotes touch on a number of subjects developed in
greater detail in my research. This academic study concerned
the qualities of the buildings, with the aim of ‘understanding the
building’. Apart from architectural elements we need to study the
technical aspects of buildings. Not with the aim of freezing
buildings, but to discover what changes will be possible.
Practice
Back to the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, buildings
constructed in the period 1940 - 1970 are occasionally saved
from demolition or excessive refurbishment through the
intervention of interested architects.
41
Similarly, Docomomo,
which aims to document and conserve buildings and urban and
landscape ensembles of the Modern Movement, is increasingly
shifting its focus to the period after 1940.
42
The impression is
that buildings from earlier periods are now adequately protected.
Theodore H.M. Prudon demonstrated this in 2008 with the
publication of his study into the preservation of modern
architecture.
43
In my view, the approach taken by Hubert-Jan
Henket (1940), one of the founders of Docomomo, should be
adopted more widely and internationally, particularly with
respect to buildings not protected by listing as monuments.
This is supported by the following quotations from interviews
with Henket in 1983 and 1985:
However, the authorities do not consider the lifespan of
the building in construction engineering terms, or the
impact on its operation. Neither the provincial nor the
municipal authorities consider these issues. We only
think in terms of new buildings. We are not yet attuned
to maintaining objects or to their different use. […]
41
A good example is provided by the professional debate on 2 October 2002,
chaired by Maarten Kloos, about Frankendaal, a residential area in Amsterdam.
It was eventually decided that the area should not be demolished. However,
after a number of plans had been developed, in 2005 it was decided not to take
any action, due to a lack of financial resources. See: Zijlstra, Bouwen in
Nederland 1940 – 1970, sub section 4: Jeruzalem Frankendaal Amsterdam.
42
The tenth international congress of Docomomo International, The Challenge of
Change (13 – 20 September, Rotterdam) placed special emphasis on post-1940
buildings.
43
Th.H.M. Prudon, Preservation of Modern Architecture
(Hoboken: Wiley & Sons, 2008).
The monuments’ departments really focus on what the
building is like now, not what we can do with it. I think
that the monuments’ departments do fit into what I have
drawn, as one of the assessment criteria if the object has
a particular social or cultural value. I can imagine one
might say ‘We are only leaving this building intact
because it has a particularly high architectural value’.
The only problem is that you can’t keep doing that all the
time in the Netherlands because then we would be
bankrupt in ten minutes. So you’ll have to set priorities.
This means that you have to find an instrument for
assessment. And this balance of interests also includes
the problem of the monument. […] I agree with the
comments made by Bax [then Dean of Architecture,
Eindhoven University of Technology] during the
discussion on education, i.e. that there is no need for
revolutionary techniques. Bricks and masonry are
fantastic materials. We shouldn’t want to turn everything
upside down. There have been so many changes in the
last 70 years, first we have to sort out the numbers. The
culture of handing over, the handing over of basic details,
that information is getting lost, which means you can
only change construction engineering aspects. That’s
where you can compromise. So that results in a
construction engineering creation which is below par. […]
So, it takes searching and probing to get a grip on the
existing stock [of buildings]. That means that to be able
to talk about this issue with any coherence, we need to
develop a terminology for the existing stock of buildings.
[…] Reuse could be considered as a new investment, i.e.
as a new design challenge. […] To manage the lifecycle
of buildings, you first have to be able to predict
accurately what the likely consequences will be of the
available options. The information needed for that is best
derived from the experiences obtained with the
products, components and structures used. We can
obtain this information by analysing the lifecycle process,
the biography of building elements and the junctions of
these elements, and drawing practical solutions about
the trends based on that. Using experience pragmatically
ABCD research method ■ 15
is an essential condition for meaningful renewal as only
that helps us what to expect, and when and why.
44
In 1985, Henket also referred to: life-cost planning, building
biographies, function mobility and reuse analysis.
45
Redevelopment of postwar residential areas
Several ministries in the Netherlands provided signihcant grants
for housebuilding programmes in the context of the
redevelopment of areas built between 1940 and 1970.
The Stichting Belvedère controlled part of the funding, to guide
the planning which was largely related to urban planning issues.
There are now some examples of the positive regeneration of
postwar districts to new urban areas.
46
H. For example,
Henk van Schagen developed regeneration plans for parts of the
Delfgauwse Weije in Delft, Pendrecht in Rotterdam, Osdorp in
Amsterdam and the south-west of The Hague. He commented:
Rehabilitation refers to developing new architectural
designs which are coherent with the existing architecture.
The analysis of the design is primarily concerned with the
required programme changes, i.e. the construction of the
shell. But it is also concerned with the changes which
have to be made in the way in which the buildings
connect to their surroundings. If the design aims to
accept the past then you have to develop a positive
relationship between the old and the new, and illustrate
the continuity between them. In that case we are not
44
H.J. Henket, “The proof of the pudding remains in the eating,” Bouw no. 26
(1985): 49.
45
H.J. Henket, “Van produceren naar gebruiken en beheren,” Plan no. 3 (1985):
24-25.
46
The ‘Grote Verbouwing’ exhibition at the NAi in 2004 presented an overview of
residential areas which had been regenerated in full or in part, or which plans
had been developed for. There was also a list comparing the number of demol-
ished dwellings and the number of new ones replacing them. Between 1990 and
2001, 71,418 dwellings were demolished and 31,136 new ones were constructed.
See: J. Tellinga, De Grote Verbouwing. verandering van naoorlogse woonwijken
(Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2004).
rejecting what exists, instead we see it as a necessary
step towards the future. It is an attempt at reconciliation.
Two moments of creativity touch - they can coexist.
If the past is overestimated then we may get an
imitation, or a building with an artificial theatre set. If, in
a deliberate attempt to be progressive, we consider
everything in the present to be better than the past then
we cannot give this past an opportunity. Rehabilitation
respects the history of the use of a building; if changes
are required then these are based on the continuity of
the architecture. That is transformation without
alienation.
47
This concerns the rehection and continuing visibility of the period
in which the building was created. However, I would like to note
that, as Van Schagen puts it, if we overestimate the past, there is
the risk that we create an imitation, i.e. a building rather like a
theatre set. In my view this is not so much an overestimate, but
more of an underappreciation. In this case, the past is considered
as a purely formal and superhcial layer, which is considered to be
easy to copy. At present, harking back to the past is more
popular than ever in the Netherlands, in both residential and
nonresidential construction projects.
Single buildings
My PhD work was largely aimed at single buildings, rather than
residential building projects. In this area there have been some
studies, and statements about the issues. However, considering
the use of existing buildings for new design assignments, and
promoting this approach, is still an exception. This should change
in future, and it will. Hence, the ABCD research method I
developed includes some of the aspects referred to by Cherry,
Henket and Van Schagen: understanding, not freezing, change,
reuse analysis, continuity, history, creativity, quality, basic details,
and building biography.
47
Lecture by Henk van Schagen for Delft Design, 7 October 2004 and see:
H. van Schagen, “Transformatie zonder vervreemding; rehabilitatie van de naoor-
logse wijken,” Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting no. 3 (2004): 12-17.
16 ■ ABCD research method
1.3 Earlier research methods
Before considering the specihc themes of my research and the
ABCD research method developed further to it, I would like to
present a number of earlier methods to study buildings. To
supplement the aspects referred to earlier, an analysis of these
methods and the demands for ‘a different method’ can lead to
elements in the existing methods which could be adopted. Both
the literature and architectural practice present a range of
methods, all of which include elements which could be applied to
a greater or lesser extent in my work. Hence, ! will hrst present
a critical overview, before presenting the themes I have adopted.
Architectural history studies
Architectural history studies, as required by the National Service
for Cultural Heritage, include ‘The search for all relevant
information, and its analysis and interpretation, which may lead
to a description of the history of the construction and use of the
buildings or structures.’
48
In this context, terms such as: ‘all
relevant information’ and ‘history of the construction and use’
are relevant. A range of different studies are then described,
each of which provides a more accurate description of the
building. The emphasis is on identifying the qualities in order to
determine the value. This can then be used to decide whether or
not the building should be listed. Given this perspective, the
book De inleiding tot de bouwhistorie became a reference work
about documenting and surveying buildings and other
monuments in the Netherlands.
49
This concerns specihc studies
of the history of a building, which are primarily concerned with
48
J.A. van der Hoeve, Richtlijnen Bouwhistorisch Onderzoek
(The Hague: Rijksgebouwendienst, 2000): definitions.
49
R. Stenvert, G. van Tussenbroek et al. Inleiding in de bouwhistorie
(Utrecht: Matrijs, 2007).
its status and how that came about. Such studies do not
consider the context of the building or a look forward to the
future.
Quick scans and scorecards
The concept of ‘determining the value’ has been widely
discussed with reference to buildings from 1940 - 1970. My PhD
research did not aim to develop a method to dehne the value in
terms of a point score. However, several such methods have
been described.
50
These methods range from complex
scorecards to quick scans requiring only one day of observation
on site to give the client an indication of the options for reuse.
One such quick scan method has been developed by ABT in Velp,
a building construction consultancy.
51
This method is primarily
concerned with the technical aspects of the building. According
to the introduction to the brochure, the architectural and
cultural-historical values are considered in the study. However,
they are not included in the assessment form at the end. In my
view, it is impossible to identify these values in one day.
ABT gives some examples where the consultancy assisted with
regeneration projects: Sanatorium Zonnestraal in Hilversum,
Van Nellefabriek in Rotterdam and Glaspaleis in Heerlen.
However, in each of these cases it was known in advance that
the building had such values. Less well known buildings,
especially those constructed since 1940 cannot be analysed in
one day and it is impossible to determine their value in this way.
50
R. Gereadts, R. and Th. van der Voordt “Van leegstand naar herbestemming,”
Real Estate Magazine no. 39 (2005): 12-14 and M. Hek, J. Kamstra and
R.P. Geraedts “Herbestemmingswijzer: herbestemming van bestaand vastgoed,”
(Delft: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde, 2004).
51
R. Boer, Quickscan hergebruik gebouwen (Velp: ABT, 2005).
ABCD research method ■ 17
When assessing if a building still meets the needs or can be
preserved or reused it is quite common to use scorecards and
allocate point scores. However, such methods have never
resulted in unanimous and universally applicable results.
Buildings are so different and unique that it is difhcult to capture
them in numbers.
52
Similarly, in her exposition on the
disappearance of industrial architecture, Uta Hassler developed a
method which can be expressed as a formula.
53
Hence, the
objective of my PhD research was not to value the buildings in
numerical terms. !t did not intend to provide a hll-in-the-blanks
method to value a building in general terms.
Object and context
Ad van Nunen, a researcher with the Monuments Department of
the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, wanted to hnd `the hidden truth
behind observable facts.’
54
The interpretation of the results of
his research, and the conclusions which may be drawn from this
are interesting. Van Nunen looks beyond the individual object.
He considers the whole block when studying one building.
The context is relevant to the object. This interpretation relates
to urban planning, but provides an interesting example.
The research themes invite us to look beyond the conhnes of the
building, and include the impact of the environs in the study.
52
J. Benes, J. and J.K. Vrijling, Voldoet dit gebouw? Het bepalen van de functio-
nele kwaliteit (Rotterdam: Stichting Bouw Research, 1990); J.W. Smid, De KÆW
tool. Het herbestemmen van kantoren naar woningen (graduation paper, Delft
University of Technology, 2003) and D. Spekkink D, Een verouderd gebouw; wat
nu? Aanpak van een upgradingsproject (Rotterdam: Stichting Bouw Research,
1990).
53
Uta Hassler defined a complex, and in my view impractical, formula to express
the ‘likely survival’ of buildings numerically. See: U. Hassler, Das Verschwinden
der Bauten des Industriezeitalters (Berlin: Ernst Wasmuth Verlag, 2004), 256.
However, an earlier part of the book includes a list of methods which provides a
good starting point: construction history, study of the construction, histori-
cal development of economics and geography, life cycle assessment, building
structure, process analysis, analysis of human and ecological aspects, statistics,
visual interpretation, data analysis and developing data models. Ibid, 91.
54
On 22 May 2001, Ad van Nunen received his doctorate from Delft University of
Technology, further to his development of a research method based on
’s-Hertogenbosch. His PhD supervisor was Professor Frits van Voorden. See
also: H. Bollebakker, “Bouwhistorie is basis voor monumentenzorg,” Heemschut
no. 1 (2002): 8.
Otakar Nacel, associate professor of architectural history at
Delft University of Technology described his approach to
historical research:
I depart from the object, the building. On that basis I try
to explain the different steps of the study of architectural
history: heuristics; analysis and interpretation. […]
I would like to make clear from the start that the way to
proceed as described should be applicable for an object
dating from the fourth century B.C. as well as for an
object of the fifties of the twentieth century.
55
Here the building itself provides the initial and most important
source for the research, but in my view it is certainly not the only
one. Furthermore, he promotes a method which can be applied
universally.
In 1993, Wouter Vanstiphout, architectural historian and
co-owner of Crimson Architectural Historians, stated that
preferably he would only consider the building as a source:
Apparently, Dutch cultural historians still think they have
to preach, to help develop a consensus, to support the
reconstruction of our country. However, apart from the
ideology and choice of subject, this form of writing
history is also problematic for other reasons. As loyal
clerks or archivists they believe that the truth about the
residential plans and designs and the expansion plans
can be found at the bottom of old cardboard boxes.
They undertake extensive studies of statistics,
correspondence, minutes of meetings, etc. […] How can
we escape from an architectural history tradition which is
deterministic, ahistorical and completely divorced from
what it is supposed to describe (cities and buildings, both
imagined and built)? The easiest option is to leave the
archives, to go into the city, to look at the buildings,
whatever they are, and wring history from them.
55
O. Nacel, ¨Historical Research," in: T.N. de Jong ed., Ways to study
(Delft: University Press, 2002), 61.
18 ■ ABCD research method
Architectural historians could write a pedestrian’s history,
enter into a tactile relationship with the city, and leave
her the initiative to tell her story.
56
When describing the 1955 Thomson building in Rotterdam
(Figure 15), designed by Van den Broek and Bakema, in the
same publication, he restricts himself to an emotional and
enthusiastic report on his visit to the building. He provides no
further information, and the reader who has become interested
learns no more from him. Similarly, there are no references or
pointers to support further study. This is emphasised by the fact
that the majority of publications on buildings which have been
modihed by others than the original architects rarely mention the
original architect and the year of completion. It is as if the
present prevails over the past, although the current situation
could never have come about without that present.
57
Multidisciplinary research
In many monographs about architects we notice that the most
interesting information is often provided by the people
concerned, i.e. through oral history. Living architects are an
important source of information, although their presentation of
the facts will always have to be considered with some
reservations. The information provided by people working in a
building, and especially those responsible for its upkeep have
been a value source of information for my research.
In my view, we need multidisciplinary research which ranges
from cultural history to construction engineering.
56
W. Vanstiphout, “Het einde van de Wederopbouw,” in: Atelier Stad, De stad van
morgen no. 1 (1993).
57
Vanstiphout received his doctorate from Groningen University, on 16 July 2005,
for his study of the architecture of J.H. van den Broek in Rotterdam, see:
W. Vanstiphout, Maak een stad. Rotterdam en de architectuur van J.H. van den
Broek (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 2005). According to the introduction, he
changed the subject of his work while studying the archives and literature.
Hence, this means that Vanstiphout himself is one of those ‘loyal clerks or
archivists’. However, in the discussion of the Thomson building the footnotes
only refer to the literature, although all the documents about this building are in
the collection of the NAi.
Such research should be based on the widest range of sources:
literature, drawings, correspondence, diaries, material from the
archives, interviews, meetings with architects, users and building
managers and, most of all, the building itself. I am convinced
that buildings should be studied ‘differently’. All aspects should
be included in the analysis to allow us to draw conclusions about
the themes identihed in my doctoral work on construction in the
Netherlands in the period 19+0 - 1970. The inhuence of
construction engineering, the extent to which we can learn from
it at the present, and the way in which the building can
accommodate change all determine the chances a building will
get to survive as the sum of continuity and change. A careful and
creative analysis, combination and interpretation of the
information will enable us to make discoveries which can be used
to design and redesign the assignment, and for other projects.
After my doctoral research I participated in the Integrated Plan
Analysis project. An integrated analysis method was developed,
covering all aspects from concept through to operation. This
project was undertaken jointly by the four departments of the
Faculty of Architecture: Architecture, Building Technology,
Urbanism, and Real Estate and Housing.
58
This method also
provided an overview of the existing analysis methods. However,
Integrated Plan Analysis largely excludes regeneration aspects.
Nevertheless, the lifecycle and sustainability are becoming
increasingly important.
59
When analysing a building in terms of
its potential regeneration, the ABCD method is more
appropriate. Prudon’s work is largely concerned with the
preservation of modern buildings. However, he does consider the
technical aspects which are essential to this.
60
58
Th. Voordt, H. Zijlstra, A. van den Dobbelsteen and M. van Dorst Integrale
Plananalyse – Doel, methoden en analysekader (Delft: VSSD, 2007).
59
A. Pereira Rodes, Re-Archtecture. Lifespan rehabilitation of built heritage
(PhD diss., Eindhoven University of Technology, 2007).
60
Prudon, Preservation of Modern Architecture.
ABCD research method ■ 19
A different method
When working on these projects I began to feel the need for
‘a different method’ and this eventually led to the development
of the ABCD research method. My search was initially based on
the experiences of others. However, it developed further to the
questions and themes which I came across, and the guidance
given to me by my thesis supervisors rooted in their respective
disciplines: history and construction engineering. During my
work I also came across others who concluded that there was
a need for ‘a different method’:
Fons Asselbergs (1940), director of National Service for
Cultural Heritage until 2005 makes the following claim in the
epilogue of Kuipers’ book I referred to earlier:
!n general, there is an insufhcient awareness of the cultural-
historical values of the reconstruction period. […] It is
therefore necessary to develop a method to analyse the
cultural-historical values of the construction programme of
the reconstruction period and inform those who currently
undervalue this cultural heritage and to operate it in different
ways.
61
Further to the discussions I had with Gerrit-Jan Nusselder,
Peter Nijhof and Anita Blom of the National Service for Cultural
Heritage, it appeared that the technical elements of the studies
in particularly tended to be insufhcient.
62
61
Kuipers, Toonbeelden van de wederopbouw, 174.
62
These discussions were held on 17 November 2003 and 15 January 2004.
See also: M.C. Kuipers, Conserveren in de wegwerp maatschappij. Pleidooi voor
een plychrone cultuur (Maastricht: University Press, 2001), 25.
Figure 15: Afrikahal of the Thomson building, Van den Broek and Bakema, Rotterdam, 1955. Wouter Vanstiphout describes the building in a way
which arises our curiosity, but fails to satisfy it. From Vanstiphout, 1993.
20 ■ ABCD research method
On the Monuments Study Day in 2000, Vincent van Rossem
of the Monuments Department of the municipality of Amsterdam
commented:
Academic research has been overly focussed on the
leading architects in the Netherlands and abroad. By now,
I know way too much about Van Eesteren and Berlage!
[…] There is a huge division between academic research
and the practice, i.e. the care of monuments. Architecture
in the Netherlands is far more varied than one might
conclude from current research. […] And why has there,
so far, been little interest in the craft aspects of architec-
tural designs? The Public Works department in Amsterdam
has enough material for at least ten doctoral theses.
63
He also emphasised that the research should be more practical
and that greater consideration should be given to the craft, the
making.
In 1997, the municipality of Rotterdam organised a ‘design-
based study’. This was in preparation of a survey of
reconstruction period buildings in Rotterdam. Five teams were
asked to present new uses for a building, as well as designs.
64
Organiser Gerda ten Cate (one of the founders of the Rotterdam
Reconstruction Committee) wrote:
Architectural history studies undertaken before the design
is made are essential, as well as the contributions
architectural historians make to the design process.
The equality of the architectural historian and the
63
Ten Cate, “Wennen aan wederopbouw”, 6.
64
The ‘design-based study’ assignment was initiated by G. ten Cate and
W. Vanstiphout and included: the Thalia cinema (by J.P.L. Hendriks, W. vander
Sluys and L.A. van den Bosch, 1954-1955); the Ben Maltha garage and
St. Lucasschool (by L. de Jonge, 1954-1958); the Huf shop and offices (by Van
den Broek and Bakema, 1952-1954); the telephone exchange (by the Public
Works department 1943-1947) and the station post office (by E.H. and H.M.
Kraayvanger, 1954-1959). The assignment did not specify the new uses. The
purpose was to develop a method which can be applied generally to the rede-
velopment of postwar buildings at urban sites. See: W. Galema, “Wederopbouw
in wegwerpcultuur,” Bouw (May 1997): 4-9. This design excercise was held as
the Committee on Valuing the Reconstruction Period in Rotterdam was about to
publish its report. See: W. de Jonge et al, Het gebruik van de stad. Rapport van
de Commissie Waardestelling Wederopbouw Rotterdam (Rotterdam: Commissie
Waardestelling Wederopbouw, 1997).
designer, introduced as an experiment in design-based
study, will always benefit the results.
65
The teams included consultants in the helds of structural
engineering and building physics. It was expected that these
consultants would limit themselves to assessing the designs and
interventions resulting from them. However, it was discovered
that the designers needed information at the start, about what
the buildings made possible in technical terms.
66
During the
design process it was concluded that there was also a need for
construction engineering investigations before the design
started. This may also provide an opportunity for a different
interpretation of the architectural history discipline. In 2004,
architectural historians worried that in future there would be no
need for their discipline, as suggested by the Away Day for
Architectural Historians:
Most people no longer have a clear understanding of
what this profession means. This is related to the
reducing social significance of architectural historians.
[…] The conclusion of this day is that academic
architectural history will probably cease to exist as a
discipline. This is also associated with the introduction of
the bachelor/master systems at universities, as well as
general developments in society. If architectural history
wants to survive, then it will have to free itself from the
constraints of art history, and open itself up to
interdisciplinary research. Some architectural historians
presented a daring hypothesis. They wondered if it was
time to release the study of architecture from the
‘historical’ label. Isn’t there a future for architecture as a
social science, which does not only consider architecture
from a historical perspective, but also from
psychological, sociological or more intrinsically
architectural perspectives?
67
65
G. ten Cate, “Wederopbouwarchitectuur: geen louter beschermende houding”,
Heemschut no. 6 (1996): 14-16.
66
G. Hulstein, “De bouwfysicus: in samenhang bekijken,” Bouw (May 1997): 3
and J.G. Kraus, “De constructeur: skelet respecteren,” Bouw (May 1997): 30.
67
R. Hoekstra, “Eerste landdag voor architectuurhistorici,” De Architect
(March 2004): 13-14.
ABCD research method ■ 21
This article is all the more remarkable as earlier we read in the
same journal that the 1953 NatLab building (Philips, Eindhoven)
was only saved from demolition thanks to a study by Zita
Messchaert, an architectural historian.
68
Finally, an example which supports the need for
interdisciplinary research before any plans are developed. When
the 1973 Willis Corroon building by Norman Foster (1935) was
listed as a monument, a manual was written for the building:
Having decided that guidelines would be likely to assist
the process of managing change, from the local planning
authority point of view, guidelines are likely to include
some or all of the following points:
„The status of the document, who has prepared it, who
has agreed it, who can be contacted about it and who
else might need to be aware of its contents
„The definition of special interest, and what is
considered to be not of interest
„An analysis of the design philosophy, and context, plan
form, structure and materials, internal and external
treatment, the decorative schemes and finishes, any
fixed integral machinery and fixed original art works
„Future intentions in significant programmes of
demolitions, alterations, extensions and any schedule
for the modification or replacement of machinery
„The legal position
„What will be likely to require listed building consent
and what is likely to be acceptable any matters likely
to require separate planning permission
„Any departures from the list description or significant
changes between the list description and the guidelines
„Clear delineation of curtilage and any associated
structures a timetable for review of the document’
69
68
T. Tummers, “Nieuw leven voor NatLab”, De Architect (March 2004): 12.
At the initiative of A.H. Geuze (1960) of West 8. The NatLab (Physics Laboratory)
was designed by D. Roosenburg (1887-1962). It is included in the Strijp-S
redevelopment plan for the Philips site in Eindhoven. In 2008, ®MIT was
commissioned to study Strijp-S, with the objective of monitoring the process
and undertaking preliminary research into potential developments.
69
B. Kindred, “Management Issues and Willis Corroon,” in: Macdonald, Modern
Matters. Principles and Practice in Conserving Recent Architecture, 35-36.
ABCD research method
A study of existing buildings really demands that we investigate
them, so we can understand them. As I mentioned in the
introduction, there have been many cultural-historical publications
on twentieth century Dutch architecture. My method addresses
both technical and other aspects. All are relevant to the design,
construction, preservation and modihcation of buildings.
The aspects I distilled from the existing methods and the
demand for ‘a different method’ provided the basis for my
multidisciplinary ABCD method:
location/urban context design/process building regulations
commission/client grid use of materials
programme building mass interior elements
design principles load-bearing structure current situation
spatial structure structure use/reuse
functional structure services changes
As there are major differences in approach to buildings from
before and after 1940, studies of these buildings demand
appropriate modihcations of the methods discussed above.
These differences concern: number, technique, intention,
performance, viability and appeal.
70
These differences are
important when deciding how to approach a building. Not just in
terms of their preservation and their continuity, but especially in
terms of the extent to which these buildings can accommodate
change - their changeability. Change can provide opportunities
for the preservation of buildings and their long-term
development. When dealing with buildings from the period
1940 - 1970, the question if the building can be changed is more
important than considerations of preservation and conservation.
It is about regeneration rather than restoration. Or, as Coenen
put it:
70
Ibid., A. Saint, “Philosophical Principles of Modern Conservation,” 15-28.
22 ■ ABCD research method
To me, restoration does not just mean copying what was
there before. At the moment that is affecting many
monuments. They are shielded in a way which denies
them further life. I am convinced that in the course of
history many buildings underwent a Metamorphosis
during their restoration. Consequently many
Interventions were accommodated, hence the buildings
were Transformed (MIT).
71
71
J.M.J Coenen, “Gebouw en Geschiedenis,” in: Röling, Gesloopt Gered Bedreigd.
Omgaan met naoorlogse Bouwkunst, 44.
The analysis of the technical aspects of a building is essential to
be able to decide what is technically possible or impossible.
The options are often technical in nature. Similarly, the loss of
the original function is often associated with technical
possibilities and impossibilities. In terms of space, structure,
materials and services a building proves its qualities only with
the passing of time. In my view, all these aspects should be
incorporated into these studies, as well as some contextual
aspects.
ABCD research method ■ 23
Figure 16: The Federal Centre in Chicago by
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, 1969.
Photograph by the author, 1990.
24 ■ ABCD research method
ABCD research method ■ 25
2 Research Themes
You don’t have to be able to do all this yourself, but you do
have to understand it.
72
This is what architect Roosenburg said in 1949 when they arrived
in the boiler room, when he gave a tour of the KLM building in
The Hague which was under construction at the time, and this is
the key: appreciating the subject, thoroughly understanding it.
As I wrote in the introduction, the three themes of my PhD
research were: technological observation, research analysis, and
regenerative conclusions. The names of these themes indicate
the methodical approach. These themes interact, and overlap in
the research areas. A university of technology which trains
students to become building construction engineers, most of
whom will be working as architects, aims to transfer knowledge,
and teach students to use technology to create and assess
architecture which is forever changing. Architecture is more than
just constructing buildings.
73
Architecture adds meaning to
buildings created with technology. In principle, buildings should
have a long life, and therefore change during that life. Here we
are concerned with both financial aspects and the lifetime of
buildings. The lifetime of a building depends on its ability to
accommodate change. Being aware of this, learning from this,
becoming aware of this, considering this in new design
commissions and in assignments related to existing buildings,
where technology needs to be applied to realise the design, are
the challenges associated with contemporary durable and
sustainable building practices. Durability and the ability to change
appear to be inextricably linked to guarantee some continuity in
our built environment, hence one could argue that: Continuity +
72
As told to the author on 3 January 2002 by Piet Tauber (1927). He attended the
visit to the KLM building in The Hague, in 1949. Tauber always remembered this
comment.
73
E.O. Cofaigh ed., “The Future of Architecture. UAI Whitebook,” in: Resource
Architecture Main Congress Report and Outlook (Berlin: Birkhaüser, 2002), 258.
Changeability = Durability The issues covered by the ABCD
research method are based on the three research themes which
I will now discuss in depth.
First I will address ‘technological observation’. This includes
issues such as engineering, technology, the way architectural
critics view engineering, and the views of practising architects.
Building construction methods changed after 1940, however the
role of engineering in the building process saw little change.
Secondly I will address ‘research analysis’ to demonstrate
that learning from existing buildings, as part of our education, is
essential for the understanding and skills we need to be able to
build and observe effectively.
Finally, I will explain what I mean by ‘regenerative
conclusions’. The results from observation and analysis are used
to draw conclusions relating to the opportunities for the
regeneration of buildings. Here we are concerned with both past
changes and potential future changes.
26 ■ ABCD research method
2.1 Technological observation
I will first consider the term ‘technology’. After that I will present
the views of some architectural critics and practising architects.
The building processes changed after 1940, but the role of
technology in the design and construction process remained the
same, although the technical possibilities did change.
By observing we can become aware of how designers and
architects use technology and how technology determines the
building which is eventually constructed.
In this chapter about technology and engineering I am concerned
about the concept of technology in the broadest and original
sense of the word IJƿǒnjdž (technè): making, in this case, buildings.
In his article on Techne, Technology and Tragedy, David
Tabanach explained the meaning of the term ‘technology’.
According to him, ‘techne’ and ‘technology’ essentially mean the
same, and concern our knowledge of technology:
So, techne, is best translated as ‘technical knowledge’
because it gives the specific sense of knowledge directed
toward the production of something without confusing
that knowledge with the product itself.
74
Kenneth Frampton (1930), in his book Studies in Tectonic
Culture discusses his concept ‘tectonic’ in detail. He derives it
from IJƿǒnjdž, similar to the concept ‘technology’, to eventually
arrive at a comparison between ‘tectonic’ and ‘atectonic’.
75
Anne
Beim (1964) developed the concept ‘tectonic’ further in her study
Tectonic Visions in Architecture. She drew the following
conclusion:
Therefore, one might conclude that if architectural visions
74
D.E. Tabachnick, “Techne, Technology and Tragedy,” Techné no. 7 (2004), 92.
75
K.D. Frampton, Studies in Tectonic Culture (Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2001),
1-27.
do not hold ethical dimensions and moreover result in
poetic revealings - then the true potentials of technology
have not been unfolded. Its essence has not been
realized.
76
Both Frampton and Beim refer to buildings by Ludwig Mies
van der Rohe (1886 - 1996) to support their tectonic theories.
77
See Figure 16. Mies van der Rohe had a very clear view of the
role of technology in architecture, as illustrated by some
quotations selected by Beim:
Architecture wrote the history of the epochs and gave
them their names. Architecture depends on its time. It is
the crystallization of its inner structure, the slow un-
folding of its form.
78
The industrialization of the building trades is a matter of
materials. That is why the demand for new building
materials is the first prerequisite. Technology must and
will succeed in finding a building material that can be
produced technologically, that can be processed
industrially, that is firm, weather resistant and sound and
temperature insulating. It will have to be a lightweight
material, the processing of which not only permits but
actually demands industrialization. The industrial
production of all parts can only be carried out
systematically by factory processes, and the work on the
building site will then be exclusively of an assembly type,
76
A. Beim, Tectonic Visions in Architecture (PhD diss., Royal Danish Academy of
Fine Arts, School of Architecture Copenhagen, 1999) 49-65 and 177.
77
Frampton, Studies in Tectonic Culture, 159-208 and Beim, Tectonic Visions in
Architecture, 72-85.
78
Beim, Tectonic Visions in Architecture, 21. According to Beim ‘Architecture and
Technology’, was a speech presented at the IIT in Chicago, 1950. L. Mies van der
Rohe, “Achitecure and Technology,” Architecture Review no. 10 (1950): 30.
ABCD research method ■ 27
bringing about an incredible reduction of building time.
This will bring with a significant reduction of building
costs. The new architectural endeavours, too, will find
their real challenge.
79
One does not gain anything if one makes a curve instead
of a right angle. Round is also difficult to furnish, there
everything is mode to measure. And to construct -
anyone who does it once is cured. [...] One can
understand the preference of the round, we were born
with it, but the circle is limited, the rectangle on the
contrary is illimitable, increasable and divisible.
The system of the order is based on the square.
80
But although the vision and interpretation of Mies van der Rohe’s
concept of ‘less is more’ might appear straightforward, there
have been countless interpretations of the concept of
technology, particularly in connection with building construction
and architecture, in architectural practice since 1945.
Before considering this in greater detail, ! will hrst present
some comments by architectural critics. This is because
observation and recording information amount to the larger part
of the initial research work.
Mistrust in technology
Earlier, I quoted the architecture critic Mieras. He had little
conhdence in technology after 1940:
The truth is that spiritual expressions are not simple
truths, and neither is architecture. In this respect, it is
remarkable and typical that Berlage, for example, never
accepted reinforced concrete as anything other than
supporting framework (which might as well have been
made of steel). But the application of reinforced concrete
79
Beim, Tectonic Visions in Architecture, 73: Mies van der Rohe, “Industrial Build-
ing,” G, no. 3 (1924) and F. Neumeyer, The artless Word: Mies van der Rohe on
the Building Art, (Cambridge: MIT University Press, 1991), 248-249.
80
Beim, Tectonic Visions in Architecture, 77-78: Mies in a conversation with
Heinrich Rasch after a lecture by Hugo Häring of 1925 (on the question of a Lei-
tungsform, which was to be found in forms of the nature). Mies sketched while
he talked. S. Honey, “Who and what inspired Mies van der Rohe in Germany,”
Architectural Design no. 3/4 (1979): 100.
in typical ‘reinforced concrete architecture’ cannot be
defined in a simple truth or essence. [...] Hence, the
truth is no longer simple. And not only because of
reinforced concrete but also because of the entire range
of innovations in construction engineering, architecture
in the second quarter of this century changed direction
such that instead of amounting to a simplicity of the
essential it appears to be a multitude of inessentials.
81
Paul Bromberg (1893 - 1949) also sounded a critical note about
technology:
However, we should not overestimate the technical
aspects of the new way of building. Last century
introduced electricity as an aid to ‘better living’, and
lavatories and running water in the kitchen and
bathrooms, and countless other improvements. However,
because of the technical improvements in the last
century we have lost sight of the meaning of life.
The greatly increased struggle for existence has driven
people to the cities, which have swollen like an
overflowing river. Old values have been lost: contact with
nature, rest and contemplation of one’s work, time for
reflection, the close contact with the work of others
when one walked down the roads and saw a craftsman
in his workshop. People now live longer due to
improvements in hygiene and progress in medical
science, but they have less sense of what to do with their
lives. The roads have been paved, the houses have
sewers and running water, gas and electricity, but the
greenery has disappeared and long, disconsolate, boring
rows of houses only have a view of each other’s
monotony. And then they are now disparaging
prefabrication, as if the worst architectural crimes had
not been committed already.
82
81
Mieras, Na-oorlogse Bouwkunst in Nederland, 35.
82
P. Bromberg, Bouwen in nieuwe banen (Amsterdam: N.V. de Arbeiderspers,
1947), 108.
28 ■ ABCD research method
An approach which he felt he had to state, after presenting his
view of the future of the progress of technology in building
construction:
And anyone who keeps insisting that for the Dutch house
there is nothing more beautiful and practical than our
pantiles and our bricks restricts Dutch building
construction to its most backward stage of development.
That the art of architecture will stand or fall with
maintaining or letting go of this backwardness is just as
unlikely as horse-drawn boats being closer to ‘art’ than
aeroplanes. Poor art, which can only maintain itself in a
preserved condition!
83
With respect to the regulations, Bromberg already foresaw a
method which would only be adopted in the Netherlands in 1992
when the Buildings Decree, the new government regulations
concerning buildings, came into force:
Industrial building also makes demands on the
government with respect to another important issue:
new building regulations! In England, the widely
publicised Burt report made the radical proposal that
new building constructions should not longer be
assessed on the basis of existing regulations but that
there should be objective assessments in which their
individual performance is considered. For example, the
report that it is folly to state that ‘a load-bearing wall
shall always be at least this thick’ as such regulations fail
to accommodate new materials, designs and techniques.
Furthermore, it was always nonsensical to say that a
load-bearing wall should have a particular thickness,
irrespective of it being made of concrete, brick, steel or
wood. Such requirements should be replaced by
regulations setting the permissible loads. New
regulations concerning insulation should be added.
Similarly, the regulations about whether or not materials
are acceptable in terms of fire safety should be changed.
83
Ibid., p. 26.
There should be no restrictions on the choice of material,
as long it meets certain requirements in terms of fire
resistance. The local regulations which have been
established about this, under the influence of local
prejudices, have long frustrated anyone not party to the
system. Finally: how do industrial building methods fit in
with the National Plan for our reconstruction? With great
effort, this wonderful organisation was set up in our
country which covers the expansion plans and regional
plans. Industrial building methods do not conflict with
this organisation. On the contrary, the national plan, and
all its elements, will ensure that industrial building
methods cannot degenerate into unbridled speculative
building with all rueful consequences. Industrial building
methods will purely become a means to ensure that the
reconstruction will amount to more than just hollow
phrases - which do not provide a home.
84
Outside the Netherlands, Lewis Mumford (1895 - 1990) stated in
1952 that craftspeople, as masters of the process, would have to
give up their power to a more industrialised and impersonal
process.
85
A separation was made between standardisation and
the freedom to choose, between art and technology.
Reproducibility through mass production resulted in major
changes in the appreciation of art and made art more
democratic.
86
Hence, Mumford was critical of the largely
technical and plain character. His vision of architecture was:
84
Ibid., 54. The Buildings Decree (Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the
Environment) came into force in 1992 and replaced the earlier building regula-
tions. The Buildings Decree was based on performance standards rather than
prescriptive minimum solutions.
85
See also: Addis, 3000 Years of Design Engineering and Building Construction,
337-340. This includes a character description of Lewis Mumford.
86
Mumford, L., Art and Technics (London: Oxford University Press, 1952): 62-88
(chapter: From Handicraft to Machine Age).
ABCD research method ■ 29
In that art, beauty and use, symbol and structure,
meaning and practical function, can hardly even in a
formal analysis be separated; for a building, however
artless, however innocent of conscious speech on the
part of the builder, by its very presence cannot help
saying something. Even in the plainest esthetic choices
of materials, or of proportions, the builder reveals what
manner of man he is and what sort of community he is
serving. Yet despite this close association in building
between technics and art, doing and saying, the
separate functions are clearly recognizable in any
analysis of an architectural structure: the foundations,
the inner drainage system, or in later days the heating
and cooling systems, plainly belong exclusively to
technics; while the shape and scale of the structure, the
elements that accentuate its function or emphasize its
purpose in order to give pleasure and sustenance to the
human spirit, is art.
87
According to Mumford, modern architecture had become:
Modern architecture crystallized at the moment that -
people realized that the older modes of symbolism no
longer spoke to modern man; and that, on the contrary,
the new functions brought in by the machine had some-
thing special to say to him. Unfortunately, in the act of
realizing these new truths, mechanical function has
tended to absorb expression, or in more fanatical minds,
to do away with the need for it. As a result, the architec-
tural imagination has, within the last twenty years, be-
come impoverished: so much so that the recent prize-
winning design for a great memorial, produced by one of
the most accomplished and able of the younger archi-
tects, was simply a gigantic parabolic arch.
88
87
Ibid., 111-112 (chapter: Symbol and Function in Architecture).
88
Ibid., 114 (chapter: Symbol and Function in Architecture). He was referring
to the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch (1964) by Eero Saarinen.
However, in 1957 Mumford spoke highly of the Lijnbaan in Rotterdam, see: L.
Mumford, “The Skyline. A Walk Through Rotterdam,” The New Yorker, October
12, 1957, 174-183.
The 1953 UN headquarters in New York, designed by Harrison &
Abramovitz, caused Mumford to take a particularly critical look at
modern architecture:
If technics could not, by itself, tell the story of the
pioneer, moving through the gateway of the continent,
the story could not, in the architectural terms of our own
day, be told. This failure to do justice to the symbolic and
expressive functions of architecture perhaps reached its
climax in the design of the United Nations Headquarters,
where an office building has been treated as a
monument, and where one of the these great structures
has been placed so as to be lost to view by most of the
approaches to the site. […] How hard it is to achieve
such structures, at once functional in all their offices and
arrangements and duly symbolic of their own human
purposes, we can see when we examine a building near
at hand: the new Secretariat Building of the United
Nations. That great oblong prism of steel and aluminium
and glass, less a building than a gigantic mirror in which
the urban landscape of Manhattan is reflected, is in one
sense one of the most perfect achievements of modern
technics: as fragile as a spider web, as crystalline as a
sheet of ice, as geometrical as a beehive. On this
structure almost a score of the best architectural and
engineering minds of our day were at one time or
another at work. But unfortunately, the genius presiding
over this design was an architectural doctrine altogether
too narrow and superficial to solve the actual problem
itself. The very decision to make the Secretariat building
the dominant structure in this complex of buildings
reveals at the start either a complete indifference to
symbolism, or a very wry reading of the nature and
destiny of the United Nations.
89
89
Ibid., 114 and 128 (chapter: Symbol and Function in Architecture).
30 ■ ABCD research method
See Figures 17, 18 and bookcover. Mumford continued criticising
the UN building for several pages and then moved on to Frank
Lloyd Wright (1869 - 1959) whose work he was more positive
about (see Figure 22):
Accordingly, the more sensitive the architect is to
expression, the more capable he is of transforming
“building” into “architecture,” the greater the need for his
own self-knowledge, self-control, self-discipline: above
all, for subordinating his own inner wilfulness to the
character and purposes of his client. On this latter score,
Frank Lloyd Wright’s work is sometimes not impeccable;
for all too rarely has he been faced with a client
sufficiently strong in his own right to stand up to Wright’s
overbearing genius, in a way that will do justice to every
dimension of the problem. But one thing is usually in
evidence in Wright’s architecture – not the machine but
the human person has taken command. […] In Wright’s
fertile and inventive use of the machine, combined with a
refusal to be cowed by it or intimidated by it into a
servile disregard of his own purposes, his work has been
prophetic of a future in which art and technics will be
effectively united.
90
Finally, Mumford concludes:
Along such lines art and technics, the symbol and the
function, are now in process of being reconciled in the
best works of modern architecture; and to the extent
that this is actually taking place there is reason to hope
90
Ibid., 127-128 (chapter: Symbol and Function in Architecture).
Figures 17 and 18: The UN headquarters in New York and a facade detail.
Designed by Harrison & Abramovitz, 1953. Photographs by the author, 1990.
ABCD research method ■ 31
that our civilization, which shows so many signs of
disruption, may in fact be able to halt its insane
expansion of power without purpose, and find ways of
bringing into effective unity the now hostile and divisive
tendencies of men. But this is no easy road; and such
backward-looking buildings as the UN Secretariat
Building-of all buildings in all places!-are a proof of that
fact. Hence in my final lecture, I purpose to examine the
more general.
91
Mumford’s views of the UN building in New York demonstrate
that the time and the personal perception of architecture have
an effect on the nature of architecture criticism. We saw this
earlier when discussing Vanstiphout. The UN building was
featured on the cover of the invitation to the eighth Docomomo
congress: Import – Export: Postwar Modernism in an Expanding
World 1945 – 1975, held in September 2004 in New York.
The appreciation of architecture in its association with
technology depends on the timespan, the historical period and
the person making the assessment.
92
From the perspective of professional practice, the views of some
architects on technology were occasionally debatable, while
architect Willem Van Tijen (1894 - 1974), who trained as a civil
engineer (structural engineer), found it difhcult to act as an
architect. He essentially grew into the architectural profession
and initially referred to himself as a ‘house engineer’, and only
referred to himself as an architect after his hrst building, the
Parkhat in Rotterdam, had been completed in 1933:
Then it got very messy, with little building companies.
And of course I got help, I was helped by De Jonge van
Ellemeet, Director of the Rotterdam Housing Department,
and by Reesink and Plate. Initially I called myself a
‘house engineer’ but there came a time, well, when I was
an architect. The time I really had that feeling, that was
91
Ibid., 134 (chapter: Symbol and Function in Architecture).
92
H. Zijlstra, “DoCoMoMo in New York,” Monumenten no. 6 (2005): 14-17. Gerrit
Rietveld (1888 - 1964) was also critical of the UN building, see: G. Th. Rietveld,
Rationele Vormgeving, (May, 1953) lecture at the Centraal Museum Utrecht.
when the flats at the Parklaan had been completed, that
day God was with me, do you understand? It had been a
disaster because I didn’t know anything. I just started on
that building with some contractors and I just did it.
Of course, I had learned a little architecture in
Bandoeng, but nowhere near enough. I just put that
building together, I still don’t understand it, I still
consider it one of my best buildings. Of course I was ...
it was in the middle of the depression and I was at the
mercy of those building contractors.
It was a disaster, I was walking on the scaffolding, like,
well if there’s a plank out of place and I fall down, then,
well, thank God, it’ll all be over, do you understand?
I really thought that. But when it was finished we went
to look at it with De 8 and Opbouw [Dutch architectural
magazine on the Modern Movement from 1932 to 1943].
We were standing in front of it, there was a beautiful
blue sky with white clouds, and the sun was shining.
We were standing there, looking at it. I heard Van
Loghem whisper to C. van Eesteren ‘Who helped Van
Tijen with this?’ Yes, that was all rather odd. And yet
I was the architect. It was me, I felt that at that
moment, yes.
93
Initially, Van Tijen considered his one-sided education as a
shortcoming, but it was to be an enrichment as a result of which
he could integrate engineering as a logical profession in
architectural practice. In the research on the Provinciale
Bibliotheek in Leeuwarden (discussed elsewhere in this
publication) we see that architect Piet Tauber (1927) went
through a similar struggle with the profession. In his case that
was because his father, a bricklayer and foreman, had taught his
soon the technical aspects of the profession before he started
his architecture course in Delft.
93
D.A. Ruler and D. van Woerkom, “Ir. W. van Tijen: ‘Ik ben een rationalist, maar
er is meer op de wereld,’” Plan no. 9 (1970): 522. See also: Zijlstra, Bouwen in
Nederland 1940 – 1970, sub section 5: Groothandelsgebouw Rotterdam, 23-26.
32 ■ ABCD research method
Architect - structural engineer
After 1940 the roles in architectural practices were more clearly
separated. Consultants were engaged for specialised technical
aspects. Maaskant, who worked with Van Tijen, was one of the
hrst architects to experience these changes, during the
construction of the Groothandelsgebouw. He became an
engineer-organiser, i.e. a manager.
94
In contemporary Dutch
architectural practice, architects always work together with
engineers. There are only a few architects who are trained in
both architecture and structural engineering. In some cases (e.g.
Maaskant and van Tijen) an architectural practice might include a
structural engineering department. In the partnership between
engineer and architect, the creativity of the two partners is the
key to a good result.
95
Many well-known architects always work
with the same engineer. For example, in the Netherlands the
engineers of ABT (established in 1953) regularly work with the
architects such as Zwarts & Jansma and Mecanoo.
96
See Figure 19.
To give a practical example of the cooperation between
architects and engineers, and how they think about technology
I include some observations about the cooperation between
Renzo Piano (1937) and Peter Rice (1935 - 1992). Piano is an
architect who grew up in the construction industry, his father
was a contractor. He found this background most valuable when
working as an architect. He had become familiar with
construction materials by playing with them as a child. Piano and
Rice met when working on the design of the Centre Pompidou in
1970 and worked together continuously until Rice’s death in
1992, forming a perfect team: architect – engineer. See Figure
20. Piano explained how the cooperation came about:
I learned a lot about the architectural profession through
my work on this project [Centre George Pompidou in
Paris, design competition in 1970 with Richard Rogers
(1933)]. Architecture is a difficult profession because it is
94
The growth in the complexity of the work of engineers and the increase in the
number of parties involved in the design process are discussed in: Addis, 3000
Years of Design Enigneering and Building Construction, 57-81.
95
A. Vlot, “Creativiteit is het hart van het ingenieurswerk,” de Ingenieur no. 10
(1993): 8-12.
96
E. Melet et al, ABT 1953-2003, (Arnhem: ABT, 2003).
contaminated. I mean, it is contaminated by money,
time, power, and sometimes politics. You have to develop
yourself by experiencing these contaminating realities.
This project was also a great opportunity for me to learn
about teamwork. Projects of that type only become
possible when people work well together and when you
are happy to mix your creativity with that of others. From
this project, I learned the value of collaboration.
I have worked with Peter Rice, an engineer with Ove
Arup & Partners, constantly since that time.
97
Piano on the way he works as an architect:
For me creativity is a quit game. […] This type of
creativity is the same as craftsmanship. An architect
must be a craftsman. Of course, any tools will do. These
days, the tools may include a computer, an experimental
model, and mathematics. However, it is still
craftsmanship - the work of someone who does not
separate the work of the mind from the work of the
hand. It involves a circular process that draws you from
an idea to a drawing, from a drawing to an experiment,
from an experiment to construction, and from
construction back to an idea again. For me, this cycle is
fundamental to creative work. Unfortunately, many have
come to accept each of the those steps as independent.
An architect too easily passes the results of his
experiments on to the builders. Truly creative work is a
circular process, and if an architect makes himself part of
this process he can gain the technical ability to grasp in
essence what he is working on. Creativity can be realized
through teamwork. The word teamwork is another
mystery which everyone talks about but which is rarely
practised. To tell you the truth, in the world of
architecture, there are few people who employ real
teamwork in their work. It is rare for exchanges to take
place between architects, engineers, and builders. But
teamwork is essential if creative projects are to come
97
R. Piano, “Renzo Piano Building Workshop,” Process: Architecture no. 100
(1992): 10.
ABCD research method ■ 33
about. Teamwork requires the ability to listen and
engage in dialogue. I’m not moralizing here. Put yourself
into the creative cycle - think, draw, spend time at the
site, and go back to thinking again. If this can be defined
as creation, then there is no real contradiction between
art and science, modernity and tradition, and freedom
and obligation. I hope to discover the meaning of
balance, the theme of this issue, through the ideas I
have expressed above.
98
Rice explained how people viewed him, as an engineer:
I am an engineer. Often people will call me an ‘architect
engineer’ as a compliment. It is meant to signify a quality
98
Ibid., 14.
of engineer who is more imaginative and design-orientated
than a normal engineer. This is because in the minds of
the public and of other professionals, the engineer is
associated with unimaginative dull solutions. If people
find an engineer making original designs, designs which
only an engineer can make, they feel the need to grant
him or her a higher accolade, hence ‘architect engineer’.
It is not that I object to being called an architect
engineer. Occasionally it may even be appropriate, but
mostly it is not because there is a designer. To call an
engineer an ‘architect engineer’ because he comes up
with unusual or original solutions is essentially to
misunderstand the role of the engineer in society.
99
99
P. Rice, An Engineer Imagines (London: Artemis, 1994), 71.
Figure 19: One of the hrst buildings with a prestressed concrete structure.
Arnhem town hall, 1964, architect: J.J. Konijnenburg, engineers: ABT.
Photograph by the author, 2004.
Figure 20: Centre George Pompidou in Paris (1971 - 1977), R. Rogers,
R. Piano and P. Rice. The building which Rice referred to as the real start
of his career. Photograph by the author, 1985.
34 ■ ABCD research method
Rice on the differences between architects and engineers:
I would distinguish the difference between the engineer
and the architect by saying the architect’s response is
primarily creative, whereas the engineer’s is essentially
inventive. The architect, like the artist, is motivated by
personal considerations whereas the engineer is
essentially seeking to transform the problem into one
where the essential properties of structure, material or
some other impersonal element are being expressed.
This distinction between creation and invention is the
key to understanding the difference between the
engineer and the architect, and how they can both work
on the same project but contribute in different ways.
Indeed, now it is important that engineers start to
educate both people within the profession and the public
at large on the essential contribution that the engineer
makes to even the most mundane project.
100
Faith in technology
In general, immediately after the Second World War there
was great faith in technology. Richard Buckminster Fuller
(1895 - 1983) is one example of someone who thought that
many problems could be solved through technology:
Technology represents philosophy resolved to the most
cogent argument ... If man did this, such would result.
In technology man is empowered to explore and develop
his own ‘if’ without reference to the limiting response of
other preoccupied egos. Through technology alone the
creative individual can of free will arrange for the
continuing preservation of mankind despite individual
man’s self frustrating propensities.
101
See also Figure 48. After 1945, technology was largely applied in
the construction industry to construct more buildings, more
quickly at lower cost. However, this did not always beneht
100
Ibid., 72.
101
J.Meller ed., The Buckminster Fuller Reader (Londen: Cape, 1970), 231.
quality.
102
The great demand for both residential and non-
residential buildings resulted in great activity in the construction
industry, which supported by new developments in technology.
System building, i.e. constructing dwellings using industrial
methods, was subsidised by the central government, and new
materials (e.g. plastics and aluminium) and applications were
introduced.
103
Due to supply shortages the industry resorted to
materials which were available quickly, such as concrete, calcium
silicate bricks and plaster. The brickworks had been destroyed
and for steel the Netherlands was largely dependent on other
countries, as it was before the war. The same applied to timber,
lead, zinc, glass, paint and wallpaper.
104
In the years following
this period, the steel industry started to produce I, H and U steel
prohles in accordance with international standards.
105
New
manufacturing, processing and joining technologies also made
innovative applications possible, as did new engineering and
calculation methods. The concrete industry started using new
techniques, such as prestressing, high-grade steel
reinforcement, new information about the properties of
materials, mathematical methods, concrete grades and
aggregates. To reduce the time required for construction the
industry tried to keep working through winter.
106
Processes had to be managed better, which required
standardisation, legislation, planning and cooperation.
The European Recovery Program (ERP) received hnancial
support from the American Marshall Plan. Although the war
effort had resulted in technical innovations in some European
countries, nobody could resist the American technical hegemony
102
R. Kronenburg, Spirit of the Machine. Technology as an Inspiration in
Architectural Design (Chichester: Wiley-Academy, 2001), 84.
103
J.W. Schot ed., Techniek in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. VI: stad; bouw en
industriële productie (Zutphen: De Walburg Pers, 2003), 219 and H.R. Hitchcock,
“Een overzicht van de veranderingen in de architectuur ten gevolge van het
ontstaan van nieuwe technieken en materialen,” Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 13
(1961): 259.
104
See: “Onze Bouwmaterialen,” Bouw (October, 1945): 27-31, “Nederlandsche
houtindustrie wacht op grondstoffen,” Bouw no.2 (1946): 214 and
H.G.J. Schelling, “Constructie van gewapend-betonvloeren zonder toepassing
van houten bekisting, ” Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 29 (1941): 244-245.
105
J.K. van Genderenstort, “Staalbouw 1945-1965,” Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. 1
(1965): 20B.
106
J. van Zutphen, “Betontechniek 1945-1965,” Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no.1
(1965) 13B-16B.
ABCD research method ■ 35
around 1947.
107
As early as 1932, planning was the tool of the
American New Deal to manage the tasks and work of the
American government.
108
In Europe after the Second World War,
National Plans were developed to manage matters of national
interest, in the longer term. Planning also provided industry with
a tool to coordinate and check work and became an essential
instrument in architectural practices. When preparing construction
projects, there was an increasing need to work with consultants
specialising in structural engineering, building services plant and
building physics. For example, to promote effective cooperation,
Evert Jelles (1932 - 2003) set up the ‘Ring of consultancies’ in
1970.
109
Additionally, construction teams were set up as
organisational units. The intention was to involve the parties
preparing for the building process and those doing the actual
building work during the design stage, to optimise the design.
Unfortunately, the optimisation was mostly aimed at controlling
costs. The construction team, based on cooperation, suddenly
became a serious alternative to the tendering system
traditionally used in the Netherlands, where the contract was
given to the lowest bidder.
The construction industry, which had traditionally taken a
craft approach, introduced a division of labour similar to that
used in the manufacturing industry. Joiners (carpenters) in
particular were affected by the reduction in the number of tasks
they undertook and the division of labour. These changes were
accompanied by simplihed processes on the building site. More
and more work was shifted to the preliminary phase, which
became increasingly industrialised. The construction site became
more of an assembly site, and the general contractor a
coordinator of suppliers such as subcontractors.
110
Prefabrication
of building components became an essential part of the
construction process. However, a fully industrialised building
process never developed. As Professor J. Hryniewiecki concluded
in 1961, much was still done by hand:
107
Taverne, 1950 Welvaart in zwart-wit. Nederlandse cultuur in Europese Context,
67-68.
108
M. Pieterson, Het technisch labyrint, (Leiden: Werkgroep Techniek, Technologie
en Samenleving, 1981) 225.
109
E.J. Jelles, “Zoeken naar een adequate werkwijze,” Plan no. 9 (1970): 560.
110
A. Hendriks, “Multidisciplinair onderzoek dient het bouwen te begeleiden,”
Plan no. 9 (1970): 555.
What industrialisation we see is more like industrialised
crafts. It is limited to factory production of components,
and the maximum dimensions of these components are
determined by the transport available, transportability,
weight and handling on site.
111
In architecture, development and progress are generally
considered to be the result of external factors such as
new building materials or new demands made by society,
which have developed independently of architecture, and
which architecture has to respond to, whether it wants to
or not. Architecture appears to be rather passive, and
without an inherent drive to renew its own aesthetics.
Classic forms have survived for centuries, in fact so long
that the new modernist architecture of the twentieth
century is best analysed as a form of covert classicism.
So, although there are many reasons to consider
architecture more as the art of repetition than the art of
difference, we have to ask how the development of
knowledge over time in this repetitive pattern was
organised.
112
This conclusion was drawn by Joost Meuwissen, who considered
how the volume of knowledge within the architectural profession
was expanded. My view is the opposite, I think that these
‘external factors such as new building materials’ are actually an
agent of innovation in architecture. The architecture of Auguste
Perret (1874 - 1954), who used reinforced concrete, combined
structural engineering and aesthetics. For example, we can
regularly recognise classical column capitals in his work, but he
applied them in a contemporary way with only a hint of the
classical order. For example, the Musée des Travaux (1936 -
1948) in Paris includes columns with and without capitals. These
capitals are inspired by the Egyptian lotus capital. The stairs are
completely self-supporting. See Figures 23 to 27. Perret was
more aware than any of his colleagues of the role of technology
111
J. Hryniewiecki, “De invloed van de industrialisatie op de architectuur,”
Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 13 (1961): 259.
112
J. Meuwissen, “Groei van kennis in de architectuur,” OASE no. 62 (2003): 7.
36 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 21 and 22: Columns in the Glaspaleis Schunk in Heerlen by F.P.J. Peutz, 1942 (regenerated by Jo Coenen and Wiel Arets) and a column in the
Johnson Wax building in Racine, by Frank Lloyd Wright, 1951. Photographs by the author, 2004 and 1990.
in his architecture.
113
After the Second World War, Dutch
architects had to learn how to use materials such as concrete in
an original way, or, as Tauber put it ‘We did use concrete, but the
design was based on stacked beams, as we normally used when
working with timber or steel. An architecture which was truly
based on concrete only developed later.’
114
The Schunck
department store (1936 - 1942) designed by Frits Peutz (1896
- 197+) was an exception to this trend. !ts mushroom hoors are
an expression of both technology and architecture.
115
In the
113
Frampton, Studies in Tectonic Culture, 121-157.
114
H. Zijlstra, Interviews with P.H. Tauber, 3 January 2002 and 6 March 2002, fur-
ther to research element 4.3: Provinciale Bibliotheek Leeuwarden. Around 1960
the work of these architects was discussed in the Dutch press, for example:
P.L. Nervi, “De invloed van de ontwikkelingen in het gewapend beton, de bouw-
techniek en de bouwwetenschap op de hedendaagse architectuur,” Bouwkundig
Weekblad no. 13 (1961): 257-258.
115
W. van der Schrier, “Betonskeletbouw,” Bouw (1946): 179 and W. Graatsma,
Schunck ‘s Glass Palace (Nuth: Rosbeek Books, 1996).
United States, Frank Lloyd Wright’s architecture shows an
evolution to a plastically deformable building material, but even
there we hnd elements derived from classical capitals. See
Figures 21 and 22.
Finally, with reference to the theory of technology and
architecture, I include some quotes by Perret, as published in
1952 in Contribution a une Theorie de L’Architecture. See also
Figure 27. These specihcally concern some technical aspects
which he considered necessary to realising architecture, and
which are still equally valid today. If architects can combine
technology and architecture in this way, they will beneht from
the synergy between the two. For many, this awareness only
develops while training as an architect as not everyone who
chooses to study design is lucky enough to have a parent who
works in the construction industry. Observation, with an
engineer’s eye, is a tool to look methodically at what exists
ABCD research method ■ 37
already, and to learn from it.
Perret:
‘L’Architecture est l’art d’organser l’espace, c’est par la
construction qu’il s’exprime.’ […]
Architecture is the art of organising space, as expressed by the
construction.
‘L’Architecture est, de toutes les expressessions de l’art, celle qui
est le plus soumise aux conditions matérielles.’ […]
Of all the expressions of art, architecture is the form most
dependent on the properties of materials.
‘La construction est la langue maternelle de l’architecte.
L’architecte est un poète qui parle en construction.’ […]
The construction is the material language of the architect.
The architect is a poet whose language is expressed through
construction.
‘Technique, permanent hommage rendu a la nature, essentiel
aliment de l’imagination, authentique source d’inspiration, prière,
de toutes la plus efhcace, language maternelle de toutes
créateur.’ […]
Technology, a continuing homage to nature, essential
nourishment for the imagination, an authentic source of
inspiration, the most effective of all prayers, mother tongue of all
designers.
‘Technique parlée in poète nous conduit en architecture.’ […]
Technology, voiced in poetry leads us to architecture.
‘L'edihce, cest la charpente munie des elements et des formes
imposées par les conditions permanentes qui, le soumetant a la
nature, le rattachehent au passé et lui confèrent la durée.’
A building is the framework with the elements and the forms
necessary for permanent conditions which, subject to nature,
provide a link to the past and result in durability.
116
116
The relevant pages are included in their entirety in: K. Britton, Auguste Perret
(London: Phaidon, 2001), 230-237.
I developed the following hypotheses in relation to the research
theme of technological observation:
1: By focussing on the inhuence of technology on architecture,
as a central theme during the observation stage of
investigating existing buildings (especially those built
between 1940 and 1970) we arrive at fundamentally different
conclusions in terms of the architectural interpretation of
these buildings and their elements than if we observe them
without considering the technology involved.
2: Technological observation means that the results of the
research can be applied to the regeneration of buildings.
3: Technology, i.e. the knowledge, is essential to realising a
design, maintaining it, making considered changes to it, and
then analysing it again.
38 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 23-27: Musée des Travaux (1936-1948) in Paris, by Auguste Perret. Architecture in
concrete, with typical stylistic elements such as capitals, but still making the best use of the material
in structural engineering terms. Page from Contribution a une Theorie de L’Architecture by Auguste
Perret. From: Britton, 2001.
ABCD research method ■ 39
2.2 Research analysis
I did my PhD research while working at the Faculty of
Architecture of Delft University of Technology. The Dutch name
of the faculty, Bouwkunde, actually sounds more like ‘faculty of
construction engineering’. However, a building science course is
quite different from an architecture course. For example, a
construction engineer needs to learn about both architecture (the
art and science of designing and supervising the construction of
buildings) and construction or structural engineering (the science
of the requirements relating to buildings). The existing built
environment is the primary source of study for the development
of construction engineering and architecture.
Learning
Researching is learning, and learning is about researching and
studying - and similarly, designing is about researching and
studying, and learning results from teaching. When designing
either completely new objects, or objects to be incorporated into
an existing structure, we have to learn from the past. This is not
about slavishly copying, but about analysis and applying what we
have learned in a way which respects the existing context.
117
Both architecture students and practising architects have to
assess the existing knowledge and methods to develop their own
design methods. In 1967, Siegfried Giedion (1883-1968) wrote
about the way in which architects interpreted the past:
117
During Herman Herzberger’s lectures in the 1980s at Delft, his students were
presented with a mass of examples from historic architecture throughout the
world to use as source materials for analysing the environment they lived in and
to apply in their design assignments. H. Herzberger, Het Openbare Rijk.
Samenvatting Colleges 1973-1982, Part A (Delft: University Press, 1982) and
H. Herzberger, Ruimte maken ruimte laten. Samenvatting Colleges 1973-1982,
Part B (Delft: University Press, 1984).
The attitude to the past of Utzon’s [architect Jørn Utzon
(1918-2008)] generation differs from that of the historian,
at least from that of those historians who lack an inner
relation to the contemporary scene. The architect is little
interested in when or by whom a certain building was
erected. His questions are rather: What did the builder
want to achieve and how did he solve his problems?
In other words, the architect is concerned with searching
through previous architectonic knowledge, so that he can
immediately confront contemporary architectural aims
with those of a former period. Travel gives the best
possibility for such immediate questioning.
118
Learning is of even more specihc and direct relevance when an
assignment concerns an existing building. Obviously, new builds
also have a context, but when dealing with an existing building,
that building forms the context and thus becomes one of the
starting points for the architectural challenge. In the interview
referred to earlier, Henket described this as follows:
The real difference with refurbishment [relative to new
building] is that you have to deal with two factors. Firstly
the load-bearing structure, that’s already there, and
secondly with the people who are already there, and that
is the greater problem. It is more complex. […]
Incidentally, it is not only about maintaining what is
there, but primarily about the question: What should you
replace, change or keep, where to build something new,
where to start with a clean sheet of paper. I think that
it’s time for us not only to think in terms of growth, but to
start thinking from the inside out. And to train architects
118
S. Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture. The growth of a tradition (Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1967), 670: ‘Jørn Utzon and the third generation’.
40 ■ ABCD research method
in that way. [...] What it is about is to make sure that the
discussion is as objective as possible. That way you can
say: in construction engineering terms the situation is
like this, and in building physics terms like that, and in
terms of town planning and architecture it fits in like so.
In building physics terms, removing an exterior wall
means the cost of heating will rise. Architecturally it
means that we suddenly have a view, and functionally
that, suddenly, I can’t build any houses any more.
119
Knowledge transfer
However, according to Henket there is not enough knowledge or
a system to manage it:
Interest in the existing housing stock is rapidly
increasing. Both in the Netherlands and in other
countries, studies are being published about the
lifecycles of buildings, and their management and reuse.
However, there is a huge knowledge gap. Apart from the
social housing sector, we know little about the housing
stock. There is no systematic information about the age
or the quality in technical and usability terms.
Furthermore, different definitions of life and depreciation
are in use. We do not know how the way buildings are
used changes over time. Simply gathering the basic data
provides an immense research challenge.
120
!n 1970, when rehecting on his career, van Tijen claimed that
architects aren’t that keen on extending their knowledge by
reading and listening. He also rehected on the `Doornse
Leergangen’ The Doornse Leergangen were held during the
Second World War. They gave Dutch architects an opportunity to
discuss the issues and design challenges they would be faced
with after the war. The discussions mostly related to the
different design approaches of the ‘Delftsche School’ and the
‘Nieuwe Bouwen’ (Modern Movement). Van Tijen commented:
119
G. ten Cate and R. Rovers, “Opdrachtgever moet bewijzen dat slopen zinvol is.
Een interview met Hubert-Jan Henket,” Bouw no. 20 (1983): 35.
120
Henket, “Van produceren naar gebruiken en beheren,”: 24.
We tried to listen to each other and understand each
other’s ideas. But the discussions were not really
steered, despite the impact of personalities such as
Molière, Rietveld, Merkelbach and Van Embden. As
architect Van den Berg recently stated ‘Architects are
poor listeners, poor speakers and poor leaders.’
Consequently, the discussions soon became less
effective. However, we did get to know each other
personally, especially the many young people. I don’t
think ‘Doorn’ resulted in much more than that.
121
Van Tijen saw a decline in the quality of residential building
projects and he accused architects of a lack of both the drive to
learn and an urge to obtain more knowledge:
Designers too, still pick up too little of the available
knowledge. They weren’t really taught to do this and
often have little interest in it as they are more interested
in their own ideas about shapes and spaces. If they
apply anything like this at all, it is largely because
government regulations force them to.
122
I know from experience that architects own many books about
their profession, but that there are only a few (like Jo Coenen)
who actually read the texts. Architects collect pictures and prefer
to be inspired during held trips (see Giedion’s view discussed
above). Studying criticism, experience, interviews and making
thorough multidisciplinary analyses of the work of others is not
adequately incorporated in architectural training. Hence, there
appears to be an opportunity, especially in construction
engineering courses (which aim to teach their students about
how to make buildings), to teach the students the skills to do
this, and become aware of the benehts. Post-war building
projects in particular offer many opportunities for learning:
121
W. van Tijen, “De vier uren van de moderne architektuur,” Plan, no. 9 (1970):
538. For further information on the Doornse Leergangen, see: M.J. Grandpré
Molière et al., De architectuur (Amsterdam: Architectura et Amicitia, 1942) and
S.J. van Embden et al., De techniek en de architectuur (Amsterdam: Architec-
tura et Amicitia, 1946).
122
Van Tijen, “De vier uren van de moderne architektuur,”: 550.
ABCD research method ■ 41
Figure 28: Fish auction in Scheveningen, near
The Hague, 1963, designed by Sjoerd Schamhart.
There are now calls to redevelop the site for
housing. From 2005 to 2007 this building was
studied by the Bachelor 5 architecture course
at Delft University of Technology. The students’
plans were presented to the municipality of
The Hague and exhibited in the town hall.
Photograph by the author, 2005.
It is impossible to condense the last two decades [1945-
1965] of building in the Netherlands in a brief overview.
There are so many names, so many buildings, so many
city districts and so many styles, and even then you
could easily overlook dozens of architects and buildings.
This is not an excuse for any lack of documentation for
this overview, but serves to emphasise what may well be
the most important aspect of this period in architecture:
excess. Rushing, shortages, renewal, expansion, they are
all issues which are now inseparable in the way we live
and work and in our culture. They determine a large part
of architectural concepts as they are the cause of the
rushed building activities of our period. It is therefore
hardly an exaggeration to state that the myriad, or rather
the complex, of causes which have led to this multitude
forms one of the primary characteristics of post-war
construction in the Netherlands.
123
123
K. Wiekart, “Architectuur 1945-1965,” Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. 1 (1965): 2B.
I developed the following hypotheses in relation to the research
theme of research analysis:
1: When analysing information derived from the study of an
existing building we aim to develop insights which can beneht
the building concerned, and also for designing new buildings
in an existing context.
2: Research analysis of the information obtained by observation
should be one of the tasks of an architect when making a
design for an existing building.
3: By analysing several buildings constructed in the same period
(here: 1940 - 1970) in the same way and combining the
results we can draw general conclusions which can be
applied to the design and construction of buildings.
42 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 31: Brand’s layers of change. From: Brand, 1994.
Figures 29 and 30: Examples of change within the building fabric: silo, 1932, Akron, Ohio, USA, converted to a hotel in 1990.
From: Brand, 1994.
ABCD research method ■ 43
2.3 Regenerative conclusions
The theme regenerative conclusions sets the direction of my
conclusions. Initially I referred to this theme as ‘changeability’ or
‘mutability’. Once the method I had developed became part of
the outcome of the research, I integrated the activities which led
to those results (observation, analysis and conclusions) with the
themes.
Regeneration amounts to more than just change. It concerns
changes which add a new period, or generation, to the lifecycle
of a building. In his description of the plan Carré d’Art in Nîmes,
Norman Foster referred to a regeneration process:
‘The regeneration process examines the possibility of extending
the life of existing structures.’
124
Change
Change can be interpreted in many ways. As change is all around
us, I use some statements to discuss the essential aspects of the
change process. I start with theory and then progress to more
practical matters to explain the link with the building process.
Next I move on to examples of buildings which have been
changed and which I consider to be good examples of
regeneration. These buildings are therefore used as examples in
teaching. The views of the original architects of buildings which
are changed emphasise that not all architects think that their
buildings can or should be changed.
124
N. Foster, “Appropriate Technology,” in: H.J. Henket, The Ecomomy of Achitecture
(Eindhoven: University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, 1996), 24.
Demolishing structures which have a relatively long remaining
technical lifespan diminishes the sustainability of our society.
Demolition and construction waste have inspired ideas about the
regeneration of building materials. Although this was not the
main theme of my thesis, I will consider this issue to show that
the intentions are good, but are normally the result of political
decisions which may not be as essential as decision makers
claims. At present, sustainability, energy conservation and waste
prevention, are essential issues. This leads to the theory of
lifecycle design, i.e. not from cradle to grave, but from cradle to
cradle.
125
In the near future, reducing the volume of construction
waste will have a high priority. Here too, the ABCD research
method provides a tool for analysing how a building can be
regenerated.
Suggestions have been made for methods to regenerate
buildings and the built environment, and projects have been
initiated. Regeneration can apply to a single building or to a town
planning issue. This results in evolution rather than revolution:
Creative re-use is to be encouraged; combining innovation
with tradition it can truly represent a balanced civilised
society at peace with its past, present and future. There
is a growing awareness that evolution is more productive
than revolution, it is better to retain what is good rather
than destroy the lot and start again afresh. Hence the
principles set out for the creative re-use of buildings can
also be applied to whole areas in the urban design of our
cities.
126
125
M. Braungart and W. McDonough, Cradle to Cradle: the Way We Make Things
(New York: North Point Press, Farrer Straus & Giroux, 2007).
126
D. Latham, Creative Re-use of Buildings. vol. 1. Principles and Practice
(Shaftesbury: Donhead), 124.
44 ■ ABCD research method
Kevin Lynch emphasised that we, as living creatures, are part of
a world which is ever changing. Life means change:
Change and recurrence are the sense of being alive -
things gone by, death to come, and present awareness.
The world around us, so much of it our own creation,
shifts continually and often bewilders us. We reach out
of that world to preserve or to change it and so to make
visible our desire. The arguments of planning all come
down to the management of change.
127
Hannah Lewi wrote about how the past can help us move
forward:
The past is not perceived as a dead weight, nor does it
pull one back. On the contrary, the past pushes forward
in the guise of tradition and remembrance, and the
future drives back antagonistically towards the past.
128
In 1979, Graeme Aylward took an abstract approach to change,
especially changes in the built environment and related
elements:
A change in one set of problems, for example physical
improvement, is not enough on its own. It is the total
system that requires attention. This is the essential
theme of this chapter; the problem of re-orientating the
direction of change towards improvement is a massive
one. It is reinforced not only by those suffering the
substandard environment but by the external
perceptions of society as a whole on the “outside”.
The flight to decay occurs at an exponential rate;
conversely, to reverse this tide becomes increasingly
difficult as the level of decay increases. […] Naturally
when we think of rehabilitation it is normally in terms of
some historical building or place, or a derelict housing
area. The problem is of course broader than this. […]
127
K. Lynch, What Time is This Place? (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1972), 1.
128
H. Lewi, H, “Paradoxes in the Conservation of the Modern Movement,”
in: Henket, Back to Utopia, 356.
The world is in a constant state of flux. We are aware of
change in a variety of ways.
129
An important element in the way Aylward develops his theory is
the extent of decay which is accepted. He explains change as a
whirlpool which needs to be constantly supplied with energy to
stay in motion. Furthermore change would not be possible if we
were unable to dehne continuity:
In all our day-to-day experience, change is observed as
the mismatch between the current state of things,
people and places, and our memory of the former state:
the subjective perception of difference. […] Stability,
identity, imageity and structure in the environment
transform otherwise evanescent actions into predictable
repetitions, enabling learnt behaviour patterns to be
confidently applied. […] Many intervening changes may
have occurred but a prevailing sense of history embodied
in a building or place gives roots to this sense of stability
and security. Thus continuity is maintained, or thought to
be maintained, into the future.
130
The capacity for change in a modern building probably
lies in the neutral qualities of similar spaces and
minimum structure, whereas an old building is endowed
with ‘soft’ structure that can be easily carved, and a
variety of spaces that could suit a large proportion of
most activities. These qualities in old buildings occurred
quite by chance as a legacy of past levels of construction
and environmental technology. However, the realization
of their potential does call for more careful ‘design’ of
activity systems to fit such structures, avoiding the
assumption that neutral spaces are the only answer. […]
We require stable environments, that is, with a steady
state illusion of comfortable change. We need continuity
with time past and a sense of direction for the future.
131
129
G. Aylward, “Conversion and Rehabilitation,” in: T.A. Markus, Building Conversion
and Rehabilitation. Designing for Change in Building Use (London: Newnes-
Butterwoths, 1979), 1.
130
Ibid., 2.
131
Ibid., 13.
ABCD research method ■ 45
Mutability
The concept of mutability could imply a constant change of hux.
In 1971, Simon Pruys (1927-1980) in his book De nieuwe
onzakelijkheid. Design Kritiek managed to identify the centre of
the change process, in which both economics and technology are
relevant:
The two key factors of the changes around us are the
technical factor and the economic factor. Technology has
given us new and amazing opportunities in terms of
transport, communications (electronics) and design
(plastics), not to mention the rest. The economic factor
(more money and more leisure time) means that we are
increasingly able to use the fruits of technology. Hence
these two factors of change bring us to the third one:
communication. Our world is full of unimaginably
intensive communication through the mass media,
tourism and the ownership of consumption goods. This
rapid and intensive communication is the cause of the
equally rapid and deep changes in our taste, in our
opinions, our beliefs and our standards. In short, these
three change factors lead to ever more rapid changes in
our behaviour and our life pattern, that is, the way in
which we live, work and relax. These changes in our life
pattern are directly reflected in our material environment,
our cities, our homes and our tools for living.
132
Pruys then discusses the concept of hexibility. He refers to the
example of De Meerpaal in Dronten designed by architect Frank
van Klingeren (1919-1999). This was initially threathened with
demolition but has now been regenerated. Originally it was a
community centre with a theatre and some sport facilities in an
open plan. It has been regenerated as a private theatre with a
music school and a library.
If a building is only used for ten years because the
requirements have changed, then this means that the
building has become five times as expensive. Hence, the
132
S.M. Pruys, De nieuwe onzakelijkheid. Design Kritiek (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff,
1971), 122.
physical lifetime has to be brought into line with the
functional lifetime. This can only be done by making the
function of the building flexible, that is, adaptable to
future requirements we are not yet aware of. This is the
meaning and background of the concept of flexibility
which has been discussed so extensively by architects in
recent years. De Meerpaal in Dronten, by architect Frank
van Klingeren, is a brilliant example of a building with
such a flexible function. A negative example is the fact
that most kitchens in post-war houses were too small for
the appliances (fridges, dishwashers, etc.) which we
wanted to install in these kitchens in the 1960s. When
these houses were built, the changing requirements of
the future were not adequately considered.
Consequently, these houses perform poorly and have
really lost a significant part of their economic value, long
before they have been forgotten.
133
In more practical terms this means that when we are dealing
with an existing building the objective is not only to conserve it,
but also to be aware of the fact that there have always been
changes made during the process of conservation and
restoration. In the spirit of the earlier Jo Coenen quotation,
Johan Allen (1945) described this as follows, in 1996:
In other words, architects who depend on finding and
keeping clients as a precondition of doing any work at all
see conservation not so much as an application of theory
as practising the art of the possible. […] As you can see,
even in a list containing three grade I buildings and eight
grade II* from a total of 77 buildings, there is not a single
conservation project which has not or will not have required
some sort of intervention in the fabric, even if there were
one or two that have not required listed building consent.
This is why I am inclined to regard conservation not as a
matter of keeping something as it is, but more as a
specialized way of changing it. Dealing with such inter-
ventions is always more difficult than straight repair, if
133
Ibid., 123-124.
46 ■ ABCD research method
indeed there is such a thing, but is correspondingly more
interesting because it calls for architectural judgement.
In other words conservation is ultimately about priorities.
And this is why, when confronted by the sort of universal
questions mentioned above, I have found that the only
answer which is always correct is ‘it depends. . .’
134
Active conservation
In 2002 Allen referred to active conservation:
I have learnt that acceptance of change is the essential
precondition of real conservation, and that those MoMo
[Modern Movement] Gatsby’s intent on ‘fixing everything
just the way it was before’ will find their dream eludes.
[…] There are always going to be disagreements about
detail; after all, active conservation is only a sub-set of
architectural design in which value judgement cannot be
avoided. Of course authenticity is a desideratum but it
must include spiritual authenticity, which in MoMo’s case
certainly embraces a commitment to change. In the end
conservation is about vitality, and serving life as it is
lived is the oxygen of building survival. […] The past is
not for living in; it is a well of conclusions from which we
draw in order to act. […] In any stocktaking for the
future, history becomes more, not less, vital.
135
In 1983, Paul Marsh emphasised that these projects should not
result in second-hand buildings. Instead, they should result in
completely new buildings:
Refurbishment is the hard-headed business of making
use of what is usable in the ageing building stock; the
skilful adaptation of a building shell (which is valuable in
its own right and not due to any historic mystique) to a
new, or an updated, version of its existing use.
134
J. Allen, “Conservation of Modern Buildings: A Practitioner’s view,” in: Macdonald,
Modern Matters. Principles and Practice in Conserving Recent Architecture,
123-124.
135
J. Allen, J. “A Challenge of Values,” in: Henket, Back to Utopia, 21.
The existing building, once refurbished, should be
equally as efficient in its new role as a purpose-designed
building would be, given the usual number of restraints
which always impede the designer realising the ideal in new
or refurbished merit and will, by its preservation, improve
the amenity of the environment, so much the better.
136
To accommodate the degree of mutability, Stewart Brand dehnes
six layers:
„ SITE - This is the geographical setting, the urban location,
and the legally dehned lot, whose boundaries and context
outlast generations of ephemeral buildings. ‘Site is eternal.’
„ STRUCTURE - The foundation and load-bearing elements are
perilous and expensive to change, so people don’t. These
are the building. Structural life ranges from 30 to 300 years
(but few buildings make it past 60, for other reasons).
„ SKIN - Exterior surfaces now change every 20 years or so, to
keep up with fashion or technology, or for wholesale repair.
Recent focus on energy costs has led to reengineered skins
that are air-tight and better-insulated.
„ SERVICES - These are the working guts of a building:
communications wiring, electrical wiring, plumbing, sprinkler
system, HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning), and
moving parts like elevators and escalators. They wear out or
obsolesce every 7 to 15 years. Many buildings are
demolished early if their outdated systems are too deeply
embedded to replace easily.
„ SPACE PLAN - The interior layout-where walls, ceilings, hoors,
and doors go. Turbulent commercial space can change every 3
years or so; exceptionally quiet homes might wait 30 years.
„ STUFF - Chairs, desks, phones, pictures; kitchen appliances,
lamps, hair brushes; all the things that twitch around daily to
monthly. Furniture is called “mobilia” in Italian for good
reason.
137
See Figures 29 to 31.
136
P. Marsh, The Refurbishment of Commercial and Industrial Buildings
(Londen: Construction Press, 1983), 3.
137
S. Brand, How buildings learn; what happens after they’re built (New York:
Viking Penguin, 1994),13.
ABCD research method ■ 47
Figures 32 and 33: Castelvecchio in Verona, adapted by Carlo Scarpa from 1956 to 1964. From: Los, 1993 and Albertina, 1988.
Figures 34 and 35: Extension (1934-1937) of the court building in Göteborg by Erik Gunnar Asplund. From: Caldenby, 1990.
48 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 36 and 37: ANBD building in Amsterdam, converted in 1991 to the National Trade Union Museum by Atelier PRO.
The lift is installed behind the doorway on the left. Photographs by the author, 1991 (left) and G. Jeager, 1991 (right).
Figures 38 and 39: The 1923 Lingotto building by G.M. Trucco, converted by Renzo Piano from 1988-1997.
Photographs by the author, 2007.
ABCD research method ■ 49
Figure 42: Renovation of the Free University Berlin by Norman Foster (1997-2004). Originally designed by Candilis, Josic and Woods.
The plans include a new library. From: Http://www.fuberlin.de/bauplanung /bauplanung_projekte.html, www.fosterandpartners.com.
Figures 40 and 41: Tate Modern in London, regenerated by Herzog & de Meuron between 1994 and 2000.
The original building was designed by G.G. Scott and completed in 1963. Photographs by the author, 2004.
50 ■ ABCD research method
Examples
The literature includes many examples of changes in an existing
context, in different countries: the Castelvecchio in Verona
(1956-1964) was adapted by Carlo Scarpa (1906-1978), and the
extension of the court building in Göteborg, which was expanded
by Gunnar Asplund (1885-1940) between 1913 and 1936.
138
See
Figures 32 to 35. When I was studying, these examples showed
me that although designing new buildings (possibly surrounded by
an existing context) is fascinating, adaptation (where the building
itself sets the context) is actually a far greater challenge. The
existing building adds a layer of history which cannot be obtained
in new construction projects. I was involved in the design and
construction of the Vakbondsmuseum (trade union museum) in
Amsterdam, which is housed in the 1901 building of the Algemene
Nederlandse Diamant-werkersbond (ANDB, diamond workers
union) by Hendrik Petrus Berlage (1856-1934). This introduced me
to the issues associated with listed buildings and making changes
to them. I was surprised to discover that only the exterior, the
interior of the hall and two rooms had been listed. Removing the
ceilings and hooring exposed the glass hoor in the hall. Around
1979, large ventilation ducts had been installed underneath it.
Here, technology violated the original design concepts. The ducts
were relocated and this allowed daylight to reach the basement
of the building, as in the original design. A lift (of a type normally
used in residential refurbishment projects) was installed in the
hall, behind the doorways originally provided for cupboards. See
Figures 36 and 37. During a later project in Arnhem, for the
Government Buildings Agency, a building completed in 1986
imposed signihcant restrictions on its use. Several relatively minor
changes to the interior were sufhcient to provide the people
working in it with more light and air, and meet contemporary
statutory requirements concerning workplace conditions.
139
138
I. Solà Morales, “Form contrast to analogy. Developments in the concept of
architectural intervention,” Lotus no. 46 (1985): 39-41.
139
I was involved in both projects while working as an architect for Atelier PRO in
The Hague. The Trade Union Museum in Berlage’s ANDB building (1901) was
completed in 1991. The Government Buildings Agency office in Arnhem was
designed by A. Oosting (Oosting & Beunderman) and completed in 1986. In 1999,
Atelier PRO developed a plan to modify it for use by the National Archives. This
project was never executed as the basements could not be adequately water-
proofed. In 2001, Atelier PRO regenerated the building.
In my teaching I now use recent examples by well known
architects to show how buildings (mostly post-war) have been
regenerated: the Lingotto building in Turin, by Renzo Piano whom
I quoted earlier; Tate Modern by Jaques Herzog (1950) and Pierre
de Meuron (1950), Bankside Power Station in London built
between 1955 - 1963 and designed by Giles Gilbert Scott (1880),
which was regenerated as a museum for contemporary art
between 1995 and 2000; and Norman Foster’s plan for the Free
University in Berlin, originally designed in 1967 by Candilis, Josic
and Woods.
140
See Figures 38 to 42. The new buildings by these
architects obviously inspire today’s architecture students in Delft,
but their regenerated buildings also deserve to be discussed.
Immutability
I have twice quoted Mieras, an architecture critic who commented
on the developments in the 1940s and ‘50s. His outspoken views
about the future can be placed in the context of his views of
architecture: the art of building, resulting in a perfect work of art
when the works are completed. The idea that an architect would
consider the potential extension or change of their building in
advance was completely incompatible with his vision. Hence, he
was scathing about the fact that Roosenburg, when designing the
Rijksverzekeringsbank in Amsterdam, had already considered the
extension of the building by two hoors:
Architecture is not the form in which the requirements
are cast, but the form in which the architectural
programme based on the requirements is implemented as
an architectural concept. […] Hence, if this building was
the realisation of an architectural concept, then this
realisation would therefore be completely dependent of
the number of employees of the Rijksverzekeringsbank.
141
140
K. Powell, Architecture Reborn (London: King, 1999) 24-27 (Lingotto) and
224-227 (Tate Modern). N. Foster, “The Economy of Architecture,” in: Henket,
Back to Utopia, 26-37 (Free University Berlin), 26-37.
141
J.P. Mieras, “Het nieuwe gebouw der Rijksverzekeringsbank te Amsterdam,”
Bouwkundig Weekblad Architectura, no. 28 (1940): 208-214. See also: Zijlstra,
Bouwen in Nederland 1940-1970, sub section 4.1: Rijksverzekeringsbank
Amsterdam.
ABCD research method ■ 51
Even now, a few generations later, architects sometimes cannot
accept any changes to their buildings. In his theses ‘Kader en
generieke ruimte’ (Framework and generic space), my colleague
Bernhard Leupen (1943) compared some statements by Mies van
der Rohe en Aldo van Eyck (1918-1999).
142
Mies van der Rohe,
whom I quoted earlier, said ‘Only a clear expression of the
structure could give us an architectural solution which would
last.’ Van Eyck made the following comments about the
Burgerweeshuis (1957-1960), an orphanage for 125 children in
Amsterdam which he designed:
Another programme, another organism, that demands a
different building with a different structure and a
different nature. [...] A structure with such flexibility
would have led to an unacceptable neutrality = like a
glove which does not suit anyone, because it fits all.
After being left empty for years, the Burgerweeshuis initially
housed an architects’ college and now the head ofhce of Esprit
Nederland. Fortunately, this glove was not tailored as tightly as
Van Eyck assumed. Bernhard Leupen concluded ‘Given the
current, different, use of the Burgerweeshuis it appears that Mies
was right.’ Structure is an element which is also considered in my
method.
If a building loses its function or no longer meets the
requirements then it is likely to be demolished. Politicians and
project developers may value a building or site quite differently
than architects, who are interested in what exists now.
Incidentally, the term ‘developers’ suggests that they build on
something which exists already. The views expressed by George
van Gent, director of DTZ Zadelhoff (estate agents and project
developers), in 1997 about the redesign of existing buildings
provide a good example of the attitude of many property
developers. However, he does change his position during the
discourse.
142
B. Leupen, Frame and Generic Space (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 2002), 64:
D. Spaeth, Mies van der Rohe (New York: Rizzoli, 1985), 117 and 89 and
A. van Eyck, “De milde raderen van de reciprociteit,” Forum no. 5 (1960):
205-206.
When we asked George van Gent, director of DTZ
Zadelhoff in Rotterdam, if there is a growing interest in
early post-war offices and industrial buildings his
immediate reply was ‘no’. He cannot image that there is
any real interest in reconstruction architecture. ‘After the
war, many ugly and impractical buildings were built, and
only a few attractive and usable ones. There were many
issues they didn’t have to worry about at the time: there
was no legislation on workplace conditions, they could
use asbestos, and large glazed areas were fine, although
they lead to large energy losses. If you have to deal with
all that, it’s better to demolish the building’ [...] ‘There’s
nothing wrong with demolition, is there? You shouldn’t
take the preservation of buildings too far. Buildings are
constructed for a particular function. If they look
beautiful then that is appreciated by everyone. But if they
lose their function then that’s it. That’s not a problem, is
it? The objective is to have functioning buildings, not to
preserve them, with the exception of some special and
historic buildings. The reconstruction buildings simply
don’t meet that requirement. Investors have a clear
criterion: they want to get a reasonable return on their
investment, and the value should increase in the long
term. The building must also be let to a tenant, otherwise
the investment has a negative value.’ [...] Van Gent also
claims that the desire for preserving the bank buildings at
the Blaak is partly related to their appearance.
He admires the brick facades and extensive
ornamentation of the exterior and interior. ‘I hope that
there will be options for a good use of the bank buildings,
preferably while preserving their facades. But you do
have to find a use for the buildings. They have many
restrictions. However, they did not skimp on the building
costs, something which affected many other early post-
war buildings. The dimensions are a problem when they
are used for something other than a bank.
The basements contain many safes, the ground floor has
counters, and the floors above are deep offices where
the clerks used to make the bank transfers. If the
buildings cannot be used as offices and are used for
52 ■ ABCD research method
other purposes, such temporary accommodation for the
Hogeschool Rotterdam college then that detracts from
the Blaak. It is a road of first class offices, and it should
stay like that. However, I think that the RO Theater using
the Salvation Army building on William Boothlaan is a
good solution. It has a positive impact on Witte de With-
straat and is a compatible use as the building already
includes a theatre. The former Mees & Hope building at
the end of the Blaak has also found a suitable use now
that it houses the Art College. Another building with a
special impact, the Stationspostkantoor (station post
office), with an area of 20,000 m
2
, is still vacant, despite
its perfect location next to Central Station. Given the
height and depth of the floors it would be difficult to
convert to offices. It would be good to come up with a
different function for it, particularly as it is on a good site
close by the railway. Architect Rob van Erk suggested
creating a large double-height space and I think that’s a
good idea. However, he will have to get the owner
interested, because a costly adaptation which results in a
lower rental income isn’t going to help the owner. But I
do think that the owner will be interested, because the
building isn’t generating any income now. However,
demolition isn’t a decision to be taken lightly either, as it
is extremely expensive. Initially, an owner will not want
to demolish a building. But if there are no other feasible
functions then you can hardly leave it empty.
143
!ncidentally, the main beneht of regeneration to project
developers is the shorter construction period.
Demolition
We can use the statements by former Professor of property
economics Frits Seyffert (Delft University of Technology, Faculty
of Architecture) to put Van Gent’s approach in perspective. In
1995, Seyffert addressed the impact of the demolition of
143
G. Cate, G. ten and D. Dubbeling, “Een gebouw is er voor de functie.
Niet overdrijven,” Bouw (May 1997): appendix, 34.
buildings. Like Aylward, who I quoted earlier, he referred to the
energy lost as a result of demolition and decay. He also
explained, that given a long-term view (which project developers
rarely take), the assignment can be viewed in a different
perspective:
If we demolish an old building, then we have to be aware
of the twofold environmental impact. Firstly, the
demolition waste will have to be landfilled somewhere.
Apart from the high costs of that these days, we are now
turning our planet into one large waste tip. Secondly, the
building constructed to replace the old one will use a lot
of non-renewable energy and resources. Finding a new
purpose for a building will have a much lower
environmental impact. Another advantage is that, in
relative terms, an old building will age less quickly than a
new one. The new building still has to prove if it will have
any value in the future. If a building is already
considered as a monument today, then its historical
value will only increase. An investor who takes a long
term view, which means most of them, may consider this
as compensation for any initial reduction in the return on
investment.
144
The next two quotations concern the volume of construction and
demolition waste in the Netherlands. In 2000, Arthur Rauwerdink
described an attempt made by a housing association in
The Hague to sell reusable building components:
The large-scale restructuring of residential areas will lead
to some major demolition projects in the next few years.
The current volume, 16 million tons of demolition waste
per year, is likely to double. By sending less to landfill, by
reusing it or supplying it to industry as a secondary raw
material we can help close the building materials cycle.
[…] Every year, 16 million tons of building and demolition
waste are generated in the Netherlands. Ten million tons
of this are generated by residential and non-residential
144
F. Seyffert, “Kan idealisme een drijfveer zijn?” in: P.G. de Boer, Oude fabrieken
nieuwe functies (Zeist: projectbureau industrieel erfgoed, 1995) 10.
ABCD research method ■ 53
construction projects. The government’s objective was
that 90% of the waste should be reused by 2000. That
target was reached in 1997. Most wood which cannot be
reused is incinerated, for example to generate energy.
Hard materials are crushed and used in civil engineering,
as site fill and foundation material. Although these forms
of reuse result in significant environmental benefits they
are still low-grade. Given the potential uses of the
materials, there are options for improvement, for example
by slowing down the decay of building materials. Reusing
materials in their original form and function is the best
guarantee for that. [...] Late last year, the Federation of
The Hague Housing Associations (HaagWonen, Staedion
and Vestia) and the municipality of The Hague started a
feasibility study on the reuse of demolition wastes. […]
In the next five years, over 10,000 houses will be
demolished in The Hague. Over 60% were built after the
war. And 60% were refurbished in the past 15 years.
145
Similarly, Rypke Zeilmaker referred to the large volume of
construction waste, in 2004:
The Netherlands is at the top in Europe in terms of the
use of building materials. We use no less than 12 tons of
building materials per capita, on average other countries
use half of that. The limited space available forces us to
recycle. Every year, the Dutch produce 26 million tons of
construction waste. For comparison, the figure for 1980
was 6 million tons.
146
He described a method for recovering aluminium as a raw
material, by methodically removing it from the buildings and
collecting it, before demolition. As there is a large volume of
waste and the costs of landhlling are high, recycling soon
becomes hnancially attractive in the Netherlands:
145
A. Rauwerdink, “Hergebruik voor tweederde onder de nieuwprijs,”
Gebouwbeheer, no. 1 (2000): 20.
146
R. Zeilmaker, “Nederland recyceld er lustig op los,” Delta no. 5 (2004): 2.
Housing association Vestia Den Haag Zuid-Oost started a
pilot project in the Spoorwijk district of The Hague in
November 2000. Over the next six years they will be
demolishing 1,300 dwellings in that area. The first tranche
of 430 dwellings has now been ‘sustainably demolished’.
[…] The objective is to offer these materials, which are
literally as good as new, for sale at a price two-thirds
below the price of new materials. […] High-grade reuse
also reduces the volume of waste, saves waste disposal
costs, reduces the need for primary resources, and
makes relatively cheap used building and installation
components available. These benefits mean that
sustainable demolition is attractive for management,
environmental and financial reasons.
147
With respect to demolition there is another aspect worth
mentioning: copyright. Earlier, I referred to Van Eyck’s
Burgerweeshuis. For years there were plans to demolish the
building. However, it was saved after a campaign by architects,
led by Herman Herzberger (1932). It was used to house the
Berlage Institute which had been set up in that period.
Under Dutch law, an architect’s copyright is only protected
against changes to a building. The law does not provide
protection against the demolition of a building. For example,
architect Jelles tried to save his Wavin factory in Zwolle, but was
unsuccessful:
The High Court ruled that the demolition of the Wavin
building did not infringe Jelles’ intellectual property
rights. According to the High Court, the demolition of a
building which is the expression of a work protected by
copyright is not considered as a ‘violation’ of the work
within the scope of the copyright legislation. This means
that, in principle, an architect cannot obstruct the
planned demolition of a building. Hence, demolition is
permitted. However, according to the High Court, this
does not mean that the building owner is always entitled
to demolish the building and that the interests of the
147
Ibid., 21.
54 ■ ABCD research method
architect are subjugated to the powers of the building
owner. Depending on the situation, demolition may be
unjustified. The owner may only be permitted to demolish
a building if there are justifiable reasons and after the
building has been suitably documented. In this way the
High Court provides some accommodation to architects.
148
The case took hve years, from 1999 to 200+, while the Wavin
plant had been demolished in 2003. Jelles died before the High
Court made its decision on appeal. At the time, the arguments in
favour of demolition were as follows:
The building could not be reused as housing for the elderly
due to the presence of asbestos and the high cost of
converting the building. Similarly, the community centre
did not want to be housed in the former office block.
Consequently the municipality decided to demolish the
building. However, Jelles objected against that. The
municipality consulted then Government Architect Wytze
148
“Sloop en auteursrecht,” http://www.archined.nl/archined/3880.0.html,
(accessed February 9, 2004) and http://www.vandersteenhoven.nl/index.
php?pageid=71 (accessed April 22, 2004).
Figure 50: Disassembly of the Aviodome (1971) by Buckminster Fuller.
The dome was disassembled and stored for some time, before hnding a
new use as a church in Lelystad. A technician’s head is just visible, at the
bottom centre.
From: de Volkskrant, November 30, 2003.
Patijn. He commented ‘Hence, I conclude that you can
indeed consider the demolition of the Wavin building and
that there are no decisive arguments against this.
However, I would recommend that the building is
documented in detail, given its historical and architectural
significance.
149
Regeneration
Sometimes, buildings are relocated rather than demolished.
See Figure 50, Buckminster Fuller’s Aviodome and Rietveld’s
(1888 - 1964) Aula Wilgenhof in Hoofddorp which was
reconstructed by Bertus Mulder (1929). Occasionally architects
are asked to regenerate their own buildings. Herzberger
developed plans for a new music performance centre in Utrecht
in which only the concert hall he designed earlier would be
retained. Tauber was asked to redesign the Provincial Library in
Leeuwarden while maintaining the exterior walls and load-
bearing structure. The study of this library is included in this
book. The original architect will know better than anyone else
what the principles of the original design were. However, they
may not be able to take the step back which is needed to
approach the building as a new assignment. The case of an
architect regenerating a building they designed themselves is
more likely to occur if legislation makes it possible to list buildings
constructed less than 50 years ago.
To provide a real opportunity for regeneration, the parties
initiating the project have to prepared to consider this approach.
Occasionally, when several initiatives lead to good results, there
is a preparedness to participate. In 1997, Herman Meijer,
alderman on the Rotterdam town council, supported ‘Design-
based study’ competition referred to earlier. He compared the
design challenge with the option of demolition:
149
“Sloop en auteursrecht,” http://www.archined.nl/archined/3880.0.html,
(accessed February 9, 2004).
ABCD research method ■ 55
Such interest, even if it is a private initiative, helps to
protect a building. In itself, the detailed analysis and
documentation of a building is an impediment to its
demolition. […] To preserve these buildings [included in
the assignment] you will have to defend yourself against
allegations that you are conservative and against renewal.
In Rotterdam there is often a strong urge to ‘get rid of
the old stuff’. So, you have to show that a building can
be used for other functions and that the transformation
provides a better result than new building. So, we are
talking about ‘quality’, although that’s a frightfully
fashionable term. In these buildings you can see an
interesting historical series of layers, in the form of
beautiful brickwork, high ceilings and details which would
simply be too expensive to include in new construction.
And you get that quality given to you for free.
150
Meijer gave the following example of good practice:
With his new building for the Hogeschool Rotterdam
college at the Kruisplein, Jan Hoogstad leaves De Doelen
intact; not a single piece of marble will be removed. But I
admit that others might not agree. Hoogstad’s plan is on
the edge, as it imposes a major programme requirement
on a site of limited dimensions. And that leads to
conflicts. In my view, a city should be able to
accommodate that. However, not all architects can deal
with that.
151
However, in my view, this design in particular does not suggest
that a study of the type Meijer refers to was done before the
new design was made. The new buildings dominate the original
Doelen building. See Figures 43 and 44.
Similarly, Wijnand Galema, when discussing the design
challenge, indicated that they wanted to get away from the
conservative approach normally applied to monuments:
150
G. ten Cate, and K. de Graaf, “Gestolde sociale geschiedenis. Wethouder
Herman Meijer over belangstelling voor wederopbouw,” Bouw (May 1997)
appendix, 32.
151
Ibid., 33.
A study concerned with the transformation of recon-
struction era buildings as an architectural challenge.
The position of the Committee for the Reconstruction of
Rotterdam was that a defensive approach, purely aimed
at conservation, did not have adequate support with
respect to the reconstruction architecture in the dynamic
city of Rotterdam. It would be better to view these
buildings as raw materials, waiting for a second period of
use. Furthermore, conservation would mean ignoring the
innovations (structural engineering, new typologies,
multiple uses of the site, mixed functions) which are
often typical of this architecture.
152
The location of existing buildings has a major impact on their
potential reuse. According to a study carried out in Hamburg in
1996, the location is the main reason why businesses decide to
move into a listed monument instead of a new building.
The architecture of the building came second. The identihcation
of the users with the building was also given as an important
reason to invest in a monument. Seventy percent of those
interviewed, mostly businesspeople, would again choose a
monument when relocating. In general, the costs of
refurbishment were lower than the costs of demolition and new
building, and the atmosphere of the buildings was highly
appreciated. Natural ventilation was considered as essential, and
all technical modihcations were found to be feasible. !t was
expected that there would be even fewer problems in the future,
due to the growing use of wireless communications systems. The
study identihed the following tasks concerning the preservation
of monuments: the need for academic research into the
protection and maintenance of monuments, and creating broader
support in society by demonstrating how monuments can be
used.
153
In my view these aspects also apply to buildings
constructed between 1945 and 1970. These buildings hold
promise for the future. In 2003, halfway during the demolition,
part of the Stationspostkantoor in Amsterdam was temporarily
152
Galema, “Wederopbouw in wegwerpcultuur,”: 5.
153
N. Haß, and V. Konerding, Studie zu gewerblich genutzten und gesetzlich
geschützten Denkmalen in Hamburg (Hamburg: Denkmalpflege Hamburg,
1996).
56 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 43 and 44: The Doelen in Rotterdam, 1966, designed by E.H and H.M. Kraaijvanger (1899-1978) and (1903-1981) and the extension in
2000 by J. Hoogstad (1930). From: Devolder, 1992 and photograph by the author, 2004.
Figures 45 to 47: Stationspostkantoor in Amsterdam, partly demolished and partly regenerated to temporary accommodation for the Stedelijk Museum.
Photographs: the building site before the new construction work started, new stairs in the museum and the ceiling of the restaurant, by the author,
2004.
ABCD research method ■ 57
reused to house the Stedelijk Museum and various architectural
and design practices.
154
See Figures 45 to 47 and 257.
I have included the following quotes by Henket and Michelle
Provoost (1964) because their ideas can be applied in practice in
the regeneration of buildings. Henket:
The attitude is still that new construction is better than
using old buildings. The burden of proof should be
placed on the client: they should prove that demolition is
better than leaving the building. They should provide
evidence for that, only then should it be possible to
amend development plan to permit demolition. […]
But we have to balance preservation, conservation,
modification and new building in terms of their social
impact and the visual cultural aspects. That building has
created a history around it; I don’t want to sound like an
arty-farty architect, but you’ve become attached to that
building.
155
We only think in terms of new building. We
are not yet attuned to maintaining objects or to their
different use.
156
Henket also emphasised that we should not only be concerned
with changes to the existing situation, but also with the way new
buildings are designed:
I believe that we should create much more pragmatic
buildings, which accommodate different user demands.
That means that the architecture will also change.
That doesn’t matter, architects should not be afraid of
that. If they are, then they haven’t designed a good
building. Hence I think that all those overdesigned
buildings, which your publication tends to feature, are
154
M. Zwarts and R. Jansma, “Zwarts & Jansma architecten ontwerpt tijdelijke huis-
vesting voor het Stedelijk museum in Amsterdam,” http://www.zwarst.jansma.
nl/article/1004.943.html, (accessed March 18, 2004). Apart from the Stedelijk
Museum it housed Het Packhuis, the Zwarts & Jansma and Jo Coenen & Co
architectural practices and Restaurant 11. See: Zijlstra, Bouwen in Nederland
1940-1970, sub section 4.5: Stationspostkantoor Amsterdam.
155
Henket, ‘The proof of the pudding remains in the eating,’: 49.
156
G. ten Cate, R. Rovers, ‘Opdrachtgever moet bewijzen dat slopen zinvol is.
Een interview met Hubert-Jan Henket,’: 36-38.
pointless. They can’t meet the demands which will be
made of them at one time or another. It is the job of an
the architect to help the client determine what his
choices are, and that it is also a choice not to meet all
the requirements of the functions he wants to put into it,
because of operational issues.
157
Striking a balance between conservation and change is a
challenge the architect is faced with when designing around an
existing building. In this context, Michelle Provoost of Crimson
Architects uses the term ‘re-architecture’:
The value of the rearchitecture concept lies in its
advocacy of preserving the paradox: in allowing
incompatible buildings, components or concepts to
coexist. It is not possible to define an all-encompassing
principle for this, in fact, a general concept will only be
an impediment. Allowing incompatible concepts to
interact can contribute to the unpredictable creation of
something which is truly new.
158
According to Provoost, architects should work as follows:
Designers should look for latent architectural qualities in
the old building. The new design may not be based on an
all-encompassing concept, but perhaps on the smallest
detail. For the architect, this method means that the
unique aspects of the existing building create a closer tie
between the design and the construction work. During
both the preparation and the construction period the
architect will have to be more involved, and present on
site, than during a new build project. The remit of the
architect is being extended, in that all aspects from
concept through to completion have to be monitored
constantly.
159
157
Ibid., 36.
158
M. Provoost and W. Vanstiphout, Re-Arch. Nieuwe ontwerpen voor oude
gebouwen (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 1995), 33.
159
Ibid., 35
58 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 48: Exterior of the DOK public library in Delft. The regeneration of a supermarket where specihc qualities inspired a surprising approach by
Liesbeth van der Poll (DOK) and Aat Vos (AEQUO). The library was completed in 2008.
Photographs by the author, 2008.
ABCD research method ■ 59
Hence, Provoost agrees with Renzo Piano’s recommendation
which I quoted earlier:
What is called industrial design is more appropriate than
what is called architecture, because there’s a unity of
process - a better connection. The designer has to invent
the whole manufacturing process, not just the finished
product. An architect can learn a lot from the motor
industry, not high-tech, just perfection.
160
Without the past there would be no future, and change depends
on continuity. A creative reuse, from chair to city, as Latham and
Bakema put it, can result in a built environment which shows the
layers of time, and is therefore rich in visual elements and
experiences. Sometimes demolition is the obvious choice, and
there is no need to preserve everything. However, a selective
approach in which repurposing, reuse and regeneration are
seriously considered offers many opportunities for developing a
rich variety of properties. The views of architects should help
convince politicians and clients of the opportunities in the
Netherlands. Buildings from the period 1940 - 1970 offer
particularly good opportunities as they are not yet affected by
listing which would require conservation. The question arises if
the ABCD method can be applied to all buildings. Yes, in
principle that is possible. However, the building should have
enough features of interest to justify such an investigation. When
selecting the buildings for my PhD research I chose buildings
whose context inspired me to draft, assess and develop my
method. This includes buildings which initially would not seem to
demand such an investigation. However, during the investigation
elements may become apparent which justify it. Hence, the
ABCDresearch method has proven itself in supporting, and
possibly initiating, a regenerative approach to buildings in the
Netherlands.
160
A. Nahum, “Italy’s Brunel,” Blueprint (April, 1989): 53.
I developed the following hypotheses in relation to the research
theme of regenerative conclusions:
1: When dealing with existing buildings, before any design work
is commissioned, and in addition to studying contextual
factors such as the brief, site and architects, a thorough
investigation should be undertaken of the design history of
the building to determine the potential for adaptation which
can lead to regeneration of the building. Only then will it be
possible to decide on any interventions.
2: The options for regeneration of a building will be increased if
more funding is available when it is built, and fewer
resources are available during the life of the building.
3: The mutability which allows for the regeneration of a building
could be a starting point for the design of new building
projects. This could lead to socially acceptable buildings,
where continuity is guaranteed by the mutability. Hence, the
buildings will have a long life and be sustainable, and their
appearance will be attractive in the long term: Continuity +
Changeability = Durability
60 ■ ABCD research method
ABCD research method ■ 61
3 ABCD research method
Past, present and future: these were the key elements of my
PhD research. Studying buildings led to a link with the past.
Investigating the history of the creation of a building became
almost addictive, and I felt compelled to discover, collect and
study everything. From this wealth of information obtained in the
observation stage, I had to select the elements to use for the
analysis and then to draw conclusions about future use. Past,
present and future were relevant to all the buildings I studied.
These three periods resulted in the three levels of analysis in the
ABCD research method. When dealing with buildings, we are
interested in their creation, current existence, and future
existence (or, sometimes, decay). The objective of my method is
to identify the qualities of a building which we have to consider
when we want to stop its decay and shape its future.
I use a number of terms in my research which I will explain
in this chapter. However, ! will hrst discuss the method itself.
After that I will explain the Building Construction Matrix which is
used to draw conclusions. Finally, I will discuss the application of
the method, using the Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden
as an example.
The objective of my research is to emphasise that all the
aspects of a building, as discussed above, have to be analysed.
The inhuence of construction engineering, the extent to which
we can learn from it, and the way in which the building can
accommodate change all determine the chances a building will
get to survive as the sum of continuity and change. Careful and
creative analysis of the information obtained in the research and
drawing conclusions further to this can help us make discoveries
to support the redesign of a building and to help us understand it.
The objective of my PhD research was not to develop a
method for assessing the value of buildings in general. The
values of a building are determined by the whole of the complex
factors which are relevant, as well as the specihc factors at the
time the building is assessed. The relevant factors vary greatly
from one building to another. They are largely determined by the
attitude of the individuals or bodies who want the building’s
value to be assessed. The determination of a value is always a
subjective assessment.
161
Qualities
The concept of ‘value’ or ‘valuation’ is associated with many
questions. However, it always arises during a construction
engineering, construction history or cultural history investigation
of a building. This is particularly relevant with respect to
architecture from a period where not all buildings have value, as
in this case the architecture from the period 1940 to 1970 in the
Netherlands. In the context of building technology research I
refer to ‘qualities’, in the neutral sense of the word.
162
Quality as
Noud de Vreeze (1948) described it:
The concept of ‘quality’ can be interpreted non-judgmentally:
quality in the sense of nature or condition, without making a
value judgment. However, in day-to-day use, the concept of
quality usually includes an assessment of that condition.
In this sense, quality is generally associated with good,
valuable, with a nature which is appreciated. In expressions
161
Collins English Dictionary, Glasgow 1998: value: 2 an amount, esp. a material or
monetary one, considered to be a fair exchange in return for a thing; assigned
valuation.
162
Collins English Dictionary, Glasgow 1998: quality: 1 a distinguishing characteris-
tic, property, or attribute; 2 the basic character or nature of something; …;
4 degree or standard of excellence, esp. a high standard.
62 ■ ABCD research method
such as: ‘the quality of a building’ or ‘aiming for quality in
housing’ reference is made to undeniably positive properties,
however, in ‘an analysis of the quality of a building’, the term
usually has a less judgmental meaning. Quality is discussed
in relation to all aspects of society, politics, culture,
engineering and the economy. We talk about the quality of
health care, or the quality of the interpretation of a piece of
music by Bach.
163
Much has been said and written about quality. Examples include
the discussions about the qualities of reconstruction period
architecture and the policy documents which Building Aesthetics
Committees in the Netherlands had to write until 2004. Again
these focus on quality.
164
Even in 1959, Coenraad Temminck Groll (1925) was already
writing about ‘old values and aesthetics'. He identihed six forms
of value: due to 1. age, 2. rarity, 3. history, 4. art, 5. urbanism
and 6. use. He also had a personal view on renewal and change,
based on restoration:
In general we can argue that renewal will reduce values
1 to 5 and only increases the use value. […] Until the
beginning of the last century, the new which replaced the old
was never decidedly ugly. […] … that when something old is
replaced by something new, even if the new object has an
equal art value, there will always be a loss.
165
163
N. de Vreeze, Woningbouw, inspiratie & ambities. Kwalitatieve grondslagen van
de sociale woningbouw in Nederland (Almere: NWR, 1993), 22.
164
See e.g.: J. Huisman, “Lelijk is geen argument,” Vrij Nederland, June 12, 2003,
62-66 and: M.C. Kuipers, Toonbeelden van de wederopbouw. This book aims to
give a more positive image of reconstruction period architecture by presenting
some outstanding examples.
165
C.L. Temminck Groll, “Oude waarden en welstand,” Bouw no. 4 (1959): 94-97.
The building aesthetics policy documents were supposed to
objective rules, which could be understood by everyone, to
assess buildings, primarily in aesthetic terms. In my view this is
an impossible task. Given my seven years’ experience as a
member of the Building Aesthetics and Monuments Committee in
Delft, I am aware that it is almost impossible to assess aesthetics
on the basis of objective criteria. The assessments are subjective,
but are given an air of objectivity by the policy document on
aesthetics.
However, research using the ABCD research method is
guided by the following themes: technological observation,
research analysis, and regenerative conclusions. These three
themes link the contextual elements and building elements in
terms of the creation, existence and decay or continued
existence of the building. The objective qualities of a building
range from a rough sketch of the site through to details of
durability and sustainability. In my view, all qualities are
interrelated. The following two quotes concern the two qualities
of a building which may be considered to be objective:
Tjeerd Dijkstra (1931) in 2001:
This observation means that one of the most important
quality characteristics of the composition is the least tangible
and therefore the most difhcult to assess. After the
discussion of concepts such as function and construction,
object and context, clarity, complexity and associative
meanings, we lack the words for what is really the essence of
a composition: the proportions. There is only one way in
which we can learn to master the qualitative aspects of that:
practicing by looking [at architecture], often, alert and
perceptively, and - for architecture students: designing, and
exchanging experiences with others. In this way, our
assessment of proportions can develop a more general,
intersubjective character. However, it will never be possible
to objectively dehne good and bad proportions.
166
166
T. Dijkstra, Tj. Architectonische kwaliteit (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 2001), 20.
ABCD research method ■ 63
Eoin Cofaigh in 1999:
Quality of architecture at the state of the hxture or htting
involves suitability for use, durability in performance, and
visual delight. Suitability for use involves ergonomic
considerations, especially for those who are not able bodied
or strong, and correct selection of materials, related to the
functions they will support. Durability of performance
involves proper length of life, taking all costs into account
including the environmental. Delight derives from elegance,
style and the contribution to the building’s architecture made
by even the smallest details.
167
In studies using the ABCD research method it is essential to
start by gathering as much relevant information about the
building as possible in the observation stage, from the following
sources: the literature, the building itself, archives and
interviews.
168
As I indicated earlier, the people who live or work
in a building, who use it and maintain it, are an important,
informative and often entertaining source of information. On all
my site visits, I have met building and facility managers who
were truly proud of their building, or faced its demolition with
tears in their eyes.
The second research stage, the analysis stage, involves the
structuring, analysis and interpretation of the information
obtained. In the third stage, drawing conclusions, we arrive at
conclusions which cover all three periods.
167
Cofaigh, A Green Vitruvius. Principles and Practice of Sustainable Architectural
Design, 2.
168
O. Nacel refers to the building and original drawings and models of the building
as primary sources, and the literature and interviews as secondary sources.
See: O. Nacel, ¨Historical Research," in: De Jong, Ways to study, 61.
Figure 49: Interior of the DOK public library in Delft. The regeneration of a
supermarket where specihc qualities inspired a surprising approach by
Liesbeth van der Poll (DOK) and Aat Vos (AEQUO). The library was
completed in 2008. Photographs by the author, 2008.
64 ■ ABCD research method
3.1 Frame of reference
Building Construction in time matrix, or ABC matrix. When this
matrix is combined with the considerations based on the
contextual factors it forms the regenerative conclusion of the
ABCD study of the building.
Such studies need a uniform terminology, hence I will
address this issue hrst. The ABC matrix is then extended to
form the ABCD matrix. Finally, I will explain why I decided to
develop the method on the basis of my study of the Friesland
Provincial Library in Leeuwarden.
I will now discuss the terms related to building technology
research. I will now explain how I interpreted them and applied
them in my research. The terminology of the themes which guide
the research: technical observation, research analysis, and
regenerative conclusions was discussed in detail in Chapter 2.
Context
The contextual part of the study concerns the factors relating to
the context of the building: brief, site, architect, typology and
design process. However, the emphasis is always on the building
and its current condition. The contextual factors have affected
the creation and existence of the building and will affect its decay
or continued existence. The aim is not to document the complete
history of its creation, but to gather the information relevant to
the creation of the building and its current and future condition
(the three periods).
When structuring the information, the list of items to be included
in a study following the ABCD research method is used to
demarcate the information.
169
The hrst part of the study concerns the context. It analyses
the contextual aspects (brief, site, architect, typology, and design
process), one after another, over all periods. The information
provided by observation is sifted to obtain the contextual
information which is or was relevant to the design, creation,
existence and decay or future existence of the building. Where
typology is concerned we should not only consider a functional or
chronological order of buildings, based on building types.
Instead, the buildings should be analysed primarily on the basis
of a spatial typology, as the spatial conditions will remain, or may
have to change when the function of the building is changed.
The second part of the study considers the building in
greater detail and initially considers the following periods:
creation, existence and decay/continued existence. The building
is then analysed on the basis of the following aspects: space
(interior and exterior); structure (load-bearing structure and
elements which determine the structure); materials (the dehnition
of space by materials, determined by: light, colour, texture,
surface, sound, radiation, smell, dimensions and weight); building
services (plant and installations to support climate control,
comfort, maintenance and communications).
Analysing the four elements at the three levels (periods)
leads to a matrix at the level of the whole building: the Analysing
169
When developing this list I referred to the following publications: Benes, Voldoet
dit gebouw? Het bepalen van de functionele kwaliteit. H. Frey, “Building Conver-
sion,” in: Markus, Building Conversion and Rehabilitation. Designing for Change
in Building Use. Latham, Creative Re-use of Buildings. Vol. 1. Principles and
Practice. N.J.M. Nelissen, Herbestemming van grote monumenten, een uitdaging
(’s-Hertogenbosch: Adr. Heinen, 1999). J. Molema, Antonio Gaudí, een weg tot
oorspronkelijkheid (PhD diss, Delft University of Technology, 1987).
ABCD research method ■ 65
Figure 51:
The International
Institute of Social
History commissioned
Atelier PRO to
regenerate the Willem
I warehouse in
Amsterdam, originally
built in 1963 designed
by C. Wegener
Sleeswijk. Photograph
by the author, 1987.
66 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 52 to 54:
Section and plan of
the Provincial Library
in Leeuwarden with
the heights of the
rooms indicated by
shades of grey
(the lighter the shade,
the higher the room)
and the same plan
with the functional
characteristics in
1960. See also
research element 4.3.
Adapted by the
author, from: Tauber,
2000.
ABCD research method ■ 67
Example of a typology:
set of buildings:
type (function):
type (space):
So ‘type’ is not the same as ‘typology’. Within a typology,
buildings are classihed by a number of common characteristics.
The terms ‘type’ and ‘typology’ are regularly confused. Often,
typological descriptions are no more than a common,
chronological listing of a number of buildings of the same
functional type.
170
In my view, a typology goes beyond this and
should add at least one layer to this list. By combining several
type characteristics we develop a categorization of buildings
where the classihcation or recognised qualities of a building are
not solely determined by the function. This categorization is
relevant when a building still exists, but its function has been
changed. The same building might fulhl a different function. In
this way we can identify aspects which relate to options for
changing the building. Hence, a study based on the ABCD
method includes several ways of considering a building as a type,
in which the function is only the hrst layer. The typological
approach may be different for each particular building, to provide
the most useful information for the study as a whole. Hence, it
may be possible to include a building in several typologies. Here,
function will normally be one of the aspects considered, but this
is not strictly necessary.
170
See e.g.: N.A. Pevsner, A History of Building Types (New York: Princeton
University Press, 1979). He is correct in not referring to it as a typology, however,
others quote this work as an example of a typology: Nacel, ¨Historical Research,"
in: De Jong, Ways to study, 66. See also: Typologie van stationsgebouwen,
part of a graduation project, Delft 1987, in which Hielkje Zijlstra and Marvin
Nieuwenhuis used this multiple typological approach to develop a typology.
Brief
This describes the reasons for deciding to construct the building.
The aspects relevant here determined the decision to construct
the building in the hrst place, and the functions to be fulhlled by
the building at that time. The client, schedule of requirement,
local authority regulations and other constraints will be discussed
in so far as these determined the design, construction and
appearance of the building and the options available for the
future. Socially relevant aspects can also be included here.
Site
This includes town planning aspects associated with the building.
Again, we are only concerned with historical issues which
affected the design, construction and appearance of the building
and the options available for the future.
Architect
Obviously, the architect or architects originally responsible for the
building have to be considered, but there is no need to include a
complete monograph on them. The building is placed in the
context of the other work by the architect(s) or the practice in
which they worked. Occasionally, personal circumstances,
contacts or other jobs may have affected the design of the
building. If the designing architect made statements or used a
particular method relevant to the research themes then I include
such information under ‘conclusions’. Architects who later
modihed the building are included under `building, passage of
time’. Hence, ‘architect’ refers to the original designers.
Typology
Before looking at the building as such we place it in the context
of its typology. We can distinguish:
Type: group of objects marked by common characteristics
and qualities. Concerned with function.
Typology: system of a number of types whose buildings have
some common characteristics.
museums libraries
hall corridor atrium
schools
public buildings
68 ■ ABCD research method
Umnutzung und Folgekosten erbauter Anlagen published in 1985,
identihed the value of comparative typological studies (in
additional to historical studies), which can provide an opportunity
to understand the factors which determine the continuity of a
building:
A new building or reconstruction in historical clothing or turning
the forms of town planning into a new architecture as a
declaration of loyalty to the present? An important basis for this
decision is provided by an analysis of types of buildings. Such an
analysis establishes the constant factors which have come about
as a result of historical development, cultural inhuences,
requirements as regards utilisation, technical standards and
climatic conditions.
171
For each building we can identify the typology which is most
relevant to our work. Some examples: function + architect,
function + historical development of the type, function + space,
or space + materials. By comparing several studies undertaking
using the ABCD method, possibly of the same type, we can
identify links or common factors which provide a more useful
outcome than that resulting from an arbitrary set of unrelated
studies.
Spatial typology
If several buildings are studied using the ABCD research
method, then the typology is relevant to the selection of the
buildings. Here we are concerned with the f which combines the
type of building based on the function with the type of building
based on the spatial qualities. Example: a library is a type of
building, and a square building arranged around a courtyard
(atrium) is a type of building. One example of this typology,
function + space, can be applied to the Friesland Provincial
Library in Leeuwarden. See hgures S2 to S+.
171
P.P. Schweger et al, “Dealing with Available Building Space,” in: Reuse and
Subsequent Costs of Buildings (Stuttgart: Krämer, 1985), 5.
There are several options for dehning sets of buildings.
Gene Bunnell used a relatively abstract approach:
172
„ public buildings
„ commercial buildings
„ industrial buildings
„ residential buildings and hotels
„ churches and institutional buildings
„ educational buildings
Nicolaus Pevsner (1902-1983) rehned the classihcation with types
based on functions and proposed the following list:
173
„ national monuments (and monuments to genius)
„ government buildings, 11th - 17th century
„ government buildings, 18th century: houses of parliament
„ government buildings, 18th century: ministries and public
ofhces
„ government buildings, 18th century: town halls and
law courts
„ theatres
„ libraries
„ museums
„ hospitals
„ prisons
„ hotels
„ banks and exchanges
„ warehouses and ofhce buildings
„ railway stations
„ market halls, conservatories and exhibition buildings
„ shops, stores and department stores
„ factories
So each set of buildings includes several other types. Given that
the function of a building can change, it would be inappropriate
to select buildings purely based on one property. The building
itself, the space it provides and occupies, makes it possible to
distinguish types of buildings. Consequently, there is the need to
use a typological approach to selecting buildings, as described
172
G. Bunnell, Built to Last; a Handbook of Recycling Old Buildings
(Washington: Preservation Press, 1977), 3.
173
Pevsner, A History of Building Types, 5.
ABCD research method ■ 69
above. Building type classihcations are often based on function,
e.g. dwellings, ofhces, stations, museums, etc. There are only
few classihcations by type which are not primarily arranged by
the function of the building.
174
Even lists of buildings which have
found new uses are initially arranged on the basis of their new
function.
175
When the function changes a building is transferred
to a different functional type, while the spatial type
characteristics remain the same. A typology that includes spatial
characteristics is more useful when we are concerned with the
regeneration of buildings.
Example: Tate Modern London has been classihed as a
museum since 2001, while it was originally a power station. This
introduces a dilemma when classifying buildings by their function.
When a building is described as a type, by spatial or structural
characteristics, it does not matter if it is a museum, station or
power station.
176
See Figures 55 to 57. This emphasises the value
of applying a typology in the ABCD method which is based on
spatial characteristics rather than types based on functions.
Here, Rietveld’s approach is relevant. His architecture was
based on creating spaces in which various functions could be
provided, rather than on the function of the building as a whole.
Apart from creating architecture, we also have to recognise these
factors. Rietveld described this as follows:
Seeing what an object intends to be, making a visual
correction, is not something everyone is able to do. It is one
of the most interesting aspects of our profession. A
construction has its own appearance, but now we can say:
the appearance should not be determined by the
construction, but by the function of the building (i.e. a
representation) and it is odd that for some time we thought
that was necessary. If you immediately construct that
representation and you immediately make a town hall into a
town hall, and a school a school, in terms of appearance, yes,
174
A start is provided by: F.D.K. Ching, Architecture. Form, Space & Order
(New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1979).
175
See e.g.: Powell, Architecture Reborn, 4-5. This distinguishes: ‘Living & Working’,
Leisure & Learning’ and ‘Museums Transformed’. Both the Museum of Contempo-
rary Art in the former Hamburger Bahnhof station in Berlin and Tate Modern in
the former Bankside Power Station are included under ‘Museums Transformed’.
176
R. Moore and R. Ryan, Building Tate Modern, Herzog & de Meuron Transforming
Giles Gilbert Scott (London: Tate Gallery Publishing, 2000).
Figures 55 and 56: Design drawing for Tate Modern in London, 1995, by
Herzog & de Meuron and the removal of the hoor of the turbine hall in
1997. From: Moore, 2000.
70 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 57: Tate Modern after regeneration. Photograph by the author, 2004.
then you get a sort of traditional formalism which really does
not have anything to do with architecture. In that case you
would often have to hide the construction, and that is an
unhealthy approach which can never lead to a clear result,
unless the construction is so interwoven with the function
that they both use the same vocabulary of forms. But that
will happen only rarely, and only when following examples
which have been developed and accepted long ago. If the
building is composed of more elements or if it is a completely
new building then we hrst have to select the construction to
match the function. The better the function is dehned, and
the better the plans are and the better the internal and
external areas have been judged and the better the
construction matches them, the fewer visual corrections will
be needed and the easier it will be to design the building.
The nature of the building will be correspondingly purer and
clearer. !f the division of functions, dehnition of spaces,
construction and installation are right the hrst time then this
will lead to strong and clear architecture. It takes a lot of
experience to get it right the hrst time, and if you do not get
ABCD research method ■ 71
structures.
178
These concepts create the link between ‘building’
and ‘architecture’, from context to detail. These elements largely
determine the appearance of a building. This applies with respect
to design, construction and the end result. Of course, other
aspects are also relevant, but these three elements are used in
the ABCD research method as the key analysis elements for the
building in terms of the themes and the three levels (periods).
I added the element ‘services’ (building services plant and
installations).
Space
‘Space’ refers to both the space occupied by the building and to
the space created inside the building. Space is a decisive element
in the experience, operation and options provided by a building,
over time. Space is largely determined by its boundaries and the
interfaces between those boundaries. These boundaries are
generally created by materials. Dimensions, light, colour, texture,
sound, timbre, smell and atmosphere are other aspects which
determine how we experience space.
Structure
‘Structure’ refers both to the load-bearing structure and the
system of measures used. By analysing plans, cross-sections and
elevations we can learn about the elements which lend a
structure to the building. This structure (in the sense of
organisation or arrangement) is contained in the volume, form,
system of measures, construction, texture, space and materials.
The structure is generally determined by the space, the division
of the key dimensions into system dimensions, the boundaries of
the space and therefore by materials. The building services
installations can also lend structure to a building. They form their
own structure, although this generally takes second place to the
load-bearing structure.
178
W. Röling, De kunst van de ingenieur, de verantwoordelijkheid van de architect
en zicht op Delft (Amsterdam: University Press Salomé, 2002), 13.
it right at once then you can try to make adjustments, but
there really is not much you can do. Hence, the right building
will essentially appear by itself, and a good example of
architecture is a spontaneous creation, although it may take
a lot of perseverance to maintain that spontaneity.
177
Design process
Here we are concerned with the way in which the concept for a
building is developed and what considerations and events were
relevant to this. An analysis of the information obtained from
interviews, the literature, photographs, models and drawings
allows a division into chronological steps of the development of
the design and the design method, and helps to understand
them. The key question is why certain choices were made at the
time, to help us understand the answers and solutions. We have
to identify the essential aspects and starting points which have a
major impact on the continued existence of the building.
This process is affected by many factors: changes in the
construction industry (with delegation to consultants and
subcontractors), tendering procedures, construction project
teams, aesthetic criteria and discussions with ofhcial bodies
about regulations, requirements and legislation. Additionally, the
hnancial aspects of a design are assessed during the process.
The outcome of that will often affect the design and therefore
the design process. These factors also inhuence the preservation
and maintenance of a building and affect the options for making
changes. The requirement of intervening in a building ‘with
respect for what exists’ can only be met if we have an adequate
understanding of the creation and existence of the building.
Building Elements
Wiek Röling (1936) referred to the following concepts in his
leaving address as professor of non-residential construction at
Delft University of Technology: space, materials and structure.
These related to the remit of his chair: spatial and material
177
F. Bless, Rietveld (Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1982), 236-237.
72 ■ ABCD research method
Materials
Materials implement the structure and space, and also play a key
role in our experience of the atmosphere, mood and wellbeing.
The ageing of the materials used may have a positive or negative
impact. Light, colour, texture, surface, timbre, radiation, smell,
size and weight are all factors which determine how we
experience materials. The use of materials is often an indicator of
the timelessness of a building.
Services
The building services installations are not always simply added on
to a building. They are also determined by the space, structure
and materials. Building services may be integrated with or
separate from other elements. They may affect the system of
dimensions of the space, structure and materials. The building
services are important when designing or redesigning a building
given legislation and regulations, and the requirements
concerning climate, comfort, maintenance and
communications.
179
Time Levels
The time aspect was referred to in the dehnitions above.
For these studies, it is essential that the elements of the
buildings studied are placed in time. Hence, the elements space,
structure, materials and services are studied at the three time
levels of analysis.
What was meant to be
Once the design is complete, the building is constructed.
However, design activities usually continue until the building has
been completed. Often the changes made further to late
179
Building services installations such as climate control systems often determine
the options available when looking for new uses for post-war buildings. Increas-
ingly, the ceilings will be too low for the installation of new building services
plant.
There is a need for inventive solutions. See: J. Parkes, “Towards the Fully
Integrated Building: Serving Post-War Buildings,” in: Macdonald, Preserving Post-
War Heritage, 43-54.
decisions, possibly inhuenced by the construction process, have a
major impact on the end result. Making things, the construction
method, techniques which have to prove themselves, are often
only tested in practice. Changes in the schedule of requirements,
regulations, legislation, budget cuts or deferred decisions can
have a major impact on the design as it is built, and the
possibilities and impossibilities for future use.
What has been
We are studying existing buildings in a context which is subject
to change. As mentioned earlier, everything changes, eventually.
There are many things which can happen to a building during its
lifecycle, which inhuence its current condition. Time itself, in
terms of aging, is one aspect. Over time, the building owners
make changes and interventions in the original design. The
extent to which the original design principles are respected, the
choices made, and the requirements to be fulhlled are all aspects
to be included in a study. When considering change, the funding
available for making changes is also important. When
constructing a building it is advisable to make investments which
have a long life, even though they may have a higher hrst cost.
My PhD research showed that during the lifecycle of a building a
limited budget often benehts the qualities of that building more
than a generous budget.
What is to be or not to be
The results from the analysis levels discussed above provide the
input for an assessment of the options available with respect to
the building in the longer term. The original concepts and
changes over time are analysed to draw conclusions about the
qualities and potential of the building.
Investigating the elements space, structure, materials and
services at the three time levels of analysis produces the
Analysing Building Construction in Time matrix: the ABCMatrix.
When the matrix is combined with the considerations based on
the contextual factors it forms the regenerative conclusions of
the ABCD research of the building.
ABCD research method ■ 73
Figure 58:
Multifunctional halls of
Twente University of
Technology, designed
by Van Embden,
Choisy Roorda van
Eysinga, Smelt and
Wittermans in 1963.
Still in use by artists
in 2005 but
unfortunately
demolished shortly
after that. Photograph
by the author, 2005.
74 ■ ABCD research method
3.2 Matrix
The Analysing Building Construction in time matrix (ABC matrix)
which I used earlier, only incorporates study outcomes which
relate to the building itself.
180
At that time, the contextual aspects
were not included. However, these contextual aspects can also
be analysed at the three time levels to draw conclusions which
180
H. Zijlstra, “Analysing Building Construction in Time, the ABC£ Research Matrix”
in: G. A. Yildiz (ed.), SHH07, Studies on Historical Heritage (Istanbul: Technical
University Research Centre for Preservation of Historical Heritage TA-MIR, 2007),
67-74.
are relevant to the future existence of the building. The ABC
matrix can be extended with the contextual factors to result in
the ABCD matrix. This provides a summary of the key hndings
of the studies. In the study of the Friesland Provincial Library in
Leeuwarden this was developed using the following matrix:
meant to be has been to be or not to be
Brief
Site
Architect
Typology
Design process
Space
Structure
Materials
Services
ABCD matrix
ABCD research method ■ 75
From the range of buildings studied for my PhD research
I selected the Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden
(Tresoar) as an example to illustrate the ABCD research
method. The building was the result of a design competition and
has an apparently timeless neutrality in plan and section as well
as the choice of materials for the interior and exterior. See
Figures 59 to 61. Furthermore the original architect, Piet Tauber
(1927), was asked to regenerate the building extensively at the
end of the twentieth century. There were only modest changes
to the exterior of the building. The original design, plans and
sections facilitated change. This is an excellent example of:
Continuity + Changeability = Durability In a recent survey of
architecture in the Province of Friesland, the Provincial Library
was described as ‘... undoubtedly one of Friesland’s most
remarkable 1960s buildings.’
181
Piet Tauber, working with his son Frans, was given the
opportunity to completely refurbish the building which had been
in use for 30 years, and to ht it with the latest technology,
without affecting the original design. In fact, this provided an
opportunity to develop the original concept better and more
clearly than was possible in 1966. An essential element of this
regeneration project was the role given to the original architect
in the regenerative design process.
After the opening in 1966, the local press commented ‘You can
immediately see that a building has been created which will
withstand the centuries. Now it is a new building, but there will
come a time when it will have a history.’
182
In 1966, when the
building had 50% more space than needed, librarian Sjoerd
Douma (1912-1980) commented ‘The library will grow faster than
181
J. van der Bout (ed.), Bouwen in Fryslân 1940-2000 (Leeuwarden: Friese Pres
Boekerij, 2000) object 61.
182
“De Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland in zijn nieuwe paleis,” Franeker
Nieuwsblad, October 7, 1966.
you would expect. But we hope to have spare capacity for around
thirty years.’
183
Thirty-three years, later, at the time of the second handover
after the regeneration in 1999, librarian Gerard van den Broek
wrote ‘A building has a rigid structure which can only be changed
with great effort and corresponding cost. Often one would rather
leave the old, inadequate building than modify it. However, some
built structures appear to be so hexible that they can apparently
effortlessly accommodate the new functional requirements made
of them. The building of the Friesland Provincial Library proved to
be one of those.’
184
183
“Friesland heeft weer plaats voor zijn boekenschat,” Friesland no. 5 (1966):
12-14.
184
P.H. Tauber, F. Tauber en G.J. van den Broek, De Provinciale Bibliotheek
Friesland. 40 jaar ontwerp- en bouwgeschiedenis (Leeuwarden: Provinciale en
Buma Bibliotheek, 2000), 30.
3.3 Application of the ABCD research method
76 ■ ABCD research method
ABCD research method ■ 77
Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden
This example shows how the ABCD research method is applied.
The following three chapters cover all aspects, from context through to
detail. Perceptions and appreciation change over time. We want to identify
the qualities of the building so we can drill down to the essence. There is
RIWHQDFRQÀLFWEHWZHHQtime and quality. Especially when analysing
buildings with a view to their redesign it is important to be aware of all the
elements which made the building into what it is today. We have to
understand the building during the different stages of its lifecycle before we
can add a new stage.
Apart from written documents, illustrations are also essential.
The interpretation of the information obtained during the study (archives,
literature, interviews, etc.) is expressed in the analysis of the visual material.
The conclusions do not provide guidelines for a new design. Instead, the
comprehensive TXDOLW\LGHQWL¿HVWKHqualities which allow for an affective
consideration of the changes based on an understanding of the building.
Finally, the contextual factors and building elements of the library are
summarised as the three time levels in the ABCD matrix.
78 ■ ABCD research method
ABCD research method ■ 79
4 Context
4.1 Brief
In 2000, the Friesland Provincial Library housed not only its own
collection of 450,000 items (compared with 290,000 in 1968), but
also the Buma Bibliotheek collection. The history of this collection
goes back to a legacy left in 1876 by Dr. L. A. Buma.
The collection includes documents in Latin and Ancient Greek,
available for loan throughout the country. In 1977 this collection
included 45,000 items.
185
From 1849 to 1897 both libraries were housed in the Palace
of Justice at the Zaailand in Leeuwarden, and from 1897 to 1939
in the Chancery. The Chancery dates from the sixteenth century
and was originally built as the Friesland court. It was
subsequently used as a hospital, prison, library, archives and
museum.
186
See Figure 62. The library management had saved
the funds for a dedicated building, which they moved into in
1934. From 1934 to 1966 the Buma Library was housed in a
building at Grote Kerkstraat, as an independently operating unit
of the Provincial Library. As the library had limited opening hours
and required few personnel it was merged with the Provincial
Library in 1955.
187
The Provincial Library was based on the collection of
Franeker University (1585 - 1811). A royal decree was issued in
1843 to the effect that part of the Provincial Archives and Library
were to provide public access.
188
At that time the collection
included 11,000 books and in 1852 a dedicated reading room was
185
D.W. Kok, “De Buma Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden. Bibliotheekbeschrijving,”
Open: vaktijdschrift voor bibliothecarissen, no. 6 (1977): 307-312.
186
G.P. Karstkarel, Leeuwarden 700 jaar bouwen (Zutphen: Terra Publishers, 1985),
26-28.
187
S. Douma, “Een nieuw gebouw voor de Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland en
voor de Buma-Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden,” Bibliotheekleven no. 44 (1959): 112.
188
J.J. Huizenga, Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van
de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek (Leeuwarden: Provinciale en Buma
Bibliotheek van Friesland, 1991), 5.
opened. The Provincial Library was officially opened on 1 October
as a public library for study purposes. Until 1921 the post of
librarian was combined with that of national archivist. After that
the library had its own director. From 1941 to 1977 the library
was headed by Sjoerd Douma (1912 - 1980), who previously
worked as a junior librarian at the Delft College of Technology.
Initially the people of Leeuwarden objected as Douma was not
from Friesland. However, he turned out to be an inspiring leader
and held a number of national and provincial offices.
The National Archives and Buma collection were moved to
different sites in 1936 but even so it was concluded in 1939 that
the Chancery building was too small for the collection. Hence,
sections of the collection were moved to alternative sites.
189
During the Second World War the conditions under which the
books were stored, as well as in the reading room, were
particularly poor. In winter they could not be heated above
11 degrees and the reading room could only accommodate
28 visitors. See Figure 63.
In 1957 the collection was still spread across four sites in the
city but plans were being developed for a new building. In 1959
the minimum age for library users was reduced from 18 to 16, as
a result of which many secondary school students went to the
quiet library to do their homework. The lack of space for library
users and shortage of facilities grew, as did the need for new
accommodation. From 1961 on, the library suffered from serious
space shortages in the Chancery. As a result it was not possible
to absorb major collections, and at the same time the number of
loans increased to 33,000 per year.
190
189
“Friesland heeft weer plaats voor zijn boekenschat,” Friesland no. 5 (1966): 13.
190
“Friesland heeft weer plaats voor zijn boekenschat,” Friesland no. 5 (1966): 12.
80 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 59: Aerial photograph of Leeuwarden with the Provincial Library. Adapted by the author, from Wetting, 2000.
ABCD research method ■ 81
Figures 60 and 61: Provincial Library in Leeuwarden in 1968 and the plan of the upper hoor in 2000. From P. H. Tauber archives and Tauber, 2000.
Figure 62: The Chancery (1571) where the
Provincial Library was housed. From Leeuwarden
in contrast, 1999.
Figure 63: Reading room in the Chancery. From Huizenga, 1991.
82 ■ ABCD research method
In 1947 the Provincial Executive of Friesland decided that the
Provincial Library needed a dedicated building. Once that was
built, the Chancery would only have to accommodate the
National Archives. In 1951 a site was bought on Turfmarkt, but
two years later it was sold to the PTT. The Oldehoofsterkerkhof
was selected as the new site.
The Provincial Competition
Council appointed a building committee and they had to whether
to appoint an architect directly, or select one after an open
competition. Library director Douma was in favour of the first
option as he thought there should be close cooperation between
the architect and the librarian to develop a good design.
However, at the end of 1953, the Provincial Council decided to
hold a competition:
Not a single large library had been built in the past
25 years: a competition would attract architects’
attention; it would give good young architects an
opportunity; a commission would face the administration
with a difficult choice between a few well known
architects.
191
A schedule of requirements had to be drawn up. This took long
as it was first necessary to decide on the functions to be
accommodated in the building. The Municipal Library and Fryske
Academy were also to be integrated. When considering these
issues, not having an architect to discuss the potential impact of
the various options on the design was considered as a
disadvantage.
The procedure to develop a schedule of requirements made
slow progress. Eventually the Provincial Executive proposed that
the Chief Government Architect, Jo Vegter (1907-1982) from
Leeuwarden, be asked to develop a plan. However, in 1955 this
proposal was rejected, due to pressure from the Royal Institute
of Dutch Architects (BNA) and an open competition was
launched. The schedule of requirements was finally completed in
the summer of 1955 and included the following key requirements:
191
Huizenga, Vijfentwintig jaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de
Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek, 17.
public awareness of the Provincial Library and Buma library
should be improved; a hall would be required for lectures and
exhibitions and there should also be two meeting rooms; there
should be open shelves for some 15,000 books and it should be
possible to give tours of the building.
192
Until 1985, when the new
Provincial Hall was opened, the Provincial Council held its
meetings in the large hall of the new library.
193
A jury was appointed to judge the results of the competition.
Its members included: J.A.G. van der Steur (1899 - 1966) (then
chairman of the BNA)
194
, W. Bruin (architect), W.J. Gerretsen
(architect), D. Tuinstra (architect and chairman of the Provincial
Building Aesthetics Committee) and Douma, the librarian. Douma
gathered extensive information on the subject and visited
libraries in: Groningen; Leiden; The Hague; Delft; Rotterdam;
Copenhagen; Malmö; Halmstad; Göteborg; Stockholm and Århus.
He also studied the libraries in: Cologne, Wiesbaden, Heidelberg,
Tübingen, Fulda, Marburg, Paderborn, Lugano, Bern, Heidelberg
and the Zentralbibliotheek in Luzern which opened in 1954.
Douma also visited the library in Enschede which had recently
been completed. In his view, the library in Luzern was a
particularly good example for the Friesland Provincial Library.
195
By 1 May 1958, 165 designers had entered the open
competition. The designs were judged in twelve meetings.
Because of the large number of submissions, the jury period of
three months was extended by another three months.
The conclusion was that no winner could be selected. However,
one second prize was awarded, to Onno Greiner (1924), and
three third prizes were awarded, to Hendriks and Van der Velden,
Van Ooy and Tauber, while Kelderman received a commendation.
See Figures 64 and 65.
192
Douma, “Een nieuw gebouw voor de Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland en
voor de Buma Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden,” 214.
193
Huizenga, Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de
Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek, 21.
194
J.A.G. van der Steur (1899 - 1966) see: Bouw no. 36 (1966): 1388.
195
Huizenga, Vijfentwintig jaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de
Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek, 18.
ABCD research method ■ 83
Figure 65: Perspective drawing of Tauber's hrst design for the competition, `2712S8'. From Tauber, 2000.
Figure 64: Greiner's hrst design for the competition. From `Prijsvraag voor bibliotheekgebouw te Leeuwarden’, 1959.
84 ■ ABCD research method
The jury advised the Provincial Executive to hold a closed
competition as a second stage, or even to select the design
which won the second prize as the basis for the design. Douma
disagreed with this. Despite the protest of the rest of the jury, he
submitted a minority report to the Provincial Executive with a
different award of the prizes. Furthermore, he did not want a
further competition to be held. Instead he wanted to work with
one of the architects on his short list.
196
However, the
competition did have its use in that four architects in their early
thirties received prizes. In January 1959 all 165 submissions were
shown at an exhibition in the Leeuwarden Exchange.
It was decided to hold a closed competition among the four
prize-winning architects. The jury was extended with P.E. van
Krevelen of the Provincial Executive and, at Douma’s request,
with M. van Elsen of the Enschede library. Douma also managed
to get some changes made to the schedule of requirements, such
as a strict separation between the Provincial Library and the
Buma collection. Greater attention was to be given to the
position of the lending desk relative to the entrance. Furthermore
the lending desk personnel would have to be able to keep an eye
on the visitors in the central hall and in the open shelves section.
Tauber’s plan
After four meetings, Tauber from Alkmaar, then aged 32, was
selected as the winner of the second competition. See Figures 66
and 67. Douma was not in favour of Tauber’s design for the first
round ‘In my view, the structure of the “271258” (Tauber) and
“BOOM” (Van Ooy) designs is in appropriate. In design “271258”
the lack of separation between the administrative section, lending
desk and reading room of the Provincial Library do not appeal to
me.’ At that time he preferred Greiner’s design. However, he did
see many shortcomings in it, some of them insurmountable.
Hence he proposed that Greiner be awarded second place and
that Van Ooy and Tauber should only receive a commendation.
Even in 1968 the architectural profession still had some
doubts about the selection of the winner of the second round of
196
S. Douma, “Prijsvraag Bibliotheekgebouw Leeuwarden,” Forum no. 2 (1959): 47.
the competition in 1968.
197
According to Tauber, the reason that
he was eventually commissioned was that he was the only one of
the four architects who had made a completely new design for
the second round. At the time he thought that this was the only
right way to respond to the criticism on his first plan, and to
meet the revised requirements. According to him, the other
architects had only adjusted and detailed their original designs.
In 1960 the whole concept of competitions was criticised.
197
A. Buffinga, “Commentaar. Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden,”
Bouw no. 16 (1968): 590-591. He wrote “I do not believe the rumours according
to which the notes with names had been seen before the prizes were awareded.
They shouldn’t say things like that, especially as it is unlikely that the members
of the jury would not have guessed the sources of the four designs in this round
given their presentation.”
Figures 66 and 67: Perspective drawings, Tauber’s Perystilium design for
the second competition. From Tauber, 2000.
ABCD research method ■ 85
In a letter to Greiner, who was disappointed by the outcome,
Professor Peter Pennink advocated the use of competitions to
generate ideas but felt that they were not the best way of
translating the schedule of requirements into the perfect design
‘A client who, after initiating a competition based on a fixed
schedule of requirements and a given site plan, has high hopes is
likely to be disappointed when the results are announced.
The competition in Friesland put a greater emphasis on the
development of the requirements (which obviously had some
flaws) than on presenting a concept. Hence, a second round was
unavoidable.’
198
198
P.K.A. Pennink, “Een brief over prijsvragen. Beste Greiner….,” Bouwkundig
Weekblad no. 8 (1960): 451.
In principle, Tauber was happy about the cooperation
between architect and client, which is what Douma envisaged at
the start of the project. In 1990 he wrote ‘It is important to me
that the client has spontaneity. I need somebody who responds,
that really helps me. On the other hand, especially as I do listen
so much to my clients, participating in a competition is a
liberating experience.’
199
In 1964, Tauber said the following about the importance of
‘the brief’ ‘In my view, and more so than “function/purpose”,
“brief” refers to: the whole range of factors, the use it is put to,
the nature of the client, the social aspects, the interrelationship
199
H. de Haan and I. Haagsma, Tauber Architecten. Bouwen naar opdracht
(Haarlem: Architext, 1990), 17.
86 ■ ABCD research method
with the surroundings and the place in the overall urban
structure, and as many expressions of human relationships and
activities.’
200
The client's response was to play a signihcant role in the
development of the plan for the library. Additionally Tauber’s
introduction to then Chief Government Architect Vegter which
resulted from winning the competition was to have a signihcant
impact on the practice of the young Tauber. The projects which
resulted from this included the embassy in Washington and the
National Archives in Friesland which were to be built close to the
Provincial Library at the edge of the Noordelijke Bolwerk
fortihcations in Leeuwarden. The way the competition for the
library in Leeuwarden was held did not have a signihcant adverse
impact on the relationship between Tauber and Greiner. On the
contrary, they were still good friends in 2002 and regularly met
through the ‘de Roosenburg Groep’.
201
200
P.H. Tauber, Bouwen naar opdracht, inaugural address, Delft University of
Technology 1964, 11.
201
Interview with P.H. Tauber, 3 January 2002. “De Roosenburg Groep” was named
after architect Dirk Roosenburg (1887 - 1962) from The Hague who set the group
up. Tauber attended the tour of the KLM building in The Hague in 1956 or 1957
which was given by Roosenburg, see:research element 4.1: National Insurance
Bank, Amsterdam. On that occasion, Roosenburg proudly presented the building
services plant rooms and commented “You don’t have to be able to do all this
yourself, but you do have to understand it,” which Tauber always remembered.
Tresoar
Since 2000 the number of users visiting the Provincial Library in
person has fallen. However, in 198S it was one of the hrst libraries
in the Netherlands to introduce a computer-based catalogue.
202
The number of visitors to the library has fallen as the catalogue
can now be accessed over the Internet and photocopies and
digital data can be sent by post. In 2001, the library developed
plans for greater cooperation with the National Archives next
door, especially as their visitor numbers were rising. Certain
functions could be merged. As of 1 September 2002, the
Provincial Library, Buma library, the National Archives, the
Friesland Literary Museum and Documentation Centre have
cooperated under the name Tresoar (Frisian for ‘treasury’). As the
buildings were linked, the activities of the library and the archives
are now combined. In future, the extension of the storage space
for the Tresoar may be combined with space for a new Friesland
Museum.
202
G.J. van den Broek, “Het vernieuwde huis vol verhalen, 500.000 boeken aan de
Boterhoek” and Tauber, De Provinciale Bibliotheek Friesland. 40 jaar ontwerp- en
bouwgeschiedenis, 35.
ABCD research method ■ 87
4.2 Site
The Friesland Provincial Library was built on a site in Leeuwarden
with a long history: the Noorder Plantage (Northern Plantation)
on the former rampart and at the square in front of the
Oldehove, the tower of a church which was never completed.
See Figure 68.
In 1435, three villages on mounds (Nijehove, Oldehove and
Hoek) were combined to form the town of Leeuwarden.
203
Even maps from the thirteenth century already show the
Oldehove, the earliest inhabited part of the current town centre
of Leeuwarden.
204
See Figures 69 and 70.
The tower of the former church at Oldehove (built between
1529 and 1633) became the symbol of the city of Leeuwarden.
!n 1S83 the hrst earth embankments were built as defensive
structures, adjoining the Oldehove site. These were extended in
1620 and demolished in 182+. This was one of the hrst cases in
the Netherlands where the defensive structures around a town
were demolished. The site of the rampart then became a town
park. However, plans were soon developed for the construction
of a number of large public buildings which could not be
accommodated elsewhere, e.g.: a prison, a hospital, stables for
horses and a mercantile exchange. However, the park-like
northern part of the original rampart was mostly preserved as it
did not fall victim to large-scale urban expansion. It is now
known as the Noorder-Plantage and has incorporated the
Prinsentuin gardens since 1652.
205
In the nineteenth century the
housing shortages were solved by expanding into areas outside
the city borders, rather than within the town. There was only
limited house construction between the old boundary of the inner
203
Karstkarel, Leeuwarden 700 jaar bouwen, 9.
204
A. Jager, “Leeuwardens vroegste verleden op de schop,” www.gemeentearchief.
nl/oldehove.html (accessed Februari 28, 2002). Also published in: Leovardia,
no. 2 (2000).
205
Karstkarel, Leeuwarden 700 jaar bouwen, 64. The planting of the former
ramparts was designed by L.P. Roodbaard.
town and the Noordelijke Plantage. See Figures 71 to 74.
These working class areas were redeveloped in stages, between
1950 and 1966. See Figures 75 and 76. They were replaced by a
number of public buildings such as the Provincial Library and
National Archives, on an open site along the canal.
206
The remaining greenery was incorporated into a green walking
route through the town. Later a second route from the town
centre, through the Oldehoofsterkerkhof would connect to it.
See Figure 78.
In 1964 it was decided to provide access to the centre of
Leeuwarden by creating a system of main access roads.
The north access road was not built outside the core of the city
centre, instead it ran between the Oldehoofsterkerkhof and the
rampart. As a result, this busy route isolated the green zone from
the city centre. The Oldehoofsterkerkhof was used as a site for
transferring parcels to messengers for delivery and as a car
park.
207
See Figures 77 to 81. Plans for an underground car park
under the square were hrst developed in 2000.
208
The entrance
to the car park was designed as a slope parallel to the Boterhoek,
the busy ring road between the library and the Oldehoofsterkerk-
hof. In 2002 Tauber made his own plan for the redesign of the
Oldehoofsterkerkhof. The plan by architect Fons Verheijen (1949)
of the VVKH practice in Leiden was implemented in 2006.
See Figures 83, 84, 245 and 246.
206
R.A.F. Smook, Binnensteden veranderen (Zutphen: De Walburg Pers, 1984),
132-135.
207
P. de Groot, “Jeugdherinneringen: de jaren vijftig onder de Oldehove,” Leovardia
no. 1 (2000): 21-24.
208
Tauber, De Provinciale Bibliotheek Friesland. 40 jaar ontwerp- en bouw-
geschiedenis, 43. The plan for the underground car park and the square were
made by VVKH architects in Leiden, working with Fons Verheijen. Other plans
were proposed in 2002. The pedestrian route from the city centre would cross a
bridge to reach the Noorder Plantage. Tauber resisted the plan in the press. See:
P.H. Tauber, P.H., “Oldehoveplein vraagt om totaalvisie,”Leeuwarder Courant, (25
November 2002) and P. Groot, “Brug te veel,” Leeuwarder Courant, 30 November
2002, 9. The excavations for the underground car park started in 2005.
88 ■ ABCD research method
When the 1957 competition was held, the connecting
road was assumed to be in the place where the ring road was
built later. In 1959, Tauber designed one building mass
surrounded by greenery, with the main entrance on Boterhoek:
I chose a single mass because of the cultural nature of
the building and the site near the square and the
rampart. A rotation relative to the border of the plot both
strengthens its independence from the rest of the road
and enhances the effect of the wall on the square relative
to the rest of the space of the square. The single,
extended facade enhances the effect of the Oldenhove.
The partly raised pavement, which serves as an
extension of the rampart, emphasises the relationships
between the square, the building and the rampart. To the
right of the building there is space for parking nine
cars.
209
Hence, the library building was not constructed parallel to the
ring road, but slightly offset from the imaginary plot line parallel
to that road. As a result, the building was positioned in the park
and more detached, but still formed the wall at the end of the
Oldehoofsterkerkhof. This line could even be recognised in the
hrst plan, in 19S7. A further study showed that the front elevation
could actually be parallel to a connecting line between the former
blocks of buildings on the other side of the Oldehoofsterkerkhof.
This line soon became unrecognisable when the block on the
east was demolished to create space for the construction of the
new town hall. Tauber claimed that he determined the direction
of the front elevation instinctively and that it was not related to
the direction of the blocks on the other side of the large square.
See Figure 82.
A key feature of the site was the slope of the rampart,
which stands out in the hat surroundings. The difference in
elevation was used in the design of the building. This allowed
part of the mass on the park side to disappear into the slope
while the semibasement on the side of the street could be htted
with roohights and could therefore be used as a working area.
209
“Besloten prijsvraag bibliotheek Leeuwarden,” Bouw no. 5 (1960): 37.
In 1998 good use was made of the slope to create more storage
space. The semibasement was excavated to the west, into the
rampart. See Figures 85 and 86. In exchange for this land, the
freestanding storage and plant building on the east side,
between the National Archives and the library had to be
demolished. This created space for the connection between the
city centre and the Prinsentuin. However, this was never actually
created. In 2004 an air bridge was built between the library and
the archives, and in 2005 a fence was installed underneath it.
See Figure 247. The area between them was closed off due to
problems with homeless people and the staff car park. Tauber
considered the fence to be particularly ugly. It will probably be
moved back in 2009 and painted dark blue.
210
Starting in 1988
the Boterhoek became the cultural centre of Leeuwarden with
the library, National Archives, Fryske Academie, Fryske
Kultuerried and the Dutch Open University.
211
In 2007 the
Leeuwarden Historical Centre was built on the other side of the
National Archives. Since 2006 the Oldehoofsterkerkhof has again
been used as a square and forms part of the area. An ice skating
rink is built here in December and January. See Figure 68.
However, in 1966 the solution seemed a long way away:
Much has changed in this area. The many old houses
behind the circular wall of the cemetery have been
demolished and they have been replaced by this
impressive new building designed by P.H. Tauber.
The wall around the garden has been demolished and
they are now creating a sloping bank there. A street is
being created in front of the new building and they are
working hard on placing this book palace into a harmonic
environment. So, there is still much to be changed at the
Boterhoek.’
212
210
Interview with Sijbe Sevenster on 3 December 2008 and phone call with
Frans Tauber on 4 December 2008.
211
“Friesland heeft weer plaats voor zijn boekenschat,” Friesland no. 5 (1966):
12-14.
212
“De Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland in zijn nieuwe paleis,” Franeker
Nieuwsblad, 7 October 1966.
ABCD research method ■ 89
Figure 68: The Provincial Library seen from the Oldehoofsterkerkhof, with a skating rink being erected, and the National Archives to the right.
Photograph by the author, 2008.
Figures 69 and 70: Leeuwarden in 1200 and 1400. From Toekomstbeeld. Structuurplan van de gemeente Leeuwarden, 1971.
90 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 71 and 72: Town plans of Leeuwarden, from 1825 and 1980. From Smook, 1984.
Figures 73 and 74: Details of the 1825 and 1980 plans of Leeuwarden. From Smook, 1984.
ABCD research method ■ 91
Figures 75 and 76: The buildings which used to be on the site of the Provincial Library, and the library during the building works in 1999.
From Leeuwarden in contrast, 1999.
92 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 77 and 78: Structure plan for Leeuwarden, 1971, showing the main access roads, greenery and one of the pedestrian routes to the Noorder
Plantage. From Toekomstbeeld 1971 (left) and from Brouwer, 1995 (right).
Figure 79: Aerial photograph of Leeuwarden and the surrounding area,
with the Noorder Plantage marked. From Brouwer, 1995.
ABCD research method ■ 93
Figure 80: Around 1960 the Oldehoofsterkerkhof
was used to transfer parcels from vans to
couriers or local delivery. The difference in
elevation between the square and the
Boterhoek is clearly visible. From Viruly, 1960.
94 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 81: Aerial photograph of the Oldehoofsterkerkhof being used as a car park, around 1982. From Viruly, 1972.
ABCD research method ■ 95
Figure 82: Site plan, 1967. From Tauber, 2000.
Figure 83: Final situation as designed by
architect Fons Verheijen of VVKH in Leiden, with
the entrance and exit to the car park in the
centre of Boterhoek. From Tauber, 2000
Figure 84: Tauber’s 2002 plan for a square at two levels.
From Tauber, 2002.
96 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 85 and 86: Part of the back of the library disappears into the rampart.
Side elevation with the semi-basement extension built in 1999, now completely overgrown.
Photographs by the author, 2008.
ABCD research method ■ 97
98 ■ ABCD research method
4.3 Architect
the De 8 and Opbouw architects and the traditional inhuences in
the Wieringermeer area. In 1943 he still draw a romantic cottage.
But when the schools were closed September 1944 he designed a
secondary school along functionalist lines. In his secondary school
essays he always wrote about architecture and explained that at
hrst he admired the honesty of the mansions in the Het Gooi area
because the oak beams were visible. After reading a 1936 issue of
Bouwkundig Weekblad (Architecture Weekly) devoted to Gerrit
Rietveld until it fell apart, he appreciated the honesty of Rietveld’s
work with its spatial compositions of white planes. In this way he
discovered that -isms develop when one aspect of the overall
vocabulary of architectural elements is isolated and emphasised.
As a result of this development he wanted to familiarise himself
with the whole held, and use it in his work. During his studies at
Delft and throughout his career he always took an impressionistic
approach, reacting spontaneously to a brief.
At Delft University of Technology
When he started his course at the Architecture Department of the
Delft Technical University in 1946, Tauber was keen to start
designing for real. However, he hrst had two years of studying
architectural forms and the basics of construction engineering.
This approach was based on centuries of practical training. First
you had to learn about construction, and then do it. Later, when
he became a lecturer and professor he regretted it when this
system was abandoned. But as a hrst year student he was
unhappy about it and together with some other students he wrote
a letter to architect Jacobus Oud (1890 - 1963) who regularly
wrote in De Groene Amsterdammer in favour of modern
architecture. He was against the traditionalism advocated by
Marinus Grandpré Molière (1883 - 1927) who, was the only
professor of architecture in Delft in the immediate post-war
Pieter Hendricus Tauber was born in April 1927, in the area within
the West Friesland ring dyke, where it meets the Alkmaar town
centre along the Frieseweg (road). At that time this was part of
the municipality of Oudorp.
213
The factors which guided his
development as an architect included: growing up in a family
involved in building construction, his school in the village of
Oudorp, which was almost as peaceful as it had been in the
nineteenth century, and the rural countryside around Alkmaar.
These environs instilled a yearning for clarity and simplicity in
him. His mother was good at drawing and sewing and
encouraged him to draw, tinker and assemble cardboard models.
He started by drawing hollow trees with gnomes living in them,
and then gradually went on to drawing houses. His father was a
building site supervisor and, at home, also made construction
drawings for someone planning to build his own home. Hence he
taught his son the basics of the profession and became his most
important source of inspiration. In January 2002, Tauber
compiled a book of 80 impressive drawings his father made while
at technical school when he trained as journeyman bricklayer
(1914 to 1917) and then as a master bricklayer.
214
When he was
nine years old, Piet was given his own small drafting board and
used the straightedge and set square to draw houses at scale
1:100. He spent a lot of time drawing and later also took up
painting.
His time at secondary school (HBS) coincided with the
Second World War and he had a lot of time to himself. The family
had many books and magazines about architecture and he also
borrowed many books from the public library. He witnessed the
latter days of the inhuence of the Amsterdam School, the drive of
213
I obtained most of this information from meetings with Tauber. Interview with
P.H. Tauber, 3 January 2002. I also included his comments of 14 June and
15 August 2002.
214
M. ten Berge and H. de Raad, “Een interview met de Alkmaarse architect
Piet Tauber,” Oud Alkmaar no. 2 (2002): 1-20.
ABCD research method ■ 99
period. As a follow-up Tauber visited Oud at home in Hillegers-
berg and also visited Grandpré Molière, who told Tauber that the
rest of his studies would not be affected by his course of action.
However, Henk Brouwer, as the representative of a group of
older students who wanted to introduce a more modern
approach slowly, did criticise him severely. Even so, soon after
that they invited Tauber to join their study circle, ‘Semper
Spatium’. A few years later, when Tauber was secretary of this
circle, he and the chairman at that time, Wim Snieder, visited
Kees van der Leeuw (1890 - 1973) the then president curator of
Delft Technical College, to promote the appointment of more
modern professors to the department of architecture. This
meeting was held in a hat on the Vijzelstraat in Amsterdam, with
interiors by Bart van der Leck and architect Ben Merkelbach
(1901 - 1961) also attended. Some time after that, Cornelis van
Eesteren (1897 - 1988) became mentor of the Semper Spatium
study circle.
215
Tauber greatly benehted from the diversity in the architecture
department and made designs for Nicolaas Lansdorp (late
Amsterdamse School), Gerard Holt (1912) (romantic modern) and
Johannes Berghoef (1903 - 1994), Granpré Molière and Johannes
Van den Broek (1898 - 1978). When studying under Berghoef he
appreciated the houses and architecture which became more
beautiful over time, under Granpré Molière the theoretical issues,
and under Van den Broek dealing with large, modern design
briefs. Around the time of the fourth year of his course, he
worked for three months in Berghoef’s practice and nine months
at Van den Broek’s practice and he also got married in this
period. In 1952 Van den Broek asked him if he wanted to
represent Delft at a CIAM summer school in Venice. Tauber
explained that he would like to go but could not afford it, as he
had also registered for a Stylos (society of students in
Architecture at the Delft University) trip to Scandinavia. Van den
Broek then gave Tauber 200 guilders so he could go on the trip.
Towards the end of the hve and a half weeks, van den Broek
went to Venice himself to talk about developments in the
Netherlands. The architectural history essay he wrote about
seventeenth century architect Philips Vingboons (1607 - 1678)
215
S.J. Mulder and M. Kloos, Jonge Architecten in de Wederopbouw 1940 1960
(Bussum: Thoth, 1993), 17.
helped Tauber with his development as an architect. It helped
him appreciate good plans and windows clearly delineated in the
wall planes. We can recognise Tauber’s discovery of the ‘Raumplan’
developed by Adolf Loos (1870 - 1930) and Le Corbusier’s (1887
- 1965) ‘Plan Libre’ in his closed plan for the Provincial Library
and the open plan for a crematorium in Schagen.
His own office
After completing his studies and period of military service,
Tauber set up his practice in 1955 in Alkmaar, in a house of his
own design with the ofhce on the second hoor. From the start,
his wife, who had trained as a stenography and typewriting
teacher, did the bookkeeping for him. He actually completed his
hrst assignment, a residence in Den Dolder in 1950, before
graduated. His father worried that this might too much time in
addition to the architecture course, so he made the drawings for
the window frames. When Tauber went to Alkmaar for Christmas
in 1949, his father showed him the preliminary drafts of the
window frame drawings. However, over Christmas, Tauber Sr
suffered and asthma attack and died, aged 53. He did not live to
see his son’s success and to work with him.
Shortly after his graduation, Tauber designed 500 houses in
the Kuyperwijk district of Delft. While doing his military service
he managed to make arrangements so he could keep working.
One of the ways he tried to get work was by participating in
competitions. There was a regular group of young architects such
as Tauber and Greiner who often did well in these competitions.
Wining the competition for the Provincial Library in Leeuwarden
in 1959 provided the foundations for his architectural practice.
Shortly after the hrst round of the competition, Vegter, then Chief
Government Architect, commissioned a court building and post
ofhce in Alkmaar. In the summer of 1960, Tauber won a closed
competition for the chancery of the Dutch embassy in
Washington. In 1961 both the family and the practice moved to
the Beatrixlaan in Alkmaar. Again, Tauber wanted to built a
combined residence and ofhces for the architectural practice but
in the end he decided to build two separate houses, one of which
was used for ofhces while the family lived in the other one, and
still do today.
100 ■ ABCD research method
In 1990, the practice had seven architects, including his son
Frans, who worked independently on their projects. According to
Tauber this was both the strength and the weakness of the
practice. The strength was that everyone enjoyed their work,
which resulted in high quality designs for the clients. However,
the weakness of the practice was that it did not present a
uniform image to colleagues and the architectural press.
216
Tauber worked on more than 375 commissions and 30
competitions. His work was inspired by architects such as Frank
Lloyd Wright (1876 - 1959) and Edwin Luytens (1869 - 1944).
!n the 19S0s and 60s he was also inhuenced by Scandinavian
architects such as Arne Jacobsen (1902 - 1971) and Alvar Aalto
(1898 - 1976).
Tauber stuck closely to the schedules of requirements of the
competitions as ‘you didn’t want to lose a project because of
that’. He carefully compared the schedule of requirements with
his design.
!n 2000 Tauber ofhcially withdrew from his architectural
practice which he managed jointly with his son, an interior
architect. However, Piet Tauber continued to work on some
projects which were particularly important to him, such as
connecting the Friesland Provincial Library to the adjacent
National Archives in Leeuwarden which he had also designed.
A unique feature of the Provincial Library is that Tauber was also
involved in later interventions.
In 1990, in an artcile about the practice, Ids Haagsma wrote
that for him there were three elements in Tauber’s work which
stood out: the craftsmanship, the straightforward and clear
ground plans and the intriguing location of the windows in the
exterior walls. He thought that the dynamic elements in particular
contributed to the unique nature of the buildings ‘They are
largely responsible for the independence, the autonomy of the
building.’
217
In the same booklet, Tauber himself wrote ‘After all,
I am a construction engineer, which is why I usually use
rectangular shapes. Sometimes I think I’m more of an engineer
with a feeling for architecture, than an architect.’
218
216
De Haan, Tauber Architecten. Bouwen naar opdracht, 11.
217
Ibid., 18.
218
Ibid., 10.
Later, Tauber rarely used a neutral main volume surrounded
by exterior walls with an abstract design, as he used for the
library. The language of truncated volumes, such as the book
tower of the Provincial Library, and the use of copper and
brickwork became more recognisable and contemporary
elements of his architecture.
ABCD research method ■ 101
4.4 Typology
This chapter on the typology related to the Friesland Provincial
Library in Leeuwarden is based on a functional an historical
typology of library buildings in general, and a functional and
spatial typology of the library building as a rectangular box with a
roohight in particular:
„ Examples from history which were particularly relevant to the
development of this type of building.
„ Examples of buildings with elements which recur in the
design of the Provincial Library.
„ The library at Luzern which the client noticed in particular
during held trips.
„ For comparison: the Friesland Provincial Library itself.
„ A range of international examples of libraries with
corresponding spatial characteristics built in the same period.
„ Some examples of libraries built in the Netherlands between
1940 and 1970.
„ A development of the building type, based on the spatial
characteristics of the building of the Provincial Library (i.e. a
rectangular box with a roohight), based on these examples.
In terms of the historical development of library buildings, there
are several general and specihc aspects relevant to the Friesland
Provincial Library.
219
Firstly, the ways in which the books are
stored and delivered to readers have changed over time. Initially,
the books were presented on lecterns. Later, bookcases were
installed over the lecterns. These lecterns were arranged around
the room, this arrangement is known as the stall system. Later
there was a preference for placing the books in the bookcases in
219
For a survey of typologies, see: A. Kortüm and E. Schmidt, “Bibliotheken,”
in: J. Durm, Handbuch der Architektur. Vierter Teil. 6. Halbband: Bebäude für
Erziehung, Wissenschaft und Kunst. 4. Heft: Gebäude für Sammlungen und
Ausstellungen (Darmstadt: Diehl, 1893), 41-173; Pevsner, A History of Building
Types, 91-110 (Libraries); R. Stromeyer, Europäische Bibliotheksbauten seit 1930
(Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1962).
or the recesses along the walls, this arrangement is known as the
wall system or ‘Saal-System’ (room system).
220
The latter system
could be combined with galleries along the bookcases. Pictures of
the library of the British Museum in London (1854 - 1856) show a
combination of both systems. See Figures 88 and 89. When the
number of books grew, a distinction had to be made between
books on open shelves and those in closed stacks.
The hrst plan which shows a clear division in three
function dates from 1816 and was designed by Leopold della
Santa. This resulted in a division into: a reading room; a
catalogue/lending area, and book stack for storage.
221
See Figure
87. The stacks with the bookcases gradually developed and the
cast iron (later steel) bookcases were even htted with mezzanine
hoors. This made it possible to stack the books compactly in high
rooms. The hoors were accessed by stairs integrated in the
cabinets. These systems were also selected for the libraries
designed around 1960. In 1977, when designing the university
library in Groningen, he wrote:
As a matter of principle, none of the sketches for the
stacks shows a completely different structure, such as
load-bearing cabinets in their own shell. This approach
was actually used by the old storage buildings of 1898
and 1919 which had to be demolished. In the purely
functionalist period, it was an expression of the stacks
section. In Germany we find examples of this, using steel
Pohlschröder bookcases. These were characteristic for
the 1950s and 60s. This certainly does not help the
flexibility of the building as a whole.
222
220
Pevsner, A History of Building Types, 96.
221
M. Brawne, Bibliotheken. Libraries (Teufen: Niggli, 1970), 18.
222
W.R.H. Koops and Ch.J.J. Klaver, Het nieuwe gebouw van de Universiteits-
bibliotheek te Groningen (Groningen: Groningen University, 1987), 41-42.
102 ■ ABCD research method
This system was used in the Provincial Library in 1966, but
removed in 1999. After that, storage was mostly in archival
cabinets in closed, environmentally-controlled rooms. The
cabinets are on rails and slide so only limited space for access
aisles is needed. Later, apart from the storage, which was made
as compact as possible, the control of the conditions under which
the books are stored became more important. In fact, the
legislation introduced for archives, which dehned strict storage
conditions, was eventually also applied to special library
collections.
However, after the initial increased separation between the
stacks and lending desk, there was also an increasing demand
for open shelves. In recently built libraries this is sometimes
referred to as the supermarket model. There was a trend towards
neutral layouts which could be divided in many different ways.
This type was particularly popular in the United States. See
Figure 90.
There was a notable reduction in the degree of
monumentality, the expressiveness of the rooms. The central
reading rooms with their high ceilings became more intimate.
In 1990, Tauber wrote:
What I notice in 19th century libraries is the emphasis
put on the temple of science. The two libraries in Paris,
Geneviéve and the Bibliothéque Nationale, and also the
Reading Room of the British Museum, have large,
monumental rooms with walls covered in several tiers of
bookcases. In the middle of that large room you have
these tiny people at the reading tables. Intimacy is
limited to the space between the lamp shade and the
desk. It is interesting to note that the renowned Swedish
architect Gunnar Asplund still used this approach
between 1918 and 1927 when he built the public library
in Stockholm. Less than ten years later he was at the
forefront of the move in Swedish architecture to
functionalism. This history was also relevant, albeit in the
background, to my designs for the Provincial Library in
Leeuwarden, in 1958 to 1959. There, the stairs to the
upper floor are located in the double-height catalogue
room. It was only during the construction, between 1964
and 1966, that the design was changed from a double-
height reading room with book gallery to reading rooms
on the upper floor around the double-height space. This
approach is developed further in the sketch designs for
the Groningen University Library. Gradually the stairs and
double-height space move from the centre, from the
catalogue room, towards the edge.
223
Tauber illustrated this with some sketches, see Figure 91.
223
P.H. Tauber, “Het ontwerp van de Universiteitsbibliotheek,” in: Koops, Het nieuwe
gebouw van de Universiteitsbibliotheek te Groningen, 41-42. Also: P.H. Tauber,
“De bibliotheek als gebouw,” in: L.J. Engels et al., Bibliotheek, wetenschap en
cultuur (Groningen: Library of the University, 1990), 172-183.
Figure 87: Plan of a library designed by Della Santa in 1816 with the three
separate functions. Boekenopslag = stacks, leeszaal = reading room,
catalogi = catalogues. Adapted by the author, from Durm, 1893.
ABCD research method ■ 103
Figures 88 and 89: The reading room in the British Museum. From Brawne, 2004.
104 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 90: The library as a supermarket,
based on an American example.
From Barbieri, 1997.
Figure 91: Spatial development of libraries according to Tauber. A = Medieval monastery library in Hereford 16th century; B = Lorenzo library in
Florence; C = Baroque library 17th - 18th century; D = St. Geneviève, Paris 19th century; E = Functionalism, mid-20th century;
F = Development 1970 - 1990. From Engels, 1990.
ABCD research method ■ 105
Figures 92 - 95: Asplund’s library in Stockholm. From Caldenby, 1990.
106 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 96 - 98: Library in Gent by H. van der Velde. From Thompson, 1963.
ABCD research method ■ 107
Earlier, Tauber mentioned a building which provided some of the
inspiration for the Friesland Provincial Library: the library in
Stockholm (1918 - 1927) by architect Asplund (1885 - 1940).
Visitors enter the building by stairs and then reach a central
hall. This is where the catalogues are found, as well as a limited
number of tables. The books are arranged around them. The
reading rooms are reached from the central hall. Daylight enters
the central hall through tall windows.
224
The central hall with a
corridor around it, daylight, catalogues and a few tables are
elements we also recognise in the design of the Friesland
Provincial Library. See Figures 92 to 95.
The storage of the books in a separately designed building
volume which lends expression to the interior became more
common after the introduction of multi-tier shelving in the 1950s.
An earlier example, the library in Gent (1935 - 1940) designed by
Henry van der Velde (1863 - 1957) also had a book tower with a
square plan, an element of Tauber’s design for the library in
Leeuwarden.
225
See Figures 96 to 98.
Alvar Aalto’s designs were a major source of inspiration to
Dutch architecture after the Second World War and also
inhuenced Tauber mentioned before. Aalto worked on the library
in Viipuri (Viborg) from 1927 to 1935.
226
Aalto’s later library
designs often feature fan-shaped rooms (Wolfsburg 1962,
Seinäjoki 1963, Rovaniemi 1965 - 1968, Otaniemi 1965 - 1969,
Kokkola 1969 and Mount Angel, Oregon, U.S.A. 1967 - 1970).
227
However, when designing the plan for the library in Viipuri he
combined two rectangles. The largest volume again contains a
large hall with stairs leading to the upper level. The roof has
large roohights which allow daylight to reach deep into the
building. The entrance is placed asymmetrically in the building.
Visitors go up the stairs, turn 90 degrees and then enter the
main hall. The way of entering the library, the central hall with
224
C. Caldenby and O. Hultin, Asplund (Stockholm: Stockholm Arkitektur Förlag &
Grinko Press, 1990) 92-102.
225
A. Thompson, Library Buildings of Britain and Europe (London: Butterworths,
1963).
226
M. Spens, Viipuri Library 1927-1935 Alvar Aalto (London: Academic Editions,
1994).
227
K. Fleig, Alvar Aalto (Barcelona: Editorial Gustavo Gill, 1981), 115-133 and:
Brawne, Bibliotheken. Libraries, 22-29.
stairs, round domed roohights and the hnish with white plaster
and bare wood are also recognisable in the design for the
Provincial Library. See Figures 99 to 102.
In addition to Aalto’s library in Viipuri, several other Scandinavian
libraries were featured in the press. Two of these, in Solna and
Östersund, are worth mentioning because their basic rectangular
plan, central hall, straightforward elevation designs and use of
materials are similar to Tauber’s design.
228
See Figures 103 to 106 and 107 to 110.
After visiting the Zentralbibliotheek in Luzern the client
suggested it as an example for the Provincial Library in
Leeuwarden.
229
This building also had a rectangular plan. It is
accessed through stairs and a small balcony. After crossing a hall
with cloakroom, visitors reach the central hall with the
catalogues, lending desk and some tables. A number of rooms
are arranged around a courtyard garden. The stacks are located
in an elongated volume which is the tallest and most visible part
of the building. Stone is used as the exterior wall cladding, for
the walls in the entrance hall and as hooring in public areas.
See Figures 111 to 113.
Here are some drawings and photographs of the Friesland
Provincial Library to support the typological comparisons. I will
discuss the design and its construction in the following chapters.
In terms of the typology, the following elements stand out:
the rectangular plan; the book tower as the expression of the
volume; the neutral design of the elevations; the central hall with
roohights and a double-height space; the balcony on the hst
hoor; the asymmetric arrangement of the entrance and the
central hall which is approached by going around the corner.
See Figures 114 to 118.
228
S. Frölén, “Stadsbibliotek I Solna,” Architektur, The Swedish Architectural
Rieview no. 2 (1966): 58-62. B. Cederlöf, “Bibliothek I Östersund,” Architektur,
The Swedish Architectural Rieview no 8 (1961): 165-167
229
Huizenga, Vijfentwintig jaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de
Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek. Zentralbibliotheek Luzern, see: O. Dreyer,
“La Bibliothèque Centrale de Lucerne (Suisse),” La Technique Des Travaux,
no. 1/2 (1954): pp. 25-32; “Bibliothek te Luzern,” Bouw no. 41 (1952): 733 and:
Thompson, Library Buildings of Britain and Europe, 197.
108 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 99 to 102: Viipuri library by Alvar Aalto. The plan of the hrst hoor clearly shows the central hall with stairs.
From Spens, 1994 and Stromeyer, 1962.
ABCD research method ■ 109
Figures 103 to 106: The library in Solna and plan of the hrst hoor. From Frölen, 1966.
110 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 107 to 110: The library in Ostersund and plan of the hrst hoor. From Cederlöf, 1961.
ABCD research method ■ 111
Figures 111 to 113: Luzern library and plans of the ground hoor and hrsthoor. From Thompson, 1963 and Dreyer, 19S+.
112 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 114 to 118: Provincial Library in Leeuwarden shortly after its completion. Tauber’s archive (photographs) and from Tauber, 2000.
ABCD research method ■ 113
Figures 119 to 122: The library in Marburg. From Wild, 1972.
114 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 123 to 126: The library in Braunschweig. From Wild, 1972.
ABCD research method ■ 115
Many of the elements employed in the Friesland Provincial Library
can also be recognised in libraries in other countries, especially
Germany. German examples: the university libraries of Karlsruhe,
Stuttgart, Münster, Mainz, Kiel, Hannover and, especially, the
library of Marburg University, designed in 1967 by G. Barth, with
a tall book tower at the centre of an open, rectangular plan.
230
See Figures 119 to 122.
The library of Braunschweig University of Technology (1968) by
Wilhelm. Kraemer also has a rectangular plan incorporating a
central hall with stairs leading to a balcony. The reading rooms
open onto the double-height space. The service areas are
arranged along an exterior wall near the double-height space and
the central hall. This structure is also apparent in the plan of the
Friesland Provincial Library after the renovation of 1999.
231
See Figures 123 to 126.
The National and University Library in Jerusalem (1961) by
Avraham Alexandroni also has some remarkable similarities with
the Friesland Provincial Library.
232
The simple arrangement of
volumes with a single structure on the roof and the stone
cladding underline the neutrality of the building. The rectangular
plan features two courtyards and the central hall with single
stairway to the hrst-hoor balcony. See Figures 127 to 130.
Two smaller libraries are excellent examples from Scandinavia:
the library in Rødovre in Denmark (1967) by Arne Jacobsen and
the library of Växjö in Sweden (1963 - 1966) by Erik Uluots. The
former building has a main hall at the central of the rectangular
plan. The other rooms are dehned by hve smaller courtyards.
233
See Figures 131 to 135.
230
F. Wild, Design & Planning. Libraries for Schools and Universities (New York:
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1972), 24-25.
231
Wild, Design & Planning. Libraries for Schools and Universities, 220-223.
232
“Nationale en Universiteitsbibliotheek te Jeruzalem,” Bouwkundig Weekblad
no. 26 (1961): 524-526.
233
“Einer der letzten Bauten von Arne Jacobsen †. Hauptbiblothek in Rødovre,”
Bauen und Wohnen no. 5 (1971), 223-228.
The library at Växjö has an apparently straightforward square
plan with rooms around a central double-height space. This
symmetry is also apparent in the exterior. The interior is less
rigidly arranged.
234
See Figures 136 to 139.
The Phillips Exeter library (1965 - 1971) by Louis Kahn (1901 -
1974) in New Hampshire is another example of a symmetrical
square plan.
235
The central hall as a distribution area has
regained the monumentality realised in 1927 by Asplund in
Stockholm. However, the stacks and reading rooms and the
recesses in the elevations have the closed character mentioned
by Tauber in 1990. See Figures 140 to 144.
Remarkably, in the this period there are hardly any library
designs in the Netherlands similar to the type of library which
Tauber created in Leeuwarden. Only the library in Assen, by van
Nijenhuis and Ebbinge, built in 1968, has a similar simplicity in
terms of its plan and design of the elevations.
236
See Figures 145 to 147.
The library of Nijmegen University, built in 1969 by Kraaijvanger,
Van Putten, Kuit, Knol and Maas, has a concept comparable to
the Friesland Provincial Library.
237
See Figures 148 to 152.
However, the clearest similarities between the Friesland
Provincial Library and other libraries are found when we look at
libraries in other countries. Few libraries were built and discussed
in the literature between 1940 and 1970.
238
234
E. Uluots, “Bibliotheek te Växjö, Zweden,” Bouw no. 16 (1968): 595-599.
235
H. Ronner, and S. Jhaveri, Louis I. Kahn Complete Work 1935-1974. (Basel:
Birkhaüser, 1987), 292-301 and: U. Barbieri and L. van Duin, Plannenmap
bibliotheken (Delft: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde, 1997), 56-61.
236
Nijenhuis en Ebbinge, “Openbare bibliotheek en leeszaal in Assen,” Bouwkundig
Weekblad no. 8 (1968): 136-137.
237
“Bibliotheekgebouw Katholieke Universiteit te Nijmegen,” Bouw no. 36 (1969):
1366-1373.
238
Apart from the libraries mentioned above, Bouw magazine no. 8 (1968) also
covered a circular library in Utrecht, while Bouwkundig Weekblad magazine
no. 8 (1968) featured a library in Wassenaar. The library in Enschede, designed
by C. Nicolai in 1955 was discussed in detail in Mevissen, W., Bücherei.
Public Library Building (Essen: Heyer, 1958), 202-205.
116 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 127 to 130: University library in Jerusalem. From ‘Nationale en Universiteitsbibliotheek te Jeruzalem’, 1961.
ABCD research method ■ 117
Figures 131 to 135: Rødovre library. From ‘Einer der letzten Bauten von Arne Jacobsen †. Hauptbiblothek in Rødovre’, 1971.
118 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 136 to 139: The library in Växjö with an open plan ground hoor and closed plan with the interior courtyard on the upper hoor.
From Uluots, 1968.
ABCD research method ■ 119
Figures 140 to 144: The Phillips Exeter library by L. I. Kahn in New Hampshire.
From Büttiker, 1993; Brownlee, 1992; Barbieri, 1997 and photographs by the author, 1991.
120 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 145 to 147: The library in Assen. From Nijenhuis, 1968.
ABCD research method ■ 121
Figures 148 to 152: Nijmegen University Library. From ‘Bibliotheekgebouw Katholieke Universiteit te Nijmegen’, 1969.
Fragment of the plan
High-rise section
122 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 153 to 157: The library in Zeewolde.
Left: plan of the ground hoor; Right: plan of the hrst hoor. Photograph by the author, 1993 and drawings from Barbieri, 1997.
ABCD research method ■ 123
Later designs rarely feature the simplicity of these geometric
plans. Increasingly, the buildings were designed in sections,
rehecting their separate functions. !nstead, we see fan-shapes
and irregular shapes such as in the designs by Hans Sharoun
(1893 - 1972) for the National Library in Berlin (1964 - 1978), later
libraries by Aalto and the University Library in Cambridge (1968)
by James Stirling (1926 - 1992).
239
The building of the Friesland Provincial Library was extensively
refurbished in 1999. Essentially, it was completely redesigned.
The rectangular shell was the framework within which the
functions were relocated. This assignment is comparable with the
library in Zeewolde which was designed by Koen van Velzen
(1990). The square plan returns, but is interpreted as a shell
within which the functions were given shape and represented by
different materials. The square framework was replaced by an
irregular plan within which the functions obtained their own
structured shapes.
240
See Figures 153 to 157.
This discussion of typology is concluded with the Bibliothèque
Nationale in Paris (1989 - 1995) designed by Dominique Perrault
(19S3). This building also hts in with the theme of buildings based
on a rectangular plan. However, in this case it provides a
framework rather than a rigidly imposed shape. Perrault
accommodated the different parts of the building below the
raised ground level, with the exception of four towers at the
corners. The freedom which Van Velsen incorporated in the plan
of the Zeewolde library is implemented in the cross-section
here.
241
The only option to expand the Friesland Provincial Library
substantially, without affecting the original volume, was to extend
the basement, see Figure 86. See Figures 158 to 162.
239
Brawne, Bibliotheken. Libraries, 24-29, 100-103 and 114-119.
240
Barbieri and Van Duin, Plannenmap bibliotheken, 86-91.
241
Barbieri and Van Duin, Plannenmap bibliotheken, 106-109.
124 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 158 to 162: The Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris by D. Perrault. Photographs by the author, 2001. Drawings from Barbieri,
1997 and Sens, 2002.
ABCD research method ■ 125
4.5 Design process
Although Tauber's designs are dehnitely recognisable, there are
many differences between them. He commented ‘My familiarity
with a range of architectural instruments, which are identihable
in architectural styles, provided me with the means of expression
to make each building unique where possible, in relation to the
brief and the site.’
242
Later he rarely used the simple structure of
a rectangular box with stone elevations, with holes in a certain
pattern, as used for the library in Leeuwarden. However, the
elevations of the building had similarities with other designs of
the period. See Figures 163 and 164.
In 1958, Tauber participated in his twelfth competition: the
Friesland Provincial Library. As we saw in the preceding section.
He was inspired by several architects of his time, especially those
from Scandinavia. The jury report on Tauber's design for the hrst
competition stated:
Motto 271258. The placement on the site is good and the
arrangement of the mass of the building in relation to the
surroundings is more than acceptable. In functional
terms, the building is good with respect to the library
services. The intended openness of the library operations
around the closed stacks will probably lead to objections.
The stacks have a good location and form. The entrance,
central hall and reception area cannot be seen from the
lending desk. The entrance to the Buma Library is not
attractive but could probably be improved. The
construction and structure are clear and simple. The
external appearance is a clear and fair reflection of the
overall structure of the building, with a clear separation
between the lower section, upper section and stacks.
243
242
De Haan and Haagsma, Tauber Architecten. Bouwen naar opdracht, 18
243
“Prijsvraag voor bibliotheekgebouw te Leeuwarden,” Forum no. 2 (1959): 34-44.
See Figures 165 and 166.
The design had the motto: 271258. Tauber explained this as
follows ‘27: the year I was born; 12: the 12th competition I
entered; 58: 1958 (the year of the competition).’
244
In this
design, Tauber placed the elongated building along Boterhoek.
The plans for the two levels showed a linear approach and the
entrance was reached via a corner, along steps and balconies.
The public areas and rooms were placed in the lower hoor, at the
front of the building. In the centre behind that the design
envisaged a strip to accommodate the services, while ofhces and
other functions were located at the back. The lending and
reading rooms were envisaged on the upper level, at the front,
with service rooms at the back. The elongated volume was
interrupted by the section for the stacks, which extended to
three levels, in contrast to the rest of the building. The stacks
were designed as a vertical structure, like the library in Bonn.
The horizontal structure is rehected in the elevations. The lower
level has a recessed plinth of stone and brick. The glass upper
section extended slightly over this. The projecting stone stacks
block was clearly recognisable at the back.
Tauber completely revised his design for the second
competition. This time the motto was ‘Peristylium : a range of
columns around a courtyard or the area itself.’ This provided the
key theme of the building. The jury’s comments on the second
design were:
244
Interviews with P.H. Tauber, 3 January 2002 and 6 March 2002.
126 ■ ABCD research method
The urban planning aspects are good, and so is the main
design structure. The building has a very efficient
structure, the work areas are cleverly arranged around
the lending desk. The reception area is also well laid out
and thoughtfully connected to the central hall which can
be monitored from the lending desk. The location of the
stacks relative to the adjoining areas is particularly good.
The Buma section is also laid out effectively. The
difference in level between the two parts of the open
shelves could be a disadvantage although it does not
conflict with the schedule of requirements. The structure
of the stacks is not clear. The spatial aspects of the
interior are harmonic and refined. The exterior is
unpretentious. The exterior walls form a shall which does
not emphasise the load-bearing structure. These exterior
walls will require careful detailing. The overall nature of
the building is inviting. This design stands out from the
others because of its harmonic concept which combines a
good urban planning approach, high efficiency and
sophisticated design.
245
Tauber’s starting point for the design for the second competition
was to arrange the required functions on one level where
possible, up high enough to give a view across the rampart.
Compared to the hrst design the building was larger, but the
main volume had become more compact. The main shape was
now a rectangular box from which a smaller rectangular volume
rose up like a tower. The horizontal divisions in the exterior walls
had gone. The were replaced by a stone-like shell behind which
the various rooms were placed. A small subbasement with stacks
and service areas was added. The stacks in the tower were still
vertically structured while the stacks in the subbasement were
horizontally arranged. The architect used the main hoor, reached
by the stairs, for functions used by library users such as the open
shelves, various rooms and lending desk. Only a small part of the
upper hoor, now a mezzanine, was used for library visitors.
Another part was occupied by the void of the double-height
ground hoor. The stacks tower extended through the three hoors
245
“Het winnende ontwerp in een prijsvraag voor een bibliotheekgebouw te
Leeuwarden,” Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 2 (1960): 37.
as a clearly recognisable volume. It is interesting to note that the
second design included far fewer ofhces and service areas than
the hrst one. The central atrium was enclosed by glazing on both
hoors and roof lights admitted daylight far into the building. See
Figures 167 to 169, 223 and 224.
In 1959 the Provincial Council asked Tauber to develop
his design in detail. A construction committee was formed at the
request of Douma, the librarian. Douma ‘You have to start by
trusting the architect you select and the librarian you have’.
246
The initial meetings with Douma resulted in a modihed Final
Design, in 1960.
247
Between January 1960 and spring 1961 this
design was detailed further. In the following long wait for
government approval, Douma and Tauber had many long
discussions. The Final Design drawings show few differences with
the initial draft with the abstract shell, and the main entrance
was little changed. The book tower was slightly taller and now
fully incorporated into the building. The interior and exterior walls
of this rectangular volume were clad in stone. The main entrance
was moved slightly closer to the centre of the facade.
The plans were changed more extensively.
A semibasement was added across the full area. This mostly
housed horizontal stacks and some service areas. The layout of
the main hoor was slightly changed. The stacks tower was placed
centrally in the volume, and the main reading room was
relocated. Some of the double-height spaces were closed up to
create more space for service areas and ofhces on the
mezzanine. On the rear of the ground hoor the central hall was
closed off by a wall. The mezzanine now had galleries on two
sides of the main double-height space. The corners of the stacks
tower were truncated and only the outer surface was clad in
copper. Its volume became less recognisable in the interior. See
Figures 170 to 175, 223 and 224. As I mentioned earlier, Douma
had some concerns about the competition. Later he wrote:
246
Huizenga, Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de
Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek, 20.
247
See the additional set of drawings for the book by Tauber, De provinciale Bibli-
otheek Friesland. 40 jaar ontwerp- en bouwgeschiedenis, handed over at
3 January 2002, incorporated in Figures 231 and 232. “Final Design” is a term
used by architects. The stages in a project are: Preliminary Design, Final Design,
and Preparing for Construction.
ABCD research method ■ 127
First of all, a schedule of requirements should be defined
which lists all the rooms and areas required, with a
sketch of the operations in the organisation which should
include information about the arrangement of the rooms
and their dimensions. Secondly, this schedule of
requirements should be implemented in a design.
You could say that the first task is the business of the
librarian, and the second of the architect. And in general
that is correct. However, one could claim, as has been
done repeatedly in the literature on library buildings, that
to get the best results both tasks have to be left to the
librarian and architect working together. As a librarian, it
is in discussions with the architect that you are likely to
discover how you really want it to be. Translating the
schedule of requirements into a design is definitely the
architect’s job. However, in most cases they will be
making one sketch after another, especially when
working on a building as complicated as a large public
library. However, even if there have been extensive
discussions beforehand it is almost impossible to avoid
misunderstandings which are revealed in the design. It is
therefore important to leave the option to change the
design or the schedule of requirement open for as long
as possible, as long as both parties agree. And that is
perfectly feasible when cooperating in an open manner.
When working on it and discussing it, hopefully, we will
develop a design to satisfy both parties.
248
Even after the hrst foundation pile had been driven, on 9 Narch
1964, further changes were made at Douma’s request. These
changes can be seen in the as-built plan of 1966, discussed
elsewhere in this publication. Tauber acknowledged that the hnal
changes did detract from the initial clear layout of the building.
249
See Figures 176 to 181, 223 and 224.
A unique aspect of the Provincial Library is that Tauber was
involved in all later changes to the building. The importance of
this in the way the building has changed over time is discussed in
the next few chapters.
248
Douma, “Een nieuw gebouw voor de Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland en
voor de Buma-Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden,” 214.
249
Interviews with P.H. Tauber, 3 January 2002.
Figures 163 and 164: The Provincial Library (1958 - 1966) by Tauber and De Doelen in Rotterdam (1955 - 1966) by E.H. en H.M. Kraaijvanger.
From Tauber, 2000 and Van Toorn, 1992.
128 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 165: Design for the competition in 1958, plans. From Tauber, 2000.
ABCD research method ■ 129
Figure 166: Design for the competition in 1958, section and elevations. From Tauber, 2000.
130 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 167: Design for the competition in 1959, plans. From Tauber, 2000.
ABCD research method ■ 131
Figure 168: Design for the competition in 1959, plan of the mezzanine and sections. From Tauber, 2000.
132 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 169: Design for the competition in 1959, elevations. From Tauber, 2000.
ABCD research method ■ 133
Figures 170 and 171: The hnal design in 1960, elevations. From Tauber, 2000.
134 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 172 and 173: The hnal design in 1960, plans of the basement and ground hoor. From Tauber, 2000.
ABCD research method ■ 135
Figures 174 and 175: The hnal design in 1960, plan of the mezzanine and sections. From Tauber, 2000.
136 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 176 and 177: Design as built in 1966, plans of the basement and ground hoor. From Tauber, 2000.
ABCD research method ■ 137
Figures 178 and 179: Design as built in 1966, plans of the mezzanine and sections. From Tauber, 2000.
138 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 180 and 181: Design as built in 1966, elevations. From Tauber, 2000.
ABCD research method ■ 139
5 Building: what was meant to be
In September 1966 the building of the Friesland Provincial Library
was taken into use and it was officially opened on 20 February
1967.
250
There was still a need for a link between the Friesland
Provincial Library and the National Archives. In 1967 Tauber
finished the plans for the new National Archives building next to
the Provincial Library. The costs of building the library amounted
to 2.6 million guilders (approx. 1.18 million euro) excluding the
cost of the building services plant and furnishings (approx.
204,000 euro and 250,000 euro).
251
Douma, the librarian, was
happy with the building. According to him it fulfilled all
expectations. There was enough space for tours of the building
and arranging the collections effectively, and in the first year the
number of loans increased by 32%. By 1990 the number of loans
had doubled, from 30,000 to 60,000.
252
250
“De Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland in zijn nieuwe paleis,” Franeker Nieuws-
blad, October 7, 1966 and see also: “Naast materiële het culturele. Nieuwe
Prov. Bibliotheek is vanmiddag geopend,” Leeuwarder Courant, February 20,
1967.
251
“Nieuwe Prov. Bibliotheek is vanmiddag geopend,” Leeuwarder Courant,
February 20, 1967 and Tauber, De Provinciale Bibliotheek Friesland. 40 jaar
ontwerp- en bouwgeschiedenis, 23.
252
Huizenga, Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de
Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek, 20.
140 ■ ABCD research method
5.1 Space
Figures 182 and 183: The volume structure of the Friesland Provincial
Library as seen from the rampart. The exterior walls with recessed
windows, as seen from inside the building, give a great feeling of intimacy.
Tauber archives.
The building was constructed on a site of 3,000 m
2
, the built area
was 1,890 m
2
, the floor area was 5,120 m
2
and the volume
20,500 m
3
. The single building mass included a ground floor
(1.65 metres above street level) with a semibasement and
mezzanine. Two elements had key roles in the rectangular plan:
the central lending area marked by columns (the peristylium) and
the stacks of the Buma department, in an independent block.
These stacks were fitted with a small vertical storage system
which could be expanded if required. This part of the building
was externally clad with copper and became ‘the expression’ of a
tower in terms of both volume and materials.
253
See Figure 182.
Further stacks were provided in the basement. Here, a
horizontally split system of bookcases was used. So far, the
building corresponded with the drawings of the Final Design in
1960.
While awaiting government approval, and even during the
construction, Douma asked the architect to make some major
changes to the design. Tauber wrote about this:
We only had the detailed discussions, which the librarian,
Mr Douma, had always wanted, during this period.
Compared with the situation today, that was all incredibly
relaxed.
254
253
Tauber, “De bibliotheek als gebouw,” in: Engels, Bibliotheek, wetenschap en
cultuur, 172-183.
254
Tauber, De Provinciale Bibliotheek Friesland. 40 jaar ontwerp- en bouw-
geschiedenis, 8.
ABCD research method ■ 141
Figures 184 to 187: The double-height lecture room, the workshops in the semibasement which beneht from daylight, the central hall with the catalogue
cabinets incorporated into the walls, and the reading rooms on the hrst hoor on the balcony around the double-height area. From Huizenga, 1991
(photograph at the top left) and Tauber archives.
At first sight there are not that many changes to the
semibasement and the first floor. However, on closer inspection
of the first floor we notice that some of the rooms are no longer
double-height as originally envisaged. More area was provided
for study rooms for library users. The entire open shelves section
was now accommodated on this floor.
Only the central hall still had a double-height area around which
the study rooms were arranged on the upper level, with open
connections to each other. Additional provisions were made for
library users, such as a canteen. The rooflight domes allowed
daylight to enter the central hall. However, on the ground floor
most of the openness was lost due to the installation of the walls
with catalogue cabinets. See Figures 182 to 187.
142 ■ ABCD research method
5.2 Structure
The load-bearing structure of the Provincial Library is a straight-
forward combination of columns, beams and floors.
255
The
dimensions of the building were determined by the functional
sizes of the bookcases and aisles in the basement and the
division of the exterior walls into open and closed areas.
The bookcases resulted in the following pattern: 1 bookcase +
1 aisle = 1.30 metres; 1.30 metres x 4 = 5.20 metres. However,
a grid of 5.18 metres was used for the building. The 20 millimetre
difference was due to the division of the exterior faces of the
walls. The open and closed parts were divided into multiples of
70 mm. Openings: 8 x 70 mm = 560 mm; 12 x 70 mm = 840
mm; 16 x 70 mm = 1.12 m and 20 x 70 mm = 1.40 m. The piers
between them are 4 x 70 mm = 280 mm or 6 x 70 mm = 420
mm. Tauber based his design on 70 millimetres, or as he saw it,
on 7 centimetres ‘It’s nothing complicated, I just like the number
seven’. Hence, the horizontal grid was reduced by 20 mm to
obtain 5.18 m (74 x 70 mm). The length of the building was
12 times 51.8 m plus twice the wall thickness (420 mm), resulting
in an overall length of 63 metres. The width amounted to 4 times
5.18 m plus twice 3.78 m (54 x 70 mm), resulting in an overall
width of 29.12 m. The smaller span of 3.78 m was related to the
conhguration of the stacks in the book tower. The vertical grid is
also based on 70 mm, and the round and square columns
measured 420 mm. See Figures 188 to 193.
Hence, the bookcases in the stacks determined the structure
of the plan, albeit with a small correction by Tauber of 20 mm.
Today I would simply have used 5.1 or 5.4 m, as a multiple of
300 mm.
The original storage system in the stacks tower was based on a
vertical system with cast iron grating hoors and columns, and the
255
Tauber, De Provinciale Bibliotheek Friesland.
40 jaar ontwerp- en bouwgeschiedenis, 23.
bookcases.
256
The University Library in Bonn (1958) with self-
supporting Pohlschröder cabinets was referred to as an example.
257
In 1977, when designing the Groningen University library, Tauber
discussed the grid based on the system used for the stacks:
As a matter of principle, none of the sketches for the
stacks shows a completely different structure, such as
load-bearing cabinets in their own shell. This approach
was actually used by the old storage buildings of 1898 and
1919 which had to be demolished. In the purely
functionalist period, it was an expression of the stacks
section. In Germany we find examples of this, using steel
Pohlschröder bookcases. These were characteristic for the
1950s and 60s. But this certainly does not benefit the
flexibility of the building as a whole.
He then commented on the way the stacks were built:
Was it such a good idea to accommodate the stacks in a
tower? Was a light-weight steel structure for the stacks a
good choice in terms of climate stability? Were the reading
rooms, 4 to 5 m high with equally high glass walls, actually
of comfortable dimensions with an adequately stable
climate?
258
This last comment referred both to the buildings which inspired
him and to his library in Leeuwarden.
256
Tauber, “De bibliotheek als gebouw,” in: Engels, Bibliotheek, wetenschap en
cultuur, 180. Compare the floors of the archives of the ring building of the National
Insurance Bank by D. Roosenburg in Zijlstra, Bouwen in Nederland 1940-1970,
element 4.1: National Insurance Bank, Amsterdam.
257
P. Vago and F. Borneman, “Biblotheque de Bonn, Alemagne,” L’Architecture
D’Aujourdhui, no. 100 (1962): 60-64.
258
Koops, Het nieuwe gebouw van de Universiteitsbibliotheek te Groningen, 41-42.
ABCD research method ■ 143
Figures 188 to 190: Plan of the ground hoor, drawing by Tauber dated 3 Narch 1993, and analytical drawings of the internal structure of the ground hoor
and basement, by the author.
144 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 192: Part of the cross-section of the central hall. Adapted by the author. Tauber archives, specihcation drawing, December 196+.
Figure 191: Cross-section with dimensions. Adapted by the author from drawings by Tauber dated 3 March 1993.
ABCD research method ■ 145
Figures 194 and 195: The apparently random division of the elevation. The window frames on the left appear to be white. From Erkamp, 1981.
Figure 193: Wall dimensions. Tauber archives, specihcation drawing, December 196+.
146 ■ ABCD research method
5.3 Materials
walls gave the simple volume a playful appearance. This
corresponded to the trend at the time and the design still looked
modern later.
260
When, in 2002, Tauber converted the Alkmaar
main post ofhce he had designed in 196S to a bank, he used this
feature to give the building a new appearance.
261
See Figures 255
and 256.
The exterior walls of the Provincial Library were clad with
shell limestone and the book tower with copper. The sills, glazing
prohles and roof edges were also made of copper. See Figures
196 to 202. The tall window frames were made of redwood
(Sequoia sempervirens) and painted dark grey-blue. According to
Tauber it had always been planned like that. However a magazine
article from 1960 claimed: ‘The relatively narrow steel windows
placed almost hush with the exterior face, which are painted
white, resulted in reveals of approx. 350 mm, which [ …].’
262
A photograph from 1968 gives a different impression. The dark
blue-grey of the window frames reinforces the impression of
windows as randomly placed apertures in a plane. See Figures
194 and 195.
260
D. Haskel, “Jazz in Architecture,” Architectural Forum, (September 1960):
110-115.
261
P.H. Tauber, “Van Postkantoor naar ABN AMRO-bank,” BNA Regio Alkmaar,
25 May 1999.
262
“Besloten prijsvraag bibliotheek Leeuwarden,” Bouw no. 5 (1960): 140-143.
In the notes by the architect on page 143. In August 2002 Piet Tauber told
me that he had probably been initially thinking of white window frames as he
used those in all his other buildings. However, the library always had blue-grey
window frames.
The changes during the process made the concept behind the
building less apparent. For example, the book tower was
originally envisaged as an independent element, inside the
double-height space. However, it was enclosed by hoor and the
original large double-height space was divided into two smaller
ones. Hence Tauber chose different materials for the tower as it
was now more apparent as a volume projecting above the roof.
It was no longer necessary to extend the exterior cladding onto
the interior walls of the double-height space. The original plan
was to use dark stone for both the interior and exterior of the
rectangular block. It was later decided to use copper cladding for
the exterior and a plaster hnish for the interior. Tauber
mentioned this in several publications about the library and was
not particularly happy with it.
259
The original concept of the peristylium was
signihcantly departed from during the construction and not all
the consequences were understood or could be rectihed.
Furthermore, according to Piet Tauber, the contractor was not
particularly good and the hrst supervisor was ineffective. Then,
as now, these were key factors to obtaining a good result.
The as-built design, completed in 1966, used a limited
range of materials. The thin stone cladding meant that it was
possible to install the window frames close to the exterior face of
the walls. The walls had a thickness of 630 mm (9 x 70 mm) and
the window frames close to the outer face and the range of
vertical dimensions resulted in an unusual daylight entry. The tall,
narrow windows, surrounded by deep reveals, let a lot of light in
but also created intimacy. The different window sizes resulted in
different light intensities on the reveals. This resulted in an
attractive variation. The different widths of the windows in the
259
“Provinciale bibliotheek van Friesland te Leeuwarden,” Bouwkundig Weekblad,
no. 8 (1968): 141, see also: N. Erkamp, B. Gmelig and F. van Hoeken, Architec-
tuur, vak van ontmoetingen, (Alkmaar: Architectenbureau Tauber, 1981), 14.
ABCD research method ■ 147
Figures 196 and 197: Roof edge with
copper cladding. Tauber archives,
specihcation drawing, December 196+.
Photograph by the author, 2002.
148 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 198 and 199:
Copper sills. Tauber
archives, specihcation
drawing, December
1964. Photograph by
the author, 2002.
ABCD research method ■ 149
Vertical cross-section, frame head
Horizontal cross-section, frame jambs
Vertical cross-section, sill
Figures 200 to 202: Details of the window
frames in the stone-clad wall. Parts of the
frames are hidden by the cladding. The frame
head detail shows the gap for ventilation.
Tauber archives, specihcation drawing,
December 1964.
150 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 203 and 204:
Ceiling grid and
daylight in the central
hall. Photographs by
the author, 2008.
ABCD research method ■ 151
The load-bearing structure of the interior included concrete
columns, beams and hoors. The surfaces of the freestanding
round columns had an abrasive-blasted hnish while the
rectangular columns were plastered, as they were incorporated
into the walls. The interior walls were hnished with plaster with a
rough texture. The hoors of the entrance, access stairs and
central hall were covered with stone and the other hoors with
cork.
Nost of the ceilings were htted with painted acoustic panels
(Bruynzeel Antisone). A grid of planks painted in a light colour
was htted below the roohights of the central hall. This gave the
impression of a single, extended surface which allowed the
hltered daylight to enter. Both the hall and the rooms around it
gave the impression of being very light. See Figures 203 and 204.
On the upper hoor an upstand of varnished hardwood was
htted around the lightwell. This improved the acoustics of the
central hall and also served as a seat along the perimeter of the
double-height space. The bare hardwood, also used in the
Scandinavian libraries, was used for the stairs, handrails, cladding
and ceilings. See Figures 205 and 206.
Figures 205 and 206: Baluster along the edge of the double-height space
of the central hall with wooden cladding and main entrance with wood
ceiling. Upper photograph by the author, 2008 and the lower by Tauber.
152 ■ ABCD research method
5.4 Services
Initially the use of underhoor heating was considered for the
Friesland Provincial Library. However, in 1966 the building was
htted with a hot water heating system with radiators.
See Figure 207.
In general the building was passively ventilated with fresh air.
Some rooms such as the stacks had mechanical ventilation.
At the time, the stacks did not have any plant to condition the
fresh air drawn in. The specihcation drawings included conveyor
belts in the stacks but these were not installed.
It took little time to take the books from the
semibasement to the lending desk. Initially they were
taken to the lift by scooter (non motorised). However, the
library staff working in the stacks were embarrassed to
be seen using the scooters, which they associated with
children’s toys, and their use was abandoned.
263
263
Huizenga, Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de
Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek, 24. See specification drawing 55 B,
1 December 1964, P.H. Tauber archives.
Figure 207: Inner face of the exterior walls with the recesses which used
to contain radiators behind panelling. Photograph by the author, 2002.
ABCD research method ■ 153
6 Building: what has been
In 1986 the Friesland Provincial Library underwent some minor
changes. The next project was the full regeneration of the
building which was completed in 1999: the interior was stripped
out completely and replaced by a ‘new’ library. Further changes
were made when the library was merged with the National
Archives. Although this section focuses on the regeneration of
1999, the other changes will also be addressed. In the next
chapter, To be or not to be, I will discuss both the interventions
in 2009 and the impact of the range of earlier interventions and
the options for the future.
6.1 Space
In 1986 wheelchair access was somewhat improved by enlarging
a window at the front of the building to a door and installing a
small platform lift for wheelchairs.
264
The design for the second
competition (1959) included a door on the west-side of the
building for wheelchair access, but in the hnal design this was
changed to a stairlift along the main stairs. There were also
complaints that the foyer and kitchen were too small and that
there were not enough toilets. A training room was converted to
a canteen and a reference library and quiet study room were
created. Om the ground hoor a book gallery was converted to a
double-height reception hall used as a legal reading room.
From 1968, the Provincial Council had used the lecture room
for its meetings and it was also used for congresses organised by
a teachers’ training college. When new accommodation was built
for the Provincial Council and for the training college the lecture
room was no longer needed for these purposes. Due to the
growing number of senior vocational colleges in Leeuwarden the
number of library users continued to rise which meant that the
main reading room became noisier. According to a library
employee, what was once a temple in the chancery now felt like
a supermarket. The wooden upstand of the reading room did not
provide enough absorption to suppress the sound of voices from
the lending desk. Hence, the opening of the quiet study room in
1986 was a great success. However, more radical change was
needed given that the foyer was also used by homeless people
and passers-by and because of the growth in the number of
employees from 13 to 28 and the growth of the collection from
290,000 volumes to 455,000 by 1991.
265
264
Huizenga, Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de
Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek, 21.
265
Ibid., p. 22.
154 ■ ABCD research method
The library engaged consultants, in 1993 they advised not to
engage an architect for the refurbishment. They claimed to have
all the relevant expertise, although they suggested that it might
be useful to work with an interior architect. A construction team
was set up in 1996, led by S.T. Castelein. At the suggestion of
building contractor Westerbaan, Piet Tauber and his son Frans
joined the team in 1998. The decision in 1997 to restructure the
building completely was a key moment. It meant that the whole
collection would have to be housed elsewhere temporarily, while
lending continued normally. Consequently it was decided to
relocate the library twice, with all the impact on the personnel
and collection this brought with it. During the 1966 relocation it
took 126 trips with a 5-ton truck to move 290,000 books.
266
The relocation also provided a good opportunity to introduce a
new, computer-based catalogue.
267
The following changes were made in 1999:
268
„ The layout was revised to be more functional. Some functions
were relocated. More facilities were provided for library
users, as well as separate lending desks for the two
departments, and more reading/study rooms. See Figures
223 and 224.
„ The semibasement of the building was extended by 450 m
2
by excavating part of the rampart. The above-ground section
is hidden by vegetation. The original freestanding boiler
house was demolished and the land was swapped with the
municipality. This made it possible to provide a route to the
rampart. See Figure 208.
„ All the stacks were relocated to the basement and the
three-tier system in the tower was removed. Part of this
system was reused by converting it to lower shelving.
The stacks now had a horizontal rather than vertical
structure. See Figures 213 to 218.
„ The tower was used to accommodate plant rooms and a
room for meetings of all the library staff.
„ During the construction in 1968 the double-height space of
the open lending area on the side of the rampart was
covered with steel beams and a wooden hoor, at Douma’s
request. This created a completely open reading room
around the double-height space. This hoor was removed in
1999 and replaced by steel beams, prohled steel decking and
concrete. At the same time the double-height space of the
reception hall on the east-side (used as the legal study room
since 1986) was also closed off using the same method.
266
“Friesland heeft weer plaats voor zijn boekenschat,” Friesland no. 5 (1966):
12-14.
267
Interview with S. Sevenster, head of the Facilities Department of Friesland
Provincial Library, 25 January 2002.
268
Interview with P.H. Tauber, 3 January 2002 and 6 March 2002, see also:
Interview with S. Sevenster, head of the Facilities Department of Friesland
Provincial Library, 25 January 2002.
Figures 208 and 209: Extension of the semibasement and the new
entrance. Photographs by the author, 2002.
ABCD research method ■ 155
It was only then that the beam on the elevations, at the level
of the hrst hoor, actually came to represent the hoor around
all sides of the building.
„ The entrance at the front was replaced completely. A glazed
entrance hall (built by Octatube, Delft) was added to
accommodate the stairs and the entrance to the lift. In the
hall two of the square columns were replaced by round ones.
See Figures 209 to 212.
„ The double-height space is again completely free in the
space. The walls on the ground hoor were removed.
The ground hoor and hrst hoor are now highly transparent, in
line with the original concept. As a result the columns around
the double-height space are now all freestanding. They
include both round columns and the square ones which were
originally incorporated into the brickwork. See Figures 219
and 220.
„ The roohight above the double-height space was raised to
accommodate building services plant. The incorporation of
the air handling system is hardly visible from the central hall.
See Figures 235 to 237.
In 2004 a connection was created between the Provincial Library
and the National Archives. This was done by installing a hrst hoor
air bridge between the buildings, see Figure 221. The rooms
close to the air bridge are often used for exhibitions, etc.
The radiators in the recesses by the windows on the ground hoor
were removed. See Figure 222. The plans for 2009 include
providing a more open reception desk in the hall. The panels will
be replaced by a smoke curtain which is lowered in emergencies,
and some of the facilities for library visitors will be improved.
Archival documents in the stacks were transferred between
the buildings to optimise the storage conditions of documents
which are subject to the Dutch Archives Act. A climate control
system was installed in the semibasement to meet all
requirements concerning temperature, humidity and air
purihcation in part of the stacks of the original library. Sliding
cabinets were installed in the stacks. The maximum hoor load
has now been reached. Some of the bookcases cannot be hlled
to the full height because of the space taken up by large ducts,
etc. Remarkably, the space as a whole could accommodate these
changes over the years.
156 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 210 to 212: The new entrance at the front of the building, exterior and interior views. Photographs by the author, 2002.
ABCD research method ■ 157
Figures 213 and 214: Plans of the semibasement in 1966 and 1999 to illustrate the extension on the west side. From Tauber, 2000.
158 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 215 and 216: Plans of ground hoor in 1966 and 1999: the tower now accommodates building services, the central hall was opened up on all sides
to create one large space and the entrance was extended. From Tauber, 2000.
ABCD research method ■ 159
Figures 217 and 218: Plans of the hrst hoor in 1966 and 1999: Rooms for personnel and study rooms were created around the balcony, the tower now
accommodates an auditorium and the area of the original lecture hall is now used for other purposes. From Tauber, 2000.
160 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 219 and 220: The central hall in 1966
and in 1999. The main difference relates to the
great openness on the ground hoor created in
1999.
ABCD research method ■ 161
Figure 221: The air bridge which has connected
the Provincial Library and the National Archives
since 2004. Photograph by the author, 2008.
Figure 222: Walls on the ground hoor after
removal of the radiators. Compare with Figure
207. Photograph by the author, 2008.
162 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 223: Functional analysis of the plans 1958-1959-1960. Adapted by the author from Tauber, 2000.
ABCD research method ■ 163
Figure 224: Functional analysis of the plans 1960-1966-1999. Adapted by the author from Tauber, 2000.
164 ■ ABCD research method
6.2 Structure
The structure of the Friesland Provincial Library allowed all these
changes with relatively few problems. However, some of the
columns in the central hall are now freestanding. In the original
design the columns incorporated into the walls had square cross-
sections while the freestanding columns were round. After the
changes of 1999, the central hall had both square and round
freestanding columns. According to Tauber this was because the
original load-bearing structure was not ‘designed neutrally’
enough.
269
See Figures 225 to 227.
To break through the facade, three new round columns were
built in the hall and along the facade line. See Figures 228 to
230. In the run-up to the refurbishment the structural engineer
was kept busy with calculations for the load-bearing structure in
view of the many apertures which had to be cut through beams
and the installation of heavy building services plant on the roof
and in the tower. A further complication was that the original
construction drawings had been lost and were only found later.
270
269
Interview with P.H. Tauber, 3 January 2002 and 6 March 2002.
270
Interview with S. Sevenster, head of the Facilities Department of Friesland
Provincial Library, 25 January 2002. The work was made more difficult as the
original construction drawings had been lost. However, they were found during
the second relocation.
Figures 225 to 227: The columns in the hall in 1966 - square at the top of
the drawing and round at the bottom. Tauber archives, specihcation
drawing, December 1964.
ABCD research method ■ 165
Figure 228: Demolition
of part of the original
facade in 1998 to
create the new
entrance.
Tauber archives.
Figures 229 and 230:
Temporary support of
the facade, formwork
for the new round
column and the hall
with new round
columns. Photographs
from the Tauber
archives and by the
author, 2002 (left).
166 ■ ABCD research method
6.3 Materials
Few changes were made to the range of materials used in the
Friesland Provincial Library. The exterior walls were cleaned but
not htted with thermal insulation. Given the detailing of the
building, this would have been unfeasible in hnancial and design
terms.
Piet Tauber’s son, Frans, designed the new interiors.
The hoors were originally hnished with shell limestone and cork.
The stone hoors were ground and polished. The stairs were clad
in stone and in 2000 the hoor of the entrance in the semi-
basement was also covered with stone. In 2008 it was observed
that this hoor in particular had suffered from repeated hooding.
On several occasions the site drainage and sewers could not cope
with the volume of rain. As a result the semibasement was
hooded. The contaminated water may have led to the spalling of
the stone hooring. See Figure 2S2. The cork hooring was
replaced by carpet. However, according to Piet Tauber that was
not actually necessary.
The walls were plastered and the concrete columns were
hnished by abrasive blasting. All the hnishes used in 196+ were
reinstated where possible. Even the furniture was repaired and
reused where possible. This was done for both idealistic and
hnancial reasons. The tables were sanded and varnished and the
chairs were reupholstered. See Figure 250. In 1991, when the
library celebrated its 25th anniversary, J.J. Huizinga wrote:
There were problems with the temperature control from the
start. This got better when some windows could be opened.
Later, solar control glass was installed [easily recognisable by
its blue sheen] and finally double glazing. The heating control
was also improved. We are now hoping that fans will help.
271
271
Huizenga, Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de
Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek, 21.
In August 2002 Tauber disagreed with some of these comments.
According to him, it had been possible to open the windows from
the start (this is supported by photographs taken in 1964),
double glazing had been installed at that time, and there were
vents above the windows (see Figure 201).
However, the solar control changed in 1999.
The orange awnings were replaced by screens which were less
affected by the wind and which were lowered automatically if too
much sunlight entered the building. An important detail was that
the cabinet containing the screen was installed some distance
from the top of the window frame. This avoided an excessively
large window frame head on the inside and the ventilation slots
could still be used. See Figures 231 to 233.
In 2008 it was noticed that all the window sills had been
affected by wood rot. The work in 1999 must have led to a
change which affected the moisture management as the wood
was found to have a moisture content of 80%.
272
In 1999 all the
facade cladding panels were rehtted and the windows were htted
with different glazing. The cause of the problem is still to be
investigated. See Figure 234.
272
Interview with Sijbe Sevenster on 3 December 2008 and phone call with
Frans Tauber on 4 December 2008.
ABCD research method ■ 167
Figure 231: Elevation
with awnings, opening
steel windows and the
blue solar control
glass, before 1988.
Tauber archives.
Figure 232: Reading
room with bright
white, blue hooring
and, at the far end,
the window head and
sun screen installed
separately from the
head. From Tauber,
2000.
168 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 234: Window sills with wood rot due to
water. Photograph by the author, 2008.
Figure 233: Sun screens installed in 2002.
Photograph by the author, 2002.
ABCD research method ■ 169
6.4 Services
the hrst hoor, was retained behind the wooden panelling of
the balustrade around the double-height space. The
balustrade now also incorporates building services ducts.
Hence, its edge was made slightly larger but hts in with the
original design. An air duct with grilles with integrated into
the balustrade, along the lower edge. The distribution ducts
were installed between the hoor beams. Holes with a
diameter of 150 mm were made through the beams to
accommodate the lateral branches. See Figures 235 and 236.
„ The building services plant in the stacks was replaced.
The new section on the west side, for the old collection of
Franeker University, was equipped with a sophisticated
climate control system. The balanced air handling system
controls the temperature and humidity automatically.
See Figures 242, 251 and 254.
„ For 30 years the relative humidity had been too low in the
stacks most of the time. After the refurbishment it was
possible to maintain this at a constant 55 to 60%.
„ A gaseous hre suppression system was also installed.
Moisture, water and smoke detectors were installed in all
rooms in the semibasement and the gas cylinders were
installed in a dedicated plant room.
275
See Figure 241.
275
Every actuation of the gaseous fire suppression system costs EUR 20,000.
Interview with S. Sevenster, head of the Facilities Department of Friesland
Provincial Library, 25 January 2002.
Above, I included a quote from 1991:
There were problems with the temperature control from
the start. This got better when some windows could be
opened. Later, solar control glass was installed and finally
double glazing. The heating control was also improved.
We are now hoping that fans will help.
273
In 1991 it was concluded that the fans were not enough to
provide adequate conditions for the people and books in the
Friesland Provincial Library. The following measures were taken
in 1999:
„ All radiators and their cladding were replaced, but the
gratings over them were reused. The ofhces were provided
with individual temperature control and mechanical
ventilation.
„ The power and data cabling, installed above the ceilings, was
extended signihcantly. Additional plant rooms were needed.
!n the reading rooms and the ofhces, the cables were taken
to the tables by columns coming down from the ceilings.
See Figure 240.
„ A plant room was created in the upper part of the former
book tower, above the new meeting room. This space
became available as all the stacks were relocated to the
semibasement. Chillers were installed on the roof,
unfortunately these are visible from the surrounding areas.
274
See Figures 237 to 239.
„ The acoustic treatment, initially required between the
catalogue hall on the ground hoor and the reading room on
273
Huizenga,Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de
Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek, 21.
274
As the original construction drawings were lost until the relocation it was only
possible to calculate the permissible roof load at a later stage.
170 ■ ABCD research method
The following changes were made in 2004:
„ The radiators on the ground hoor were removed and an air
handling system was installed. See Figure 222.
„ A room with full climate control was provided in the stacks.
In addition to controlling the temperature and relative
humidity the air is also hltered.
„ A refrigerated store was installed for the photographic
archive.
„ Various provisions were made for handling digital data.
„ A smokers’ room was created in the semibasement.
Figures 235 and 236: Cross-sections of central hall before and after the 1999 refurbishment.
The roof was raised to create space for an air duct. Ducts are also incorporated in the balustrade which is now slightly larger than before.
Tauber archives, drawings from 1964 and 1998.
Plans to improve the energy efhciency were developed in 2009.
The energy bill of the library was double that of the National
Archives. In part this might be due to the climate control plant
for the stacks. One option would be to separate the system for
the stacks from that for the other areas of the building.
ABCD research method ■ 171
Figures 237 to 239:
Raised roof section
over the central hall;
new ventilation
louvres in the old
book tower; chiller
plant on the roof.
Photographs by the
author, 2002 and
2008 (left).
172 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 240 to 242: The mains, data and low
voltage cabling was replaced; the air ducts were
installed between and through the cabinets in
the semibasement; gaseous hre suppression
system. Photographs from Tauber archives (top)
and the author, 2002 and 2008 (hre suppression
system).
ABCD research method ■ 173
7 Building: to be or not to be
When the Provincial Library was being regenerated in 2000 the
construction manager walked through the stripped building with
Tauber and asked him if he was upset by that. Tauber replied:
Now it’s empty you can really see the structure again,
and I like that clarity. I’m now getting the opportunity to
make my building better than it was, it’s not going to be
demolished and it’ll be ready for the next 40 years, while
the basics are staying essentially the same ...
276
276
Interview with P.H. Tauber, 3 January 2002 and 6 March 2002.
7.1 Space
In terms of space on the floors accessible to library users, the
Friesland Provincial Library should be able to accommodate
further changes in the future. The design of the building has
proven itself to be flexible enough to serve as a library and
provide space for users of the National Archives. Further changes
are planned for 2009. The desk in the hall will be moved back to
the lending area and the stairs will be modified. See Figures 243
and 244. The layout of the hall and areas behind it will be opened
up. The offices of the National Archives will be refurbished in
2009 and extended and the canteen in the library will be adapted
so that it can be used for receptions.
The fall in the number of loans and the greater use of
information in digital format could all be accommodated within
the existing spatial structure of the building. The digitisation of
archival and other documents is likely to increase. This is done in
the current building. However, digital data is also stored off-site.
In 2004 the library and the National Archives were connected
by the air bridge and adopted the name Tresoar.
277
See Figure 247.
After upgrading of the building services plant the archives could
be housed in the stacks. The maximum capacity has now almost
been reached. The management expects to run out of space by
the end of 2011. The new Leeuwarden Historical Museum
(close to the National Archives) and the Friesland Museum have
insufficient space for their archives and are now also using
storage at the Tresoar.
277
‘‘Tresoar”, project documentation BRT Architecten, September 2004.
174 ■ ABCD research method
At the end of 2004 the excavations started for the car park
under the Oldehoofsterkerkhof. Tauber’s plan for the redesign of
the square was not adopted.
278
See Figures 245 and 246.
The underground car park was designed by Fons Verheijen of
VVKH architects in Leiden. The route between the buildings,
leading from Prinsentuin to the rampart, was never created.
This area has now been closed off by a gate and fence. The ugly
fence will be replaced and match those elsewhere on the
rampart. The Oldehoofsterkerkhof is currently used for public
functions such as parties, markets and other events. It has also
been used for skating rinks, funfairs and circuses.
In 2008 flooding of the area between the buildings due to heavy
rain caused water to enter the semibasement. The stacks were
flooded when the water entered through the door of the former
bicycle parking. A solution will have to be found for this.
278
Tauber, ‘‘Oldehoveplein vraagt om totaalvisie”, Leeuwarder Courant, November
25, 2002. P. Groot, ‘‘Brug te veel, ” Leeuwarder Courant, November 30, 2002.
Figure 243 and 244: Entrance hall on the hrst hoor with the desk which will
be changed in 2009 to provide a more open plan.
Photographs by the author, 2008.
ABCD research method ■ 175
Figures 245, 246 and 247: Air bridge between the National Archives and the Provincial Library installed in 2004 and construction
activities for the underground car park. Photographs by the author, 2008.
176 ■ ABCD research method
Figures 248 and 249:
Central hall during
and after the
regeneration in 1999.
Tauber archives.
ABCD research method ■ 177
7.2 Structure
The columns, beams and floors of the concrete load-bearing
structure could be changed quite extensively within the building
envelope, and have the potential for further change. This was
clearly demonstrated by the regeneration in 1999. At that time, a
number of squares columns were revealed, which are anomalous.
This demonstrated the vulnerability of ‘specific details in specific
places’ or, as Tauber put it ‘building to the brief’. A box to be
filled with the relevant contents still appears to be a useful type
of building. Structural engineering analyses reveal the strength
limitations in the short term. The floors of the stacks now carry
the maximum acceptable load. Maintaining the concept of the
original central hall, reinstated in 1999, with various functions
surrounding it within a shell with elevations with an apparently
random division provides a flexible basis to deal with any future
changes. See Figures 248 and 249.
7.3 Materials
The use of plain natural materials of high quality has proven to
provide great flexibility, in the past and in the future. The
building now makes a timeless impression, one can date it,
without it being dated. In my view, this will have to provide the
starting point when considering any future changes which might
be needed. The fact that the furniture from 1968 was reused in
2000 is an excellent demonstration of this. See Figure 250. The
furniture will be replaced in 2009.
There is not much to be criticised in terms of the choice of
materials for the exterior walls. However, there are some
problems with the details. A 50 mm cavity does not provide
enough space for both thermal insulation and ventilation of the
cavity. In 2008 it was noticed that the sills of all the window
frames were suddenly affected by rot. See Figure f. It would be
worth investigating what changes were made to the exterior
walls in 1999. According to Frans Tauber all the stone cladding
was removed and refitted at that time.
279
This must have
affected the moisture management of the cavity. See Figure 253.
The flooding of the semibasement damaged the stone
flooring. The original flooring on the upper floors is not affected
by wear, but the flooring in the semibasement needs replacing
after only 10 years. See Figure 252.
279
Telephone interview with Frans Tauber on 4 December 2008 by H. Zijlstra.
178 ■ ABCD research method
Figure 250: Reused furniture. Photograph by the author, 2008.
Figure 253: In 2008 the sills of all the original window frames were found
to be affected by rot.
Photograph by the author, 2008.
Figure 252: The stone hoor in the semibasement, installed in 1999, was
seriously damaged by the hooding in 2008.
Photograph by the author, 2008.
Figure 251: Some of the climate control plant for
the stacks with full climate control. Photograph
by the author, 2008.
ABCD research method ■ 179
7.4 Services
It is likely that the greatest changes in future will be to the
building services plant. Unfortunately the implementation of the
designs by the building services consultant in 1999 led to serious
problems. There were still many unresolved issues early in 2002
and the final accounts had not been settled. Furthermore, the
costs of operating the plant were found to be three times higher
than calculated by the consultants. The contractor who installed
the plant managed to resolve some issues. However, the library’s
maintenance department was left to solve many problems.
A constant hum from the boiler house which reached the plenary
meeting room below it (which is used for courses and exams)
was a serious problem.
In March 2002, Sijbe Sevenster, head of the Facilities
Department of the Provincial Library was somewhat concerned
about the plans for cooperation with the National Archives.
After a merger, the archival stores would have to meet the
requirements of the Archives Act and be fully climate controlled
with extensive plant required for air handling and safety.
280
See Figures 251 and 254. The merger happened in 2004 and the
building services plant was modified accordingly. Unfortunately,
the climate control of the archives reduced the available storage
capacity even further due to the restricted height of the
basement.
Air handling plant was installed in the library areas and the
radiators were removed. Obviously, the safety and access
requirements change regularly. Hence further changes will be
needed in future. It appears that the building will be able to cope
with this.
280
Interview with Sijbe Sevenster, head of the Facilities Department of Friesland
Provincial Library, 25 January 2002.
Figure 254: The ‘Franeker Folianten’ from the collection acquired in 1585.
This is the essence of the building: storing books in controlled conditions
to preserve them for use by future generations.
Photograph by the author, 2008.
180 ■ ABCD research method
ABCD research method ■ 181
8 Conclusions and ABCD¡ research matrix
The conclusions about the future options for the Friesland
Provincial Library are included in the previous chapter. Further to
the study of the building we can draw some conclusions
concerning the research themes. Next, the ABCD§matrix for
the Provincial Library context lists the key aspects of the study
which ranged from context to detail.
Technical observation
The building of the Provincial Library was designed for a
competition. The selected design served more as a means for
testing the schedule of requirements than as a design for what
was actually built. A design which met all the requirements was
only developed at a later stage. The actual requirements and
preferences of the user were only incorporated at that stage.
The long time required to obtain approval gave the user a further
opportunity to make numerous changes. The disadvantage of
this approach is that the impact of some changes may be
overlooked.
In this case it was an excellent idea to engage the original
architect again after 30 years to regenerate the building.
The redesign provided him with an opportunity to reinstate some
aspects of his original design. This means that a design as built
does not necessarily correspond with everything the architect
originally envisaged.
However, the architect has to be able to take a step back
from their work and be able to approach it as a new assignment.
Given that, a period of 50 years before a building can be
nationally listed in the Netherlands would be preferable over
30 years.
In this case, the original architect was familiar with all aspects of
the building. Hence, a large part of the technical observation
information was in his head and he had to communicate this to
the construction team. The fact that the construction drawings
were lost which resulted in additional work for the structural
engineer is a reminder that every building deserves effective
technical documentation.
As far as the typology is concerned, this building type has
proven still to be fit for use as a library. The neutral design of the
elevations, which featured a beam even in the double-height
areas, made it possible to add and remove floors. The materials
selected for the exterior have proven themselves. The stone,
hardwood and copper survived three decades without problems,
although unusual damage has been observed in the most recent
decade. The cork flooring was replaced by carpet, although
Tauber commented that that was not actually necessary.
This brings us back to the question whether or not the original
architect can take the required step back. The tables in the
canteens and reading rooms were refinished by sanding in 1999
and fitted with linoleum tops in 2008 and the chairs were
reupholstered. This furniture will be replaced in 2009.
Research analysis
Tauber based the dimensions of the building on multiples of 7 cm,
i.e. 70 mm. Hence, all dimensions are divisible by seven. At that
time, architects could still make that choice. At present, multiples
of 300 mm are generally used. The main dimensions were based
on the dimensions of the bookcases and aisles between them.
This should have resulted in a grid of 5.20 m. However, the
architect reduced this to 5.18 because of his personal preference.
Nowadays, that would be unacceptable. It is likely that a grid of
5.40 m would be used now, to allow for future changes.
182 ■ ABCD research method
The load-bearing structure of the building, i.e. its internal
structure, made several options possible for the division the
building and allowed for the relocation of functions. This was
even done during the construction of the building. The 5.18 x
5.18 m grid did not conflict with that. The double-height space
was originally built with both freestanding round columns and
with square columns which were incorporated into the walls.
When all the columns became freestanding, in 1999, there was
no longer an apparent reason for the different shapes. As Tauber
put is, the columns were not neutral enough to allow for this
change. At the start of his career, Tauber thought that an
architect had to build in accordance with the brief, and respect
the client’s wishes. Later he realised that a certain neutrality of
the design had some advantages over a design which was highly
specific to one function. This would make it easier to regenerate
the building once the client had left it. The maximum permissible
floor load in the stacks was only reached in 2008.
Regenerative conclusions
When the Provincial Library was regenerated history was at
hand, in the person of the original architect. He essentially
served as a human archive. This situation is quite unusual in the
Netherlands. There are obviously examples of architects who
oppose the demolition or change of their buildings. However,
very few architects have an opportunity such as that presented
to Tauber. Herman Herzberger (1932) is another example as he is
working on the regeneration of the music centre in Utrecht.
At the time the original buildings were designed, neither of
them was presented with the ability to accommodate change as
a requirement and they did not design the buildings with that in
mind. We saw that the Provincial Library had to be changed on
several occasions. The building provided the space for these
changes, or space was found for them. Because of stricter
requirements for the accessibility of public buildings the original
design no longer provided adequate disabled access. An
improvised solution was provided in 1968 but was improved on in
1999. At that time this could be accommodated in the new
entrance section and new hall of the library. This also updated
the appearance of the building: contemporary but restrained.
This significant intervention provided the space for functional
changes and additions to the original schedule of requirements.
These interventions themselves will be changed in 2009 to
provide a more open plan.
The selection of the site also determined the options for
regenerating the building. The rampart made it possible to
include a semibasement which could later be extended by 450
m
2
. However, the ceiling was only 2.94 m high, compared with
3.57 and 4.06 m on the higher floors. This made it difficult to
install the required climate control plant. However, despite the
problems it has so far been possible to fit the required building
services plant. Given that the cooperation with the National
Archives will lead to ever stricter climate control requirements for
the stacks, the available space will have to be used creatively. For
example, the voids in the cabinets to accommodate the ducts
result in a lower floor load than with full cabinets.
There are now several cultural buildings around the
Oldehoofsterkerkhof which made the car park under the square
viable. Additionally, a pedestrian route was created from the city
centre to the Noorder Bolwerk. This section of the city was
regenerated together with the buildings and because of the
people they attract.
The building services plant could be installed in the old book
tower. However, the chiller on the roof, next to the tower, is
rather unsightly when the library is viewed from the square or
the rampart. The book tower was originally designed to allow
extension by several floors. Hence the structure was strong
enough for the building services plant. Originally, the only floors
in the tower were formed by the bookcases. It was relatively
easy to remove them. However, the noise nuisance which the
plant causes to the lower floors has not yet been solved. The
cross-sectional drawings show how the ducts could be
incorporated above the roof, along the rooflights, and in the
balustrade.
In 1999, when the regeneration was completed, Tauber
commented: ‘the structure of a building should be timeless,
straightforward and clear. If not, then it will be difficult to change
the building. The more you build to a brief, the more problems it
causes later.’ He had a motto, which he mentioned during both
his inaugural address and his leaving address to Delft University
ABCD research method ■ 183
of Technology and used as the title of the book published on the
occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of his practice in 1990:
bouwen naar opdracht - building to a brief. Several of his
buildings in Alkmaar are now empty and await demolition or
reuse: the building of the Provincial Library Centre, the ABN-
AMRO bank district office and the palace of justice. Tauber often
made sketch designs with proposals for the reuse of his
buildings, but this was usually in vain. However, his post office in
Alkmaar was given a second life. Its external appearance
changed significantly. The original elevations were inspired by
Aalto and featured brick and copper, with hardwood cladding.
For the regeneration, Tauber clad the building with stone to give
it the typical image of a bank. As a result it now looks similar to
the Provincial Library in Leeuwarden.
281
See Figures 255 and 256.
281
P.H. Tauber, ‘‘Van Postkantoor naar ABN AMRO-bank,” BNA Regio Alkmaar,
May 25, 1999.
Figures 255 and 256: Main post ofhce in Alkmaar, 2002 and 1965.
Photograph by Tauber (left), 1965 and by the author (above), 2002.
184 ■ ABCD research method
ABCDmatrix Meant to be Has been To be or not to be
Brief Q Government brief
Q Competition
Q The revised design is built
Q The function is continued
Q Complete redesign within
the existing volume
Q The function is extended
Q The merger with the National Archives offers
opportunities for the future
Site Q On the rampart, the old
fortifications, on the edge
of the city centre
Q The road isolates the
rampart from the city
Q Extension into the rampart
Q The surroundings become
the cultural centre of the
city
Q The underground car park and the square
benefit its use
Q The route to the rampart should be opened up
Architect Q Piet Tauber Q Piet and Frans Tauber Q Frans Tauber (successor)
Typology Q Rectangular box with atrium
and tower [HVB: eerder
gebruikte je steeds ‘vide’.]
Q Rectangular box with
atrium and tower and glass
entrance volume
Q Rectangular box with atrium and tower, glass
entrance volume and air bridge
Design process Q In three stages
Q The client intervenes, the
architect accepts this, which
reduces the openness
Q The original design (stage
2) provides the basis for
the final design
Q The original design is adhered to
Q Optimising openness
Q Implementing the requirements and legislation
Space Q Rectangular box with atrium
and tower
Q The atrium is closed
Q The atrium is opened
Q Accessibility is improved
Q The entrance is added as a
glass volume
Q The functions are relocated
within the existing volumes
Q The atrium and entire plan are opened up
Q New functions, and accommodating other
functions
Q Optimising the use
Q Providing a link to the National Archives
Structure Q Based on multiples of
70 mm
Q The grid of 5.18 m imposes
limitations
Q Square and round columns
Q Not neutral enough to
accommodate change
invisibly
Q Sufficient load-bearing
capacity
Q Load-bearing capacity reached
Q Able to accommodate change
Materials Q Neutral
Q Timeless
Q Durable
Q Few changes required
Q Restrained and functional
Q Repair and modification
possible
Q Ageing transformed into appreciation
Q The flooring in the semibasement and the
window frames require significant repairs
Services Q Minimal Q Strict statutory requirements
and comfort lead to
modification and additions
Q Implemented within the
available space
Q Replaced within the available space
Q Future modifications will require creative solutions
ABCD research matrix of the Friesland Provincial Library
ABCD research method ■ 185
Figure 257: Temporary chandelier at
the restaurant 11 in the former Post
ofhce in Amsterdam. Photograph by
the author, 2004.
186 ■ ABCD research method
ABCD research method ■ 187
9 Recommendations
Technology provided me with the inspiration to develop a more
comprehensive research method to assess buildings: Analysing
Buildings from Context to Detail in time (ABCD¡). Technology, at
academic level, should be considered in the analysis of a building.
Here we are concerned with construction engineering, the study
of the requirements associated with constructing buildings. Until
1970, most architectural and construction industry magazines
and journals covered the technical aspects of buildings quite
extensively. Later this coverage became less extensive. Archivists
are also likely to discard technical information. However, a
number of architectural elements can only be appreciated by
analysing their technical aspects. Technology should be included
as an essential aspect when investigating existing buildings in an
attempt to understand them.
The results of technical studies always relate to practice.
Such information is also essential to the redesign of existing
buildings. It is important to preserve photographs, drawings, etc.
from the period when the building was constructed. Providing
information on practice is a key element in construction
engineering, which is a learning process. We are not solely
concerned with the end result. Changes are made during the life
of a building, and they might be made differently if the history
and technical aspects of the building were studied in greater
detail.
Complex dimensional systems were not used in the period
from 1940 to 1970. Instead, architects followed their personal
preferences, such as Tauber who used the symbolic number
seven for the Friesland Provincial Library. Later, the dimensions
were based on multiples of 300 mm which would govern the
whole construction process. Other studies also indicate that
dimensions are increasingly based on multiples of 300 mm.
Gradually ceilings became lower, though this trend has now been
reversed in residential construction. Building services plant is
vulnerable and regularly replaced or refurbished, even when it is
still working effectively. The accessibility or lack thereof of piping
and cabling is a key issue in any building which is modified.
Buildings are no longer designed by the architect alone, there
are now consultants for structural engineering, climate control,
sustainability, etc. This cooperation leads to better results than if
the architect worked alone. Between 1940 and 1970 the architect
became more of a designer-manager of the whole process.
Shortly after the Second World War architects still found it
difficult to convince clients that consultants were needed. There
are examples to prove what problems could arise if consultants
were not involved, or too late. At present the architect serves
rather like the hub of a team of consultants.
An ABCD¡ study requires relevant data. Between 1940 and
1970 there was greater interest in the technical aspects.
Architectural publications included technical details. I would
advocate the inclusion of more technical information in general
architecture publications. Between 1940 and 1970 architects
generally wrote explanations of their plans and always included
technical aspects and innovations. We should return to that
practice as it can provide primary information for later
regeneration projects.
Both maintenance and changes require us to understand the
building concerned. All the aspects covered by my research
method should be considered. In essence, a building can be
described in detail using the ABCD¡ research method. This
should start during its construction. A , available to all relevant
parties, should be created, using a protocol yet to be developed.
Experience obtained with other buildings can lead to better
considered solutions when designing and building new buildings
or intervening in existing buildings.
Architects’ training should include the observation and
analysis of buildings. This requires technical knowledge obtained
188 ■ ABCD research method
by learning. The essentials of subjects such as forces, mechanics,
building physics and materials science will become more
interesting if the education includes practical examples.
Multidisciplinary monographs on selected buildings would help us
understand buildings. These publications should also include
interviews with architects and other relevant parties. Project
lectures are also an effective tool to teach students about
buildings. Such publications should be disseminated widely.
Moving images and sound would be welcome additions. However,
we should also ensure that the diaries of construction managers
and project leaders are included in the archives. The ABCD
research method is based on what exists today, and how it came
into being. It is not a design method - it is a research method
which can help designers to study and understand a building.
Change is only possible if there is also continuity. We can
recognise layers where changes may have led to interventions in
what existed at one time. The ABCD research method is an
instrument to show us how changes happened, and what the
original concepts for the building were. We have to investigate
the history of the design and construction of a building to distil
this essence.
The funding available for constructing a building or
maintaining it, and the way in which changes are made are all
important in this context. Sufficient funding at the start should
result in considered quality. If costs are cut then the architect
has to make concessions which may lead to high costs in future.
Hence were are concerned both with the life of the building and
the costs associated with it. The building, the idea, the wish to
do something with it, spontaneous ideas, surprises and the
unique solutions created by taking the space provided by the
building and the opportunities available to the designer. Decisions
should not be taken lightly simply because there is enough
funding available. This does not necessarily mean that when
designing new buildings we have to consider their future
regeneration. The best buildings often result from unexpected
solutions. However, there should be the space for this: in terms
of length, width and height between the load-bearing elements,
to provide space for creative solutions.
The future is always uncertain. Hence we should not waste
money on options for changes which we cannot predict.
However, we should invest in space, in dimensions, in permissible
loads. We should avoid using building components which are
unique to the building and cannot be recreated.
The ABCD research method is the result of the
development of my PhD research into a method which can be
applied in practice. Initially we are concerned with what exists
now, and determining why and how it was created, and if and
how it can continue to exist. This will provide the basic
information about the building. Its qualities can then be identified
to help us understand it. This is done before the requirements
are defined. We can then consider the options for change needed
for the building to continue to exist, on the basis of well-
considered decisions and respect.
I encourage all architects to learn from existing buildings and
enable others to learn from the buildings they design. And not
only through publications about the completed building with
impressive photographs. Instead, we should document the
history of the creation of the building and tell our own stories.
These should include the technical aspects and be made
available for others for academic study. Learning from buildings,
by investigating them, should be included in all architects’
education. At the ®MIT department of the Faculty of
Architecture of Delft University of Technology we are not only
interested in conservation. In fact, we are particularly interested
in redesign, in regeneration within the existing context - which
means that change is essential. This will also help existing
buildings to continue to exist. In this way, continuity and change
will lead to durability and sustainability.
ABCD research method ■ 189
Figure 258: Entrance hall of the UN building in New York, shortly before the start of an extensive regeneration project. Photograph by the author, 2008.
190 ■ ABCD research method
ABCD research method ■ 191
Literature and sources
In order of the last names of the authors.
< Aarts, M. Vijftig jaar Wederopbouw in Rotterdam. Rotterdam: 010
Publishers, 1995.
< Acona, H. d’. et al. Nederlandse Architectuur en Stedebouw ‘45-‘80.
Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1984.
< Addis, B. 3000 Years of Design Engineering and Building Construction.
London: Phaidon, 2007.
< Albertina, B. and S. Bagnoli. Scarpa. Architecture in details.
Architecture Design and Technology Press London, 1988.
< Asselberg, F. “Jaarprogramma. Rijksadviseur voor het Culturele Erfgoed
2005.” In Agenda 2005. College van Rijksadviseurs, ed. M. Crouwel,
M. The Hague: Atelier Rijksbouwmeester, 2005.
< Baalman, L. et al. Architectuur in Nederland. Utrecht: Stichting Teleac,
1993.
< Bakker, H. “De gebouwenvoorraad: opgave voor ontwerpen en
beheren.” Plan no. 3 (1985): 20-21.
< Barbieri, U. and L. van Duin. Plannenmap bibliotheken.
Delft: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde, 1997.
< Beim, A. Tectonic Visions in Architecture. PhD diss., Royal Danish
Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture Copenhagen, 1999.
< Bekeart, G. and F. Strauven. Bouwen in België 1945-1970.
Brussels: Nationale Confederatie van het Bouwbedrijf, 1971.
< Benes, J. and J. K. Vrijling. Voldoet dit gebouw? Het bepalen van de
functionele kwaliteit. Rotterdam: Stichting Bouw Research, 1990.
< Berge, M. ten and H. de Raad. “Een interview met de Alkmaarse
architect Piet Tauber.” Oud Alkmaar no. 2 (2002): 1-20.
< Bie, R.J. van der and CBS. Tweehonderd jaar statistiek in tijdreeksen:
1800-1999. Amsterdam: Stichting beheer IISG, 2001.
< Bijdendijk, F. Ph. Duurzaamheid loont. Hoe sober en doelmatig bouwen
de armen arm houdt. Haarlem: Architext, 1997.
< Binney, M., Machin, F. and K. Powell. Bright Future. The Re-use of
Industrial Buildings. London: SAVE Britain’s Heritage, 1990.
< Blijstra, R. Nederlandse bouwkunst na 1900. Utrecht: Bezige Bij, 1962.
< Blom, A. De RDMZ en het project wederopbouw. Note for the
knowledge meeting Conservation Technology. Zeist: RDMZ, 2003.
< Boer, H.P.G. de, Oude fabrieken nieuwe functies. Zeist: projectbureau
industrieel erfgoed, 1995.
< Boer, R. Quickscan hergebruik gebouwen. Velp: ABT, 2005.
< Bollebakker, H. “Bouwhistorie is basis voor monumentenzorg.”
Heemschut no. 1 (2002): 8-13.
< Bollerey, F. “Innovation. A critical view.” Modern Heritage, Unesco
(May 2005).
< Boom, E. ten. “Waardevolle karakteristieken van de wederopbouw.
Het bouwen aan de toekomst met respect voor het verleden.”
Monumenten no. 1/2 (2000): mededelingen.
< Bosma, K. and C. Wagenaar. Een geruisloze doorbraak. De geschiedenis
van de architectuur en stedebouw tijdens de bezetting in Nederland.
Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1995.
< Bosma, K. et al. Bouwen in Nederland 600-2000. Zwolle: Waanders
Publishers, 2007
< Bosma, K. Ruimte voor een nieuwe tijd: vormgeving van de
Nederlandse regio 1900-1945. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1993.
< Bout, J. van den. Architectuur in Fryslân 1940-2000. Leeuwarden:
Friese Pers Boekerij, 2000.
< Brand, S. How buildings learn; what happens after they’re built.
New York: Viking Penguin, 1994.
< Braungart, M. and W. McDonough. Cradle to Cradle: remaking the Way
We Make Things. New York: North Point Press, Farrer, Straus & Giroux,
2007.
< Brawne, M. Bibliotheken. Libraries. Teufen: Niggli, 1970.
< Britton, K. Auguste Perret. London: Phaidon, 2001.
< Broek, J. H. van der. “Stroomingen in de Nederlandsche Architectuur.”
Bouw no. 1 (1946): 4-11.
< Broek, J. H. van der et al. Nederlandse Architectuur. Uitgevoerde
werken van Bouwkundige Ingenieurs. Amsterdam: Argus, 1956.
< Broek, J.H. van der. “50 jaar Nederlands bouwen.” Bouwkundig
Weekblad (1958): 581-604.
192 ■ ABCD research method
< Bromberg, P. Bouwen in nieuwe banen. Amsterdam: N.V. de
Arbeiderspers, 1947.
< Brouwer, T. Leeuwarden, open stad. Structuurschets van de gemeente
Leeuwarden. Leeuwarden: Gemeente Leeuwarden, 1995.
< Brownlee, D. and D. De Long. Louis Kahn: In the Realm of
Artchitecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1992.
< Bruggen, J.P. van. “Naoorlogse bouwtechniek: terugblik en
vooruitzicht.” Bouw no. 17 (1968): 680-684.
< Buch, J. Een eeuw Nederlandse architectuur 1880-1990. Rotterdam:
NAi Publishers, 1993.
< Buffinga, A. “Commentaar. Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek te
Leeuwarden.” Bouw no. 16 (1968): 590-91.
< Bunnell, G. Built to Last; a Handbook of Recycling Old Buildings.
Washington: Preservation Press, 1977.
< Büttiker, U. Louis I. Kahn Licht und Raum. Basel: Birkhaüser, 1993.
< Caldenby, C. and O. Hultin. Asplund. Stockholm: Stockholm Arkitektur
Förlag & Grinko Press, 1990.
< Campbell, L. Twentieth-Century Architecture. Surrey: Society of
Architectural Historians of Great Britain, 2000.
< Cate, A.M. ten. “Wennen aan wederopbouw.” Heemschut no. 4 (2000):
4-6.
< Cate, G. ten and D. Dubbeling. “Een gebouw is er voor de functie.
Niet overdrijven.” Bouw (May 1997): appendix 34-35.
< Cate, G. ten and K. de Graaf. “Gestolde sociale geschiedenis.
Wethouder Herman Meijer over belangstelling voor wederopbouw.”
Bouw (May 1997): appendix 32-33.
< Cate, G. ten and R. Rovers. “Opdrachtgever moet bewijzen dat slopen
zinvol is. Een interview met Hubert-Jan Henket.” Bouw no. 20 (1983):
35-38.
< Cate, G. ten. “Wederopbouwarchitectuur: geen louter beschermende
houding.” Heemschut no. 6 (1996): 14-16.
< Cate, G. ten. Cayennepeper. Fons Verheijen Architect. Leiden:
Fons Verheijen, 2002.
< Cederlöf, B. “Bibliothek I Östersund.” Architektur, The Swedish
Architectural Rieview no. 8 (1961): 165-167.
< Ching, F. D. K. Architecture. Form, Space & Order. New York:
Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1979.
< Cofaigh, E. O. “The Future of Architecture. UAI Whitebook.”
In Resourch Architecture Main Congress Report and Outlook.
Berlin: Birkhaüser, 2002.
< Cofaigh, E.O. et al. A Green Vitruvius. Principles and Practice of
Sustainable Architectural Design. London: James and James, 1999.
< Coolen, T. M. T. and H. W. H. Haaksma. “Aristoteles kan ingenieur veel
leren over de kunst van het maken.” De Ingenieur no. 10 (1993): 46-48.
< Copius Peereboom, J.H. “Klimaatregeling door stralingswarmte.”
Geneeskundig Tijdschrift der Rijksverzekeringsbank no. 11 (1939):
65-83.
< Curtis, W. J. R. Modern Architecture since 1900. Oxford: Phaidon, 1982.
< Deelstra, T. and J. Stehouwer. Sloop of hergebruik?. Utrecht: LOKV,
1987.
< Devolder, A. Architectuur Rotterdam 1945 – 1970. Rotterdam:
MFR Rotterdamse Kunststichting, 1991.
< Dijk, H. van. Architectuur in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw.
Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 1999.
< Dijkstra, Tj. Architectonische kwaliteit. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers,
2001.
< Doets, J. D. “Hergebruik gebouwen alleen zinvol als bestemming
hoogwaardiger wordt.” Bouw no. 20 (1983): 72-74.
< Dorgelo, A. Modern European Architecture. Amsterdam: Elsevier
Publishing Company, 1960.
< Douma, S. “Een nieuw gebouw voor de Provinciale Bibliotheek van
Friesland en voor de Buma-Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden.”
Bibliotheekleven no. 44 (1959): 209-216.
< Douma, S. “Prijsvraag Bibliotheekgebouw Leeuwarden.” Forum no. 2
(1959) : 47.
< Dreyer, O. “La Bibliothèque Centrale de Lucerne (Suisse).” La Technique
Des Travaux no. 1/2 (1954): 25-32.
< Durm, J. Handbuch der Architektur. Vierter Teil. 6. Halbband: Bebäude
für Erziehung, Wissenschaft und Kunst. 4. Heft: Gebäude für
Sammlungen und Ausstellungen. Darmstadt: Diehl 1893.
< Duin, L. and, U. Barbieri et al. Honderd jaar Nederlandse architectuur
1901-2000. Tendensen. Hoogtepunten. Nijmegen: SUN, 1999.
< Eekhof, W. Beknopte geschiedenis van Friesland. Groningen:
B.V. Foresta, 1976.
< Embden, S.J. van et al. De techniek en de architectuur.
Amsterdam: Architectura et Amicitia, 1946.
< Emmens, K. “Bouwhistorisch onderzoek zoals een goede wetenschap
betaamt!” Monumenten no. 1/2 (1996): 6-8.
< Engels, L.J. et al. Bibliotheek, wetenschap en cultuur.
Groningen: Universiteitsbibliotheek, 1990.
ABCD research method ■ 193
< Erkamp, N., B. Gmelig and F. van Hoeken. Architectuur, vak van
ontmoetingen. Alkmaar: Architectenbureau Tauber, 1981.
< Exner, J. “Koldinghus: the conversion of an old Royal Danish Castle.”
Monumentum no. 4 (1984): 285-300.
< Fanelli, G. Moderne Architectuur in Nederland 1900-1940.
The Hague: State Publisher, 1981.
< Fischer, A. Umnutzungalter Gebaüde und Anlagen. Stuttgart: Kramer,
1992.
< Fleig, K. Alvar Aalto. Barcelona: Editorial Gustavo Gill, 1981.
< Frampton, K.D. Studies in Tectonic Culture. Massachusetts: MIT Press,
2001.
< Frölén, S. “Stadsbibliotek I Solna.” Architektur, The Swedish
Architectural Rieview no. 2 (1966): 58-62.
< Galema, W. “Wederopbouw in wegwerpcultuur” Bouw (May 1997):
appendix 4-9.
< Genderenstort, J.K. van. “Staalbouw 1945-1965.” Polytechnisch
Tijdschrift no. 1 (1965): 17B-23B.
< Gereadts, R. and Th. van der Voordt. “Van leegstand naar
herbestemming.” Real Estate Magazine no. 39 (2005): 12-14.
< Giedion, S. Space, Time and Architecture. The growth of a tradition.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.
< Gool, F.J. van. Architectuur Algemene Beschouwingen. Amsterdam:
Scheltema and Holkema, 1957.
< Graaf, K. de. “Achterstand naoorlogse monumenten mag niet oplopen.
RDMZ helpt wederopbouwwijken in kaart te brengen.” Renovatie &
Onderhoud no. 3 (2001): 12-13.
< Graaf, K. de. “Eerst onderzoeken dan ontwerpen. Architect van
Schagen over de kracht van renovaties.” Renovatie & Onderhoud
no. 1/2 (2001): 18-19.
< Graaf, K. de. “Niet conserveren maar herontwikkelen.” Bouw
(May 1997): appendix 3.
< Graaf, K. de. Sloopstop dodelijk voor stad. Staatssecretaris Remkes
pareert visie professor Thomsen.” Renovatie & Onderhoud no. 8
(2000): 12-13.
< Graaf, K. de. “Stop met slopen van de bestaande stad. Interview met
Prof. Thomsen.” Renovatie & Onderhoud no. 6/7 (2000): 10-11.
< Graatsma, W. Schunck’s Glass Palace. Nuth: Rosbeek Books, 1996.
< Grandpré Molière, M. J. et al. De architectuur. Amsterdam: Architectura
et Amicitia, 1942.
< Grasman, D. H. “Veranderingen in de plaats van de arbeiders in het
bouwproces.” Bouw no. 17 (1968): 714-716.
< Greiner, O. “Prijsvraag voor bibliotheek te Leeuwarden.” Bouw no. 15
(1959): 403.
< Grimoldi, A. “Architecture as reparation. Notes on restoration in
architecture.” Lotus no. 46 (1985): 117-122.
< Groat L and D. Wang. Architectural Research Methods. New York:
Wiley, 2001.
< Groenendijk, P. and P. Vollaard. Gids voor moderne architectuur in
Nederland. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 1987.
< Groot, P. de. “Brug te veel.” Leeuwarder Courant, November 30, 2002.
< Groot, P. de. “Jeugdherinneringen: de jaren vijftig onder de Oldehove.”
Leovardia no. 1 (2000): 21-24.
< Haagsma, H. de and I. de Haan. Een onderwerp van voortdurende zorg.
Het Naoorlogse bouwen in Nederland. Utrecht: Kluwer, 1983.
< Haagsma, H. de and I. de Haan. Wie is er bang voor nieuwbouw.
Confrontatie met Nederlandse architecten. Amsterdam: Intermediair
Bibliotheek, 1981.
< Haan, H. de and I. Haagsma. Tauber Architecten. Bouwen naar
opdracht. Haarlem: Architext, 1990.
< Harwood, E. England. A Guide to post-war listed buildings.
London: Ellipsis, 2000.
< Haskel, D. “Jazz in Architecture.” Architectural Forum (September
1960): 110-115.
< Haß, N. and V. Konerding. Studie zu gewerblich genutzten und
gesetzlich geschützten Denkmalen in Hamburg. Hamburg:
Denkmalplege Hamburg, 1996.
< Hassler, U. Das Verschwinden der Bauten des Industriezeitalters.
Berlijn: Ernst Wasmuth Publishers, 2004.
< Hein, C. “Een eeuw architectuurgeschiedenis.” Archis no. 12 (1998):
78-79.
< Hek, M., J. Kamstra and R. P. Geraedts. Herbestemmingswijzer:
herbestemming van bestaand vastgoed. Delft: Publicatiebureau
Bouwkunde, 2004.
< Hendriks, A. et al. De veranderende bouwopgave. Weesp: Moussault,
1984.
< Hendriks, A. “Multidisciplinair onderzoek dient het bouwen te
begeleiden.” Plan no. 9 (1970): 555-556.
< Hendriks, A. Van wederopbouw naar ruimtelijke ordening. Inaugurate
speech. Rotterdam: Wyt Publishers, 1965.
194 ■ ABCD research method
< Henket, H.J. and H. Heynen ed. Back to Utopia. Rotterdam: 010
Publishers, 2002.
< Henket, H.J. The economy of architecture. Proceedings of the syposium
in honour of Sir Norman Foster doctor honoris causa at the Eindhoven
University of Technology, April 26, 1996.
< Henket, H.J. “The proof of the pudding remains in the eating.”
Bouw no. 26 (1985): 49.
< Henket, H.J. “Van produceren naar gebruiken en beheren.” Plan no. 3
(1985): 24-25.
< Henn, W. “Over het oude en het nieuwe bouwen.” Polytechnisch
Tijdschrift no. 6 (1965): 499B-505B.
< Herzberger, H. Het Openbare Rijk. Samenvatting Colleges 1973-1982,
deel A. Delft: University Press, 1982.
< Herzberger, H. Ruimte maken ruimte laten. Samenvatting Colleges
1973-1982, deel B. Delft: University Press, 1984.
< Hillen, M. “Een gunstig werkklimaat.” De Architect no. 10 (2005): 82-85.
< Hitchcock, H.R. “Bureaucracy & the Architecture of the Genius.”
The Architectural Review no. 601 (1947): 3-6.
< Hitchcock, H.R., ‘‘Een overzicht van de veranderingen in de architectuur
ten gevolge van het ontstaan van nieuwe technieken en materialen.’’
Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 13 (1961): 258-259.
< Hoekstra, R., ‘‘Eerste landdag voor architectuurhistorici.’’ De Architect
(March 2004): 13-14.
< Hoenig, A., ‘‘Stadtplanung und Städtebau.’’ Die neue Stadt (1951):
459-462.
< Hoeve, J.A. van der. Richtlijnen Bouwhistorisch Onderzoek. The Hague:
Rijksgebouwendienst, 2000.
< Hollander, J. den. Ooit gesloopt Nederland. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij,
1985.
< Horn – van Nispen, M.L. ten. 400.000 jaar maatschappij en techniek.
Utrecht: Lemma, 1996.
< Hovens Greve, H. ‘‘Mens en werkomgeving.’’ Forum no. 3 (1954):
93-100.
< Hryniewiecki, J. ‘‘De invloed van de industrialisatie op de architectuur.’’
Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 13 (1961): 259-260.
< Huisman, J. ‘‘Hubert-Jan Henket gelooft heilig in transparantie:
Laagdrempelig is chique.’’ SMAAK no. 20 (2005) 36-38.
< Huisman, J. ‘‘Lelijk is geen argument.’’ Vrij Nederland, June 12, 2003.
< Huisman, J. ‘‘Man en vrouw in het Wijnhavenkwartier. Definitief
ontwerp voor torens Justitie en Binnenlandse Zaken laat meer
verscheidenheid zien.’’ SMAAK no. 14 (2003): 51-53.
< Huizenga, J.J. Vijfentwintig jaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte
geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek. Leeuwarden:
Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek van Friesland, 1991.
< Hulstein, G. ‘‘De bouwfysicus: in samenhang bekijken.’’ Bouw
(May 1997): appendix 3.
< Huygen, F. ed. 1928: Schoonheid en transparantie, logica en vernuft.
Rotterdam: Museum Boymans van Beuningen, 1993.
< Ibelings, H. ‘‘De architectuur van de jaren vijftig en zestig.’’ Heemschut
no. 6 (1996): 10-13.
< Ibelings, H. ‘‘De periode van het individuele modernisme.’’ Forum no. 1
(1991): 20-27.
< Ibelings, H. ‘‘Het andere modernisme. Traditionalistische architectuur in
Nederland 1900-1960.’’ Archis no. 6 (1988): 36-51.
< Ibelings, H. De moderne jaren vijftig en zestig. De verspreiding van
eigentijdse architectuur over Nederland. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers,
1996.
< IJzeren, J. van. ‘‘Instandhouding, aanpassing en hergebruik van
gebouwen.’’ Plan no. 3 (1985): 29-31.
< Jager, A. ‘‘Leeuwardens vroegste verleden op de schop.’’
http://www.gemeentearchief.nl/oldehove.html (accessed Februari 28,
2002).
< Jansen, J. ‘‘Verlichtingstechniek 1945-1965.’’ Polytechnisch Tijdschrift
no. 1 (1965): 24B-28B.
< Jelles, E.J. ‘‘Zoeken naar een adequate werkwijze.’’ Plan no. 9 (1970):
559-561.
< Jong, T. de ed. Ways to Study and Research. Delft: University Press,
2002.
< Jonge W. de, J. Schilt and H. Tilman. Het gebruik van de stad.
Hoe Rotterdam zichzelf kan blijven (Docomomo). Rapport aan:
Commissie Waardestelling Wederopbouw Rotterdam.
Rotterdam: Commissie Waardestelling Wederopbouw Rotterdam, 1997.
< Jongepier, H.C. ‘‘De architectuur van de wederopbouw. Laat zon en
licht in uw woning binnentreden.’’ Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. 47/48
(1947): 612b-615b.
< Kamerling, J. ‘‘Waarom een leeftijdsgrens?” Heemschut no. 6 (1996):
3-4.
ABCD research method ■ 195
< Karstkarel, G.P. Leeuwarden 700 jaar bouwen. Zutphen: Terra
Publishers, 1985.
< Kasteren, J. van en H. Croes et al. Duurzaam huisvesten. Buildings that
last. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2002.
< Klerk, L. de. Particuliere plannen. Denkbeelden en initiatieven van de
stedelijke elite inzake de volkswoningbouw en de stedebouw in
Rotterdam, 1860-1950. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1998.
< Kloos, J.P. ‘‘The Dutch Melting-pot. Recent Architecture in Holland.’’
Architectural Review no. 616 (1948): 137-156.
< Knittel, W. ‘‘Plannen voor een nieuw monumentenstelsel.’’ Nieuwsbrief
RDMZ no. 4 (2002). http://www.munumentenzorg.nl/actueel/nieuws/
nieuws_ monstelsel.html (accesed October 24, 2002).
< Kok, D.W. ‘‘De Buma Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden.
Bibliotheekbeschrijving.’’ Open: vaktijdschrift voor bibliothecarissen
no. 6 (1977): 307-312.
< Kollhoff, H. ed. Über Tektonik in der Baukunst. Braunsweig: Vieweg,
1993.
< Koops, W.R.H. en Ch.J.J. Klaver. Het nieuwe gebouw van de
Universiteitsbibliotheek te Groningen. Groningen: University of
Groningen, 1987.
< Korte, M. de. Provinciehuizen, Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw
1940-1965. Zeist: RDMZ, 2004.
< Korte, M. de. Raadhuizen, Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw
1940-1965. Zeist: RDMZ, 2004.
< Korte, M. de. Sportaccomodaties, Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw
1940-1965. Zeist: RDMZ, 2004.
< Koster, E. ‘‘Herbestemming: Nieuwbouw in historische context.’’
De Architect no. 37 (1989): 34-43.
< Kraus, J.G. ‘‘De constructeur: skelet respecteren.’’ Bouw (May 1997):
appendix 30.
< Kronenburg, R. Spirit of the Machine. Technology as an Inspiration in
Architectural Design. Chichester: Wiley-Academy, 2001.
< Kuipers, M.C. Conserveren in de wegwerp maatschappij. Pleidooi voor
een plychrone cultuur. Inaugurate speech at the Maastricht University.
Maastricht: University Press, 2001.
< Kuipers, M.C. Toonbeelden van de wederopbouw. Zwolle: Waanders,
2002.
< Kuper, M. en I. van Zijl. G.Th. Rietveld. Het volledige werk. 1888-1964.
Utrecht: Centraal Museum, 1992.
< Lange, E. de. Sober en Solide. De wederopbouw van Nederland
1940-1965. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1995.
< Lansink, V. Spoorwegstations, Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw
1940-1965. Zeist: RDMZ, 2004.
< Latham, D. Creative Re-use of Buildings. Vol. 1. Principles and Practice.
Shaftesbury: Donhead, 2000.
< Latham, D. Creative Re-use of Buildings. Vol. 2. Building Types:
Selected Examples. Shaftesbury: Donhead, 2000.
< Leupen, B. Frame and Generic Space. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 2002.
< Lichtenberg, J. ‘‘Conceptueel ontwikkelen versus Development by
Addition.” Boosting, no. 66 (2002): 3.
< Lion, E. Building Renovation and Recycling. New York: Wiley, 1982.
< Loeff, K., L. van Meijel and P. Opmeer. Bejaardentehuizen, Categoriaal
Onderzoek Wederopbouw 1940-1965. Zeist: RDMZ, 2005.
< Loeff, K., L. van Meijel and P. Opmeer. Het vrijstaande woonhuis,
Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw 1940-1965. Zeist: RDMZ, 2004.
< Los, S. Carlo Scarpa. Cologne: Taschen Publishers, 1993.
< Lynch, K. What Time is This Place? Cambridge: MIT Press, 1972.
< Macdonald, S. Modern Matters. Principles and Practice in Conserving
Recent Architecture. Shaftesbury: Donhead, 1996.
< Macdonald, S. Preserving Post-War Heritage. Shaftesbury: Donhead,
2001.
< Mans, K. en W. van Winden. Architectuurgids van Delft. Delft:
Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde, 1992.
< Markus, T.A. Building Conversion and Rehabilitation. Designing for
Change in Building Use. London: Newnes-Butterworths, 1979.
< Marsh, P. The Refurbishment of Commercial and Industrial Buildings.
London: Construction Press, 1983.
< Meijel, L. van, P. Opmeer en K. Loeff. Scholen, Categoriaal Onderzoek
Wederopbouw 1940-1965. Zeist: RDMZ, 2003.
< Melet, E. et al. ABT 1953-2003. Arnhem: ABT, 2003.
< Meller, J. ed. The Buckminster Fuller Reader. London: Cape, 1970.
< Merwijk, T. van. Kruisgebouwen, Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw
1940-1965. Zeist: RDMZ, 2004.
< Meuwissen, J. ‘‘Groei van kennis in de architectuur.’’ OASE no. 62
(2003): 7-19.
< Mevissen, W. Bücherei. Public Library Building. Essen: Heyer, 1958.
< Mieras, J.P. ‘‘Het nieuwe gebouw der Rijksverzekeringsbank te
Amsterdam.’’ Bouwkundig Weekblad Architectura no. 28 (1940):
208-214.
196 ■ ABCD research method
< Mieras, J.P. Na-oorlogse bouwkunst in Nederland. Amsterdam: Kosmos,
1954.
< Molema, J. Antonio Gaudí, een weg tot oorspronkelijkheid. PhD diss.,
Delft University of Technology, 1987.
< Moore, R, and R. Ryan. Building Tate Modern, Herzog & de Meuron
Transforming Giles Gilbert Scott. London: Tate Gallery Publishing, 2000.
< Mulder, S., J. Schilt and M. Kloos. Jonge architecten in de wederopbouw
1940-1960. Bussum: Thoth, 1993.
< Müller-Menckens G. Neues Leben für alte Bauten. Stuttgart: Koch, 1977.
< Mumford, L. ‘‘The Skyline. A Walk Through Rotterdam.’’ The New
Yorker, October 12, 1957.
< Mumford, L. Art and Technics. London: Oxford University Press, 1952.
< Nannen, A. M. ‘‘Op zoek naar cultuurhistorische waarden in naoorlogse
voorraad.’’ Renovatie & Onderhoud no. 3 (2001): 14-17.
< Nahum, A. ‘‘Italy’s Brunel.’’ Blueprint (April 1989): 53.
< Nelissen, N.J.M. Herbestemming van grote monumenten, een
uitdaging. ’s-Hertogenbosch: Adr. Heinen, 1999.
< Nervi, P.L. ‘‘De invloed van de ontwikkelingen in het gewapend beton,
de bouwtechniek en de bouwwetenschap op de hedendaagse
architectuur.’’ Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 13 (1961): 257-258.
< Neumeyer, F. The Artless Word. Mies van de Rohe on the Building Art.
Cambridge: MIT University Press, 1991.
< Nicolai, M. Probleme der Umnutzung. München: Saur, 1979.
< Nijenhuis and Ebbinge. ‘‘Openbare bibliotheek en leeszaal in Assen.’’
Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 8 (1968): 136-137.
< Nijhof, P. ‘‘Herbouwde binnensteden onder druk.’’ Heemschut no. 1
(2001): 37.
< Nusselder, E.J. Wederopbouw, materialen en technieken. Notitie voor
RDMZ-Kennisoverleg Instandhoudingstechnologie no. 25 (2003), Zeist
January 15, 2004.
< Ortega Y Gasset, J. Bespiegelingen over leven en denken, historie en
techniek.’’ The Hague: H.P. Leopold N.V., 1951.
< Pereira Rodes, A. Re-Architecture. Lifespan rehabilitation of built
heritage. PhD diss., Eindhoven University of Technology, 2007.
< Pennink, P.K.A. ‘‘Een brief over prijsvragen. Beste Greiner…..’’
Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 8 (1960):p. 451.
< Pevsner, N. A History of Building Types. New York: Princeton University
Press, 1979.
< Pevsner, N. Libraries. A History of Building Types. New York: Princeton
University Press, 1976.
< Piano, R. ‘‘Renzo Piano Building Workshop.’’ Process: Architecture no.
100 (1992).
< Pieterson, M. ed. Het technisch labyrint. Leiden: Werkgroep Techniek,
Technologie en Samenleving, 1981
< Powell, K. Architecture Reborn. London: King, 1999.
< Powell, K. City Reborn. London: Merell, 2004.
< Provoost, M. and W. Vanstiphout. Re-Arch. Nieuwe ontwerpen voor
oude gebouwen. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 1995.
< Provoost, M. and W. Vanstiphout. Re-Urb. Nieuwe plannen voor oude
steden. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 1997.
< Prudon, Th.H.M. Preservation of Modern Architecture. Hoboken:
Wiley & Sons, 2008.
< Pruys, S.M. De nieuwe onzakelijkheid. Design Kritiek. Amsterdam:
Meulenhoff, 1971.
< Pruys, S.M. De Paradijsbouwers. Anti – kunstzinnige opmerkingen over
de gebouwde omgeving. Utrecht: Spectrum, 1974.
< Rauwerdink, A. ‘‘Hergebruik voor tweederde onder de nieuwprijs.’’
Gebouwbeheer no. 1 (2000): 20-21.
< Rice, P. An Engineer Imagines. London: Artemis, 1994.
< Rietveld, G. ‘‘Die Nachkriegsarchitektur in Holland.’’ Werk no. 11 (1951):
326-330.
< Risselada, M. et al. 1900-2000 architecture in the Netherlands a
chronology. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2001.
< Roegholt, R. Amsterdam in de 20
e
eeuw. Deel 2 (1945/1970).
Amsterdam: Aula, 1979.
< Röling, W. ed., A. de Back, J.M.J. Coenen and M.C. Kuipers. Gesloopt
Gered Bedreigd. Omgaan met naoorlogse bouwkunst. Rotterdam:
Episode Publishers, 2004.
< Röling, W. De kunst van de ingenieur, de verantwoordelijkheid van de
architect en zicht op Delft. Amsterdam: University Press Salomé, 2002.
< Rongen, C.T.H. van. Veranderbaarheid en flexibiliteit van gebouwen.
Delft: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde, 1994
< Ronner, H. and S. Jhaveri. Louis I. Kahn Complete Work 1935-1974.
Basel: Birkhäuser, 1987.
< Roos, J. Discovering the assignment. Delft: VSSD, 2007.
< Ruler, D.A. and D. van Woerkom. ‘‘Ir. W. van Tijen: ‘Ik ben een
rationalist, maar er is meer op de wereld.’” Plan no. 9 (1970): 521-528.
< Santen, J. van, M.C. Kuipers et al. Monumenten van Herrezen
Nederland. Amersfoort: RACM, 2007.
ABCD research method ■ 197
< Sarja, A. Integrated life cycle design of structures. London: Spon, 2002.
< Schagen, H. van. ‘‘Transformatie zonder vervreemding; rehabilitatie van
de naoorlogse wijken.’’ Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting no. 3
(2004): 12-17.
< Schelling, H.G.J. ‘‘Constructie van gewapend-betonvloeren zonder
toepassing van houten bekisting.’’ Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 29 (1941):
244-245.
< Schot, J.W. ed. Techniek in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. VI: stad;
bouw en industriële productie. Zutphen: De Walburg Pers, 2003.
< Sebestyen, G. New Architecture and Technology. Oxford: Architectural
Press, 2003.
< Selier, H. ‘‘monumentenzorg in de jaren ’90.’’ De Architect no. 37
(1989): 6-13.
< Sens, J. M. and H. Tonka. Domique Perrault Morceaux Choisis. Valencia:
Sens & Tonka, 2002.
< Sharp, D. and C. Cooke ed. The Modern Movement in Architecture.
Selections from the DOCOMOMO Registers. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers,
2000.
< Schrier, W. van der. “Betonskeletbouw.” Bouw (1946): 179.
< Smeallie, P. New construction for Older Buildings. A Design Sourcebook
for Architects and preservationists. New York: Wiley, 1990.
< Smid, J.W. De KÆW tool. Het herbestemmen van kantoren naar
woningen. Graduation thesis, Delft University of Technology, 2003.
< Smith Burns, L. Investment Time in Scheduling in Urban
Reconstruction. PhD diss., Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1961.
< Smook, R.A.F. Binnensteden veranderen. Zutphen: De Walburg Press,
1984.
< Solà Morales, I. de. ‘‘Form contrast to analogy. Developments in the
concept of architectural intervention.’’ Lotus no. 46 (1985): 37-45.
< Spek, J.C. ‘‘Bouwkunde 1945-1965.’’ Polytechnisch Tijdschrift 1 (1965):
9B-12B.
< Spekkink, D. Een verouderd gebouw; wat nu? Aanpak van een
upgradingsproject. Rotterdam: Stichting Bouw Research, 1990.
< Spens, M. Viipuri Library 1927-1935 Alvar Aalto. London: Academic
Editions, 1994.
< Staal, A. ‘‘Over kantoorgebouwen in het algemeen.’’ 8 en Opbouw no. 9
(1937): 79-84.
< Stenvert, R., G. van Tussenbroek et al. Inleiding in de bouwhistorie.
Utrecht: Matrijs, 2007.
< Stevens, H. Hergebruik van Oude Gebouwen. Zutphen: Terra
Publishers, 1986.
< Stigt, J. van, Een nieuwe bouwopgave. Inaugurate speech. Delft
University of Technology, 1988.
< Stoller, E. The United Nations. New York: Princeton Architectural Press,
1999.
< Stratton, E. M. Industrial buildings Conservation and Regeneration.
New York: Spon, 2000.
< Stratton, E. M. Structure and style. Conserving Twentieth Century
Buildings. London: Spon, 1997.
< Strauven, I. Alfred Hardy 1900-1965. Gent: GUAEP, 2002.
< Stromeyer, R. Europäische Bibliotheksbauten seit 1930. Wiesbaden:
Harrassowitz, 1962.
< Szénássy, I.L. Architectuur in Nederland 1960-1967. Amsterdam:
Scheltema en Holkema, 1969.
< Tabachnick, D.E. “Techné, Technology and Tragedy.” Techné no. 7
(2004).
< Tauber, P.H. ‘‘Architectuur bevindt zich in overgangsfase.’’ Baksteen
no. 1 (1975): 1-11.
< Tauber, P.H. ‘‘Oldehoveplein vraagt om totaalvisie.’’ Leeuwarder
Courant, November 25, 2002.
< Tauber, P.H. ‘‘Prof. Ir. P.H. Tauber over zijn Alkmaarse aktiviteiten.’’
Tijdschrift voor Architectuur en Beeldende Kunsten no. 9 (1968):
234-241.
< Tauber, P.H. ‘‘Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek.’’ Bouw no. 16 (1968):
586-589.
< Tauber, P.H. ‘‘Van Postkantoor naar ABN AMRO-bank.’’ BNA Regio
Alkmaar, May 25, 1999.
< Tauber, P.H. Architectuur beleven. Alkmaar: Piet Tauber, 2004.
< Tauber, P.H. Bouwen naar opdracht II. Farwell speech. Delft University
of Technology, 1978.
< Tauber, P.H., Bouwen naar opdracht. Inaugurate speech.
Delft University of Technology, 1964.
< Tauber, P.H., F. Tauber and G.J. van den Broek. De Provinciale
Bibliotheek Friesland. 40 jaar ontwerp- en bouwgeschiedenis.
Leeuwarden: Provincial en BUMA Library Friesland, 2000.
< Taverne, E. and K. Schuyt. 1950 Welvaart in zwart-wit. Nederlandse
cultuur in Europese Context. The Hague: SDU Publishers, 2000.
< Tellinga, J. De Grote Verbouwing. Verandering van naoorlogse
woonwijken. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2004.
198 ■ ABCD research method
< Temminck Groll, C.L. ‘‘Oude waarden en welstand.’’ Bouw no. 4 (1959):
94-97.
< Temminck Groll, C.L. ‘‘Restaureren wat en hoe?.’’ Bouw no. 4 (1975):
57-58.
< Terwindt, C. Meervoudig en Intensief Ruimtegebruik in de Stad. Public
lecture October 13, 2004 Hogeschool van Amsterdam.
http://www.hva.nl/lectoraten/ol05-041013-cilianterwindt.pdf.
< Thompson, A. Library Buildings of Britain and Europe. London:
Butterworths, 1963.
< Tijen, W. van ‘‘De vier uren van de moderne architektuur.’’
Plan no. 9 (1970): 531-552.
< Tilman, H. ‘‘Metamorfose van het bestaande.’’ De Architect no. 4
(2004): 34-43.
< Timmer, H. ‘‘Ontwikkelingen in de verhouding opdrachtgevers,
architecten, aannemers, Bouw no. 17 (1968): 712-713.
< Tummers, T. ‘‘Nieuw leven voor NatLab.’’ De Architect no. 3 (2004): 12.
< Twijnstra, A. ‘‘Veranderingen in het ondernemerschap in de
bouwnijverheid.’’ Bouw no. 17 (1968): 704-707.
< Uluots, E. ‘‘Bibliotheek te Växjö, Zweden.’’ Bouw no. 16 (1968):
595-599.
< Vago, P. and F. Borneman. ‘‘Biblotheque de Bonn, Alemagne.’’
L’Architecture D‘Aujourdhui no. 100 (1962): 60-64.
< Valentijn, D. et al. De Wederopbouw. Haagse gids voor architectuur en
stedenbouw in de periode 1945-1960. The Hague: De Nieuwe
Haagsche, 2002.
< Vanstiphout, W. ‘‘Het einde van de Wederopbouw.’’ Atelier Stad,
De stad van morgen 1 (1993).
< Vanstiphout, W. Maak een stad. Rotterdam en de architectuur van
J.H. van den Broek. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 2005.
< Verheijen, F. Het schijnbaar onmogelijke en omgaan met de twijfel.
Inaugurate speech, Delft University of Technology, 2002.
< Viruly, A. and H. Scholte. Nederland in Vogelvlucht. Amsterdam: Van
Holkema en Warendorf N.V., 1960.
< Viruly, A. Flying over Holland. Amsterdam: Promotion Pictures C.V.,
1972.
< Vlot, A. ‘‘Creativiteit is het hart van het ingenieurswerk.’’ De Ingenieur
no. 10 (1993): 8-12.
< Voigt, M.H. ed. Restaureren. Toekomst voor verleden. Amsterdam:
BNA, 1998.
< Voordt, Th., H. Zijlstra, A. van den Dobbelsteen en M. van Dorst.
Integrale Plananalyse – Doel, methoden en analysekader. Delft: VSSD,
2007.
< Vreeze, N. de. Woningbouw, inspiratie & ambities. Kwalitatieve grond-
slagen van de sociale woningbouw in Nederland. Almere: NWR, 1993.
< Vreeze, N. de. ‘‘Monumentenzorg in de volkshuisvesting. Tussen
prestigieuze projecten en het gewone werk.’’ Archis no. 8 (1990): 18-23.
< Vriend, J.J. Architectuur van deze eeuw. Amsterdam: Contact, 1959.
< Vriend, J.J. Links bouwen rechts bouwen. Amsterdam: Contact, 1974.
< Vriend, J.J. Reflexen. Nederlands bouwen na 1945. Amsterdam:
Moussault, 1959.
< Wagenaar, C. Welvaartstad in wording. De wederopbouw van
Rotterdam 1940-1952. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1992.
< Ward, S. Planning the Twentieth-Century City. The advanced capitalist
world. Chichester: Wiley, 2002.
< Westenbrugge, A.J. van der. ‘‘Ontwikkelingen in uitvoeringsmethoden.’’
Bouw. 17 (1968): 690-691.
< Wetting, C. Leeuwarden in perspectief. Leeuwarden: Sprezzatura,
2000.
< Wiekart, K. ‘‘Architectuur 1945-1965.’’ Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. 1
(1965): 2B-8B.
< Wijdeveld, E. Kerken Noord-Brabant, Categoriaal Onderzoek
Wederopbouw 1940-1965. Zeist: RDMZ, 2004.
< Wijdeveld, E. Schouwburgen, Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw
1940-1965. Zeist: RDMZ, 2005.
< Wild, F. Design & Planning. Libraries for Schools and Universities.
New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1972.
< Willems, E. Nederland wordt groter. Op zoek naar het nieuwe beeld van
Nederland. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1963.
< Woud, A. van der. ‘‘Authenticiteit.’’ Monumenten no. 6/7 (1996): 6-8.
< Woud, A. van der. ‘‘De ethiek van de onthouding. De beoefening van
het niets-doen bij restauraties.’’ Archis no. 7/8 (1996): 33-36.
< Woud, A. van der. ‘‘De permanente ontwerpopgave. Monumentenzorg
in de jaren negentig.’’ Archis no. 9 (1992): 16-19.
< Woud, A. van der. ‘‘Onbeschermde stad- en dorpsgezichten. Naar een
strategisch monumentenzorg in de jaren negentig.’’ Archis no. 8 (1990):
12-17.
< Woud, A. van der. ‘‘Strategie in de monumentenzorg: een harde
sector.’’ Archis no. 9 (1994): 8.
ABCD research method ■ 199
< Woud, A. van der. ‘‘Totale originaliteit. Architectuurgeschiedenis in de
twintigste eeuw.’’ Archis no. 3 (1999): 60-62.
< Woud, A. van der. Het Nieuwe Bouwen. CIAM Volkshuisvesting
Stedebouw. Delft: Delft University Press, 1983.
< Zanden, J.L. van. Groene geschiedenis van Nederland. Utrecht:
Spectrum, 1993.
< Zeilmaker, R. ‘‘Nederland recyclet er lustig op los.’’ Delta no. 5 (2004):
2.
< Zijlstra, H. ‘‘Analysing Building Construction in Time, the ABC£
Research Matrix.’’ In: Studies on Historical Heritage. Edited by Görün
Arun Yildiz. Istanbul: Technical University Research Centre for
Preservation of Historical Heritage. (2007): 67-74.
< Zijlstra, H. ‘‘Bouwen in Nederland 1940-1970. Continuïteit +
Veranderbaarheid = Duurzaamheid.’’ PhD diss. Delft University of
Technology: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde, 2006.
< Zijlstra, H. ‘‘De Provinciale Bibliotheek Fryslân kreeg een waardevolle
herkansing.’’ Monumenten no. 3 (2003): 8-12.
< Zijlstra, H. ‘‘De Provinciale Bibliotheek Fryslân kreeg een waardevolle
herkansing.’’ Leovardia no. 3 (2002): 24-27.
< Zijlstra, H. ‘‘DoCoMoMo in New York.’’ Monumenten no. 6 (2005): 14-17.
< Zijlstra, H. ‘‘Integratie als uitgangspunt. Een voorbeeld van Nederlands
bouwen in de twintigste eeuw, De Rijksverzekeringsbank van architect
ir. Dirk Roosenburg.’’ TVVL Magazine no. 2 (2002): 22-29.
< Zijlstra, H. ‘‘Ruimte voor duurzaamheid.’’ TVVL Magazine no. 4 (2005):
30-34.
< Zijlstra, H. ‘‘Towards a new Typology.’’ In: Architecture & Heritage.
Conference Proceedings. Brussels: EURAU’06, 2006: 43-46.
< Zijlstra, H. en M.R.D. Nieuwenhuis. Typologie van stationsgebouwen.
Delft, 1984.
< Zutphen, J. van. ‘‘Betontechniek 1945-1965.’’ Polytechnisch Tijdschrift
no. 1 (1965): 13B-16B.
< Zwarts, M. en R. Jansma. ‘‘Zwarts & Jansma architecten ontwerpt
tijdelijke huisvesting voor het Stedelijk museum in Amsterdam.’’ http://
www. zwarts.jansma.nl/ article/1004.943.html (accessed March 18,
2004).
In order of title, author unknown
< ‘‘1970s Revisited.’’ OASE 57 (2001).
< ‘‘Amsterdam weert nieuwe onverhuurde kantoren.’’
De Volkskrant, September 25, 2003.
< ‘‘Besloten prijsvraag bibliotheek Leeuwarden.’’ Bouw no. 5 (1960):
140-143.
< ‘‘Bibliotheekgebouw Katholieke Universiteit te Nijmegen.’’ Bouw no. 36
(1969): 1366-1373.
< ‘‘Bibliothek te Luzern.’’ Bouw no. 41 (1952): 733.
< “Constructie van gewapend beton-betonvloeren zonder toepassing van
houten bekisting.” Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 29 (1941): 244-245.
< ‘‘De Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland in zijn nieuwe paleis.’’
Franeker Nieuwsblad, October 7, 1966.
< ‘‘Einer der letzten Bauten von Arne Jacobsen †. Hauptbiblothek in
Rødovre.’’ Bauen und Wohnen no. 5 (1971): 223-228.
< ‘‘Friesland heeft weer plaats voor zijn boekenschat.’’ Friesland no. 5
(1966): 12-14.
< ‘‘Het winnende ontwerp in een prijsvraag voor een bibliotheekgebouw
te Leeuwarden.’’Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 2 (1960): 36-39
< ‘‘Leegstand kantoren naar record.’’ De Volkskrant, November 15, 2003.
< Leeuwarden, het middelpunt van Friesland. Thesis by H. Zijlstra. Delft
University of Technology, 1985.
< Leeuwarden in contrast. Rotary Leeuwarden, 1999.
< ‘‘Naast materiële het culturele. Nieuwe Provinciale Bibliotheek is
vanmiddag geopend.’’ Leeuwarder Courant. Februari 20, 1967.
< ‘‘Nationale en Universiteitsbibliotheek te Jeruzalem.’’ Bouwkundig
Weekblad no. 26 (1961): 524-526.
< ‘‘Onze bouwmaterialen.’’ Bouw no. 11 (1945): 27-31.
< ‘‘Prijsvraag voor bibliotheekgebouw te Leeuwarden.’’ Bouw no. 10
(1959): 260-262.
< ‘‘Prijsvraag voor bibliotheekgebouw te Leeuwarden.’’ Forum no. 2
(1959)2: 34-44.
< Projectdocumentatie. Alkmaar: BRT Architecten. September, 2004.
< ‘‘Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland te Leeuwarden.’’ Bouwkundig
Weekblad no. 8 (1968): 140-143.
< ‘‘Sloop en auteursrecht.’’ http://www.archined.nl/archined/3880.0.html
(accessed Februari 9, 2004).
< Struktuurnota 1971. Gemeente Leeuwarden, 1971.
< ‘‘Studienreise durch Holland.’’ Die Neue Stadt (1952): 401-402.
< ‘‘Technikon, monument voor het beroepsonderwijs. Ik ben een rustig
200 ■ ABCD research method
mens, interview met Maaskant, Van Dommelen en De Koning.’’
Bouw no. 52 (1971): 1891.
< Toekomstbeeld. Structuurplan van de gemeente Leeuwarden.
Gemeente Leeuwarden, 1971.
< ‘‘Über Risiken des Verschwindens und Chancen intelligenter
Schrumpfung. Ein Gespräch mit Uta Hassler.’’ Detail no. 10 (2002):
1212-1217.
< ‘‘Uitkomst onderzoek: 70% bedrijven wenst flexibel kantoorconcept.’’
Project & Interieur. no. 6 (2003): 11.
< Re-use and Susequent Costs of Buildings. Stuttgart: Krämer, 1985.
< ‘‘Van der Ploeg: te weinig geld voor Kanjers.’’ De Volkskrant, Februari 1,
2001: 7.
< ‘‘Wederopbouw in Nederland.’’ Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. 37/38
(1948): 540b-543b.
< 75 jaar statistiek van Nederland, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.
The Hague: State Publisher, 1975.
Miscellaneous
< Archive of BRT Architecten Alkmaar.
< Archive of P.H. Tauber Alkmaar.
< Letter from Piet Tauber to Hielkje Zijlstra. February 6, 2002.
< Interview by Hielkje Zijlstra with Piet Tauber. January 3, 2002 and
March 6, 2002 and various telephone calls.
< Interview by Hielkje Zijlstra with Sijbe Sevenster, Head of the Facilities
Department of Friesland Provincial Library, January 25, 2002 and
December 3, 2008.
< Telephone call by Hielkje Zijlstra with Frans Tauber (son of Piet Tauber)
who was working on the plans for the refurbishment of Friesland
Provincial Library , December 4, 2008.
ABCD research method ■ 201
202 ■ ABCD research method
ABCD research method ■ 203
INDEX
A
Aalto, A. 100, 107, 108, 123, 183
ABCD I, III, V, VII, VIII, 1, 2, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 25, 43, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 67,
68, 69, 71, 72, 74, 75, 77, 181, 184, 187, 188
ABN 6
ABN-AMRO bank 183, 146
abrasive blasted 151, 166
ABT 16, 32, 33
academic 13, 14, 20, 55, 107, 187, 188
acoustic 5, 151, 169
active conservation 46
administrative section 84
aesthetics 35, 62, 82
age 1, 8, 40, 52, 62, 79
agency 3, 11, 50
air
air bridge 88, 155, 161, 173, 175, 184
air conditioning 46
air duct 169, 170, 172
air handling 155, 169, 170, 179
air purification 155
Alexandroni, A. 115
Alkmaar VIII, 84, 98, 99, 146, 183
Alkmaar Beatrixlaan 99
Allen, J. 45, 46
aluminium 29, 34, 53
American Marshall Plan 34
American New Deal 35
Amsterdam
Amsterdam Bijlmer housing estate 7
Amsterdam Bijlmermeer 5
Amsterdam Burgerweeshuis 51
Amsterdam Central Station 52
Amsterdam Confectiecentrum 7
Amsterdam Frankendaal 14
Amsterdam International Institute of Social History 65
Amsterdam Lucasziekenhuis 7
Amsterdam Noordzeekanaal 7
Amsterdam Parklaan 31
Amsterdam Public Works Department 20
Amsterdam Rijksverzekeringsbank IX, 3, 4, 5, 50
Amsterdam School 98
Amsterdam Spaandammerbos 7
Amsterdam Stationspostkantoor 20, 52, 55, 56, 57, 185
Amsterdam Stedelijk Museum 56, 57, 190
Amsterdam Vakbondsmuseum (trade union museum) 48, 50
Amsterdam Vijzelstraat 99
Amsterdam Willem I Warehouse 65
analyse / analyzing I, III, VIII, 1, 3, 14, 18, 19, 37, 39, 41, 43, 64, 71, 72,
74, 77, 187
Antwerp 10
appearance 51, 59, 67, 69, 71, 125, 146, 182, 183
application VIII, 27, 45, 61, 75
architect VII, VII, 3, 11, 18, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41,
45, 50, 52, 53, 54, 57, 59, 67, 68, 71, 74, 75, 82, 85, 86, 87, 95, 98,
99, 100, 102, 107, 126, 127, 140, 146, 154, 181, 182, 184, 187, 188
architect engineer 33
architects’ training 187
architectural
architectural critics 25, 26, 27
architectural historian 17, 20, 21
architectural history VIII, 1, 3, 11, 16, 17, 20, 99
architectural practice 16, 27, 31, 32, 35, 57, 99, 100
architectural qualities 7, 57
architecture VII, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 50, 51, 55, 57, 59, 61, 62, 63, 68, 69, 70,
71, 75, 98, 99, 100, 102, 107, 187
archive 17, 18, 63, 77, 79, 81, 86, 88, 102, 142, 155, 170, 173, 179, 182, 188
archivist 79
Århus library 82
Arnhem town hall 33
Arnhem 50
Art College 52
Arup & Partners 32
asbestos 51, 54
Asplund, E.G. 47, 50, 102, 105, 107, 115
Asselbergs, A.L.L.M. 19
204 ■ ABCD research method
assembly 26, 35
Assen library 115, 120
assessment 13, 14, 16, 17, 28, 31, 61, 62, 72
Atelier PRO 48, 50, 65
atmosphere 55, 71, 72
atrium 3, 67, 68, 126, 184
attitude VIII, 5, 39, 51, 57, 61
authentic 46, 37
Aviodome 54
Aylward, G. 44, 52
B
bachelor 41, 20
Bakema, J.B. 5, 18, 19, 20, 59
balcony / balconies 107, 115, 125, 141, 159
baluster 151
balustrade 169, 170, 182
Bandoeng 31
bank buildings 51
Barth, G. 115
basement 50, 96, 123, 134, 136, 140, 142, 143, 154, 166, 179
semibasement 51, 88, 126, 141, 152, 155, 157, 169, 170, 172, 174,
177, 178, 182, 184
Bax, Th. 14
beam 155, 181
Beim, A. 26, 27
Bekeart, G. 11
Belgium 11
Belvedere VII
Berg, van den 40
Berlage, H.P. 20, 27, 50, 53
Berlin
Berlin Free University 49, 50
Berlin National Library 123
Bern library 82
Blom, A.M. 3, 19, 191
Boer, R. 16, 52
boiler 25, 154, 179
Bollerey, F. IV, VII
book
bookcases 101, 102, 140, 142, 155, 181, 182
book stack 101
book tower 100, 107, 115, 126, 142, 146, 169, 171, 182
Bosma, K. 3
Brand, S. 42, 46
Braungart and McDonough 43
Braunschweig university library 114
Bream, R. 10, 11
brick 14, 28, 31, 34, 51, 55, 98, 100, 125, 155, 183
brief 41, 59, 64, 67, 74, 79, 85, 98, 99, 125, 177, 182, 183, 184
Broek, G.J. van den 75, 86
Broek, H.J. van den 3, 18, 19, 20, 99
Bromberg, P. 27, 28
Brouwer, H. 92, 99
Brussel 10, 11
Bruynzeel 151
Buckminster Fuller, R. 34, 54
builder / building 3, 29, 32, 39
building aesthetics committees 62
building categorization 67
building elements 14, 62, 71, 77
building envelope 177
building mass 21, 88, 140
building physics 20, 35, 40, 188
building regulations 21, 28
Buma, L.A. 75, 79, 82, 84, 86, 107, 125, 126, 127, 139, 140, 152, 153, 166,
169
bunker 3
C
cabinet 101, 102, 141, 142, 155, 166, 172, 182
cabling 169, 172, 187
calculation 34, 164
Cambridge university library 123
Candilis, Josic and Woods 49, 50
canteen 141, 153, 173
car park 87, 88, 94, 95, 174, 175, 182, 184
carpet 166, 181
Castelein, S.J. 154
ABCD research method ■ 205
cast iron 101, 142
catalogue 86, 101, 102, 107, 141, 154, 169
Cate, A.M. ten 2, 20, 40, 52, 55, 57
cavity 177
ceiling 3, 4, 5, 56, 150, 151, 182
cemetery 88
central hall 84, 107, 108, 115, 125, 126, 141, 144, 150, 151, 155, 158, 160,
164, 170, 171, 176, 177
chairs VIII, 46, 59, 71, 82, 99, 153, 166, 181
change IV, VIII, 1, 5, 6, 8, 12, 14, 15, 18, 21, 25, 26, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46,
50, 51, 57, 59, 61, 62, 64, 68, 72, 75, 77, 127, 153, 166, 177, 179, 182, 184,
188
changeability IV, VIII, 21, 25, 43, 59, 75
characteristics 41, 62, 66, 67, 69, 101
Charte d’Athènes 7
Cherry, M. 12, 13, 15
Chicago 23, 25
Chief Government Architect 82, 86, 99
Ching, F.D.K. 69, 192
chronological 64, 67, 71
churche 3, 68
CIAM 99
circle 27, 99
circular process 32
city / cities 5, 6, 11, 17, 18, 27, 41, 43, 45, 55, 59, 79, 87, 88, 182, 184
cladding 1, 107, 115, 146, 147, 149, 151, 166, 169, 177, 183
classicism 35
classification 67, 68
client 16, 21, 30, 45, 57, 59, 67, 85, 86, 100, 101, 107, 182, 184, 187
climate 3, 5, 64, 72, 142, 155, 169, 170, 178, 179, 182, 187
cloakroom 107
closed stacks 101, 125
Club Rotterdam 6
Coenen, J.M.J. IV, 11, 21, 22, 36, 40, 45, 57
Cofaigh, E.O. 4, 5, 25, 63
Cologne library 82
colour 64, 71, 72, 151
column 35, 36, 125, 140, 142, 151, 155, 164, 165, 166, 169, 177, 182, 184
comfort 44, 64, 72, 142, 184
commercial 9, 12, 46, 68
commission 21, 25, 59, 65, 82, 84, 99, 100
communication 45, 46, 55, 64, 72
community 12, 29, 45, 54
composition 62, 98
computer 32, 86, 154
concept VII, 1, 2, 16, 18, 26, 27, 41, 45, 50, 57, 61, 62, 71, 72, 75, 84, 85,
115, 126, 146, 155, 177, 188
conclusion VII, VIII, 2, 17, 20, 25, 26, 35, 37, 41, 43, 46, 59, 61, 62, 63,
64, 67, 72, 74, 77, 82, 181, 182
concrete 3, 5, 7, 10, 27, 28, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 151, 154, 166, 177
condition VII, 2, 11, 15, 28, 37, 46, 50, 51, 61, 64, 68, 72, 79, 102, 152,
155, 169, 179
conservation 2, 13, 21, 43, 44, 45, 46, 55, 57, 59, 188
conservatories 68
construction
construction drawings 98, 164, 169, 181
construction engineer VII, VIII, 3, 5, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 25, 27, 39,
40, 61, 98, 100, 187
construction industry 5, 32, 34, 35, 36, 71, 187
consultant 20, 32, 35, 71, 154, 179, 187
contaminated water 166
context VIII, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, 15, 16, 17, 21, 35, 39, 41, 46, 50, 57, 59, 61,
62, 64, 67, 71, 72, 74, 77, 79, 181, 187, 188
continued existence 62, 64, 71
continuity IV, VII, VIII, 15, 18, 21, 25, 44, 59, 61, 68, 75, 188
contractor 31, 32, 35, 71, 146, 154, 179
cooling 3, 4, 5, 12, 29
Copenhagen library 26, 82
copper 100, 126, 140, 146, 147, 181, 183
cork 151, 166, 181
correspondence 17, 18
costs 5, 12, 27, 35, 46, 51, 52, 53, 55, 63, 68, 139, 169, 179, 188
course 3, 6, 22, 31, 32, 39, 41, 44, 46, 71, 98, 99
court 47, 50, 68, 79, 99
courtyard 3, 68, 107, 118, 125
cradle to cradle 43
craftsmanship 32, 100
creation 3, 12, 14, 33, 34, 44, 57, 61, 62, 64, 71, 188
creativity 15, 32
Crimson 17, 57
206 ■ ABCD research method
cultural / culture VII, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 41, 57, 61,
62, 68, 88, 182, 184
Cultural Heritage 2, 3, 5, 11, 16, 19
current situation 18, 21
Curtis, W.J.R. 3
D
daylight 50, 107, 126, 141, 146, 150, 151
De 8 and Opbouw 31, 98
decay 44, 52, 53, 61, 62, 64
Delft
Delft Delfgauwse Weije 15
Delft DOK public library 58, 63
Delft Faculty of Architecture IV, VIII, 18, 39, 43, 52, 188
Delft Kuyperwijk 99
Delft Tanthof 5
Delft University of Technology IV, VII, VIII, 5, 17, 39, 41, 52, 64, 71,
86, 98, 182, 188
Delftsche School 40
Den Dolder 99
department store 36
designated monuments 2, 3, 7
design
Design and History (research programme ®MIT) VIII
design competition 32, 75
design method 39, 71, 188
design principles 21, 72
design process 20, 21, 32, 64, 71, 74, 75, 125, 184
designer 7, 20, 26, 33, 37, 40, 46, 57, 59, 67, 82, 187, 188
detail VIII, 1, 3, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 26, 27, 30, 46, 54, 55, 57, 62, 63, 64,
71, 82, 84, 90, 115, 126, 140, 149, 166, 177, 181, 187
diaries 18, 188
Dijk, H. van 3, 6
Dijkstra, Tj. 62
Docomomo 12, 14, 31
documentation 41, 55, 173, 181
Doornse Leergangen 40
Dordrecht Energiehuis VIII
Dortmund University 11
Douma, Sj. 75, 79, 82, 84, 85, 126, 127, 139, 140
drainage 29, 166
drawings 18, 63, 71, 84, 98, 99, 107, 122, 126, 140, 143, 144, 152, 164, 169,
170, 181, 182, 187
Dronten De Meerpaal 45
DTZ Zadelhoff 51
durability IV, VIII, 25, 37, 59, 62, 63, 75, 188
Dutch
Dutch architecture 1, 21, 107
Dutch Archives Act 155
Dutch Central Bank 7
Dutch Open University 88
E
economic 1, 2, 6, 7, 12, 13, 17, 45, 52
education VIII, 11, 13, 14, 25, 31, 188
educational buildings 68
Eesteren, C. van 20, 31, 99
Egyptian 35
Eindhoven
Eindhoven NatLab building (Philips) 21
Eindhoven University of Technology 14, 18
elevation 71, 88, 93, 96, 107, 115, 125, 129, 132, 133, 138, 145, 155, 167,
177, 181, 183
elevators 46
Elsen, M. van 84
Embden, S.J. van 40, 73
energy 7, 43, 44, 46, 51, 52, 53, 170
engineer VII, VIII, 2, 3, 5, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34,
35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 53, 55, 61, 62, 98, 100, 164, 177, 181, 187
England 11, 12, 13, 28
English Heritage 13
Enschede
Enschede library 82, 84, 115
Enschede University of Technology Twente 73
entrance 84, 87, 88, 95, 107, 125, 126, 151, 154, 155, 156, 158, 165, 166,
174, 182, 184, 189
environment VII, 6, 7, 8, 13, 25, 28, 39, 43, 44, 45, 46, 52, 53, 59, 63, 88,
102
era buildings 55
Erk, R. van 52
ABCD research method ■ 207
Europe 7, 8, 35, 53, 107
European Recovery Program (ERP) 34
exchange 20, 32, 61, 68, 84, 87, 88
exhibition 11, 13, 15, 68, 82, 84, 155
existing
existing building 1, 5, 7, 15, 21, 25, 37, 39, 41, 45, 46, 50, 51, 55, 57,
59, 72, 187, 188
Exner, J. and I. (brothers) 1
experience 1, 6, 14, 19, 32, 40, 44, 59, 62, 70, 71, 72, 85, 187
extension 6, 21, 47, 50, 56, 86, 88, 96, 154, 157, 182, 184
exterior 3, 40, 46, 50, 51, 54, 58, 64, 75, 100, 107, 115, 126, 140, 142, 146,
152, 156, 166, 177, 181
Eyck, A.E. van 51, 53
F
facade 30, 51, 88, 126, 164, 165, 166
facilities department 154, 164, 169, 179, 200
factory / factories 26, 35, 53, 68
fence 88, 174
final design 126, 133, 134, 135, 140, 153, 184
fire 28, 169, 172
flexibility / flexible 2, 12, 45, 51, 75, 101, 142, 173, 177
flooding 166, 174, 177, 178
floor 3, 36, 46, 50, 51, 52, 69, 81, 99, 101, 102, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111,
115, 118, 122, 125, 126, 134, 136, 140, 141, 142, 143, 146, 151, 152, 153,
154, 155, 158, 159, 160, 161, 166, 167, 169, 170, 173, 174, 178, 181, 182,
184
Florence Lorenzo library 104
form VII, VIII, 3, 5, 12, 16, 17, 21, 26, 35, 37, 50, 53, 55, 98, 125
formalism 70
formwork 165
Forum Group 6
Foster, N. 21, 43, 49, 50
foundation 29, 46, 53, 99, 127
foyer 153
Frampton, K.D. 26, 36
Franeker
Franeker folianten 179
Franeker university 79, 169
freezing buildings 14
Friesland Museum 86, 173
Fryske Kultuerried 88
Fulda library 82
function / functional 3, 7, 15, 17, 21, 22, 29, 30, 31, 40, 45, 51, 52,
53, 54, 55, 57, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 73, 75, 82, 85, 86, 98,
101, 102, 104, 123, 125, 126, 142, 154, 162, 163, 174, 177, 182, 184
functional typology 64, 101
funding 15, 59, 72, 188
furniture 46, 166, 177, 178, 181
future VII, 2, 5, 12, 15, 16, 20, 21, 25, 28, 30, 43, 44, 45, 46, 50, 52, 55, 59,
61, 64, 67, 72, 74, 86, 153, 173, 177, 179, 181, 184, 188
G
galery / galleries 69, 101, 102, 126, 153
gas 27, 169, 212
Gent library 106, 107
Gent, G. van 51
Germany 11, 27, 101, 115, 142, 212
Gerretsen, W.J. 82
Giedion, S. 39, 40
glass 29, 34, 36, 50, 125, 142, 166, 167, 169, 184
Goey, de 6
Göteborg
Göteborg court building 47, 50
Göteborg library 82
government VII, 2, 3, 5, 11, 28, 34, 35, 40, 53, 54, 68, 126, 140, 184
Government Buildings Agency 3, 11, 50, 213
Grandpré Molière, M.J. 40, 98, 99
gratings 142, 169
Greiner, O. 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 99
grid 5, 21, 142, 150, 151, 181, 182, 184
Grimbergen 10
Groningen university library 82, 101, 102, 142
guidelines 21, 77
H
Haagsma, I. 85, 100, 125
HaagWonen 53
208 ■ ABCD research method
hall 3, 6, 33, 41, 50, 54, 67, 68, 73, 82, 84, 88, 107, 108, 115, 125, 126,
141, 144, 150, 151, 153, 154, 155, 158, 159, 160, 164, 165, 169, 170, 171,
173, 174, 176, 177, 182, 189, 208, 210, 213
Halmstad library 82
Hamburg 55, 193
handrails 151
Hannover university library 115
hardwood 151, 181, 183
Hardy, A. 10, 11
Harrison & Abramovitz 29, 30
Harwood, E. 12
has been 72, 74, 75, 153, 181, 184
Hassler, U. 11, 17
heating 3, 4, 29, 40, 46, 152, 166, 169
Heerlen Glaspaleis Schunk 16, 36
Heidelberg library 82
Heinz Headquarters 13
Hendriks and Van der Velden 82
Henket, H.A.J. IV, 14, 15, 39, 40, 43, 44, 46, 50, 57
Hereford monastery library 104
Herzberger, H. 39, 53, 54, 182
Herzog and de Meuron 49, 50, 69
Heynen, H.M.C. IV
High Court 53, 54
Hilversum Sanatorium Zonnestraal 16
history / historical VII, 1, 2, 3, 7, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22,
26, 31, 44, 46, 50, 52, 54, 55, 57, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 67, 68, 74, 75, 79, 87,
88, 99, 101, 102, 173, 182, 187, 188
Hitchcock, H.R. 34
Holt, G.H.M. 99
Hoofddorp Aula Wilgenhof 54
Hoogstad, J. 55, 56
hospital 7, 68, 79, 87
hotel 42, 68
house / housing 3, 5, 6, 7, 15, 27, 28, 40, 45, 53, 87, 88, 98, 99, 126
house building programme 15
houses of parliament 68
Hryniewiecki, J. 35
Huisman J. 5, 62
human 1, 17, 29, 30, 86, 182
humidity 155, 169, 170
hygiene 27
I
Ibelings, H. 11
identification 55
industrial 6, 17, 26, 27, 28, 34, 35, 46, 51, 59, 68
innovation VII, 3, 6, 27, 34, 35, 43, 55, 187
installation 53, 64, 70, 71, 72, 141, 164
institutional buildings 68
insulation 7, 28, 166, 177
integrated plan analysis 18
integration / integrated 3, 4, 7, 18, 43, 72, 82, 101, 169
intention 21, 35, 43
interfaces 71
interior 1, 3, 21, 46, 50, 51, 63, 64, 75, 99, 100, 107, 115, 118, 126, 146,
151, 153, 154, 156, 166
international 1, 3, 11, 14, 34, 65, 101
International Style 6
interpretation 16, 17, 18, 20, 27, 37, 62, 63, 77
intervention VIII, 14, 20, 22, 45, 50, 59, 72, 100, 153, 182, 188
interview VII, 14, 18, 36, 39, 40, 55, 57, 63, 71, 77, 86, 88, 98, 127, 154,
164, 166, 169, 173, 177, 179, 188
J
Jacobsen, A. 100, 115, 117
Jelles, E.J. 35, 53, 54
Jerusalem National and university library 115, 116
Jonge van Ellemeet, de 31
jury 82, 84, 125
K
Kahn, L.I. 115, 119
Karlsruhe university library 115
Karstkarel, G.P. 79, 87
Kelderman, A.W. 82
Kiel university library 115
kitchen 27, 45, 46, 153
Klerk, L. de 6
Klingeren, F. van 45
ABCD research method ■ 209
Kloos, M. 3, 14, 99
Kokkola library 107
Konijnenburg, J.J. 33
Kraaijvanger, E.H. 56, 127
Kraaijvanger, H.M. 56, 127
Kraaijvanger, Van Putten, Kuit, Knol, and Maas 115
Kraemer, W.J. 115
Krevelen, P.E. van 84
Kuipers M.C. IV, 3, 5, 11, 19, 62
L
lamp 46, 102
Lansdorp, N. 99
Latham, D. 43, 59, 64
layer VII, 7, 15, 42, 46, 50, 55, 59, 67, 188
lead 34
learn VII, 2, 18, 25, 31, 32, 36, 37, 39, 40, 44, 46, 59, 61, 62, 69, 71, 98,
187, 188
Leck, B. van der 99
lecture room 141, 153
Leeuwarden
Leeuwarden Boterhoek 79, 82, 86, 87, 88, 93, 95, 107, 125, 126, 139,

152, 153, 166, 169
Leeuwarden Buma Bibliotheek 75, 79, 82, 84, 86, 107, 125, 126, 127,

139, 140, 152, 153, 166, 169
Leeuwarden Chancery 79, 81, 82, 99, 153
Leeuwarden Exchange 84
Leeuwarden Friesland Literary Museum 86
Leeuwarden Friesland Museum 86, 173
Leeuwarden Friesland Provincial Library VIII, 54, 61, 64, 66, 68, 74,

75, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 99, 100, 101, 102, 107,
112, 115, 123, 125, 127, 139, 140, 142, 146, 152, 153, 154, 155, 161,
164, 166, 169, 173, 175, 179, 181, 182, 183, 184, 187
Leeuwarden Fryske Academy 82, 88
Leeuwarden Fryske Kultuerried 88
Leeuwarden Historical Museum 173
Leeuwarden Hoek 87
Leeuwarden municipal library 82, 89
Leeuwarden National Archives Friesland 79, 82, 86, 87, 88, 89,
100, 139, 153, 155, 161, 170, 173, 175, 179, 182, 184
Leeuwarden Nijehove 87, 89
Leeuwarden Noorder Bolwerk 86, 182
Leeuwarden Noorder Plantage 87, 92
Leeuwarden Oldehoofsterkerkhof 82, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 174, 182
Leeuwarden Oldehove 87, 89
Leeuwarden Palace of Justice 79
Leeuwarden Prinsentuin gardens 87, 88, 174
Leeuwarden Provincial Archives 79
Leeuwarden Provincial Council 82, 126, 153
Leeuwarden Tresoar 75, 86, 173
Leeuw, C.H. van der 99
legislation 34, 51, 53, 54, 71, 72, 102, 184
Leiden Slaaghwijk 5
lending 84, 101, 102, 107, 125, 126, 140, 152, 153, 154, 173
Leupen, B.A.J. 51
Leuven university IV
level 7, 44, 61, 64, 71, 72, 74, 77, 95, 107, 123, 125, 126, 140, 141, 155,
187
Lewi, H. 44
librarian 75, 79, 82, 126, 127, 139, 140
library / libraries 45, 49, 54, 58, 59, 67, 68, 75, 77, 79, 82, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91,
96, 98, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115,
116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 139, 141, 142, 146, 151,
152, 153, 154, 155, 166, 170, 173, 179, 181, 182
life-cost planning 15
life cycle VIII, 17
lifespan 14, 43
light 2, 50, 64, 71, 142, 146, 151
limestone 146, 166
linoleum 181
listed building 12, 13, 21, 45, 50
listing VII, 2, 12, 13, 14, 59, 67
literature VII, 11, 16, 18, 50, 63, 71, 77, 115, 127
load-bearing structure 1, 21, 39, 54, 64, 71, 126, 142, 151, 164, 177, 182
local 6, 21, 28, 67, 75, 93
location VII, 21, 46, 52, 55, 100, 125, 126
Loghem, J.B. van 31
210 ■ ABCD research method
London
London Bankside Power Station 50, 69
London Britisch Museum 101, 102, 103
London Tate Modern 49, 50, 69, 70
Loos, A. 99
Lugano library 82
Luytens, E. 100
Luzern library 82, 101, 107, 111
Lynch, K. 44, 195
M
Maaskant, H.A. VII, 32
Maastricht university IV, 5, 19
Macdonald, S. 12, 13, 21, 46, 72
Nacel, O. 17, 63, 67
machine 21, 28, 29, 30, 34
maintain 10, 14, 28, 37, 39, 54, 57, 63, 169, 177, 188
Mainz university library 115
Malmö library 82
management 13, 21, 40, 44, 53, 79, 166, 173, 177
manufacturing 34, 35, 59
Marburg university library 82, 113, 115
market hall 68
Marsh, P. 46, 195
masonry 3, 14
mass media 45
mass production 7, 28
master 20, 62, 98
material 5, 12, 13, 14, 18, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, 28, 29, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38,
39, 43, 45, 52, 55, 53, 61, 63, 64, 68, 71, 72, 74, 75, 77, 107, 123, 140,
146, 166, 177, 181, 184, 188
mathematic 32, 34
matrix 61, 64, 72, 74, 77, 181, 184
meant to be 72, 74, 139, 184
Mecanoo 32
meeting room 169, 179
Meijer, H. 54, 55
Merkelbach, B. 40, 99
metamorphosis 22
Meuwissen J. 35
mezzanine 101, 126, 131, 135, 137, 140
Mieras, J.P. 7, 27, 50
Mies van der Rohe, L. 23, 26, 27, 51
ministery / ministries 3, 5, 15, 28, 68
MIP 3
Mobil Oil 7
model 32, 102
modern 6, 12, 14, 18, 29, 30, 44, 98, 99, 146
modern architecture 6, 14, 29, 30, 98
modernity 5, 33
modification 21, 55, 57, 184
moisture management 166, 177
money 2, 32, 45, 188
monograph 67
monument VII, 2, 3, 7, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 29, 52, 55, 62, 64, 68
Mulder, B. 54
Mulder, S.J. 99
multidisciplinary 18, 21, 40
Mumford, L. 28, 29, 30, 31
Münster university library 115
museum 12, 31, 48, 50, 56, 57, 67, 68, 69, 79, 86, 101, 102, 103, 173
music school 45
mutability 43, 45, 46, 59
N
National
National Monument VII, 2, 68
National Plan for our reconstruction 28, 35
National Service for Cultural Heritage 2, 3, 5, 11, 16, 19
nature 8, 13, 22, 27, 29, 31, 37, 51, 61, 70, 85, 88, 100, 126
natural 3, 44, 55, 177
Nervi, P.L. 36, 196
Netherlands IV, VII, VIII, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 28,
32, 34, 35, 40, 41, 52, 53, 59, 61, 62, 86, 87, 99, 101, 115, 181, 182
Netherlands Architecture Institute (Nai) 11, 15, 18
New Hampshire Pillips Exeter library 115, 119
New York
New York Manhattan 29
New York UN (United Nations building) cover, II, 29, 30, 31, 189,
Nijenhuis and Ebbinge 115, 120
ABCD research method ■ 211
Nijhof, P. 19
Nijmegen library 115, 121
Nimes Carre d’Art 43
non-residential
non-residential buildings 34
non-residential constructions 52, 71
Nordrhein-Westfalen 11
number 3, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 32, 35, 46, 50, 61, 67, 79, 82, 86,
87, 101, 107, 139, 142, 153, 173, 177, 187
Nunen, A. van 17
Nusselder, E.J. 19
O
object 2, 5, 14, 17, 33, 39, 57, 62, 67, 69, 75
objective 12, 17, 21, 28, 40, 45, 51, 53, 61, 62
observation VII, 16, 25, 26, 27, 32, 36, 37, 41, 43, 61, 62, 63, 64, 181, 187
Octatube 155
office VII, 3, 6, 20, 29, 50, 51, 52, 54, 68, 69, 79, 99, 125, 126, 146, 169,
173, 183, 185,
Ohio Akron silo 42
oil crisis 7
Oosting, A. 50
Ooy, K. van 82, 84
open shelves 82, 84, 101, 102, 126, 141
oral history 18
order 12, 16, 27, 29, 35, 46, 64
Oregon Mount Angel 107
organisation 28, 35, 71, 127
ornamentation 51
Ortega Y Gasset, J. VII
Östersund library 107, 110
Otaniemi library 107
Oud, J.J.P. 98, 99
Oudorp 98
P
Paderborn library 82
paint 34, 88, 98, 146, 151
palace of justice 183
panelling 152, 169
Paris
Paris Bibliotheque Nationale 102, 123, 124
Paris Bibliotheque St. Geneviève 102, 104
Paris Centre Pompidou 32, 33
Paris Musee des Travaux 35, 38
past VII, 15, 18, 25, 37, 39, 43, 44, 46, 53, 59, 61, 82, 177
Patijn, W. 54
pavement 88
pedestrian 18, 87, 92, 182
Pennink, P.K.A. 85
people 1, 18, 20, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 39, 40, 44, 46, 50, 55, 63, 79, 88,
102, 153, 169, 182
Pereira Roders, A.R. 18
performance / perform 12, 13, 21, 28, 45, 54, 63
Peristylium 125, 140, 146
Perrault, D. 123, 124
Perret, A. 35, 36, 37, 38
personnel 79, 84, 154, 159
Peutz, F.P.J. 36
Pevsner, N.A. 67, 68, 101
phone / telephone 20, 46, 88, 166, 177
photograph 71, 107, 146, 166, 170, 187, 188
Piano, R. 32, 33, 48, 50, 59
pictures 40, 46, 101
plan libre 99
plant 1, 35, 54, 64, 71, 72, 86, 88, 139, 152, 154, 155, 164, 169, 170, 171,
173, 178, 179, 182, 187
plaster 5, 34, 107, 146, 151, 166
Plasterk, R.H.A. 11
plastic 5
platform lift 153
plumbing 46
Pohlschröder bookcases 101, 142
politician 6, 32, 43, 51, 59, 62
Poll, L. van der 58, 59
population 8
post office 20, 52, 99, 146, 183
post-war 1, 2, 12, 40, 41, 45, 50, 51, 72, 98
Powell, K. 50, 69
prefabrication 27, 35
212 ■ ABCD research method
present VII, VIII, 1, 5, 11, 15, 16, 18, 20, 26, 27, 43, 44, 57, 61, 68, 100, 181,
187
preservation VII, 3, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 34, 46, 51, 55, 57, 71, VII
preserve 6, 12, 17, 28, 44, 51, 55, 59, 179, 187
prison 79, 87
process VIII, 14, 17, 20, 21, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 35, 43, 45, 59, 64, 71, 72,
74, 75, 125, 146, 184, 187
profession VIII, 20, 31, 32, 34, 35, 40, 69, 84, 98
programme VIII, 13, 15, 19, 21, 50, 51, 55
project developer 51, 52
protection VII, 2, 12, 53, 55
Provincial Executive 82, 84
Provoost, M. 57, 59
Prudon, Th.H.M. 14, 18
Pruys, S.M. 45
PTT 82
public 6, 8, 12, 13, 20, 33, 34, 58, 63, 67, 68, 79, 82, 87, 98, 102, 107,
125, 127, 174, 182
publication(s) VII, 12, 13, 18, 21, 64, 146, 187, 188
Purmerend 7
Q
quality / qualities VII, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 22, 33, 34, 40, 44, 50, 55, 57, 58,
59, 61, 62, 67, 68, 72, 77, 100, 177, 188
quickscan 16
R
radiation 64, 72
radiator 12, 152, 155, 161, 169, 170, 179
railway station 3, 6, 52, 68
rampart 87, 88, 96, 126, 140, 154, 174, 182, 184
Rauwerdink, A. 52, 53
reading room 79, 84, 101, 102, 103, 126, 153, 154, 169
reception 125, 126, 153, 154, 155
reconstruction VII, 1, 5, 6, 7, 11, 17, 19, 20, 28, 51, 55, 62, 68
rectangular 100, 101, 107, 115, 123, 125, 126, 140, 146, 151
recycle 53
Reesink and Plate 31
reference 3, 16, 18, 34, 36, 62, 64, 153
refurbishment VIII, 4, 7, 14, 39, 46, 50, 55, 154, 164, 169, 170
regeneration / regenerate VII, VIII, 2, 5, 7, 11, 15, 16, 18, 21, 25, 36, 37,
43, 45, 49, 50, 52, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 62, 64, 65, 69, 70, 72, 75, 153,
173, 176, 177, 181, 182, 183, 187, 188, 189
regulation 21, 28, 40, 67, 71, 72
rehabilitation 15, 18, 44, 64
reinforced concrete 27, 35
relocate / relocation 50, 54, 123, 126, 154, 164, 169, 182, 184
renewal 15, 41, 55, 62
Renzo Piano Building Workshop 32
replace 2, 5, 6, 21, 28, 39, 46, 52, 62, 87, 88, 123, 126, 153, 154, 155,
166, 169, 172, 174, 177, 181, 184, 187
research
research analysis VII, 25, 39, 41, 62, 64
research method VII, VIII, 1, 2, 3, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21, 25, 43, 59, 61, 62,
63, 64, 68, 71, 75, 77, 187, 188
research theme VIII, 17, 25, 37, 41, 59, 67, 181
residential
residential builing 15, 34, 40, 68
residential construction 5, 71, 187
resources 14, 25, 52, 53, 59
respect VIII, 6, 12, 14, 15, 20, 27, 28, 39, 53, 55, 61, 71, 72, 125, 182, 188
restoration 2, 7, 21, 22, 45, 62
reuse 7, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 40, 53, 54, 55, 57, 59, 68, 154, 166, 169,
177, 178, 183
Rice, P. 32, 33, 34
Rietveld, G.Th. 31, 40, 54, 69, 71, 98
ring of consultancies 35
ring road 87, 88
Rødovre library 115, 117
Roegholt, R. 6, 7
Röling, W. 22, 71
rooflight 88, 101, 107, 141, 151, 155, 182
Roosenburg, D. 3, 21, 25, 50, 86, 142
Roosenburg Groep 86
Roos, J. VIII
Rossem, V.Th. van 20
Rotterdam
Rotterdam Basic Plan 6
Rotterdam Blaak 51, 52
ABCD research method ■ 213
Rotterdam Construction Committee 20, 55
Rotterdam Coolsingel 6
Rotterdam De Doelen 6, 55, 127
Rotterdam Groothandelsgebouw 6, 12, 31, 32
Rotterdam Hillegersberg 99
Rotterdam Hoge School 31
Rotterdam Housing Department 31
Rotterdam Lijnbaan 6, 29
Rotterdam Pendrecht 15
Rotterdam RO theater 52
Rotterdam Salvation Army building 52
Rotterdam Thomson building 18, 19
Rotterdam Van Nellefabriek 16
Rovaniemi library 107
Royal Instute of Dutch Architects (BNA) 2, 82, 146, 183
S
saal-system 101
Saint, A. 21
Sanderson showroom 13
sanding 181
Santa, L. della 101, 102
Scandinavia 99, 100, 107, 115, 125, 151
Scarpa, C. 47, 50
Schagen, H. van 15, 99
Schamhart, Sj. 41
schedule 3, 21, 67, 72, 82, 84, 85, 100, 126, 127, 181, 182
Schelling, M.G.J. 34
Scheveningen 41
scorecard 16, 17
Scott, G.G. 49, 50, 69
second-hand 46
Second World War VII, 1, 3, 5, 34, 35, 36, 40, 79, 98, 107, 187
Seinäjoki library 107
select 5, 7, 13, 26, 59, 61, 63, 75, 68, 70, 82, 84, 101, 126, 181, 182, 188
Semper Spatium 99
service / services 1, 21, 22, 35, 42, 46, 64, 71, 72, 74, 86, 99, 115, 125,
126, 139, 152, 155, 158, 164, 169, 173, 179, 182, 184, 187
seven (7) VII, VIII, 20, 100, 142, 181, 187
Sevenster, S. 88, 154, 164, 166, 169, 179, 200
sewer 27, 166
Seyffert, F. 52
Sharoun, H. 123
shell 15, 46, 101, 123, 126, 142, 146, 166, 177
shop 3, 6, 20, 27, 68, 141
site 13, 16, 20, 21, 26, 29, 33, 35, 41, 42, 46, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 59, 62,
63, 64, 67, 74, 79, 82, 85, 87, 88, 91, 95, 98, 99, 125, 140, 166, 173, 182,
184
size 72, 142, 146
sketch 27, 62, 101, 102, 127, 142, 183
skills 5, 25, 40
skin 1, 42, 46
smell 64, 71, 72
smoke 155, 169, 170
Smook, R.A.F. 87, 90, 197
Snieder, W. 99
social VII, 1, 2, 7, 13, 14, 20, 40, 55, 57, 59, 62, 65, 67, 85
society 5, 6, 20, 33, 35, 43, 44, 55, 62, 99
Solà Morales, I. 50
solar control glass 166, 167, 169
Solna library 107, 109
sound 5, 13, 26, 64, 71, 153, 188
source VII, 7, 14, 17, 18, 37, 39, 63, 84, 98, 107, 191
space 1, 5, 8, 22, 37, 39, 40, 42, 44, 46, 51, 52, 53, 64, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72,
74, 75, 79, 86, 88, 102, 107, 115, 126, 139, 140, 146, 151, 153, 154, 155,
158, 169, 170, 173, 177, 182, 184, 188, 211
spatial 2, 21, 28, 64, 68, 69, 71, 98, 101, 104, 126, 173
spatial typology 64, 68, 101
Spek, J.C. 2
sport 3, 45
sprinkler 46
square 6, 8, 27, 68, 87, 88, 93, 95, 98, 107, 115, 123, 142, 155, 164, 174, 182,
184
stables 87
Staedion 53
214 ■ ABCD research method
stair 35, 56, 101, 102, 107, 108, 115, 126, 151, 153, 155, 166, 173
stall system 101
standard 5, 28, 34, 44, 45, 61, 68
statistic 8, 17
steel IX, 27, 28, 29, 34, 36, 101, 142, 146, 154, 167
Stenvert, R. 16
Steur, J.A.G. van der 82
Stirling, J. 123
Stockholm library 82, 102, 105, 107, 115
stone 3, 107, 115, 125, 126, 146, 149, 151, 166, 177, 178, 181, 183
stone-like shell 126
storage 5, 86, 88, 101, 102, 107, 140, 142, 155, 173, 179
store / stores 36, 54, 68, 79, 101, 102, 170, 173, 179
Strauven, I. 10, 11
stripped out 153
structural 2, 12, 20, 31, 32, 35, 38, 39, 46, 55, 69, 164, 177, 181, 187
structure 1, 2, 5, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 21, 22, 26, 29, 33, 34, 39, 42, 43, 46,
44, 51, 54, 64, 71, 72, 74, 75, 84, 86, 87, 92, 101, 115, 123, 125, 126, 140,
142, 143, 151, 154, 164, 173, 177, 182, 184
student 6, 25, 39, 40, 41, 50, 62, 79, 98, 99, 188
study room 153, 154
stuff 42, 46, 55
Stuttgart university library 68, 115
supermarket 58, 59, 102, 104, 153
supervisor IV, VII, 17, 19, 39, 98, 146
surface 5, 46, 64, 72, 126, 151
surroun 11, 15, 50, 86, 88, 92, 100, 125, 146, 169, 177, 184
sustainable /sustainability 5, 7, 13, 18, 25, 43, 53, 59, 62, 63, 187, 188
symbol 29, 30, 31, 87, 187
system 2, 4, 5, 12, 20, 26, 27, 28, 29, 34, 35, 40, 44, 46, 55, 67, 71, 72, 87,
98, 101, 102, 140, 142, 152, 154, 155, 169, 170, 172, 187
T
Tabanach, D. 26
Tauber, F. 75, 88, 154, 166, 177, 184, 200
Tauber, P.H. VIII, 25, 31, 36, 54, 75, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 95, 98, 99,
100, 102, 104, 107, 115, 125, 126, 127, 139, 140, 142, 143, 144, 146,
151, 154, 164, 166, 168, 173, 174, 177, 181, 182, 183, 184, 187, 200
Tauber sr 98, 99
Taverne, E. 8, 35
teach VIII, 25, 39, 40, 43, 50, 99, 153, 188
teamwork 32, 33
techne 26
technical VII, 7, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 34, 36,
40, 43, 45, 55, 68, 74, 98, 99, 181, 187, 188
technics 28, 29, 30
technique 13, 14, 21, 28, 34, 37, 72, 107
technology IV, VII, VIII, 2, 5, 14, 17, 18, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36,
37, 39, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 50, 52, 61, 64, 71, 73, 75, 79, 98, 115, 183,
187, 188
Temminck Groll, C.L. 62
temperature 5, 26, 155, 166, 169
temple 102, 153
temporary 52, 56
tendering system 35
Terwindt, C. 8
texture 64, 71, 72, 151
theatre 3, 15, 45, 52
The Hague
The Hague BIM building 3
The Hague Federation of Housing Associations 53
The Hague fish auction 41
The Hague KLM building 25, 86
The Hague library 82
The Hague National Archives 50
The Hague South-West 15
The Hague Spoorwijk 53
three-tier system 154
Tijen, W. van 31, 32, 40
timber 34, 36
time VII, VIII, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 12, 14, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32, 33,
34, 35, 39, 40, 44, 45, 51, 54, 57, 59, 61, 64, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 77,
79, 84, 98, 99, 101, 125, 127, 142, 146, 152, 154, 166, 169, 177, 179, 181,
182, 187, 188
timeless 72, 75, 177, 182, 184
to be or not to be 72, 74, 153, 173, 184
toilets 153
tourism 45
tower 3, 87, 100, 107, 115, 123, 126, 140, 142, 146, 154, 158, 159, 164, 169,
171, 182, 184
ABCD research method ■ 215
town hall 3, 33, 41, 69, 88
town planning 5, 6, 40, 43, 67, 68
tradition 7, 17, 33, 35, 39, 43, 44, 70, 98
training 36, 40, 98, 153, 187
transform 15, 22, 30, 34, 44, 55, 69, 184
transport 35, 45
Trucco, G.M. 48
Tübingen library 82
Tuinstra, D. 82
Turin Lingotto building 48, 50
type 1, 5, 13, 26, 32, 50, 55, 64, 67, 68, 69, 101, 102, 115, 177, 181
typology / typologies 55, 64, 67, 68, 69, 74, 101, 107, 123, 117, 181,
184
U
UAI Whitebook 25, 192
understand VII, 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 21, 25, 27, 31, 33, 34, 40, 61, 68, 71,
77, 86, 187, 188
Unesco VII, 191
United Nations (UN) cover, 29, 30, 31, 189
United States 36, 102
University / Universities IV, VII, VIII, 5, 11, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 27, 28,
39, 41, 43, 49, 50, 52, 64, 67, 71, 73, 74, 79, 86, 88, 98, 99, 101, 102, 115,
116, 121, 123, 142, 169, 182, 183, 188
urban / urbanism VII, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 29, 43, 46, 62, 86,
87, 126
use IV, VII, VIII, 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 25, 26, 29, 30,
35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 43, 44, 45, 46, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 61, 62, 63, 64,
67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 79, 84, 85, 86, 87, 91, 93, 94, 88, 98, 100,
101, 102, 107, 125, 126, 139, 140, 141, 142, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155,
159, 166, 174, 177, 182, 183, 187
Utrecht VII, 3, 8, 16, 31, 54, 115, 142, 151, 153, 154, 155, 159, 166, 174,
182, 183, 187, 182
Utrecht music performance centre / music centre 182
Utrecht Schouwburg theatre 3
Utzon, J. 39
V
valuation 61
value VII, 2, 7, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 27, 32, 45, 46, 51, 52, 57, 61, 62, 68, 69
Van den Broek and Bakema 18, 19, 20
Van Embden, Choisy, Roorda van Eysinga, Smelt and Wittermans 73
Vanstiphout, W. 17, 18, 19, 20, 31, 57
Växjö library 115, 118
Vegter, J.J.M. 82, 86, 99
Velde, H. van der 106, 107
Velzen, K. van 123
Venice 99
ventilating / ventilation 3, 46, 50, 55, 149, 152, 166, 169, 171, 177
Verheijen, A.P.J.M IV, VII, 87, 95, 174
Verona Castelvecchio 47, 50
Vestia 53
viability 12, 21
Viborg / Viipuri library 107, 108
Vingboons, Ph. 99
void 126
volume 35, 43, 52, 53, 71, 100, 107, 115, 123, 125, 126, 140, 146, 153, 166,
184
Voordt, D.J.M. van der 16, 18
Vos, A. 58, 59
Vreeze, N. de 61, 62
Vriend, J.J. 1
VVKH architects 87, 95, 174
W
Wagenaar, C. 6
wall 1, 5, 7, 28, 34, 40, 46, 54, 88, 99, 100, 101, 102, 107, 115, 126, 140,
141, 142, 145, 146, 149, 151, 152, 155, 161, 164, 166, 177, 182
warehouses 65, 68
Washington Dutch Embassy 86, 99
waste 1, 43, 52, 53, 188
Wegener Sleeswijk, C. 65
weight 26, 35, 44, 64, 72, 142
wheelchair acces 153
Wiekart, K. 41
Wieringermeer 98
Wiesbaden library 82, 101, 197
Willes Corroon building 21
window 3, 99, 100, 107, 140, 145, 146, 149, 153, 155, 166, 167, 168, 169,
177, 178, 184
216 ■ ABCD research method
Wit, R. de 6
Wolfsburg library 107
wood 7, 28, 53, 107, 146, 151, 153, 154, 166, 168, 169, 181, 183
workplace conditions 50, 51
Wouters, W. IX
Wright, F.L. 30, 36, 100
Z
Zeewolde library 122, 123
Zeilmaker, R. 53, 199
Zijlstra, H. III, VII, 3, 12, 14, 18, 31, 36, 50, 57, 67, 74, 142, 177
zinc 34
Zwarts & Jansma 32, 57
Zwolle Wavin factory 53, 54
1940-1970 IV, VII, VIII, 1, 2, 11, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 31, 37, 41, 59, 61,
101, 115, 187
®MIT VIII, 21, 188

Analysing Buildings from Context to Detail in time ABCD research method
Dr. Ir Hielkje Zijlstra

Figure 1 (cover): UN building New York. Photographs by the author, 1990 and 2004.
II ■ A B C D re search method

Analysing Buildings from Context to Detail in time ABCD research method
Dr. Ir Hielkje Zijlstra

A. Henket of Delft University of Technology. The doctoral committee included the thesis supervisors. www. The Hague Published by IOS Press under the imprint Delft University Press IOS Press BV Nieuwe Hemweg 6b 1013 BG Amsterdam The Netherlands tel: +31-20-688 3355 fax: +31-20-687 0019 email: info@iospress.A. I wrote this thesis between 2001 and 2006 at the Faculty of Architecture of Delft University of Technology. M.nl www. The thesis supervisors were Prof.M. H.J. All rights reserved.M. F.nl www. Verheijen. H. Prof.This publication is an extended version of my PhD thesis: Bouwen in Nederland 1940-1970. Bollerey and Prof.3233/978-1-60750-020-9-i IV ■ ABCD re search method . Prof. Heynen of Catholic University Leuven.P.M.org Translated by TechTrans vertalingen.iospress. Continuïteit + Veranderbaarheid = Duurzaamheid (Building Construction in The Netherlands 1940 – 1970: Continuity + Changeability = Durability).C.J. Woltera Niemeijer. J. the vice-chancellor and Prof.J.co3. Kuipers of Maastricht University. Printed in the Netherlands © 2009 The authors and IOS Press. C.dupress. Graphic Design by CO3. ISBN 978-1-60750-020-9 doi:10.nl Legal notice The publisher is not responsible for the use which might be made of the following information. Coenen of Delft University of Technology and Prof.

..........3 6......... 164 Materials ...............................................................4 6 6.............................87 Architect .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 166 Services ..3 3 3...........................3 Research themes .........43 ABCD research method: ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Period: 1940 ...... 169 Building: to be or not to be ............................................... 153 Space.3 4....................................................1 4................ 61 Frame of reference ............................ 173 Space............................16 2 2.................................................. 173 Structure ........................................................................................................................................................................2 2...... 25 Technological observation................................ 203 4 4...............................3 Earlier research methods....................................4 8 9 ABCD research method: Analysing Buildings from Context to Detail in time: 1 Context......................................................................................................................................................................... 187 Literature and sources............................................................ 64 Matrix .....................2 5.....2 3........................... 179 Conclusions and ABCD research matrix ..Contents Introduction........................................................................................11 1...................................................................... 146 Services ........................................................ 177 Services ........................................... 181 1............................................ 101 Design process......................................................................................................................................................................................... 98 Typology .......................1 3............................................................ 125 ........ 01 Building: what was meant to be ..............1 7............................................................ 177 Materials .....................2 6............................................................................................................26 Research analysis ................................................................. 140 Structure .............................................2 Area: the Netherlands..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 7...................1 2................................................................................................................. 139 Space...................................................4 7 7.......................................................1970...........................74 Application of the ABCD research method .....VII 5 5................................................................................................................... 79 Brief... 191 Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden Index ............................................2 4.....142 Materials .............................................................................. 153 Structure .......................1 6.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................39 Regenerative conclusions............................................................................................................................................................................... 152 Building: what has been ..............................................3 5..........................................................................02 1.........................................................................................................................................................................................................75 Recommendations...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 4................5 Context. 79 Site ...2 7..1 5.....................................................

VI ■ ABCD re search method .

Delft University of Technology. interview with Maaskant.. Later I developed this into the ABCD research method. historie en techniek (The Hague: H. Bouw no.’ 2 Working in the areas of history and construction technology. social and urban planning factors. the many buildings constructed between 1945 and 1970 are unlikely to be listed as National Monuments and have little protection. 2006. Verheijen. It was quoted in its original form by one of my thesis supervisors.P. Cultural Landscape and Built Heritage is currently surveying the architecture of the reconstruction period. The period since the Second World War has received particular interest. most of these studies do not address the technical aspects of the construction of these buildings. and regenerative conclusions. 1951). Unfortunately. Existing ‘historical’ buildings provide continuity and layer. The National Service for Archaeology. Unesco. which need to be explained. ABCD re search method ■ V II . F. It was set up by the national government to guide the allocation of restructuring grants in the Netherlands. and covered seven buildings. Van Dommelen and De Koning”. Fons Verheijen.” Modern Heritage. Bespiegelingen over leven en denken. we can develop a deeper understanding of the underlying design and building methods used in our built environment. interprets it as ‘stand on the shoulders of those who went before you to reach greater heights. barring exceptional circumstances. 52 (1971): 1891. inaugural address. However. (May 2005) and F. There have been many historical and architectural studies of buildings in the Netherlands. research analysis.1970. This slogan is used by the Belvedere project office in Utrecht. in ‘Modern Heritage’ for Unesco in 2002. when studying buildings it is essential to consider not only the art history. No monuments will be listed during this period. The issues considered were based on the following themes: technical observation. Changes frequently have to be made when buildings are included in regeneration projects. Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde).5 My research covered buildings in the Netherlands. 196. “Innovation. monument voor het beroepsonderwijs Ik ben een rustig mens.4 Based on their own qualities. Bollerey. Zijlstra. but to preserving its essence. Leopold N. changes can lead to ‘Preservation through development’. My other thesis supervisor. constructed in the period 1940 . See Figure 2. Delft University of Technology 2002.V. and construction of buildings are greatly dependent on technology. Ortega Y Gasset. Het schijnbaar onmogelijke en omgaan met de twijfel. using the information from the past.. Ortega Y Gasset.’ 6 4 1 2 3 Compare: Y. but especially the construction engineering aspects. A Critical View. these issues were covered by publications at the time these buildings were constructed. “Technikon. the spirit of these statements guided the PhD thesis which I defended in.Introduction Progress does not amount to destroying the future. only buildings at least 50 years old are considered for national listing. In this way. Continuïteit + Veranderbaarheid = Duurzaamheid”(PhD diss. It also led to a new research method: building technology research. to generate the impetus to do it better today.3 In my view. Transferring knowledge obtained by analysis also provides an opportunity to learn from what exists already. Such changes add value to the buildings and facilitate new uses. Franziska Bollerey. “Bouwen in Nederland 1940-1970.1 This is my free translation of a comment by J. At present. H. 5 6 Normally. My work included a study of the relevant literature and sources. The built environment is continuously changing. As architect Hugh Maaskant (1907-1977) put it ‘Building is a deed for the future.

Hence. This time I will be using one example to explain the method: the building of the Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden. With respect to the regeneration of the Energiehuis in Dordrecht. I then felt the need to take the method I developed for my thesis further. ®MIT will use the method in the follow-up research by the Faculty of Architecture of Delft University of Technology. Secondly. in the Design and History programme. I also presented the method at congresses and developed it in greater detail as Analyzing Buildings from Context to Detail in time: ABCD In my PhD work I developed seven case studies which were combined with a general section to form the thesis. This is where continuity. I will introduce the ABCD method developed further to the work. This building was completed in 1966 and extensively refurbished in 1999. The ABCD research method can be applied in education as well as in professional practice. 2007): 136. Thirdly. ABCD research method PhD research I undertook my doctoral research in the Construction Engineering department. A regenerative approach provides the conditions to add a further generation to the life cycle of a building. change and durability meet. Piet Tauber (1927). and to make it more accessible . with support by the Chair of Architectural History. The refurbishment was managed by the original architect. Architectural practices can also use the method for Roos profession as an ®MIT architect and the teaching process. After obtaining my doctorate I joined the staff of the ®MIT department of the Faculty of Architecture of Delft University of Technology. the overall conclusion of my PhD thesis was: Continuity + Changeability = Durability. I will discuss the research themes in greater detail. the limitation to the Netherlands and an overview of existing methods. First I will discuss the context of the work: the period 1940 1970. based in Alkmaar.this book is the result. he commented ‘An unusual facet of the research is that up to the present this has led to a critical attitude that actually demands a 7 7 J. which had come to a halt.The third theme concerns regeneration. Discovering the assignment . The relevant concepts will be introduced. Roos. (Delft: VSSD. and one example application will be developed. V III ■ A B C D re search method . This programme aims to analyse buildings and intervention methods.

Municipal Archive Amsterdam. and a sign proudly proclaiming the name of the steelwork supplier: De Vries Robbé & Co. showing the steel frame and the outline of the building. He made an artist’s impression of the building under construction. as drawn by Wim Wouters in 1938.Figure 2: Rijksverzekeringsbank (National Insurance Bank) in Amsterdam under construction. ABCD re search method ■ I X .

X ■ ABCD re search method .

I avoid the term ‘reconstruction period architecture’ as my study concerned buildings from a period which.9 9 8 J. then by the immediate post-war period time of growing awareness of the results and the consequences of the reconstruction of the Netherlands. Many overviews of ‘reconstruction period architecture’ consider 1965 as the end of the reconstruction period following the Second World War. cables. Without history we can never understand the present. Thus their identity is not only the one that was given to them at birth by the architects and artists who their life. it incorporates aspects from the other methods. and it is the result of the need to develop another type of method. the building sets the context. interior furnishing. We start by broadening the perspective of the investigation and then develop it in depth. load-bearing structure. At times we will consider the parallels between buildings and people. took the comparison a step further. They change from the freshness of youth maturity. to place my work in an international context. organs. in social and the Second World War. the study is limited to buildings in the Netherlands. of what still concerns us today. they become ill and are cured. 1974). and this also relates to the themes of my research: Buildings are like human beings. The structure: skin. Johannes (1926) and Inger (1926). 4 (1984): 285. “Koldinghus: the conversion of an old Royal Danish Castle. sometimes attaining beauty in their old age. muscles. pipes. During the research for my PhD I gradually developed the ABCD research method. but I do not address them in detail. if not all.1 Context History contains much. 12. Many don’t like ‘history’ . These may be compared with: wall cladding. The concept of ‘context’ is also considered in the method itself. Hence. veins and brains. The Exner brothers.they are wrong. and the structure of the research and investigations. Furthermore. skeleton. ABCD re search method ■ 1 . spaces. people and adversities. After analysing existing research methodologies. I should explain why I opted for Dutch architecture from 1940 to 1970. When dealing with an existing building which is to be changed.8 context. they grow old.” Monumentum no. However. J.J. Vriend. By analysing the investigated. the approach and the method operate at a level of abstraction such that they can be applied in other countries. such as architectural history made of a new research method. Exner. Links bouwen rechts bouwen (Amsterdam: Contact. International theories and examples are also linked to the themes discussed in Chapter 2 as these have had a construction and theory in the Netherlands. I refer to developments in neighbouring countries. building services plant and the way they are used by people. nerves. They are born and develop.

4 (2000): 4. ten Cate.11 This resulted in the designation of 14. Restaureren. J.12 11 12 10 J. For example. “Bouwkunde 1945-1965. although construction technology did not avoid the challenge posed by architectural concepts. It has proven to be a learning opportunity. This was the first time that the powers of the authorities and the responsibilities of the owners of protected monuments were defined.1 Period 1940 – 1970 The post-war period resulted in a wave of construction projects which demonstrated that. from which many did learn. Before that it was called National Service for Archaeology. Seen in that light. See also: M. or their scientific or cultural-historical value.H.” Heemschut no. “Wennen aan wederopbouw. we now know that during this period the emphasis was on minimising the investment. When I started my research project. and many more made money. Spek drew this conclusion in a study of twenty years of postwar architecture in the Netherlands. As these buildings in particular are likely to be considered for regeneration in future. 1940 Starting the period in 1940 appears a logical choice to me. […] Many aspects of this period are particularly interesting. buildings constructed in 1940 and later could not be listed as national monuments. re search method This name is used after May 1 2009. Spek. which we cannot discuss here. If a building meets these conditions it can be included in the register of protected national monuments. Similarly.” Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. the care of monuments and historic buildings was centralised. monuments are constructed objects. Toekomst voor verleden. I found this ‘wonderful period’ to be an interesting and enlightening subject to study.C. Hence. We can call it a learning opportunity because of our conviction that construction in the Netherlands will become more dominated by engineering. RACM) and before that National Service for Heritage Care (Rijksdienst voor de Monumentenzorg. Initially. and that the cost of maintenance was disregarded. The aim of this protection is to maintain the historically grown structure of a town or village.1. Cultuurlandschap en Monumenten.000 nationally designated monuments in the Netherlands. Cultural Landscape and Built Heritage (Rijksdienst voor Archeologie. The Monuments and Historic Buildings Act also defines conservation areas in towns and villages. These are groups of buildings and other structures which are important because of their beauty. in many areas it failed to deliver. it was a wonderful period. A.10 In 1965. Furthermore. It was not possible to draw a sharp line to determine the period within which buildings to be included in my study were created.M.C. Voigt (ed. partly due to the economic and social aspects. we have found that during this period the rarely there. 1 (1965): 12B. 8-9: ‘Wat is een monument?’. scientific value or cultural-historical value. RDMZ). spatial and structural coherence. I decided to restrict the research for my thesis to the period 1940 . the options for listing buildings from this period from the listing system were being discussed at that time. to address the statutory protection of monuments and conservation areas.’ 2 ■ ABCD . In 1961 the Monuments and Historic Buildings Act was passed. (Rotterdam: BNA 1998). and it inspired me to develop the ABCD research method.1970. However it has now been decentralised and many central government tasks and powers have been transferred to municipal authorities. This is generally know as “listing”. the analysis of these buildings would not be affected by possible listing. at least 50 years old and of national interest given their beauty. building managers and others. I will also discuss the choice of this period in the context of the ABCD research method. These groups may also include one or more monuments. Buildings constructed in the Netherlands between 1850 and 1940 have now been surveyed by the National Service for Cultural Heritage and the national monuments have been designated. they now have greater responsibility for restoration projects and are required to inform and support owners.000 recent monuments among the total of some 60. In 1988 this act was replaced by the Monuments and Historic Buildings Act 1988. Here we read: ‘According to the Monuments and Historic Buildings Act 1988.). However. and that individual ideas of what is or is not responsible will become less dominant.

” Bouw no. them. Dirk Roosenburg. there will also be small radiators to heat the rooms in winter. 1 (1946): 4-11. In terms of the engineering of its time.” Bouwkundig Weekblad (1958): 581-604. detached dwellings. J. Especially in summer.14 The 63 buildings I considered for inclusion in my project counted one opened in 1940. see: J. Similarly. with an emphasis on developments in construction engineering. four storeys high. Early in 1940 the architect and builders handed the Rijksverzekeringsbank over to the users. 2007). just before the start of the Second World War. Dutch architectural history: K. For developments outside the Netherlands. care facilities. 616 (1948): 137-156. Buch.H.C.H. Town halls. Wederopbouwrapporten (Zeist: National Service for Cultural Heritage 2004 and 2005). provincial authority buildings. the National Service for Cultural Heritage decided that. one hundred buildings were proposed for designation as national monuments. van Dijk. the other one stone.” TVVL Magazine no. De Rijksverzekeringsbank van architect ir.R. the Schouwburg theatre in Utrecht. 1993). the Rijksverzekeringsbank in Amsterdam. “The Dutch Melting-pot.. H. Seen internationally. theatres. to cool the heating. but in reverse. So far. Since then. Of course. Blom. ABCD re search method ■ 3 . such as ceiling cooling and windows allowing natural ventilation.16 In February 2002 I wrote an article ‘Integratie als uitgangspunt’ (Integration as the Starting Point). 2 (2002): 22-29. Curtis. Kloos. Een eeuw Nederlandse architectuur 1880-1990 (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. it provided an excellent starting point for my research. et al. Zijlstra. et al. 16 17 13 14 15 See: A. rather than increasing their number. Bouwen in Nederland 600-2000 (Zwolle: Waanders Publishers. given that function and therefore less relevant to the development of a general research method. 1987) and. 2007). Kuipers. I did not consider buildings which were bunkers. and one opened in 1941. We will incorporate hoses in the concrete ceiling slabs which cold water circulates through. Concrete core climate control. churches in Noord-Brabant. “50 jaar Nederlands bouwen. W. Bosma et al. Modern Architecture since 1900 (Oxford: Phaidon. van Santen.13 On 15 October 2007. monastries. the Second World War started with Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939.” Architectural Review no. no further monuments would be designated until 2006. the National Service for Cultural Heritage has considered buildings from the period 1940 and beyond and has published its surveys in a number of reports. J. homes for the elderly.P. which need cooling. B. van den Broek. railway stations. sports facilities. My research included an extensive consideration of the contextual aspects relevant to the creation of a building. Recent Architecture in Holland. As far as the architectural history of the period until 1970 is concerned I refer to a number of books and articles which provide a good overview of the context within which the research was set. in principle. it would provide a good reference for a schedule of requirements for an about the new buildings for the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of the Interior to be built in The Hague. After analysing this building I concluded that even today. J. This is one of the major innovations which will be used in the new buildings for the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of the Interior. shopping centres and bridges. “Stroomingen in de Nederlandsche Architectuur. M. 2007). Architectuur in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers 1999).After completing its initial survey of monuments (MIP. Concrete core climate control? Project Director Hans Heemrood of the van de Government Buildings Agency explains: ‘Unlike houses. H. Over time it also proved to be a good frame of reference for a range of important qualitative aspects. A. schools. J. The complex will include some innovative details. Een voorbeeld van Nederlands bouwen in de twintigste eeuw. 3000 Years of Design Engineering and Building Construction (London: Phaidon. Monumenten van Herrezen Nederland (Amersfoort: National Service For Cultural Heritage. Addis. “Integratie als uitgangspunt. but the Rijksverzekeringsbank. since 2005 the central government has emphasised the preservation of designated monuments. concrete core climate control has not been applied on a large scale in the Netherlands.15 I chose 1940 as the start of the period covered by my research. Hence I started my research with the Rijksverzekeringsbank in Amsterdam (1935-1940). A small park will form the entry to the atrium.J. This included the following section: There is now more information about the exteriors of the new buildings of the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of the Interior: one tower will be masonry. The next one was the BIM building in The Hague which was opened in 1946. which will form a covered courtyard between the two buildings.17 In this article I considered not a building completed in 2001. 1987 1994). van den Broek.

Figure 3: Sectional drawing of Rijksverzekeringsbank. A Green Vitruvius. 1939. Figure 4: Diagram of a ceiling cooling system suitable for refurbishment projects. 1999. showing the heating and cooling integrated into the ceiling. From Copius Peereboom. 4 ■ ABCD re search method . 1940. From Cofaigh.

When wages started to rise and the costs of construction had to be reduced. construction engineers still had a wide variety of materials available. Given that the time it takes to construct a building. K. also chose 1965 as the cut-off date in her book Toonbeelden van Wederopbouw when selecting objects from the reconstruction period. in my situation in Dutch years forward. The lack of building materials immediately after the war meant that concrete was widely used.C. M. Kuipers. 2002). Marieke Kuipers (1951). space and modernity. 21 K. The architecture and urban development after the Second World War illustrated the positive attitude of the construction industry. In residential construction in particular. Jaap Bakema (1914 . This is still present in the building but has been decommissioned and is now hidden by a false ceiling. One of the drivers for this was that the Dutch government provided generous grants for the system building of dwellings. which could be used by skilled workers at relatively low labour costs. In urban design we see that house plans are still developed rationally. Principles and Practice of Sustainable Architectural Design (London: James and James. ABCD re search method ■ 5 . The change in architectural and town planning philosophy is clearly illustrated by the plans for extending cities. Mans. E.’ 18 the Dutch government decided that the Ministry of Housing reconstruction. crossing structures of tall buildings. 19 Concrete core climate control and cooling through additional ceilings are now widely used in both new construction projects and the regeneration of existing buildings. rationalisation and standardisation were introduced in the form of ‘system building’.These two improve the indoor climate. In the context of sustainability and repurposing. who works at the National Service for Cultural Heritage and was a professor at Maastricht University until September 2008. which was focussed on production. Toonbeelden van de wederopbouw (Zwolle: Waanders.20 She chose this year as this was when 18 19 20 J.1981) made a plan in 1969 for the Tanthof district which was still based on rectilinear. In Delft. Architectuurgids van Delft (Delft: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde.” SMAAK no. In 1972 this was replaced by a more diverse plan with mostly low-rise buildings placed in an apparently chaotic urban plan. 1999).O. 110. The large scale of the projects emphasised the optimism of quantity. and W. “Man en vrouw in het Wijnhavenkwartier. Definitief ontwerp voor torens Justitie en Binnenlandse Zaken laat meer verscheidenheid zien. van Winden.21 verzekeringsbank was completed it included a similar system. Huisman. Cofaigh et al. a publication in 1999 referred to a similar ceiling system as an example which is particularly suitable grid of small-bore plastic tubes installed under a wall or ceiling plaster or imbedded in gypsum board. through the Stichting Ratiobouw. but that the blocks of dwellings are arranged in honeycomb patterns and lines which are anything but straight. 14 (2003): 51. A Green Vitruvius. They provide an even surface temperature and have an intermediate heat storage capacity between the other two types of system. it makes the acoustics future we sound attenuating alternatives for this. 41. when she joined Delft University of Technology. the construction industry focussed even more on production. 9. 1970 For the end date of the research period I could have chosen 1965. Examples include the Bijlmermeer in Amsterdam and the Slaaghwijk in Leiden which has a completely chaotic plan. in line with the National Service for Cultural Heritage. In this period. 1992).

As part of the reconstruction of Rotterdam. the International Style. The De Doelen concert hall was close to completion. the welfare state. 315. which as the 1950s progressed was characterised by increasing optimism.they were all ingredients of an evocative image which the Basic Plan appeared to be leading the Netherlands to.22 According to Cor Wagenaar (1960). familiar city centre and did not want to be displaced by ‘clumps of offices’. the plans for the urban railway (metro) were accepted.This change happened around 1970. the cautious increases in car-ownership and with it access to ever larger areas for recreation . the offices of L. But in the same year the municipality did not manage to transfer the Barlaeusgymnasium from the centre to an outlying area. Aarts. 1998). but this was replaced by a committee of town council members only. had a major construction projects. The colourful Lijnbaan. since the 1930s there had been an advisory committee on the harbours which included industry representatives. Richter Roegholt (1925 . a victory which would only be repeated occasionally.23 According Hans van Dijk (1948) the city of Rotterdam had not been completed by 1965: In 1965 it was not just the Coolsingel which had been torn up to build the metro. as Roel de Wit [council member responsible for public works] immediately realised. 1968 was still a year of successes: the IJ tunnel. In this heroic phase. He was still successful in 1968. de Klerk. De Goey concluded that the distance between the municipality and industry had to be increased.1970) were largely lost. 1860-1950 (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. We almost wrote ‘banish’. if ever. Welvaartstad in wording. De wederopbouw van Rotterdam 1940-1952 (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. the Municipal Executive still managed to get the ABN plan [Algemene Bank Nederland] adopted by the Municipal Council by a large majority. 295.’24 With respect to Amsterdam. the first house in the Bijlmer. organised in the Club Rotterdam. it was no more than a pyrrhic victory. 6 ■ ABCD . However. Len de Klerk noticed this change in 1970: The consensus about economic development lasted until around 1970. but several other projects were also underway. van Dijk. the Basic Plan became rather like a manifesto of innovation. as a result of which the effectiveness and speed with which decisions were taken (which characterised the period 1945 . Vijftig jaar wederopbouw Rotterdam. “De gezelligheidsrevolutie 1965-1970. 1995). H. through which modern architecture and town planning could fulfil the promises they had made before the war. The last of the blocks of flats on the Lijnbaan was being finished. as that was how the plan was experienced by the students and their parents who wanted to preserve the quality of life in the old. was finally buried by the diverse architecture inspired by the ‘other story’ of the Forum Group.2005) also mentioned a number of developments linked to 1970: In December 1966. 1992). At Lijnbaanplein square the extension of the shopping area was almost finished. 161-208. For example. the imposing Groothandelsgebouw. It is not a coincidence that in this period the uniform image of modern architecture and town planning. Wagenaar. Particuliere plannen. there was also a change in the 1970s which was related to the reconstruction of Rotterdam: In the 1950s and 1960s the reconstruction was indeed a mirror of the development of a new society. Denkbeelden en initiatieven van de stedelijke elite inzake de volkswoningbouw en de stedebouw in Rotterdam.” in: M. re search method 24 C. Increasing environmental problems (Rijnmond was designated as a remediation area). the rise of the environmental movement and radicalisation of local politics brought its end about. the generously laid out districts with extensive greenery. where the Chamber of Commerce and a number of industrialists. Een geschiedenis van toekomstvisies (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. This course only seems to 23 22 become less attractive in the 1970s.

Visitors were confronted with impersonal concrete walls of dwellings without clear visual relationships. Deel 2 (1945/1970). but which instead were to be regenerated into new buildings with additional qualities related to the new context: the existing. Furthermore. In the Netherlands this was especially apparent in the growth of urban regeneration projects. Naoorlogse bouwkunst in Nederland (Amsterdam: Kosmos. but stayed sensible and clear-minded. a longing for traditional designs. This is the difficulty with preserving an old building where. During the reconstruction period. Mieras. and buzzing motorways. to make preservation possible. the separation of functions . Deel 2 (1945/1970) (Amsterdam: Aula 1979). 295 . Amsterdam in de 20e eeuw. The 1970s were the start of a new period. Amsterdam in de 20e eeuw. 179-185. apparently not leading anywhere. as defined in the Charte d’Athènes of 1933. But was it not especially around the 1970s that there was a reaction. Purmerend as a centre for expansion.27 Integrated solutions were developed later. Roegholt. […] The design of the Bijlmer housing estate was meant to be welcoming but initially made the opposite impression.26 The year 1975 was designated as European Architectural Heritage year and in addition to the restoration of designated monuments.what convictions did they spring from? Here they were building an urban district for the 1980s based on the ideas of the 1920s. shortages would again have oil crisis in 1973 and greater interest developed in limited to improving thermal insulation and using more environmentally acceptable energy sources.25 Changes in demand However. repurposing was hardly considered as a credible option. adoption of the Noordzeekanaal regional plan and the Spaandammerbos woods. smaller scales and mixed functions? The Bijlmer was not the only new town in Europe created from nothing in the 1960s by technocrats riding the wave of economic success. 1954). This was forcefully argued by J. Practice may occasionally prevail over theory.P. but usually when the purpose of a building is changed its architectural value will be diminished. After the development of social awareness and a trend towards smaller scales towards the end of the 1960s. This technical mass production.298. In the long term this will undoubtedly prove advantageous. its purpose has to be changed. homes for the elderly. the houses are larger and more varied than we have seen in similar developments in other countries. the Confectiecentrum garment centre and the Lucasziekenhuis hospital. I selected 1970 as the end of the period to be covered by my time which can be time it takes to realise a building.P. 17. Roegholt.1956) an important architecture critic of the period: The purpose of an architectural work cannot be changed without affecting its architectural qualities.Mobil Oil and the Dutch Central Bank were opened. there was a growing interest in the repurposing and refurbishment of existing buildings which could not be demolished because of their cultural-historical or technical qualities. Mieras (1888 . historical layer. and ‘sustainable building’ became a common term. also for other reasons. The Bijlmer generally compares favourably with other such towns as its designers did not give in to the seduction of artifice and technical exaggeration. ABCD re search method ■ 7 . as is their national characteristic. 26 27 25 R. what had to be built also changed: reuse and refurbishment of existing buildings became more common. J.

29 See Figures 5 .nl/lectoraten/ ol05-041013.L. The two curves met around 1970.9. 2000). 1955 .28 The development of the raptor population is another clear indicator. 8 ■ ABCD . 2001. Schuyt. van Zanden.per 1000 married couples 90 75 60 45 30 15 per 1000 unmarried men age 15 year or older 24 20 Marriages (left scale) 16 12 8 4 Dissolved marriages (left scale) 0 2000 0 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 Figure 5: Numbers of marriages and divorces.cilianterwindt. re search method 0 1956 1960 1965 1970 Figure 6: Number of televisions and cinema tickets sold. the current account balances increased rapidly after 1970. 1800 – 1999. from 10 m2 in 1900 to 34 m2 in 2004. Nederlandse cultuur in Europese Context (The Hague: SDU Publishers.1975 These curves also met around 1970. The number of birds of prey rose rapidly after 1970 as the consolidation of agricultural land ended. Taverne and K. E. Adapted by the author from Tweehonderd jaar statistiek in tijdreeksen 1800-1999. 1970 = 100 300 Various statistical indicators show a clear change around the year 1970: the numbers of marriages and divorces approached each other. Adapted by the author from 75 jaar statistiek van Nederland. 49-51. 1975. the number of televisions sold and the number cinema of tickets sold approached each other.pdf). the number of square metres of living space per resident increased continuously in the Netherlands. Nature was given an opportunity to recover. 28 275 250 225 Cinema visits 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 Televisons sold 25 29 C. and car ownership increased steadily. Groene geschiedenis van Nederland (Utrecht: Spectrum.hva. Meervoudig en Intensief Ruimtegebruik in de Stad. Terwindt. (http://www. Hogeschool van Amsterdam. public lecture 13 October 2004. 1993). Similarly. and the insecticide DDT was banned under pressure from the environmental movement. 11-12. 1950 Welvaart in zwart-wit. 160-161 and J.

5 0 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 Figure 7: Number of cars in the Netherlands.45 Euro Registered surplus labour. 1975.0 400 200 100 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 0.5 1000 2. 1993. Adapted by the author from 75 jaar statistiek van Nederland.5 600 1. Their numbers increased greatly after 1970. The balances increased enormously after 1970. 6 Current account balances on transaction basis. This curve rises continuously. Adapted by the author from 75 jaar statistiek van Nederland.5 1800 1600 1400 buzzard hawk sparrow hawk honey buzzard 350 1200 2.0 Cars Commercial vehicles 3. ABCD re search method ■ 9 . Adapted by the author from Van Zanden. progressing 3-year average 5 1 guilder = 0. 1975. Figure 8: Raptor pairs in the Netherlands. in percentage of the total manpower 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 Figure 9: Dutch current account balances. 1930 – 1975. when the consolidation of agricultural land came to an end and the pesticide DDT was banned. 1945 – 1975.0 800 1.4. in 1000 million guilders Current account balances on transaction basis.

in Grimbergen near Brussels (1947). 10 ■ A B C D re search method . 2002. From Strauven. Figure 11: Detail of the administrative building of the municipal executive (1957 . designed by Renaat Bream. In his book about Hardy. 2002. Photograph by the author. 2003.1967) in Antwerp. Strauven (1974) also discusses the experimental concrete structures. From Strauven. Figure 12: Cross-section of Hardy’s hangar in Grimbergen.Figure 10: Hangar designed by Alfred Hardy.

Bouwen in België 1945-1970 (Brussel: Nationale Confederatie van het Bouwbedrijf. the reconstruction period has regularly been covered in books and exhibitions. Ward. Kuipers. a book was published with a list of buildings constructed between 1945 and 1970. Currently. Ein Gespräch mit Uta Hassler. 33 The Netherlands In the Netherlands. 1971).M. and plans for their regeneration. England The situation in England needs to be considered in greater detail as progress there has been greater as a result of detailed studies and research.nrw-architekturdatenbank. formerly with Dortmund University. 2002).34 In Belgium. J. Monumenten van Herrezen Nederland. Ibelings. Gesloopt Gered Bedreigd. “Über Risiken des Verschwindens und Chancen intelligenter Schrumpfung. This project is led by Uta Hassler. Coenen and M. 10 (2002): 1212-1217. Omgaan met naoorlogse bouwkunst (Rotterdam: Episode Publishers. G.1970. de Back.uni-dortmund. Strauven.2001) and Alfred Hardy (1900 . 1996). Strauven. and the conditions under which they were created.30 Agency will protect. Planning the TwentiethCentury City. Culture and Science. ABCD re search method ■ 11 .” Detail no.1965). 2002). Kuipers.C. Iwan Strauven discussed some technical aspects of Hardy’s architecture. deserved to be designated as national monuments was presented to Ronald Plasterk. Bekeart and F. again largely focussing on buildings built in this period. 2004) 34 35 36 Santen.35 The Atomium in Brussels (1958) was restored and there was some interest in the architecture of Renaat Bream (1910 . the buildings from the period 1940 . Toonbeelden van de wederopbouw and H. In 2004 a list of government buildings in the Netherlands.1970 present a number of unique aspects concerning their preservation and possible reuse.J. Marieke 1993 Hans Ibelings (1963) wrote an architectural history treatise accompanying an exhibition at the Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAi) on the 1950s and 1960s. Web site: www. The advanced capitalist world (Chichester: Wiley. in the view of the National Service for Cultural Heritage.36 See Figures 10-12.31 This included descriptions of the historical and current condition of the buildings. W.1. I. A.32 In October 2007 a list of 100 monuments which. which demanded special attention was published under the leadership of the then government architect Jo Coenen (1949). from the period after 1940. He took the initiative of adding a new building every year to the list of buildings which the Government Buildings Germany and Belgium Several surveys of the architecture of the reconstruction period have been made in countries bordering the Netherlands. Minister of Education. there are some surveys covering particular towns or themes. in relation to the Netherlands in about the buildings constructed in this period. It also included studies of a number of high-rise projects in Brussels built during this period. Alfred Hardy 1900-1965 (Gent: GUAEP. In Germany a website is being made of the buildings of this period in Nordrhein-Westfalen. To provide a broader context I also looked at some surrounding countries. These aspects are mentioned in the literature.2 Area: the Netherlands My PhD research concerned buildings in the Netherlands constructed in the period 1940 .de. Nevertheless. De moderne jaren vijftig en zestig (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. These provide more detailed information about 33 30 31 32 For a general international overview see: S. Rölling ed.

[…] 37 38 39 E. A number of congresses and publications addressed this issue and an overview of listed buildings from this period has been written. 2001) and E. We have to be concerned about managing change rather than fossilizing buildings. England. Harwood. Structure and style. Temporary dip in its longtime history. Principles and Practice in Conserving Recent Architecture (Shaftesbury: Donhead. Contribution by H. The economic performance of listed commercial buildings can equal (ore exceed) that of unlisted buildings. Paper presented at the Docomomo International Conference: Import – Export: Postwar Modernism in an Expanding World. Macdonald. Listing does not necessarily occur at a time when there are proposals for change. Ten Cate. list buildings which are considered to be of special architectural and historic interest. 28 September 2004. 1945 – 1975. S. 2000).buildings from that period than is available in the Netherlands. The intrinsic character and use of materials. 1945 – 1975. In England a building can normally not be listed within 30 years of its construction. A Guide to post-war listed buildings. Macdonald. A revolutionary change in building form. re search method 12 ■ A B C D . […] Opposition to listing revolves around four principal premises: Statutory protection unreasonably erodes private property rights. 1997). Economic viability.39 With respect to the listing of buildings as monuments. England. Will modern buildings ever be widely accepted as cultural products worthy of protection? Understanding of historic buildings. A Guide to post-war listed buildings (London: Ellipsis. Stratton.M. The fear of terminal decline and the creation of a museum culture. Changes have taken place. It is an inherently flexible system which flags the architectural and historic character of buildings in order to ensure that it is taken fully into account when changes or demolition are proposed. 1996). It inhibits much-needed development. Structural and technical problems. Zijlstra: Groothandelsgebouw Rotterdam Revised. 37 See Figures 13 and 14.38 The eighth Docomomo congress in 2004 followed this up with the theme: Import – Export: Postwar Modernism in an Expanding World. a fait accompli. Preserving Post-War Heritage (Shaftesbury: Donhead. […] But the protection of recent buildings raises further specific issues: It concerns objectivity and distance. Listing is inherently anti-democratic. It does not necessarily mean that a building must be preserved whatever it costs. ‘Wennen aan wederopbouw’. Procedures needed interests of the owner and the wider community. its main purpose is to ensure that care is taken over decisions concerning its future. Modern Matters. 4-6 and Harwood. Are we really far away from the period in question to assess the buildings dispassionately? How long is a cooling-of period? Public perceptions are difficult to gauge. costs of repairing. Martin Cherry made the following statements: There is a misconception that listing ‘freezes’ buildings. Conserving Twentieth Century Buildings (London: Spon. S. Listing affects a building’s value.

7-14. Only by providing an academically watertight basis for our recommendations for ministers will they feel able to take our advice. The work also included construction engineering studies. Figure 14: Detail of the Sanderson showroom by Slater and Uren in London. Modern Matters. This is particular important with unfamiliar or contentious buildings. social benefits. “Listing Twenty-century Buildings: The Present Situation. its historic interest and character and the nature of its construction techniques and the performance of the materials used.40 Figure 13: Heinz Headquarters by SOM in London.Three main ingredients in a successful conservation policy are: The selection of buildings is safe and sound. 2001. Principles and Practice in Conserving Recent Architecture. Also management is important. 40 M. in this case into the development of clad frame constructions. 2001. Planning environment must facilitate sound management and reduce unnecessary delay and uncertainty. Listed buildings consent procedures especially in relation to the larger and more complex sites. Cherry. England 1950. and this thematic approach to listing will continue to characterize our strategy for some year to come. Public support must be secured through debate and education. is a central and urgent requirement. ABCD re search method ■ 13 . Use media: exhibitions. Besides listing are important factors: the economic performance. Fully understanding the building in question. […] The main thrust of English Heritage’s listing survey work is the programme of research-based assessments based on specific building types. and that the designation is appropriate. From Macdonald. From Macdonald. England 1962-65. conferences and publications. especially those pioneered in the twentieth century. by Peter Ross.” in: Macdonald. based on rigorous research. historic environments and sustainability.

e. We shouldn’t want to turn everything upside down.H.e. which means you can only change construction engineering aspects. Practice Back to the Netherlands. The tenth international congress of Docomomo International.1970 are occasionally saved from demolition or excessive refurbishment through the intervention of interested architects. chaired by Maarten Kloos. Bricks and masonry are fantastic materials.M. The Challenge of Change (13 – 20 September. the handing over of basic details. So that results in a construction engineering creation which is below par. Neither the provincial nor the municipal authorities consider these issues. Prudon demonstrated this in 2008 with the publication of his study into the preservation of modern architecture.These quotes touch on a number of subjects developed in greater detail in my research. […] Reuse could be considered as a new investment. the authorities do not consider the lifespan of the building in construction engineering terms. 2008). with the aim of ‘understanding the building’. the biography of building elements and the junctions of these elements. buildings constructed in the period 1940 . The only problem is that you can’t keep doing that all the time in the Netherlands because then we would be bankrupt in ten minutes. […] I agree with the comments made by Bax [then Dean of Architecture. See: Zijlstra. should be adopted more widely and internationally. Th. we need to develop a terminology for the existing stock of buildings. The culture of handing over. as a new design challenge. In the Netherlands. Rotterdam) placed special emphasis on post-1940 buildings. due to a lack of financial resources. So you’ll have to set priorities. Not with the aim of freezing buildings. This academic study concerned the qualities of the buildings. However. And this balance of interests also includes the problem of the monument. This means that you have to find an instrument for assessment. after a number of plans had been developed. We only think in terms of new buildings. I think that the monuments’ departments do fit into what I have drawn. The information needed for that is best derived from the experiences obtained with the products. Theodore H. i. Apart from architectural elements we need to study the technical aspects of buildings. re search method The monuments’ departments really focus on what the building is like now. […] 41 42 43 A good example is provided by the professional debate on 2 October 2002. Bouwen in Nederland 1940 – 1970. i. sub section 4: Jeruzalem Frankendaal Amsterdam. components and structures used.41 Similarly. is increasingly shifting its focus to the period after 1940. Eindhoven University of Technology] during the discussion on education.M. particularly with respect to buildings not protected by listing as monuments. and drawing practical solutions about the trends based on that. It was eventually decided that the area should not be demolished. the approach taken by Hubert-Jan Henket (1940).43 In my view. We are not yet attuned to maintaining objects or to their different use. Using experience pragmatically 14 ■ A B C D . That’s where you can compromise. it takes searching and probing to get a grip on the existing stock [of buildings]. that there is no need for revolutionary techniques. Docomomo. about Frankendaal. There have been so many changes in the last 70 years.42 The impression is that buildings from earlier periods are now adequately protected. as one of the assessment criteria if the object has a particular social or cultural value. one of the founders of Docomomo. That means that to be able to talk about this issue with any coherence. or the impact on its operation. Preservation of Modern Architecture (Hoboken: Wiley & Sons. in 2005 it was decided not to take any action. […] So. that information is getting lost. I can imagine one might say ‘We are only leaving this building intact because it has a particularly high architectural value’. but to discover what changes will be possible. We can obtain this information by analysing the lifecycle process. Prudon. which aims to document and conserve buildings and urban and landscape ensembles of the Modern Movement. This is supported by the following quotations from interviews with Henket in 1983 and 1985: However. not what we can do with it. a residential area in Amsterdam. […] To manage the lifecycle of buildings. you first have to be able to predict accurately what the likely consequences will be of the available options. first we have to sort out the numbers.

Single buildings My PhD work was largely aimed at single buildings. This should change in future. we consider everything in the present to be better than the past then we cannot give this past an opportunity. in a deliberate attempt to be progressive. verandering van naoorlogse woonwijken (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. the past is considered layer. Osdorp in Amsterdam and the south-west of The Hague.44 In 1985. Between 1990 and 2001. Henk van Schagen developed regeneration plans for parts of the Delfgauwse Weije in Delft. creativity. Henket and Van Schagen: understanding. function mobility and reuse analysis. Hence. That is transformation without alienation. The ‘Grote Verbouwing’ exhibition at the NAi in 2004 presented an overview of residential areas which had been regenerated in full or in part. instead we see it as a necessary step towards the future. there is the risk that we create an imitation. However. or a building with an artificial theatre set. If the past is overestimated then we may get an imitation. 3 (1985): 24-25. to guide the planning which was largely related to urban planning issues. a building rather like a theatre set. and when and why.is an essential condition for meaningful renewal as only that helps us what to expect. In this area there have been some studies.J.45 Redevelopment of postwar residential areas Several ministries in the for housebuilding programmes in the context of the redevelopment of areas built between 1940 and 1970. I would like to note that. Henket also referred to: life-cost planning. Henket. H. The analysis of the design is primarily concerned with the required programme changes. 7 October 2004 and see: H. rehabilitatie van de naoorlogse wijken.” Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting no. reuse analysis. the construction of the shell. and it will. If. building biographies.e. ABCD re search method ■ 15 . basic details. 2004). Henket. or which plans had been developed for. if changes are required then these are based on the continuity of the architecture. De Grote Verbouwing. considering the use of existing buildings for new design assignments. change. Pendrecht in Rotterdam. For example. not freezing. In that case we are not rejecting what exists. i. history. “Transformatie zonder vervreemding. See: J. i. if we overestimate the past. in both residential and nonresidential construction projects. There was also a list comparing the number of demolished dwellings and the number of new ones replacing them. but more of an underappreciation. and building biography. Rehabilitation respects the history of the use of a building.they can coexist.e. rather than residential building projects. In my view this is not so much an overestimate. “The proof of the pudding remains in the eating. “Van produceren naar gebruiken en beheren.418 dwellings were demolished and 31. 3 (2004): 12-17. which is considered to be easy to copy. 47 Lecture by Henk van Schagen for Delft Design. Tellinga.136 new ones were constructed. There are now some examples of the positive regeneration of postwar districts to new urban areas. and promoting this approach. is still an exception. as Van Schagen puts it. The Stichting Belvedère controlled part of the funding. Two moments of creativity touch . At present.47 in which the building was created.” Plan no. He commented: Rehabilitation refers to developing new architectural designs which are coherent with the existing architecture. 71.46 H. quality.” Bouw no. harking back to the past is more popular than ever in the Netherlands. But it is also concerned with the changes which have to be made in the way in which the buildings connect to their surroundings. and statements about the issues. It is an attempt at reconciliation. 26 (1985): 49. and illustrate the continuity between them. In this case. van Schagen. continuity.J. the ABCD research method I developed includes some of the aspects referred to by Cherry. If the design aims to accept the past then you have to develop a positive relationship between the old and the new. However. 44 45 46 H.

which are primarily concerned with 50 48 49 J. and Th. R. the book De inleiding tot de bouwhistorie became a reference work about documenting and surveying buildings and other monuments in the Netherlands. before presenting the themes I have adopted. Given this perspective. 2005). each of which provides a more accurate description of the building. According to the introduction to the brochure. One such quick scan method has been developed by ABT in Velp. This can then be used to decide whether or not the building should be listed.49 of the history of a building. 16 ■ A B C D . and its analysis and interpretation.51 This method is primarily concerned with the technical aspects of the building. Van Nellefabriek in Rotterdam and Glaspaleis in Heerlen. as required by the National Service for Cultural Heritage.’ 48 In this context. R. include ‘The search for all relevant information. Geraedts “Herbestemmingswijzer: herbestemming van bestaand vastgoed. ABT gives some examples where the consultancy assisted with regeneration projects: Sanatorium Zonnestraal in Hilversum.” (Delft: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde. especially those constructed since 1940 cannot be analysed in one day and it is impossible to determine their value in this way.1970. all of which include elements which could be applied to present a critical overview.A. 2004). The emphasis is on identifying the qualities in order to determine the value.1. Hek. re search method 51 R. it is impossible to identify these values in one day. Both the literature and architectural practice present a range of methods. My PhD value in terms of a point score. an analysis of these methods and the demands for ‘a different method’ can lead to elements in the existing methods which could be adopted. However. However. However. R. Quick scans and scorecards The concept of ‘determining the value’ has been widely discussed with reference to buildings from 1940 . which may lead to a description of the history of the construction and use of the buildings or structures. Less well known buildings. van Tussenbroek et al. Such studies do not consider the context of the building or a look forward to the future. 2007). Richtlijnen Bouwhistorisch Onderzoek (The Hague: Rijksgebouwendienst.50 These methods range from complex scorecards to quick scans requiring only one day of observation on site to give the client an indication of the options for reuse.” Real Estate Magazine no. Architectural history studies Architectural history studies. Quickscan hergebruik gebouwen (Velp: ABT.P. the architectural and cultural-historical values are considered in the study.3 Earlier research methods research and the ABCD research method developed further to it. they are not included in the assessment form at the end. van der Voordt “Van leegstand naar herbestemming. 2000): definitions. terms such as: ‘all relevant information’ and ‘history of the construction and use’ are relevant. Stenvert. a building construction consultancy. A range of different studies are then described. J. To supplement the aspects referred to earlier. van der Hoeve. 39 (2005): 12-14 and M. Inleiding in de bouwhistorie (Utrecht: Matrijs. Boer. several such methods have been described. in each of these cases it was known in advance that the building had such values. its status and how that came about. Gereadts. I would like to present a number of earlier methods to study buildings. In my view. Kamstra and R. G.

wat nu? Aanpak van een upgradingsproject (Rotterdam: Stichting Bouw Research. 2004). Dutch cultural historians still think they have to preach. Object and context Ad van Nunen.53 Hence. minutes of meetings. stated that preferably he would only consider the building as a source: Apparently.When assessing if a building still meets the needs or can be preserved or reused it is quite common to use scorecards and allocate point scores. […] How can we escape from an architectural history tradition which is deterministic. to support the reconstruction of our country. Spekkink D. the objective of my PhD research was not to value the buildings in method to value a building in general terms. statistics. a researcher with the Monuments Department of the behind observable facts. In 1993. formula to express the ‘likely survival’ of buildings numerically. As loyal clerks or archivists they believe that the truth about the residential plans and designs and the expansion plans can be found at the bottom of old cardboard boxes. (Delft: University Press. study of the construction. However. and wring history from them. and J. Furthermore. Uta Hassler defined a complex. 61.’ 54 The interpretation of the results of his research. Een verouderd gebouw. he promotes a method which can be applied universally. further to his development of a research method based on ’s-Hertogenbosch. them in numbers. in her exposition on the disappearance of industrial architecture. process analysis. whatever they are. See: U. On 22 May 2001. Delft University of Technology. analysis of human and ecological aspects. Voldoet dit gebouw? Het bepalen van de functionele kwaliteit (Rotterdam: Stichting Bouw Research. an earlier part of the book includes a list of methods which provides a good starting point: construction history. Das Verschwinden der Bauten des Industriezeitalters (Berlin: Ernst Wasmuth Verlag. 52 53 54 J. 55 O. and include the impact of the environs in the study. However. both imagined and built)? The easiest option is to leave the archives. They undertake extensive studies of statistics. Wouter Vanstiphout. correspondence. visual interpretation. historical development of economics and geography. architectural historian and co-owner of Crimson Architectural Historians. He considers the whole block when studying one building. The building. J. De K W tool. Ad van Nunen received his doctorate from Delft University of Technology. etc. to help develop a consensus. and in my view impractical. Benes. See also: H. J. […] I would like to make clear from the start that the way to proceed as described should be applicable for an object dating from the fourth century B. Bollebakker. 1990). data analysis and developing data models. building structure. Ways to study ABCD re search method ■ 17 . “Bouwhistorie is basis voor monumentenzorg. The context is relevant to the object. to go into the city. this form of writing history is also problematic for other reasons.52 Similarly. but provides an interesting example. This interpretation relates to urban planning. 2002).K. Uta Hassler developed a method which can be expressed as a formula. 2003) and D. Ibid. Vrijling. analysis and interpretation. 256. and the conclusions which may be drawn from this are interesting. 1990). as well as for an object of the fifties of the twentieth century.W. His PhD supervisor was Professor Frits van Voorden. Van Nunen looks beyond the individual object. On that basis I try to explain the different steps of the study of architectural history: heuristics. Smid. life cycle assessment. the building. apart from the ideology and choice of subject. ahistorical and completely divorced from what it is supposed to describe (cities and buildings. Otakar architectural history at Delft University of Technology described his approach to historical research: I depart from the object. such methods have never resulted in unanimous and universally applicable results. 91. Hassler. However.” Heemschut no.C. to look at the buildings. 55 Here the building itself provides the initial and most important source for the research. Het herbestemmen van kantoren naar woningen (graduation paper. but in my view it is certainly not the only one. 1 (2002): 8.

Prudon. 2007). the extent to which we can learn from it at the present. Rotterdam en de architectuur van J. van den Dobbelsteen and M. users and building managers and. there are no references or pointers to support further study. Urbanism. he restricts himself to an emotional and enthusiastic report on his visit to the building. 1 (1993). enter into a tactile relationship with the city. he changed the subject of his work while studying the archives and literature. methoden en analysekader (Delft: VSSD. correspondence. Lifespan rehabilitation of built heritage (PhD diss. designed by Van den Broek and Bakema. drawings. Vanstiphout. interviews. and leave her the initiative to tell her story. After my doctoral research I participated in the Integrated Plan Analysis project. combination and interpretation of the information will enable us to make discoveries which can be used to design and redesign the assignment.59 When analysing a building in terms of its potential regeneration. According to the introduction. i. the lifecycle and sustainability are becoming increasingly important.56 When describing the 1955 Thomson building in Rotterdam (Figure 15). in the same publication. diaries. although their presentation of the facts will always have to be considered with some reservations. However. through oral history. material from the archives. Living architects are an important source of information. Maak een stad. The information provided by people working in a building.H. Vanstiphout. on 16 July 2005. for his study of the architecture of J. Zijlstra. Prudon’s work is largely concerned with the preservation of modern buildings. the ABCD method is more appropriate. However. most of all. and Real Estate and Housing. De stad van morgen no. and the way in which the building can accommodate change all determine the chances a building will get to survive as the sum of continuity and change. and the reader who has become interested learns no more from him. although all the documents about this building are in the collection of the NAi. 18 ■ A B C D . Nevertheless.Architectural historians could write a pedestrian’s history.58 This method also provided an overview of the existing analysis methods.57 Such research should be based on the widest range of sources: literature. this means that Vanstiphout himself is one of those ‘loyal clerks or archivists’. A. H. Building Technology. An integrated analysis method was developed. 2007). we need multidisciplinary research which ranges from cultural history to construction engineering. van Dorst Integrale Plananalyse – Doel. In my view.H. This is emphasised by the fact that the majority of publications on buildings which have been original architect and the year of completion.. 2005). It is as if the present prevails over the past. Integrated Plan Analysis largely excludes regeneration aspects. “Het einde van de Wederopbouw. Eindhoven University of Technology. A careful and creative analysis. see: W. Similarly. van den Broek in Rotterdam. He provides no further information. covering all aspects from concept through to operation.” in: Atelier Stad. and for other projects. All aspects should be included in the analysis to allow us to draw conclusions about construction in the construction engineering. meetings with architects. van den Broek (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Vanstiphout received his doctorate from Groningen University. he does consider the technical aspects which are essential to this. However. 56 57 W.60 Multidisciplinary research In many monographs about architects we notice that the most interesting information is often provided by the people concerned. although the current situation could never have come about without that present. in the discussion of the Thomson building the footnotes only refer to the literature.e. and especially those responsible for its upkeep have been a value source of information for my research. Preservation of Modern Architecture. I am convinced that buildings should be studied ‘differently’. A. This project was undertaken jointly by the four departments of the Faculty of Architecture: Architecture. Hence. re search method 58 59 60 Th. Voordt. Pereira Rodes. the building itself. Re-Archtecture.

A different method When working on these projects I began to feel the need for ‘a different method’ and this eventually led to the development of the ABCD research method. However. Peter Nijhof and Anita Blom of the National Service for Cultural Heritage. From Vanstiphout. These discussions were held on 17 November 2003 and 15 January 2004. During my work I also came across others who concluded that there was a need for ‘a different method’: Fons Asselbergs (1940). Van den Broek and Bakema. […] It is therefore necessary to develop a method to analyse the cultural-historical values of the construction programme of the reconstruction period and inform those who currently undervalue this cultural heritage and to operate it in different ways. Conserveren in de wegwerp maatschappij. Rotterdam. Pleidooi voor een plychrone cultuur (Maastricht: University Press. ABCD re search method ■ 19 . 1955. but fails to satisfy it. and the guidance given to me by my thesis supervisors rooted in their respective disciplines: history and construction engineering. 174. 2001). director of National Service for Cultural Heritage until 2005 makes the following claim in the epilogue of Kuipers’ book I referred to earlier: 61 62 culturalhistorical values of the reconstruction period.C. My search was initially based on the experiences of others.Figure 15: Afrikahal of the Thomson building. it appeared that the technical elements of the studies 62 Kuipers. Kuipers. See also: M. Wouter Vanstiphout describes the building in a way which arises our curiosity.61 Further to the discussions I had with Gerrit-Jan Nusselder. 1993. it developed further to the questions and themes which I came across. Toonbeelden van de wederopbouw. 25.

It was expected that these consultants would limit themselves to assessing the designs and interventions resulting from them. 1952-1954). Vincent van Rossem of the Monuments Department of the municipality of Amsterdam commented: Academic research has been overly focussed on the leading architects in the Netherlands and abroad. The purpose was to develop a method which can be applied generally to the redevelopment of postwar buildings at urban sites. However. 6.63 He also emphasised that the research should be more practical and that greater consideration should be given to the craft. “Wederopbouwarchitectuur: geen louter beschermende houding”. de Jonge et al. as well as the contributions architectural historians make to the design process. it was discovered that the designers needed information at the start.” De Architect (March 2004): 13-14. I know way too much about Van Eesteren and Berlage! […] There is a huge division between academic research and the practice. i. 1954-1959).On the Monuments Study Day in 2000. architectural historians worried that in future there would be no need for their discipline. then it will have to free itself from the constraints of art history. R.P. Hoekstra. Hulstein. The equality of the architectural historian and the 63 64 designer. re search method G.M. 1954-1955). Heemschut no. introduced as an experiment in design-based study. The ‘design-based study’ assignment was initiated by G. 20 ■ A B C D . This is related to the reducing social significance of architectural historians. ten Cate and W. Five teams were asked to present new uses for a building. See: W. the care of monuments. […] The conclusion of this day is that academic architectural history will probably cease to exist as a discipline.65 The teams included structural engineering and building physics. This was in preparation of a survey of reconstruction period buildings in Rotterdam. In 1997. which does not only consider architecture from a historical perspective. They wondered if it was time to release the study of architecture from the ‘historical’ label. the telephone exchange (by the Public Works department 1943-1947) and the station post office (by E. This is also associated with the introduction of the bachelor/master systems at universities. By now. 1954-1958). van den Bosch. as well as designs. “De constructeur: skelet respecteren. as well as general developments in society. but also from psychological.L. vander Sluys and L. the Huf shop and offices (by Van den Broek and Bakema.A. […] And why has there. If architectural history wants to survive. Lucasschool (by L. de Jonge.” Bouw (May 1997): 3 and J. Some architectural historians presented a daring hypothesis. “Eerste landdag voor architectuurhistorici. The assignment did not specify the new uses. and H. sociological or more intrinsically architectural perspectives? 67 65 66 67 Ten Cate. W. “De bouwfysicus: in samenhang bekijken. as suggested by the Away Day for Architectural Historians: Most people no longer have a clear understanding of what this profession means. Vanstiphout and included: the Thalia cinema (by J. about what the buildings made possible in technical terms. the making. Rapport van de Commissie Waardestelling Wederopbouw Rotterdam (Rotterdam: Commissie Waardestelling Wederopbouw. G. Hendriks. Isn’t there a future for architecture as a social science. Architecture in the Netherlands is far more varied than one might conclude from current research.G. and open itself up to interdisciplinary research. so far. the Ben Maltha garage and St. Het gebruik van de stad.64 Organiser Gerda ten Cate (one of the founders of the Rotterdam Reconstruction Committee) wrote: Architectural history studies undertaken before the design is made are essential. This may also provide an opportunity for a different interpretation of the architectural history discipline. Kraayvanger. been little interest in the craft aspects of architectural designs? The Public Works department in Amsterdam has enough material for at least ten doctoral theses. 1997).” Bouw (May 1997): 4-9. This design excercise was held as the Committee on Valuing the Reconstruction Period in Rotterdam was about to publish its report. Kraus. In 2004.” Bouw (May 1997): 30. Galema. See: W. “Wederopbouw in wegwerpcultuur. the municipality of Rotterdam organised a ‘designbased study’.66 During the design process it was concluded that there was also a need for construction engineering investigations before the design started. “Wennen aan wederopbouw”. ten Cate.e. will always benefit the results.H. 6 (1996): 14-16.

plan form. ABCD re search method ■ 21 . Tummers. an architectural historian. who has agreed it.70 These differences are important when deciding how to approach a building. who has prepared it. 35-36.” in: Macdonald. structure and materials. construction.1970.68 Finally. and context. In 2008. Geuze (1960) of West 8. Not just in terms of their preservation and their continuity. All are relevant to the design. guidelines are likely to include some or all of the following points: The status of the document. as Coenen put it: 68 69 T. Roosenburg (1887-1962). The aspects I distilled from the existing methods and the demand for ‘a different method’ provided the basis for my multidisciplinary ABCD method: location/urban context commission/client programme design principles spatial structure functional structure design/process grid building mass building regulations use of materials interior elements load-bearing structure current situation structure services use/reuse changes As there are major differences in approach to buildings from before and after 1940. who can be contacted about it and who else might need to be aware of its contents The definition of special interest. Or. an example which supports the need for interdisciplinary research before any plans are developed. ®MIT was commissioned to study Strijp-S. there have been many cultural-historical publications on twentieth century Dutch architecture. A. At the initiative of A. It is about regeneration rather than restoration. Change can provide opportunities for the preservation of buildings and their long-term development. studies of these buildings demand appropriate These differences concern: number. viability and appeal.their changeability. and what is considered to be not of interest An analysis of the design philosophy. De Architect (March 2004): 12. so we can understand them. “Philosophical Principles of Modern Conservation. performance. Principles and Practice in Conserving Recent Architecture. but especially in terms of the extent to which these buildings can accommodate change . any fixed integral machinery and fixed original art works Future intentions in significant programmes of demolitions. the question if the building can be changed is more important than considerations of preservation and conservation. The NatLab (Physics Laboratory) was designed by D. extensions and any schedule for the modification or replacement of machinery The legal position What will be likely to require listed building consent and what is likely to be acceptable any matters likely to require separate planning permission Any departures from the list description or significant changes between the list description and the guidelines Clear delineation of curtilage and any associated structures a timetable for review of the document’ 69 ABCD research method A study of existing buildings really demands that we investigate them. a manual was written for the building: Having decided that guidelines would be likely to assist the process of managing change. Saint. My method addresses both technical and other aspects. It is included in the Strijp-S redevelopment plan for the Philips site in Eindhoven. Eindhoven) was only saved from demolition thanks to a study by Zita Messchaert. Kindred. alterations. B. When dealing with buildings from the period 1940 . 70 Ibid. intention.” 15-28. with the objective of monitoring the process and undertaking preliminary research into potential developments. Modern Matters. from the local planning authority point of view. “Nieuw leven voor NatLab”. the decorative schemes and finishes. When the 1973 Willis Corroon building by Norman Foster (1935) was listed as a monument. As I mentioned in the introduction.H. “Management Issues and Willis Corroon. technique.This article is all the more remarkable as earlier we read in the same journal that the 1953 NatLab building (Philips.. internal and external treatment.

At the moment that is affecting many monuments. Omgaan met naoorlogse Bouwkunst. “Gebouw en Geschiedenis. I am convinced that in the course of history many buildings underwent a Metamorphosis during their restoration. They are shielded in a way which denies them further life. re search method 22 ■ A B C D . Similarly. the loss of the original function is often associated with technical possibilities and impossibilities.M. as well as some contextual aspects. structure.J Coenen.” in: Röling. all these aspects should be incorporated into these studies.To me.71 The analysis of the technical aspects of a building is essential to be able to decide what is technically possible or impossible. 44. 71 J. In terms of space. restoration does not just mean copying what was there before. In my view. materials and services a building proves its qualities only with the passing of time. The options are often technical in nature. Consequently many Interventions were accommodated. hence the buildings were Transformed (MIT). Gesloopt Gered Bedreigd.

ABCD re search method ■ 23 . 1969. Photograph by the author.Figure 16: The Federal Centre in Chicago by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. 1990.

24 ■ A B C D re search method .

2 Research Themes You don’t have to be able to do all this yourself.” in: Resource Architecture Main Congress Report and Outlook (Berlin: Birkhaüser. “The Future of Architecture. and overlap in the research areas. 73 As told to the author on 3 January 2002 by Piet Tauber (1927). Being aware of this. ABCD re search method ■ 25 . and regenerative conclusions. In principle. Here we are concerned with both financial aspects and the lifetime of buildings. and this is the key: appreciating the subject. and therefore change during that life. where technology needs to be applied to realise the design. First I will address ‘technological observation’. however the role of engineering in the building process saw little change. Cofaigh ed. most of whom will be working as architects.72 This is what architect Roosenburg said in 1949 when they arrived in the boiler room. The lifetime of a building depends on its ability to accommodate change. when he gave a tour of the KLM building in The Hague which was under construction at the time. 258. The names of these themes indicate the methodical approach. Architecture is more than just constructing buildings. This includes issues such as engineering. E. The results from observation and analysis are used to draw conclusions relating to the opportunities for the regeneration of buildings. the three themes of my PhD research were: technological observation. As I wrote in the introduction. as part of our education. are the challenges associated with contemporary durable and sustainable building practices. research analysis. the way architectural critics view engineering. buildings should have a long life. Tauber always remembered this comment. hence one could argue that: Continuity + 72 Changeability = Durability The issues covered by the ABCD research method are based on the three research themes which I will now discuss in depth.73 Architecture adds meaning to buildings created with technology. Building construction methods changed after 1940. 2002). Finally. Durability and the ability to change appear to be inextricably linked to guarantee some continuity in our built environment. learning from this. UAI Whitebook. and the views of practising architects.O.. technology. but you do have to understand it. considering this in new design commissions and in assignments related to existing buildings. is essential for the understanding and skills we need to be able to build and observe effectively. Here we are concerned with both past changes and potential future changes. in 1949. A university of technology which trains students to become building construction engineers. I will explain what I mean by ‘regenerative conclusions’. becoming aware of this. These themes interact. aims to transfer knowledge. He attended the visit to the KLM building in The Hague. Secondly I will address ‘research analysis’ to demonstrate that learning from existing buildings. and teach students to use technology to create and assess architecture which is forever changing. thoroughly understanding it.

2.1

Technological observation

I will first consider the term ‘technology’. After that I will present the views of some architectural critics and practising architects. The building processes changed after 1940, but the role of technology in the design and construction process remained the same, although the technical possibilities did change. By observing we can become aware of how designers and architects use technology and how technology determines the building which is eventually constructed. In this chapter about technology and engineering I am concerned about the concept of technology in the broadest and original sense of the word (technè): making, in this case, buildings. In his article on Techne, Technology and Tragedy, David Tabanach explained the meaning of the term ‘technology’. According to him, ‘techne’ and ‘technology’ essentially mean the same, and concern our knowledge of technology: So, techne, is best translated as ‘technical knowledge’ because it gives the specific sense of knowledge directed toward the production of something without confusing that knowledge with the product itself.74 Kenneth Frampton (1930), in his book Studies in Tectonic Culture discusses his concept ‘tectonic’ in detail. He derives it from , similar to the concept ‘technology’, to eventually arrive at a comparison between ‘tectonic’ and ‘atectonic’. 75 Anne Beim (1964) developed the concept ‘tectonic’ further in her study Tectonic Visions in Architecture. She drew the following conclusion: Therefore, one might conclude that if architectural visions
74 75

do not hold ethical dimensions and moreover result in poetic revealings - then the true potentials of technology have not been unfolded. Its essence has not been realized.76 Both Frampton and Beim refer to buildings by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886 - 1996) to support their tectonic theories.77 See Figure 16. Mies van der Rohe had a very clear view of the role of technology in architecture, as illustrated by some quotations selected by Beim: Architecture wrote the history of the epochs and gave them their names. Architecture depends on its time. It is the crystallization of its inner structure, the slow unfolding of its form.78 The industrialization of the building trades is a matter of materials. That is why the demand for new building materials is the first prerequisite. Technology must and will succeed in finding a building material that can be produced technologically, that can be processed industrially, that is firm, weather resistant and sound and temperature insulating. It will have to be a lightweight material, the processing of which not only permits but actually demands industrialization. The industrial production of all parts can only be carried out systematically by factory processes, and the work on the building site will then be exclusively of an assembly type,

76 77

D.E. Tabachnick, “Techne, Technology and Tragedy,” Techné no. 7 (2004), 92. K.D. Frampton, Studies in Tectonic Culture (Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2001), 1-27.
re search method

78

A. Beim, Tectonic Visions in Architecture (PhD diss., Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture Copenhagen, 1999) 49-65 and 177. Frampton, Studies in Tectonic Culture, 159-208 and Beim, Tectonic Visions in Architecture, 72-85. Beim, Tectonic Visions in Architecture, 21. According to Beim ‘Architecture and Technology’, was a speech presented at the IIT in Chicago, 1950. L. Mies van der Rohe, “Achitecure and Technology,” Architecture Review no. 10 (1950): 30.

26 ■ A B C D

bringing about an incredible reduction of building time. This will bring with a significant reduction of building costs. The new architectural endeavours, too, will find their real challenge.79 One does not gain anything if one makes a curve instead of a right angle. Round is also difficult to furnish, there everything is mode to measure. And to construct anyone who does it once is cured. [...] One can understand the preference of the round, we were born with it, but the circle is limited, the rectangle on the contrary is illimitable, increasable and divisible. The system of the order is based on the square.80 But although the vision and interpretation of Mies van der Rohe’s concept of ‘less is more’ might appear straightforward, there have been countless interpretations of the concept of technology, particularly in connection with building construction and architecture, in architectural practice since 1945. Before considering this in greater present some comments by architectural critics. This is because observation and recording information amount to the larger part of the initial research work.

in typical ‘reinforced concrete architecture’ cannot be defined in a simple truth or essence. [...] Hence, the truth is no longer simple. And not only because of reinforced concrete but also because of the entire range of innovations in construction engineering, architecture in the second quarter of this century changed direction such that instead of amounting to a simplicity of the essential it appears to be a multitude of inessentials.81 Paul Bromberg (1893 - 1949) also sounded a critical note about technology: However, we should not overestimate the technical aspects of the new way of building. Last century introduced electricity as an aid to ‘better living’, and lavatories and running water in the kitchen and bathrooms, and countless other improvements. However, because of the technical improvements in the last century we have lost sight of the meaning of life. The greatly increased struggle for existence has driven people to the cities, which have swollen like an overflowing river. Old values have been lost: contact with nature, rest and contemplation of one’s work, time for reflection, the close contact with the work of others when one walked down the roads and saw a craftsman in his workshop. People now live longer due to improvements in hygiene and progress in medical science, but they have less sense of what to do with their lives. The roads have been paved, the houses have sewers and running water, gas and electricity, but the greenery has disappeared and long, disconsolate, boring rows of houses only have a view of each other’s monotony. And then they are now disparaging prefabrication, as if the worst architectural crimes had not been committed already.82

Mistrust in technology
Earlier, I quoted the architecture critic Mieras. He had little technology after 1940: The truth is that spiritual expressions are not simple truths, and neither is architecture. In this respect, it is remarkable and typical that Berlage, for example, never accepted reinforced concrete as anything other than supporting framework (which might as well have been made of steel). But the application of reinforced concrete
79

80

Beim, Tectonic Visions in Architecture, 73: Mies van der Rohe, “Industrial Building,” G, no. 3 (1924) and F. Neumeyer, The artless Word: Mies van der Rohe on the Building Art, (Cambridge: MIT University Press, 1991), 248-249. Beim, Tectonic Visions in Architecture, 77-78: Mies in a conversation with Heinrich Rasch after a lecture by Hugo Häring of 1925 (on the question of a Leitungsform, which was to be found in forms of the nature). Mies sketched while he talked. S. Honey, “Who and what inspired Mies van der Rohe in Germany,” Architectural Design no. 3/4 (1979): 100.

81 82

Mieras, Na-oorlogse Bouwkunst in Nederland, 35. P. Bromberg, Bouwen in nieuwe banen (Amsterdam: N.V. de Arbeiderspers, 1947), 108.
ABCD re search method ■ 27

An approach which he felt he had to state, after presenting his view of the future of the progress of technology in building construction: And anyone who keeps insisting that for the Dutch house there is nothing more beautiful and practical than our pantiles and our bricks restricts Dutch building construction to its most backward stage of development. That the art of architecture will stand or fall with maintaining or letting go of this backwardness is just as unlikely as horse-drawn boats being closer to ‘art’ than aeroplanes. Poor art, which can only maintain itself in a preserved condition!83 With respect to the regulations, Bromberg already foresaw a method which would only be adopted in the Netherlands in 1992 when the Buildings Decree, the new government regulations concerning buildings, came into force: Industrial building also makes demands on the government with respect to another important issue: new building regulations! In England, the widely publicised Burt report made the radical proposal that new building constructions should not longer be assessed on the basis of existing regulations but that there should be objective assessments in which their individual performance is considered. For example, the report that it is folly to state that ‘a load-bearing wall shall always be at least this thick’ as such regulations fail to accommodate new materials, designs and techniques. Furthermore, it was always nonsensical to say that a load-bearing wall should have a particular thickness, irrespective of it being made of concrete, brick, steel or wood. Such requirements should be replaced by regulations setting the permissible loads. New regulations concerning insulation should be added. Similarly, the regulations about whether or not materials are acceptable in terms of fire safety should be changed.

There should be no restrictions on the choice of material, as long it meets certain requirements in terms of fire resistance. The local regulations which have been established about this, under the influence of local prejudices, have long frustrated anyone not party to the system. Finally: how do industrial building methods fit in with the National Plan for our reconstruction? With great effort, this wonderful organisation was set up in our country which covers the expansion plans and regional plans. Industrial building methods do not conflict with this organisation. On the contrary, the national plan, and all its elements, will ensure that industrial building methods cannot degenerate into unbridled speculative building with all rueful consequences. Industrial building methods will purely become a means to ensure that the reconstruction will amount to more than just hollow phrases - which do not provide a home.84 Outside the Netherlands, Lewis Mumford (1895 - 1990) stated in 1952 that craftspeople, as masters of the process, would have to give up their power to a more industrialised and impersonal process.85 A separation was made between standardisation and the freedom to choose, between art and technology. Reproducibility through mass production resulted in major changes in the appreciation of art and made art more democratic.86 Hence, Mumford was critical of the largely technical and plain character. His vision of architecture was:

84

85 86

83

Ibid., p. 26.
re search method

Ibid., 54. The Buildings Decree (Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment) came into force in 1992 and replaced the earlier building regulations. The Buildings Decree was based on performance standards rather than prescriptive minimum solutions. See also: Addis, 3000 Years of Design Engineering and Building Construction, 337-340. This includes a character description of Lewis Mumford. Mumford, L., Art and Technics (London: Oxford University Press, 1952): 62-88 (chapter: From Handicraft to Machine Age).

28 ■ A B C D

In that art, beauty and use, symbol and structure, meaning and practical function, can hardly even in a formal analysis be separated; for a building, however artless, however innocent of conscious speech on the part of the builder, by its very presence cannot help saying something. Even in the plainest esthetic choices of materials, or of proportions, the builder reveals what manner of man he is and what sort of community he is serving. Yet despite this close association in building between technics and art, doing and saying, the separate functions are clearly recognizable in any analysis of an architectural structure: the foundations, the inner drainage system, or in later days the heating and cooling systems, plainly belong exclusively to technics; while the shape and scale of the structure, the elements that accentuate its function or emphasize its purpose in order to give pleasure and sustenance to the human spirit, is art.87 According to Mumford, modern architecture had become: Modern architecture crystallized at the moment that people realized that the older modes of symbolism no longer spoke to modern man; and that, on the contrary, the new functions brought in by the machine had something special to say to him. Unfortunately, in the act of realizing these new truths, mechanical function has tended to absorb expression, or in more fanatical minds, to do away with the need for it. As a result, the architectural imagination has, within the last twenty years, become impoverished: so much so that the recent prizewinning design for a great memorial, produced by one of the most accomplished and able of the younger architects, was simply a gigantic parabolic arch.88

The 1953 UN headquarters in New York, designed by Harrison & Abramovitz, caused Mumford to take a particularly critical look at modern architecture: If technics could not, by itself, tell the story of the pioneer, moving through the gateway of the continent, the story could not, in the architectural terms of our own day, be told. This failure to do justice to the symbolic and expressive functions of architecture perhaps reached its climax in the design of the United Nations Headquarters, where an office building has been treated as a monument, and where one of the these great structures has been placed so as to be lost to view by most of the approaches to the site. […] How hard it is to achieve such structures, at once functional in all their offices and arrangements and duly symbolic of their own human purposes, we can see when we examine a building near at hand: the new Secretariat Building of the United Nations. That great oblong prism of steel and aluminium and glass, less a building than a gigantic mirror in which the urban landscape of Manhattan is reflected, is in one sense one of the most perfect achievements of modern technics: as fragile as a spider web, as crystalline as a sheet of ice, as geometrical as a beehive. On this structure almost a score of the best architectural and engineering minds of our day were at one time or another at work. But unfortunately, the genius presiding over this design was an architectural doctrine altogether too narrow and superficial to solve the actual problem itself. The very decision to make the Secretariat building the dominant structure in this complex of buildings reveals at the start either a complete indifference to symbolism, or a very wry reading of the nature and destiny of the United Nations.89

87 88

Ibid., 111-112 (chapter: Symbol and Function in Architecture). Ibid., 114 (chapter: Symbol and Function in Architecture). He was referring to the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch (1964) by Eero Saarinen. However, in 1957 Mumford spoke highly of the Lijnbaan in Rotterdam, see: L. Mumford, “The Skyline. A Walk Through Rotterdam,” The New Yorker, October 12, 1957, 174-183.

89

Ibid., 114 and 128 (chapter: Symbol and Function in Architecture).
ABCD re search method ■ 29

self-discipline: above all. See Figures 17.” the greater the need for his own self-knowledge. […] In Wright’s fertile and inventive use of the machine.90 Finally. combined with a refusal to be cowed by it or intimidated by it into a servile disregard of his own purposes.Figures 17 and 18: The UN headquarters in New York and a facade detail. 127-128 (chapter: Symbol and Function in Architecture). On this latter score. for subordinating his own inner wilfulness to the character and purposes of his client. 1953. in a way that will do justice to every dimension of the problem. are now in process of being reconciled in the best works of modern architecture. and to the extent that this is actually taking place there is reason to hope 90 Ibid. self-control. Mumford continued criticising the UN building for several pages and then moved on to Frank Lloyd Wright (1869 . 18 and bookcover. Mumford concludes: Along such lines art and technics. the more sensitive the architect is to expression. his work has been prophetic of a future in which art and technics will be effectively united. Photographs by the author. Designed by Harrison & Abramovitz. 1990. the symbol and the function. for all too rarely has he been faced with a client sufficiently strong in his own right to stand up to Wright’s overbearing genius.1959) whose work he was more positive about (see Figure 22): Accordingly. But one thing is usually in 30 ■ A B C D re search method evidence in Wright’s architecture – not the machine but the human person has taken command.. the more capable he is of transforming “building” into “architecture. Frank Lloyd Wright’s work is sometimes not impeccable. .

And of course I got help. 23-26. that was when the flats at the Parklaan had been completed. 93 D. H. looking at it. the views of some architects on technology were occasionally debatable. The UN building was featured on the cover of the invitation to the eighth Docomomo congress: Import – Export: Postwar Modernism in an Expanding World 1945 – 1975. Zijlstra. He essentially grew into the architectural profession and initially referred to himself as a ‘house engineer’. do you understand? I really thought that. I was helped by De Jonge van Ellemeet. Of course I was . I felt that at that moment. Th. But when it was finished we went to look at it with De 8 and Opbouw [Dutch architectural magazine on the Modern Movement from 1932 to 1943].that our civilization.1974). van Eesteren ‘Who helped Van Tijen with this?’ Yes. and find ways of bringing into effective unity the now hostile and divisive tendencies of men. when I was an architect. do you understand? It had been a disaster because I didn’t know anything. W. I just put that building together. with little building companies. then. who trained as a civil engineer (structural architect. well if there’s a plank out of place and I fall down. The time I really had that feeling. (May. had taught his soon the technical aspects of the profession before he started his architecture course in Delft. Gerrit Rietveld (1888 . that was all rather odd. that day God was with me. We saw this earlier when discussing Vanstiphout. Ruler and D. may in fact be able to halt its insane expansion of power without purpose... I had learned a little architecture in Bandoeng. We were standing in front of it. Hence in my final lecture. well. there was a beautiful blue sky with white clouds. Rationele Vormgeving. van Woerkom. maar er is meer op de wereld. See also: Zijlstra. 9 (1970): 522. well. ABCD re search method ■ 31 . We were standing there. “Ir. see: G. but it was to be an enrichment as a result of which he could integrate engineering as a logical profession in architectural practice. In his case that was because his father.. I was walking on the scaffolding. it was in the middle of the depression and I was at the mercy of those building contractors. It was me. I purpose to examine the more general. the historical period and the person making the assessment. sub section 5: Groothandelsgebouw Rotterdam. but nowhere near enough.93 Initially. And yet I was the architect. I still don’t understand it. and by Reesink and Plate. Of course. and the sun was shining. Initially I called myself a ‘house engineer’ but there came a time. I heard Van Loghem whisper to C.1964) was also critical of the UN building. held in September 2004 in New York.A.’” Plan no.91 Mumford’s views of the UN building in New York demonstrate that the time and the personal perception of architecture have an effect on the nature of architecture criticism. 134 (chapter: Symbol and Function in Architecture). while architect Willem Van Tijen (1894 . I just started on that building with some contractors and I just did it. 91 92 Ibid. yes. Director of the Rotterdam Housing Department. and such backward-looking buildings as the UN Secretariat Building-of all buildings in all places!-are a proof of that fact. But this is no easy road. I still consider it one of my best buildings. Van Tijen considered his one-sided education as a shortcoming. Rietveld. The appreciation of architecture in its association with technology depends on the timespan. 6 (2005): 14-17. which shows so many signs of disruption. van Tijen: ‘Ik ben een rationalist. It was a disaster. Bouwen in Nederland 1940 – 1970. In the research on the Provinciale Bibliotheek in Leeuwarden (discussed elsewhere in this publication) we see that architect Piet Tauber (1927) went through a similar struggle with the profession. 1953) lecture at the Centraal Museum Utrecht. like. a bricklayer and foreman. thank God. and only completed in 1933: Then it got very messy. it’ll all be over.” Monumenten no.92 From the perspective of professional practice. “DoCoMoMo in New York.

and how they think about technology I include some observations about the cooperation between Renzo Piano (1937) and Peter Rice (1935 . Maaskant.the work of someone who does not separate the work of the mind from the work of the hand. who worked with Van Tijen.1992). 2003). engineers.95 Many well-known architects always work with the same engineer. Piano and Rice met when working on the design of the Centre Pompidou in 1970 and worked together continuously until Rice’s death in 1992. and sometimes politics. This project was also a great opportunity for me to learn about teamwork. To tell you the truth. Architecture is a difficult profession because it is 94 contaminated.structural engineer After 1940 the roles in architectural practices were more clearly separated. forming a perfect team: architect – engineer. time. and from construction back to an idea again. I have worked with Peter Rice.g. For me. E. In some cases (e. I learned the value of collaboration. from a drawing to an experiment. To give a practical example of the cooperation between architects and engineers. 57-81. It is rare for exchanges to take place between architects. it is still craftsmanship . An architect must be a craftsman. there are few people who employ real teamwork in their work. Piano is an architect who grew up in the construction industry. These days. the creativity of the two partners is the key to a good result. (Arnhem: ABT. Piano explained how the cooperation came about: I learned a lot about the architectural profession through my work on this project [Centre George Pompidou in Paris. But teamwork is essential if creative projects are to come 97 95 96 The growth in the complexity of the work of engineers and the increase in the number of parties involved in the design process are discussed in: Addis. In the partnership between engineer and architect. during the construction of the Groothandelsgebouw. design competition in 1970 with Richard Rogers (1933)]. a manager. and mathematics. Of course. There are only a few architects who are trained in both architecture and structural engineering. architects always work together with engineers. See Figure 20. and builders. He had become familiar with construction materials by playing with them as a child. Vlot. I mean.97 Piano on the way he works as an architect: For me creativity is a quit game. Truly creative work is a circular process. re search method R. 10 (1993): 8-12. his father was a contractor. For example.” Process: Architecture no. Piano. However. it is contaminated by money. power.Architect . many have come to accept each of the those steps as independent. “Creativiteit is het hart van het ingenieurswerk. ABT 1953-2003. Creativity can be realized through teamwork. 32 ■ A B C D . It involves a circular process that draws you from an idea to a drawing. in the world of architecture. An architect too easily passes the results of his experiments on to the builders. He found this background most valuable when working as an architect. from an experiment to construction. and if an architect makes himself part of this process he can gain the technical ability to grasp in essence what he is working on. any tools will do. was one of the experience these changes. The word teamwork is another mystery which everyone talks about but which is rarely practised. constantly since that time.94 In contemporary Dutch architectural practice. Consultants were engaged for specialised technical aspects. He became an engineer-organiser. You have to develop yourself by experiencing these contaminating realities. Projects of that type only become possible when people work well together and when you are happy to mix your creativity with that of others. in the Netherlands the engineers of ABT (established in 1953) regularly work with the architects such as Zwarts & Jansma and Mecanoo. “Renzo Piano Building Workshop.e. an experimental model. […] This type of creativity is the same as craftsmanship. an engineer with Ove Arup & Partners. the tools may include a computer. Unfortunately. this cycle is fundamental to creative work. Maaskant and van Tijen) an architectural practice might include a structural engineering department. 3000 Years of Design Enigneering and Building Construction. From this project. Melet et al.” de Ingenieur no. 100 (1992): 10. A.96 See Figure 19. i.

Figure 20: Centre George Pompidou in Paris (1971 . 14. through the ideas I have expressed above.Figure 19: concrete structure. 99 P. about. Konijnenburg. hence ‘architect engineer’. Rice. The building which Rice referred to as the real start of his career. engineers: ABT. 1985. they feel the need to grant him or her a higher accolade. To call an engineer an ‘architect engineer’ because he comes up with unusual or original solutions is essentially to misunderstand the role of the engineer in society.J. Occasionally it may even be appropriate. the theme of this issue. Photograph by the author. the engineer is associated with unimaginative dull solutions. This is because in the minds of the public and of other professionals.98 Rice explained how people viewed him. If this can be defined as creation. I’m not moralizing here. R. R. as an engineer: I am an engineer. Teamwork requires the ability to listen and engage in dialogue. Often people will call me an ‘architect engineer’ as a compliment. ABCD re search method ■ 33 .. It is not that I object to being called an architect engineer. draw.think. then there is no real contradiction between art and science. designs which only an engineer can make. 71. If people find an engineer making original designs. Rogers. modernity and tradition. architect: J.1977). 2004. Put yourself into the creative cycle .99 98 Ibid. and freedom and obligation. 1994). Arnhem town hall. spend time at the site. but mostly it is not because there is a designer. Rice. 1964. and go back to thinking again. An Engineer Imagines (London: Artemis. It is meant to signify a quality of engineer who is more imaginative and design-orientated than a normal engineer. I hope to discover the meaning of balance. Photograph by the author. Piano and P.

H and U steel international standards. “Nederlandsche houtindustrie wacht op grondstoffen. new information about the properties of materials. the steel industry started to produce I. Schot ed. Hitchcock.. nobody could resist the American technical hegemony Faith in technology In general.105 New manufacturing. such would result. 1970).100 quality. J. After 1945. concrete grades and aggregates.. now it is important that engineers start to educate both people within the profession and the public at large on the essential contribution that the engineer makes to even the most mundane project. processing and joining technologies also made innovative applications possible. 29 (1941): 244-245. To reduce the time required for construction the industry tried to keep working through winter.” Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. The support from the American Marshall Plan. VI: stad.Meller ed. 13 (1961): 259.1983) is one example of someone who thought that many problems could be solved through technology: Technology represents philosophy resolved to the most cogent argument . 1 (1965): 20B. Technology as an Inspiration in Architectural Design (Chichester: Wiley-Academy.K. plastics and aluminium) and applications were introduced. van Zutphen. Spirit of the Machine. “Staalbouw 1945-1965. J. In technology man is empowered to explore and develop his own ‘if’ without reference to the limiting response of other preoccupied egos. “Een overzicht van de veranderingen in de architectuur ten gevolge van het ontstaan van nieuwe technieken en materialen.” Bouw no. If man did this. The architect.R.Rice on the differences between architects and engineers: I would distinguish the difference between the engineer and the architect by saying the architect’s response is primarily creative. re search method 106 R.2 (1946): 214 and H. planning and cooperation. was subsidised by the central government.102 The great demand for both residential and nonresidential buildings resulted in great activity in the construction industry. and how they can both work on the same project but contribute in different ways. as it was before the war. 2001). van Genderenstort. Techniek in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. immediately after the Second World War there was great faith in technology. calcium silicate bricks and plaster. Through technology alone the creative individual can of free will arrange for the continuing preservation of mankind despite individual man’s self frustrating propensities. zinc. technology was largely applied in the construction industry to construct more buildings.106 Processes had to be managed better.W. “Constructie van gewapend-betonvloeren zonder toepassing van houten bekisting. such as concrete. Indeed. such as prestressing. constructing dwellings using industrial methods. J.. “Betontechniek 1945-1965. 2003). The brickworks had been destroyed and for steel the Netherlands was largely dependent on other countries. is motivated by personal considerations whereas the engineer is essentially seeking to transform the problem into one where the essential properties of structure. 84.104 In the years following this period.1 (1965) 13B-16B. paint and wallpaper. System building.J. 1945): 27-31.103 Due to supply shortages the industry resorted to materials which were available quickly. bouw en industriële productie (Zutphen: De Walburg Pers. legislation.. Although the war effort had resulted in technical innovations in some European countries. The concrete industry started using new techniques. J. The same applied to timber. Schelling. as did new engineering and calculation methods.. See: “Onze Bouwmaterialen. material or some other impersonal element are being expressed.G. more 102 103 104 105 100 101 Ibid. ” Bouwkundig Weekblad no. i. and new materials (e.g. 72. The Buckminster Fuller Reader (Londen: Cape. which supported by new developments in technology.101 See also Figure 48.e. lead. glass. 231. mathematical methods. high-grade steel reinforcement. Richard Buckminster Fuller (1895 . This distinction between creation and invention is the key to understanding the difference between the engineer and the architect. which required standardisation. Kronenburg. 219 and H. like the artist. whereas the engineer’s is essentially inventive. 34 ■ A B C D .” Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no.” Bouwkundig Weekblad no.” Bouw (October.

9 (1970): 555. See Figures 23 to 27. introduced a division of labour similar to that used in the manufacturing industry. Nederlandse cultuur in Europese Context. the optimisation was mostly aimed at controlling costs. As Professor J. 110 A. which became increasingly industrialised. ABCD re search method ■ 35 . 9 (1970): 560. I think that these ‘external factors such as new building materials’ are actually an agent of innovation in architecture. 109 E. a fully industrialised building process never developed. “Groei van kennis in de architectuur.110 Prefabrication of building components became an essential part of the construction process. the Musée des Travaux (1936 1948) in Paris includes columns with and without capitals. When preparing construction projects. So. there was an increasing need to work with consultants specialising in structural engineering. we can regularly recognise classical column capitals in his work.J. Hryniewiecki concluded in 1961.1954).111 In architecture. Hendriks. transportability. The construction site became more of an assembly site. For example. “Multidisciplinair onderzoek dient het bouwen te begeleiden. These changes were site. planning was the tool of the American New Deal to manage the tasks and work of the American government.” Bouwkundig Weekblad no. but he applied them in a contemporary way with only a hint of the classical order. Joiners (carpenters) in particular were affected by the reduction in the number of tasks they undertook and the division of labour. However. J.108 In Europe after the Second World War. For example. Jelles. Perret was more aware than any of his colleagues of the role of technology 107 Taverne. 62 (2003): 7. who considered how the volume of knowledge within the architectural profession was expanded.around 1947. and which architecture has to respond to.” Plan no. National Plans were developed to manage matters of national interest. Unfortunately. building services plant and building physics. (Leiden: Werkgroep Techniek. The architecture of Auguste Perret (1874 . to optimise the design. 13 (1961): 259. and the general contractor a coordinator of suppliers such as subcontractors. Hryniewiecki. Architecture appears to be rather passive. Classic forms have survived for centuries. The construction team. suddenly became a serious alternative to the tendering system traditionally used in the Netherlands. to promote effective cooperation. which have developed independently of architecture. 67-68. based on cooperation. in fact so long that the new modernist architecture of the twentieth century is best analysed as a form of covert classicism. construction teams were set up as organisational units. in the longer term. 108 M. My view is the opposite.109 Additionally. 1981) 225. The stairs are completely self-supporting. Meuwissen. For example. It is limited to factory production of components. The intention was to involve the parties preparing for the building process and those doing the actual building work during the design stage. These capitals are inspired by the Egyptian lotus capital. which had traditionally taken a craft approach. 111 112 J. and without an inherent drive to renew its own aesthetics. whether it wants to or not.112 This conclusion was drawn by Joost Meuwissen. weight and handling on site. much was still done by hand: What industrialisation we see is more like industrialised crafts. “Zoeken naar een adequate werkwijze. combined structural engineering and aesthetics.107 As early as 1932. we have to ask how the development of knowledge over time in this repetitive pattern was organised. who used reinforced concrete. More and more work was shifted to the preliminary phase. where the contract was given to the lowest bidder. “De invloed van de industrialisatie op de architectuur. development and progress are generally considered to be the result of external factors such as new building materials or new demands made by society. Planning also provided industry with a tool to coordinate and check work and became an essential instrument in architectural practices.” OASE no. The construction industry. although there are many reasons to consider architecture more as the art of repetition than the art of difference.2003) set up the ‘Ring of consultancies’ in 1970. Pieterson.” Plan no. Het technisch labyrint. and the maximum dimensions of these components are determined by the transport available. Evert Jelles (1932 . 1950 Welvaart in zwart-wit. Technologie en Samenleving.

Dutch architects had to learn how to use materials such as concrete in an original way. 1951.” Bouwkundig Weekblad no.H.1942) designed by Frits Peutz (1896 an expression of both technology and architecture. Interviews with P. 3 January 2002 and 6 March 2002. Tauber. as we normally used when working with timber or steel. but the design was based on stacked beams. further to research element 4. Schunck ‘s Glass Palace (Nuth: Rosbeek Books. re search method 36 ■ A B C D .113 After the Second World War. van der Schrier. with reference to the theory of technology and architecture. See also technical aspects which he considered necessary to realising architecture. with an engineer’s eye.Figures 21 and 22: Columns in the Glaspaleis Schunk in Heerlen by F. Graatsma. W. 13 (1961): 257-258. Observation. 1996). as published in 1952 in Contribution a une Theorie de L’Architecture. but even Figures 21 and 22. H. and which are still equally valid today. Finally.P. “De invloed van de ontwikkelingen in het gewapend beton. Zijlstra. “Betonskeletbouw.L.” Bouw (1946): 179 and W. in his architecture. Studies in Tectonic Culture. For many. Nervi. as Tauber put it ‘We did use concrete. Around 1960 the work of these architects was discussed in the Dutch press. Peutz. I include some quotes by Perret.’ 114 The Schunck department store (1936 . this awareness only develops while training as an architect as not everyone who chooses to study design is lucky enough to have a parent who works in the construction industry. If architects can combine technology and the synergy between the two. An architecture which was truly based on concrete only developed later. de bouwtechniek en de bouwwetenschap op de hedendaagse architectuur. or. for example: P. is a tool to look methodically at what exists 115 Frampton.115 In the 113 114 United States.3: Provinciale Bibliotheek Leeuwarden. by Frank Lloyd Wright. 2004 and 1990.J. Photographs by the author. Frank Lloyd Wright’s architecture shows an evolution to a plastically deformable building material. 1942 (regenerated by Jo Coenen and Wiel Arets) and a column in th e Johnson Wax building in Racine. 121-157.

prière. maintaining it. I developed the following hypotheses in relation to the research theme of technological observation: technology on architecture. le soumetant a la nature. permanent hommage rendu a la nature. 2001). ‘Technique. as a central theme during the observation stage of investigating existing buildings (especially those built between 1940 and 1970) we arrive at fundamentally different conclusions in terms of the architectural interpretation of these buildings and their elements than if we observe them without considering the technology involved. ‘ imposées par les conditions permanentes qui. voiced in poetry leads us to architecture. and to learn from it. The architect is a poet whose language is expressed through construction. ‘L’Architecture est. Britton. ABCD re search method ■ 37 . L’architecte est un poète qui parle en construction. and then analysing it again. 230-237. 3: Technology.’ […] Technology. mother tongue of all designers. subject to nature. essentiel aliment de l’imagination. architecture is the form most dependent on the properties of materials.116 116 The relevant pages are included in their entirety in: K. a continuing homage to nature. making considered changes to it.’ A building is the framework with the elements and the forms necessary for permanent conditions which. Perret: ‘L’Architecture est l’art d’organser l’espace. authentique source d’inspiration. is essential to realising a design. as expressed by the construction.’ […] The construction is the material language of the architect. celle qui est le plus soumise aux conditions matérielles. le rattachehent au passé et lui confèrent la durée. c’est par la construction qu’il s’exprime.’ […] Of all the expressions of art. i.e. essential nourishment for the imagination. provide a link to the past and result in durability. 2: Technological observation means that the results of the research can be applied to the regeneration of buildings. ‘Technique parlée in poète nous conduit en architecture.already. ‘La construction est la langue maternelle de l’architecte.’ […] Architecture is the art of organising space. de toutes les expressessions de l’art.’ […] Technology. créateur. the most effective of all prayers. Auguste Perret (London: Phaidon. the knowledge. an authentic source of inspiration.

Architecture in concrete. From: Britton. but still making the best use of the material in structural engineering terms. by Auguste Perret. Page from Contribution a une Theorie de L’Architecture by Auguste Perret. 2001. with typical stylistic elements such as capitals. 38 ■ A B C D re search method .Figures 23-27: Musée des Travaux (1936-1948) in Paris.

designing is about researching and studying. but primarily about the question: What should you replace. 1967). Siegfried Giedion (1883-1968) wrote about the way in which architects interpreted the past: assignment concerns an existing building. actually sounds more like ‘faculty of construction engineering’. but to start thinking from the inside out. where to build something new. For example. ABCD re search method ■ 39 . Het Openbare Rijk. the architect is concerned with searching through previous architectonic knowledge.and similarly. 670: ‘Jørn Utzon and the third generation’. In 1967. In the interview referred to earlier. […] Incidentally. but about analysis and applying what we have learned in a way which respects the existing context. H. and learning results from teaching. I think that it’s time for us not only to think in terms of growth. And to train architects 118 117 During Herman Herzberger’s lectures in the 1980s at Delft. Giedion. Samenvatting Colleges 1973-1982. Samenvatting Colleges 1973-1982. The growth of a tradition (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. The existing built environment is the primary source of study for the development of construction engineering and architecture. Obviously. Bouwkunde. Time and Architecture. The architect is little interested in when or by whom a certain building was erected. his students were presented with a mass of examples from historic architecture throughout the world to use as source materials for analysing the environment they lived in and to apply in their design assignments. Herzberger. but when dealing with an existing building. so that he can immediately confront contemporary architectural aims with those of a former period. it is not only about maintaining what is there.118 Learning Researching is learning. change or keep. and that is the greater problem. or objects to be incorporated into an existing structure. Part B (Delft: University Press. His questions are rather: What did the builder want to achieve and how did he solve his problems? In other words.2. new builds also have a context. Herzberger. The Dutch name of the faculty. 1982) and H. that building forms the context and thus becomes one of the starting points for the architectural challenge. Ruimte maken ruimte laten. a construction engineer needs to learn about both architecture (the art and science of designing and supervising the construction of buildings) and construction or structural engineering (the science of the requirements relating to buildings). However.117 Both architecture students and practising architects have to assess the existing knowledge and methods to develop their own design methods. and secondly with the people who are already there. and learning is about researching and studying . Space. where to start with a clean sheet of paper. that’s already there.2 Research analysis I did my PhD research while working at the Faculty of Architecture of Delft University of Technology. 1984). a building science course is quite different from an architecture course. When designing either completely new objects. Travel gives the best possibility for such immediate questioning. Part A (Delft: University Press. The attitude to the past of Utzon’s [architect Jørn Utzon (1918-2008)] generation differs from that of the historian. This is not about slavishly copying. S. at least from that of those historians who lack an inner relation to the contemporary scene. Firstly the load-bearing structure. Henket described this as follows: The real difference with refurbishment [relative to new building] is that you have to deal with two factors. we have to learn from the past. It is more complex.

In building physics terms. there is a huge knowledge gap. Studying criticism. As architect Van den Berg recently stated ‘Architects are poor listeners. van Embden et al. removing an exterior wall means the cost of heating will rise. Architects collect pictures and prefer Giedion’s view discussed above). De architectuur (Amsterdam: Architectura et Amicitia.J. we know little about the housing stock. 1942) and S. Rovers.120 Tijen claimed that architects aren’t that keen on extending their knowledge by Doornse Leergangen’ The Doornse Leergangen were held during the Second World War. Van Tijen commented: 119 121 G. They gave Dutch architects an opportunity to discuss the issues and design challenges they would be faced with after the war. If they apply anything like this at all. Both in the Netherlands and in other countries. but that there are only a few (like Jo Coenen) who actually read the texts. see: M. Architecturally it means that we suddenly have a view. we did get to know each other personally. 120 Henket. However.. Hence. But the discussions were not really steered. and in terms of town planning and architecture it fits in like so. and functionally that. suddenly. That way you can say: in construction engineering terms the situation is like this. I don’t think ‘Doorn’ resulted in much more than that. and in building physics terms like that. it is largely because government regulations force them to. The discussions mostly related to the different design approaches of the ‘Delftsche School’ and the ‘Nieuwe Bouwen’ (Modern Movement). . De techniek en de architectuur (Amsterdam: Architectura et Amicitia. studies are being published about the lifecycles of buildings. different definitions of life and depreciation are in use. Furthermore. and their management and reuse. [. However.”: 550. 122 Van Tijen. according to Henket there is not enough knowledge or a system to manage it: Interest in the existing housing stock is rapidly increasing. “Opdrachtgever moet bewijzen dat slopen zinvol is.’ Consequently. especially in construction engineering courses (which aim to teach their students about how to make buildings). Grandpré Molière et al. still pick up too little of the available knowledge. there appears to be an opportunity. experience.. poor speakers and poor leaders.122 I know from experience that architects own many books about their profession. I can’t build any houses any more. Rietveld.. They weren’t really taught to do this and often have little interest in it as they are more interested in their own ideas about shapes and spaces. to teach the students the skills to do projects in particular offer many opportunities for learning: Knowledge transfer However. 20 (1983): 35.119 We tried to listen to each other and understand each other’s ideas. For further information on the Doornse Leergangen. interviews and making thorough multidisciplinary analyses of the work of others is not adequately incorporated in architectural training.in that way. the discussions soon became less effective.] What it is about is to make sure that the discussion is as objective as possible. Een interview met Hubert-Jan Henket. no. We do not know how the way buildings are used changes over time.J. “De vier uren van de moderne architektuur. Simply gathering the basic data provides an immense research challenge.” Bouw no. especially the many young people.. Apart from the social housing sector.121 Van Tijen saw a decline in the quality of residential building projects and he accused architects of a lack of both the drive to learn and an urge to obtain more knowledge: Designers too. ten Cate and R.”: 24. 40 ■ A B C D re search method W. 1946). There is no systematic information about the age or the quality in technical and usability terms. van Tijen. despite the impact of personalities such as Molière. Merkelbach and Van Embden. 9 (1970): 538. “De vier uren van de moderne architektuur.” Plan. “Van produceren naar gebruiken en beheren.

or rather the complex. 1963. so many city districts and so many styles. 3: By analysing several buildings constructed in the same period (here: 1940 .1970) in the same way and combining the results we can draw general conclusions which can be applied to the design and construction of buildings. shortages. so many buildings. 123 K. ABCD re search method ■ 41 . they are all issues which are now inseparable in the way we live and work and in our culture. designed by Sjoerd Schamhart. Photograph by the author. Rushing. 123 I developed the following hypotheses in relation to the research theme of research analysis: 1: When analysing information derived from the study of an the building concerned. From 2005 to 2007 this building was studied by the Bachelor 5 architecture course at Delft University of Technology. There are so many names.Figure 28: Fish auction in Scheveningen. 1 (1965): 2B. 2005.” Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. of causes which have led to this multitude forms one of the primary characteristics of post-war construction in the Netherlands. There are now calls to redevelop the site for housing. expansion. and even then you could easily overlook dozens of architects and buildings. It is therefore hardly an exaggeration to state that the myriad. It is impossible to condense the last two decades [19451965] of building in the Netherlands in a brief overview. Wiekart. 2: Research analysis of the information obtained by observation should be one of the tasks of an architect when making a design for an existing building. but serves to emphasise what may well be the most important aspect of this period in architecture: excess. and also for designing new buildings in an existing context. renewal. “Architectuur 1945-1965. This is not an excuse for any lack of documentation for this overview. The students’ plans were presented to the municipality of The Hague and exhibited in the town hall. near The Hague. They determine a large part of architectural concepts as they are the cause of the rushed building activities of our period.

Figures 29 and 30: Examples of change within the building fabric: silo. 42 ■ A B C D re search method . Ohio. 1932. 1994. From: Brand. USA. Figure 31: Brand’s layers of change. converted to a hotel in 1990. Akron. 1994. From: Brand.

ABCD re search method ■ 43 . I use some statements to discuss the essential aspects of the change process. I integrated the activities which led to those results (observation. 126 D. i. Henket. Although this was not the main theme of my thesis. the ABCD research method provides a tool for analysing how a building can be regenerated. In his description of the plan Carré d’Art in Nîmes. I will consider this issue to show that the intentions are good. Regeneration can apply to a single building or to a town planning issue. it is better to retain what is good rather than destroy the lot and start again afresh. M.3 Regenerative conclusions The theme regenerative conclusions sets the direction of my conclusions. present and future. 1. There is a growing awareness that evolution is more productive than revolution.” in: H. Latham. to the lifecycle of a building.126 Change Change can be interpreted in many ways. Farrer Straus & Giroux. 24. This results in evolution rather than revolution: Creative re-use is to be encouraged. Foster. These buildings are therefore used as examples in teaching. Suggestions have been made for methods to regenerate buildings and the built environment. I start with theory and then progress to more practical matters to explain the link with the building process. but from cradle to cradle. “Appropriate Technology. Hence the principles set out for the creative re-use of buildings can also be applied to whole areas in the urban design of our cities.2. Next I move on to examples of buildings which have been changed and which I consider to be good examples of regeneration. McDonough. are essential issues. or generation. 1996). Once the method I had developed became part of the outcome of the research. 125 124 N. combining innovation with tradition it can truly represent a balanced civilised society at peace with its past. reducing the volume of construction waste will have a high priority. The Ecomomy of Achitecture (Eindhoven: University of Technology.’ 124 Demolishing structures which have a relatively long remaining technical lifespan diminishes the sustainability of our society. The views of the original architects of buildings which are changed emphasise that not all architects think that their buildings can or should be changed. but are normally the result of political decisions which may not be as essential as decision makers claims. This leads to the theory of lifecycle design. As change is all around us. Regeneration amounts to more than just change. sustainability. analysis and conclusions) with the themes. Norman Foster referred to a regeneration process: ‘The regeneration process examines the possibility of extending the life of existing structures. 2007).125 In the near future. Principles and Practice (Shaftesbury: Donhead). Cradle to Cradle: the Way We Make Things (New York: North Point Press. Demolition and construction waste have inspired ideas about the regeneration of building materials. not from cradle to grave. Faculty of Architecture.J. energy conservation and waste prevention. Braungart and W. and projects have been initiated. At present. Initially I referred to this theme as ‘changeability’ or ‘mutability’. Here too. 124. Creative Re-use of Buildings.e. It concerns changes which add a new period. vol.

or thought to be maintained. 13. the problem of re-orientating the direction of change towards improvement is a massive one.128 In 1979. conversely. “Paradoxes in the Conservation of the Modern Movement. The problem is of course broader than this. We need continuity with time past and a sense of direction for the future. death to come.129 An important element in the way Aylward develops his theory is the extent of decay which is accepted. […] Naturally when we think of rehabilitation it is normally in terms of some historical building or place.. Markus. and our memory of the former state: the subjective perception of difference. 44 ■ ABCD . identity. 131 Ibid. and present awareness. What Time is This Place? (Cambridge: MIT Press.” in: Henket. 1979). 2.130 The capacity for change in a modern building probably lies in the neutral qualities of similar spaces and minimum structure. It is the total system that requires attention.. Building Conversion and Rehabilitation. However. is not enough on its own. He explains change as a whirlpool which needs to be constantly supplied with energy to stay in motion. 1. Designing for Change in Building Use (London: NewnesButterwoths. with a steady state illusion of comfortable change. 1972).A. the past pushes forward in the guise of tradition and remembrance. especially changes in the built environment and related elements: A change in one set of problems. […] Stability. Lynch. and a variety of spaces that could suit a large proportion of most activities. re search method G. Life means change: Change and recurrence are the sense of being alive things gone by. Lewi.Kevin Lynch emphasised that we. On the contrary. the realization of their potential does call for more careful ‘design’ of activity systems to fit such structures. nor does it pull one back. into the future. It is reinforced not only by those suffering the substandard environment but by the external perceptions of society as a whole on the “outside”. Furthermore change would not be possible if we continuity: In all our day-to-day experience. H. 356. We are aware of change in a variety of ways. We reach out of that world to preserve or to change it and so to make visible our desire. for example physical improvement. Graeme Aylward took an abstract approach to change. The world around us. Aylward. as living creatures. avoiding the assumption that neutral spaces are the only answer. […] 129 127 128 The world is in a constant state of flux. shifts continually and often bewilders us. that is. people and places. so much of it our own creation. Thus continuity is maintained. This is the essential theme of this chapter. 130 Ibid. […] Many intervening changes may have occurred but a prevailing sense of history embodied in a building or place gives roots to this sense of stability and security. or a derelict housing area. whereas an old building is endowed with ‘soft’ structure that can be easily carved. change is observed as the mismatch between the current state of things. and the future drives back antagonistically towards the past. enabling learnt behaviour patterns to be confidently applied. The arguments of planning all come down to the management of change. H. to reverse this tide becomes increasingly difficult as the level of decay increases. The flight to decay occurs at an exponential rate. “Conversion and Rehabilitation.131 K. imageity and structure in the environment transform otherwise evanescent actions into predictable repetitions.” in: T. Back to Utopia. 1. […] We require stable environments. These qualities in old buildings occurred quite by chance as a legacy of past levels of construction and environmental technology. are part of a world which is ever changing.127 Hannah Lewi wrote about how the past can help us move forward: The past is not perceived as a dead weight.

Pruys. 123-124. these three change factors lead to ever more rapid changes in our behaviour and our life pattern. This can only be done by making the function of the building flexible. It has been regenerated as a private theatre with a music school and a library. ABCD re search method ■ 45 . the changing requirements of the future were not adequately considered. […] As you can see. These changes in our life pattern are directly reflected in our material environment.133 In more practical terms this means that when we are dealing with an existing building the objective is not only to conserve it. architects who depend on finding and keeping clients as a precondition of doing any work at all see conservation not so much as an application of theory as practising the art of the possible.132 Pruys then discusses the concept of example of De Meerpaal in Dronten designed by architect Frank van Klingeren (1919-1999). This is the meaning and background of the concept of flexibility which has been discussed so extensively by architects in recent years. tourism and the ownership of consumption goods. our beliefs and our standards. that is. communications (electronics) and design (plastics). Johan Allen (1945) described this as follows. the way in which we live. Hence. if S. De Meerpaal in Dronten. our cities. Technology has given us new and amazing opportunities in terms of transport. 122. dishwashers. in which both economics and technology are relevant: The two key factors of the changes around us are the technical factor and the economic factor. Design Kritiek (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff. This rapid and intensive communication is the cause of the equally rapid and deep changes in our taste. etc. adaptable to future requirements we are not yet aware of. in our opinions. In short. there is not a single conservation project which has not or will not have required some sort of intervention in the fabric.M. in 1996: In other words. Simon Pruys (1927-1980) in his book De nieuwe onzakelijkheid. even if there were one or two that have not required listed building consent. Originally it was a community centre with a theatre and some sport facilities in an open plan. In the spirit of the earlier Jo Coenen quotation. 1971). the 132 physical lifetime has to be brought into line with the functional lifetime. long before they have been forgotten. Design Kritiek managed to identify the centre of the change process. Our world is full of unimaginably intensive communication through the mass media. but also to be aware of the fact that there have always been changes made during the process of conservation and restoration..Mutability The concept of mutability could imply a constant In 1971. A negative example is the fact that most kitchens in post-war houses were too small for the appliances (fridges. by architect Frank van Klingeren. but more as a specialized way of changing it. Hence these two factors of change bring us to the third one: communication. not to mention the rest. even in a list containing three grade I buildings and eight grade II* from a total of 77 buildings. De nieuwe onzakelijkheid. Dealing with such interventions is always more difficult than straight repair. If a building is only used for ten years because the requirements have changed. The economic factor (more money and more leisure time) means that we are increasingly able to use the fruits of technology. 133 Ibid. This is why I am inclined to regard conservation not as a matter of keeping something as it is. is a brilliant example of a building with such a flexible function. our homes and our tools for living. these houses perform poorly and have really lost a significant part of their economic value. work and relax. that is. This was initially threathened with demolition but has now been regenerated. then this means that the building has become five times as expensive.) which we wanted to install in these kitchens in the 1960s. Consequently. When these houses were built.

improve the amenity of the environment. 1994). 21. Of course authenticity is a desideratum but it must include spiritual authenticity. history becomes more.The foundation and load-bearing elements are perilous and expensive to change. what happens after they’re built (New York: Viking Penguin. and air conditioning). should be equally as efficient in its new role as a purpose-designed building would be. The Refurbishment of Commercial and Industrial Buildings (Londen: Construction Press. SPACE PLAN . “A Challenge of Values. Many buildings are demolished early if their outdated systems are too deeply embedded to replace easily. […] The past is not for living in.” in: Macdonald.Chairs. Back to Utopia. These are the building.This is the geographical setting.The and doors go. And this is why. SERVICES . Turbulent commercial space can change every 3 years or so. ‘Site is eternal.These are the working guts of a building: communications wiring. vital. […] In any stocktaking for the future. to keep up with fashion or technology. it is a well of conclusions from which we draw in order to act. when confronted by the sort of universal questions mentioned above.’ STRUCTURE . and serving life as it is lived is the oxygen of building survival. active conservation is only a sub-set of architectural design in which value judgement cannot be avoided. ventilating.136 To accommodate the degree of six layers: SITE . Structural life ranges from 30 to 300 years (but few buildings make it past 60. or for wholesale repair.” in: Henket. or an updated. Brand. context outlast generations of ephemeral buildings. for other reasons). I have found that the only answer which is always correct is ‘it depends. Modern Matters. Furniture is called “mobilia” in Italian for good reason. . . STUFF . version of its existing use. so much the better. […] There are always going to be disagreements about detail. . hair brushes. kitchen appliances.137 See Figures 29 to 31. after all. they should result in completely new buildings: Refurbishment is the hard-headed business of making use of what is usable in the ageing building stock. lamps. How buildings learn. Instead. Allen. 137 S. all the things that twitch around daily to monthly. and that those MoMo [Modern Movement] Gatsby’s intent on ‘fixing everything just the way it was before’ will find their dream eludes. pictures.indeed there is such a thing. HVAC (heating. by its preservation. given the usual number of restraints which always impede the designer realising the ideal in new or refurbished merit and will. and moving parts like elevators and escalators. but is correspondingly more interesting because it calls for architectural judgement. the skilful adaptation of a building shell (which is valuable in its own right and not due to any historic mystique) to a new. desks. 123-124. exceptionally quiet homes might wait 30 years. so people don’t. Recent focus on energy costs has led to reengineered skins that are air-tight and better-insulated. Marsh. J. not less.13. Allen. 135 J. In other words conservation is ultimately about priorities. 46 ■ A B C D re search method 136 P. 134 J. They wear out or obsolesce every 7 to 15 years. which in MoMo’s case certainly embraces a commitment to change.135 In 1983. 3. phones. SKIN . Active conservation In 2002 Allen referred to active conservation: I have learnt that acceptance of change is the essential precondition of real conservation. once refurbished. plumbing. sprinkler system. the urban location. “Conservation of Modern Buildings: A Practitioner’s view. 1983).Exterior surfaces now change every 20 years or so. In the end conservation is about vitality. electrical wiring. Principles and Practice in Conserving Recent Architecture.’ 134 The existing building. Paul Marsh emphasised that these projects should not result in second-hand buildings.

1990. adapted by Carlo Scarpa from 1956 to 1964. From: Los. ABCD re search method ■ 47 . 1993 and Albertina. From: Caldenby.Figures 32 and 33: Castelvecchio in Verona. 1988. Figures 34 and 35: Extension (1934-1937) of the court building in Göteborg by Erik Gunnar Asplund.

The lift is installed behind the doorway on the left. Trucco. 2007. converted by Renzo Piano from 1988-1997. 48 ■ A B C D re search method . Figures 38 and 39: The 1923 Lingotto building by G. Photographs by the author. 1991 (right). Jeager. Photographs by the author.Figures 36 and 37: ANBD building in Amsterdam.M. converted in 1991 to the National Trade Union Museum by Atelier PRO. 1991 (left) and G.

The plans include a new library. regenerated by Herzog & de Meuron between 1994 and 2000. Josic and Woods.fosterandpartners. ABCD re search method ■ 49 .html. 2004.com. From: Http://www.Figures 40 and 41: Tate Modern in London. Figure 42: Renovation of the Free University Berlin by Norman Foster (1997-2004). The original building was designed by G. Scott and completed in 1963.fuberlin. Photographs by the author.G. Originally designed by Candilis.de/bauplanung /bauplanung_projekte. www.

a building completed in 1986 use. which was expanded by Gunnar Asplund (1885-1940) between 1913 and 1936. Removing the glass hall. Atelier PRO regenerated the building.1963 and designed by Giles Gilbert Scott (1880). 26-37 (Free University Berlin). the interior of the hall and two rooms had been listed. During a later project in Arnhem. when designing the Rijksverzekeringsbank in Amsterdam. The ducts were relocated and this allowed daylight to reach the basement of the building. Powell. an architecture critic who commented on the developments in the 1940s and ‘50s. had already considered the Architecture is not the form in which the requirements are cast. “The Economy of Architecture. which was regenerated as a museum for contemporary art between 1995 and 2000. in different countries: the Castelvecchio in Verona (1956-1964) was adapted by Carlo Scarpa (1906-1978). these examples showed me that although designing new buildings (possibly surrounded by an existing context) is fascinating. I was surprised to discover that only the exterior. 139 I was involved in both projects while working as an architect for Atelier PRO in The Hague. and meet contemporary statutory requirements concerning workplace conditions. 28 (1940): 208-214. Bankside Power Station in London built between 1955 . adaptation (where the building itself sets the context) is actually a far greater challenge. Developments in the concept of architectural intervention. by Renzo Piano whom I quoted earlier. sub section 4. Here. Oosting (Oosting & Beunderman) and completed in 1986. . Several relatively minor changes to the people working in it with more light and air. Solà Morales. behind the doorways originally provided for cupboards. When I was studying.1: Rijksverzekeringsbank Amsterdam. if this building was the realisation of an architectural concept. Hence. 46 (1985): 39-41. Atelier PRO developed a plan to modify it for use by the National Archives. The new buildings by these architects obviously inspire today’s architecture students in Delft. […] Hence. technology violated the original design concepts. “Form contrast to analogy.” in: Henket. See also: Zijlstra. but the form in which the architectural programme based on the requirements is implemented as an architectural concept. Foster.Examples The literature includes many examples of changes in an existing context. Bouwen in Nederland 1940-1970. but their regenerated buildings also deserve to be discussed.138 See Figures 32 to 35. 1999) 24-27 (Lingotto) and 224-227 (Tate Modern). for the Government Buildings Agency. “Het nieuwe gebouw der Rijksverzekeringsbank te Amsterdam. The idea that an architect would consider the potential extension or change of their building in advance was completely incompatible with his vision. originally designed in 1967 by Candilis.141 138 I. Tate Modern by Jaques Herzog (1950) and Pierre de Meuron (1950). then this realisation would therefore be completely dependent of the number of employees of the Rijksverzekeringsbank. Architecture Reborn (London: King.” Bouwkundig Weekblad Architectura.P. In 2001. The Trade Union Museum in Berlage’s ANDB building (1901) was completed in 1991. 26-37. J. as in the original design.” Lotus no. In 1999. and Norman Foster’s plan for the Free University in Berlin. no. which is housed in the 1901 building of the Algemene Nederlandse Diamant-werkersbond (ANDB.140 See Figures 38 to 42. large ventilation ducts had been installed underneath it. resulting in a perfect work of art when the works are completed. The Government Buildings Agency office in Arnhem was designed by A. he was scathing about the fact that Roosenburg. See Figures 36 and 37. The existing building adds a layer of history which cannot be obtained in new construction projects. N. Around 1979. Immutability I have twice quoted Mieras. 139 In my teaching I now use recent examples by well known architects to show how buildings (mostly post-war) have been regenerated: the Lingotto building in Turin. A lift (of a type normally used in residential refurbishment projects) was installed in the hall. Back to Utopia. and the extension of the court building in Göteborg. 50 ■ A B C D re search method 140 141 K. This introduced me to the issues associated with listed buildings and making changes to them. His outspoken views about the future can be placed in the context of his views of architecture: the art of building. diamond workers union) by Hendrik Petrus Berlage (1856-1934). Mieras. This project was never executed as the basements could not be adequately waterproofed. Josic and Woods. I was involved in the design and construction of the Vakbondsmuseum (trade union museum) in Amsterdam.

director of DTZ Zadelhoff (estate agents and project developers). director of DTZ Zadelhoff in Rotterdam. the Burgerweeshuis initially housed an architects’ college and now the head Nederland. 5 (1960): 205-206. my colleague Bernhard Leupen (1943) compared some statements by Mies van der Rohe en Aldo van Eyck (1918-1999). Fortunately. If they look beautiful then that is appreciated by everyone. the term ‘developers’ suggests that they build on something which exists already. “De milde raderen van de reciprociteit. architects sometimes cannot accept any changes to their buildings.. If you have to deal with all that. many ugly and impractical buildings were built. 64: D. something which affected many other early postwar buildings. and large glazed areas were fine. Politicians and project developers may value a building or site quite differently than architects.] Van Gent also claims that the desire for preserving the bank buildings at the Blaak is partly related to their appearance. Investors have a clear criterion: they want to get a reasonable return on their investment. When we asked George van Gent.. van Eyck.Even now.] A structure with such flexibility would have led to an unacceptable neutrality = like a glove which does not suit anyone. although they lead to large energy losses. ‘After the war. in 1997 about the redesign of existing buildings provide a good example of the attitude of many property developers. otherwise the investment has a negative value. But if they lose their function then that’s it. Buildings are constructed for a particular function. that demands a different building with a different structure and a different nature. There were many issues they didn’t have to worry about at the time: there was no legislation on workplace conditions. because it fits all. Bernhard Leupen concluded ‘Given the current.. 117 and 89 and A. is there? You shouldn’t take the preservation of buildings too far. In his theses ‘Kader en generieke ruimte’ (Framework and generic space). The views expressed by George van Gent. and the value should increase in the long term. [. not to preserve them..’ Structure is an element which is also considered in my method. Mies van der Rohe (New York: Rizzoli. 1985). 2002). That’s not a problem.] ‘There’s nothing wrong with demolition. The reconstruction buildings simply don’t meet that requirement. an orphanage for 125 children in Amsterdam which he designed: Another programme. another organism. If the buildings cannot be used as offices and are used for ABCD re search method ■ 51 . is it? The objective is to have functioning buildings. They have many restrictions. However.’ [. a few generations later.’ Van Eyck made the following comments about the Burgerweeshuis (1957-1960). with the exception of some special and historic buildings.. he does change his position during the discourse. He cannot image that there is any real interest in reconstruction architecture. After being left empty for years. who are interested in what exists now. 142 B. The building must also be let to a tenant. The dimensions are a problem when they are used for something other than a bank. and only a few attractive and usable ones. ‘I hope that there will be options for a good use of the bank buildings. said ‘Only a clear expression of the structure could give us an architectural solution which would last. The basements contain many safes. this glove was not tailored as tightly as Van Eyck assumed. Leupen. He admires the brick facades and extensive ornamentation of the exterior and interior. if there is a growing interest in early post-war offices and industrial buildings his immediate reply was ‘no’. However. they did not skimp on the building costs.. they could use asbestos. it’s better to demolish the building’ [. If a building loses its function or no longer meets the requirements then it is likely to be demolished.142 Mies van der Rohe. preferably while preserving their facades.” Forum no. Incidentally. different. the ground floor has counters. Spaeth. and the floors above are deep offices where the clerks used to make the bank transfers. use of the Burgerweeshuis it appears that Mies was right. But you do have to find a use for the buildings. whom I quoted earlier. Frame and Generic Space (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers.

Secondly. de Boer. ten and D. he referred to the energy lost as a result of demolition and decay. that given a long-term view (which project developers rarely take). The new building still has to prove if it will have any value in the future. which means most of them. Cate. the demolition waste will have to be landfilled somewhere. But I do think that the owner will be interested. The current volume. Given the height and depth of the floors it would be difficult to convert to offices. Oude fabrieken nieuwe functies (Zeist: projectbureau industrieel erfgoed. An investor who takes a long term view. and it should stay like that. Apart from the high costs of that these days. Like Aylward. But if there are no other feasible functions then you can hardly leave it empty. He also explained. “Kan idealisme een drijfveer zijn?” in: P. buildings. If a building is already considered as a monument today. he will have to get the owner interested. However.144 The next two quotations concern the volume of construction and demolition waste in the Netherlands. Initially.G. It has a positive impact on Witte de Withstraat and is a compatible use as the building already includes a theatre. because a costly adaptation which results in a lower rental income isn’t going to help the owner. Dubbeling.” Bouw (May 1997): appendix. In 1995. I think that the RO Theater using the Salvation Army building on William Boothlaan is a good solution. G.143 project developers is the shorter construction period. as it is extremely expensive. an owner will not want to demolish a building.other purposes. then we have to be aware of the twofold environmental impact. Another building with a special impact. may consider this as compensation for any initial reduction in the return on investment. However. re search method F. 34. Faculty of Architecture) to put Van Gent’s approach in perspective. with an area of 20. particularly as it is on a good site close by the railway. However. the building constructed to replace the old one will use a lot of non-renewable energy and resources. Firstly. such temporary accommodation for the Hogeschool Rotterdam college then that detracts from the Blaak. who I quoted earlier. […] Every year.000 m2. Seyffert. then its historical value will only increase. 1995) 10. It is a road of first class offices. 16 million tons of building and demolition waste are generated in the Netherlands. demolition isn’t a decision to be taken lightly either. the Stationspostkantoor (station post office). Seyffert addressed the impact of the demolition of 143 G. Finding a new purpose for a building will have a much lower environmental impact. 16 million tons of demolition waste per year. the assignment can be viewed in a different perspective: If we demolish an old building. in relative terms. is likely to double. It would be good to come up with a different function for it. Ten million tons of this are generated by residential and non-residential 144 Demolition We can use the statements by former Professor of property economics Frits Seyffert (Delft University of Technology. is still vacant. Niet overdrijven. The former Mees & Hope building at the end of the Blaak has also found a suitable use now that it houses the Art College. 52 ■ A B C D . because the building isn’t generating any income now. an old building will age less quickly than a new one. Another advantage is that. Arthur Rauwerdink described an attempt made by a housing association in The Hague to sell reusable building components: The large-scale restructuring of residential areas will lead to some major demolition projects in the next few years. In 2000. we are now turning our planet into one large waste tip. by reusing it or supplying it to industry as a secondary raw material we can help close the building materials cycle. Architect Rob van Erk suggested creating a large double-height space and I think that’s a good idea. despite its perfect location next to Central Station. “Een gebouw is er voor de functie. By sending less to landfill.

[…] High-grade reuse also reduces the volume of waste. but was unsuccessful: The High Court ruled that the demolition of the Wavin building did not infringe Jelles’ intellectual property rights. The government’s objective was that 90% of the waste should be reused by 2000. 21.” Gebouwbeheer. architect Jelles tried to save his Wavin factory in Zwolle. Hard materials are crushed and used in civil engineering. The first tranche of 430 dwellings has now been ‘sustainably demolished’. Reusing materials in their original form and function is the best guarantee for that. Every year. Over 60% were built after the war. […] In the next five years.145 Similarly. We use no less than 12 tons of building materials per capita. That target was reached in 1997.] Late last year.147 With respect to demolition there is another aspect worth mentioning: copyright. by methodically removing it from the buildings and collecting it. […] The objective is to offer these materials. for example by slowing down the decay of building materials. there are options for improvement. 5 (2004): 2. The limited space available forces us to recycle. led by Herman Herzberger (1932). These benefits mean that sustainable demolition is attractive for management. Over the next six years they will be demolishing 1. reduces the need for primary resources. “Hergebruik voor tweederde onder de nieuwprijs. this does not mean that the building owner is always entitled to demolish the building and that the interests of the 145 A. in 2004: The Netherlands is at the top in Europe in terms of the use of building materials. for sale at a price two-thirds below the price of new materials. Earlier. the Dutch produce 26 million tons of construction waste. For years there were plans to demolish the building. 1 (2000): 20. demolition is permitted. no. an architect cannot obstruct the planned demolition of a building. environmental and financial reasons. Rypke Zeilmaker referred to the large volume of construction waste. the demolition of a building which is the expression of a work protected by copyright is not considered as a ‘violation’ of the work within the scope of the copyright legislation. Rauwerdink. And 60% were refurbished in the past 15 years. on average other countries use half of that.. as site fill and foundation material. 146 R.300 dwellings in that area. For comparison. However. over 10. It was used to house the Berlage Institute which had been set up in that period. ABCD re search method ■ 53 . As there is a large volume of Netherlands: Housing association Vestia Den Haag Zuid-Oost started a pilot project in the Spoorwijk district of The Hague in November 2000. 147 Ibid. “Nederland recyceld er lustig op los. which are literally as good as new. Under Dutch law. saves waste disposal costs. Given the potential uses of the materials. Most wood which cannot be reused is incinerated. according to the High Court. an architect’s copyright is only protected against changes to a building.000 houses will be demolished in The Hague. However. it was saved after a campaign by architects. I referred to Van Eyck’s Burgerweeshuis.146 He described a method for recovering aluminium as a raw material. the figure for 1980 was 6 million tons. According to the High Court.. Staedion and Vestia) and the municipality of The Hague started a feasibility study on the reuse of demolition wastes. [. The law does not provide protection against the demolition of a building. in principle.” Delta no. For example. for example to generate energy. the Federation of The Hague Housing Associations (HaagWonen.construction projects. before demolition. and makes relatively cheap used building and installation components available. Hence. Zeilmaker. This means that.. Although these forms of reuse result in significant environmental benefits they are still low-grade.

archined. the community centre did not want to be housed in the former office block. November 30. 2004). Jelles died before the High Court made its decision on appeal. architect are subjugated to the powers of the building owner. Jelles objected against that. the parties initiating the project have to prepared to consider this approach. In 1997.” http://www.nl/archined/3880. when several initiatives lead to good results. I conclude that you can indeed consider the demolition of the Wavin building and that there are no decisive arguments against this. (accessed February 9. (accessed February 9. The owner may only be permitted to demolish a building if there are justifiable reasons and after the building has been suitably documented. See Figure 50. The case of an architect regenerating a building they designed themselves is more likely to occur if legislation makes it possible to list buildings constructed less than 50 years ago. However.nl/index. Occasionally. To provide a real opportunity for regeneration. re search method 149 “Sloop en auteursrecht. Herman Meijer.0.html. at the bottom centre.html. Similarly. Occasionally architects are asked to regenerate their own buildings. The dome was disassembled and stored for some new use as a church in Lelystad. The original architect will know better than anyone else what the principles of the original design were. given its historical and architectural significance. alderman on the Rotterdam town council.vandersteenhoven.archined. the arguments in favour of demolition were as follows: The building could not be reused as housing for the elderly due to the presence of asbestos and the high cost of converting the building. The study of this library is included in this book. Herzberger developed plans for a new music performance centre in Utrecht in which only the concert hall he designed earlier would be retained. 2004) and http://www. there is a preparedness to participate. However.148 Wavin plant had been demolished in 2003. they may not be able to take the step back which is needed to approach the building as a new assignment.” http://www. demolition may be unjustified.0.nl/archined/3880. supported ‘Designbased study’ competition referred to earlier.1964) Aula Wilgenhof in Hoofddorp which was reconstructed by Bertus Mulder (1929). At the time. From: de Volkskrant. The municipality consulted then Government Architect Wytze 148 “Sloop en auteursrecht.149 Regeneration Sometimes. Buckminster Fuller’s Aviodome and Rietveld’s (1888 .Patijn. In this way the High Court provides some accommodation to architects. Consequently the municipality decided to demolish the building. php?pageid=71 (accessed April 22. However. 2003. He commented ‘Hence. 54 ■ A B C D . Depending on the situation. He compared the design challenge with the option of demolition: Figure 50: Disassembly of the Aviodome (1971) by Buckminster Fuller. A technician’s head is just visible. buildings are relocated rather than demolished. I would recommend that the building is documented in detail. Tauber was asked to redesign the Provincial Library in Leeuwarden while maintaining the exterior walls and loadbearing structure. 2004).

In these buildings you can see an interesting historical series of layers. Seventy percent of those interviewed. Hoogstad’s plan is on the edge. The preservation of monuments: the need for academic research into the protection and maintenance of monuments. So. new typologies. N. Similarly. But I admit that others might not agree. halfway during the demolition. 152 153 Galema. would again choose a monument when relocating. Wethouder Herman Meijer over belangstelling voor wederopbouw. Furthermore. the costs of refurbishment were lower than the costs of demolition and new building. and the atmosphere of the buildings was highly appreciated. And that leads to conflicts. waiting for a second period of use. not a single piece of marble will be removed.”: 5. helps to protect a building. In Rotterdam there is often a strong urge to ‘get rid of the old stuff’. Wijnand Galema. did not have adequate support with respect to the reconstruction architecture in the dynamic city of Rotterdam. this design in particular does not suggest that a study of the type Meijer refers to was done before the new design was made.. 33. and creating broader support in society by demonstrating how monuments can be used. And you get that quality given to you for free. In general. Haß. and K. purely aimed at conservation. The of the users with the building was also given as an important reason to invest in a monument. high ceilings and details which would simply be too expensive to include in new construction. ABCD re search method ■ 55 . “Gestolde sociale geschiedenis.Such interest. although that’s a frightfully fashionable term. a city should be able to accommodate that. 151 Ibid. even if it is a private initiative. […] To preserve these buildings [included in the assignment] you will have to defend yourself against allegations that you are conservative and against renewal. we are talking about ‘quality’. The position of the Committee for the Reconstruction of Rotterdam was that a defensive approach. The new buildings dominate the original Doelen building. due to the growing use of wireless communications systems.151 However. In itself. These buildings hold promise for the future. So. in the form of beautiful brickwork. you have to show that a building can be used for other functions and that the transformation provides a better result than new building.153 In my view these aspects also apply to buildings constructed between 1945 and 1970.” Bouw (May 1997) appendix. The architecture of the building came second. Studie zu gewerblich genutzten und gesetzlich geschützten Denkmalen in Hamburg (Hamburg: Denkmalpflege Hamburg. Konerding. 32. and all technical expected that there would be even fewer problems in the future. in my view. and V. when discussing the design challenge. multiple uses of the site. mostly businesspeople. indicated that they wanted to get away from the conservative approach normally applied to monuments: A study concerned with the transformation of reconstruction era buildings as an architectural challenge. See Figures 43 and 44. the detailed analysis and documentation of a building is an impediment to its demolition. conservation would mean ignoring the innovations (structural engineering. mixed functions) which are often typical of this architecture. as it imposes a major programme requirement on a site of limited dimensions. However. “Wederopbouw in wegwerpcultuur. not all architects can deal with that. Natural ventilation was considered as essential. 1996). In 2003.150 Meijer gave the following example of good practice: With his new building for the Hogeschool Rotterdam college at the Kruisplein. ten Cate. According to a study carried out in Hamburg in 1996. Jan Hoogstad leaves De Doelen intact.152 The location of existing buildings has a major impact on their potential reuse. In my view. It would be better to view these buildings as raw materials. part of the Stationspostkantoor in Amsterdam was temporarily 150 G. de Graaf. the location is the main reason why businesses decide to move into a listed monument instead of a new building.

H and H. designed by E. by the author. 1966. partly demolished and partly regenerated to temporary accommodation for the Stedelijk Museum.M. Hoogstad (1930). 2004. From: Devolder. Photographs: the building site before the new construction work started. 56 ■ A B C D re search method . Kraaijvanger (1899-1978) and (1903-1981) and the extension in 2000 by J. 1992 and photograph by the author. Figures 45 to 47: Stationspostkantoor in Amsterdam.Figures 43 and 44: The Doelen in Rotterdam. 2004. new stairs in the museum and the ceiling of the restaurant.

Re-Arch. than during a new build project. It is the job of an the architect to help the client determine what his choices are. components or concepts to coexist. Zwarts and R. in fact. Apart from the Stedelijk Museum it housed Het Packhuis.reused to house the Stedelijk Museum and various architectural and design practices. During both the preparation and the construction period the architect will have to be more involved. which accommodate different user demands. 1995). The new design may not be based on an all-encompassing concept.158 According to Provoost. the Zwarts & Jansma and Jo Coenen & Co architectural practices and Restaurant 11. but perhaps on the smallest detail. and that it is also a choice not to meet all the requirements of the functions he wants to put into it.159 M. (accessed March 18. 36.zwarst.5: Stationspostkantoor Amsterdam. architects should not be afraid of that.’: 49. They can’t meet the demands which will be made of them at one time or another.. 157 Ibid.” http://www. this method means that the unique aspects of the existing building create a closer tie between the design and the construction work. 155 Henket. because of operational issues. Nieuwe ontwerpen voor oude gebouwen (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. See: Zijlstra. Hence I think that all those overdesigned buildings. ten Cate. architects should work as follows: Designers should look for latent architectural qualities in the old building. […] But we have to balance preservation.943. but you’ve become attached to that building. only then should it be possible to amend development plan to permit demolition. Bouwen in Nederland 1940-1970. That doesn’t matter. In this context. Henket: The attitude is still that new construction is better than using old buildings. They should provide evidence for that.html. For the architect. 2004).154 See Figures 45 to 47 and 257. R. in that all aspects from concept through to completion have to be monitored constantly. 33. I don’t want to sound like an arty-farty architect. but also with the way new buildings are designed: I believe that we should create much more pragmatic buildings.157 Striking a balance between conservation and change is a challenge the architect is faced with when designing around an existing building. The burden of proof should be placed on the client: they should prove that demolition is better than leaving the building. nl/article/1004. 35 158 ABCD re search method ■ 57 .156 Henket also emphasised that we should not only be concerned with changes to the existing situation. “Zwarts & Jansma architecten ontwerpt tijdelijke huisvesting voor het Stedelijk museum in Amsterdam. Een interview met Hubert-Jan Henket. ‘The proof of the pudding remains in the eating. Jansma. That means that the architecture will also change. Provoost and W. are 154 pointless. That building has created a history around it. a general concept will only be an impediment.155 We only think in terms of new building. I have included the following quotes by Henket and Michelle Provoost (1964) because their ideas can be applied in practice in the regeneration of buildings. conservation. modification and new building in terms of their social impact and the visual cultural aspects. 156 G. sub section 4. The remit of the architect is being extended. We are not yet attuned to maintaining objects or to their different use. Michelle Provoost of Crimson Architects uses the term ‘re-architecture’: The value of the rearchitecture concept lies in its advocacy of preserving the paradox: in allowing incompatible buildings. then they haven’t designed a good building. M..jansma. Rovers. and present on site. Vanstiphout. Allowing incompatible concepts to interact can contribute to the unpredictable creation of something which is truly new.’: 36-38. It is not possible to define an all-encompassing principle for this. ‘Opdrachtgever moet bewijzen dat slopen zinvol is. If they are. 159 Ibid. which your publication tends to feature.

Photographs by the author. qualities inspired a surprising approach by 58 ■ A B C D re search method . The library was completed in 2008. The regeneration of a Liesbeth van der Poll (DOK) and Aat Vos (AEQUO). 2008.Figure 48: Exterior of the DOK public library in Delft.

“Italy’s Brunel. The designer has to invent the whole manufacturing process. and there is no need to preserve everything. can result in a built environment which shows the layers of time.a better connection. just perfection.1970 offer particularly good opportunities as they are not yet affected by listing which would require conservation. during the investigation elements may become apparent which justify it. not high-tech. Hence. and in addition to studying contextual factors such as the brief. and fewer resources are available during the life of the building. a thorough investigation should be undertaken of the design history of the building to determine the potential for adaptation which can lead to regeneration of the building. This includes buildings which initially would not seem to demand such an investigation. Buildings from the period 1940 . 1989): 53. and change depends on continuity. Only then will it be possible to decide on any interventions. a regenerative approach to buildings in the Netherlands. The question arises if the ABCD method can be applied to all buildings. However. in principle that is possible. as Latham and Bakema put it. When selecting the buildings for my PhD research I chose buildings whose context inspired me to draft. A creative reuse. not just the finished product.160 Without the past there would be no future. However. because there’s a unity of process . before any design work is commissioned.” Blueprint (April. I developed the following hypotheses in relation to the research theme of regenerative conclusions: 1: When dealing with existing buildings. site and architects. Nahum. 3: The mutability which allows for the regeneration of a building could be a starting point for the design of new building projects. a selective approach in which repurposing. the building should have enough features of interest to justify such an investigation. and their appearance will be attractive in the long term: Continuity + Changeability = Durability 160 A. reuse and regeneration are seriously considered offers many opportunities for developing a rich variety of properties. and is therefore rich in visual elements and experiences. and possibly initiating. Hence. assess and develop my method. Yes. An architect can learn a lot from the motor industry. Provoost agrees with Renzo Piano’s recommendation which I quoted earlier: What is called industrial design is more appropriate than what is called architecture. the buildings will have a long life and be sustainable. ABCD re search method ■ 59 . where continuity is guaranteed by the mutability. from chair to city. 2: The options for regeneration of a building will be increased if more funding is available when it is built.Hence. Sometimes demolition is the obvious choice. This could lead to socially acceptable buildings. However. the ABCD research method has proven itself in supporting. The views of architects should help convince politicians and clients of the opportunities in the Netherlands.

60 ■ A B C D re search method .

decay). …. They are largely determined by the attitude of the individuals or bodies who want the building’s value to be assessed. as discussed above. in the neutral sense of the word. Past. Investigating the history of the creation of a building became almost addictive. sometimes. I will discuss the application of the method. present and future were relevant to all the buildings I studied. The relevant factors vary greatly from one building to another. construction engineering. assigned valuation. in day-to-day use. quality is generally associated with good. The objective of my research is to emphasise that all the aspects of a building. The values of a building are determined by the whole of the complex time the building is assessed. current existence. ABCD re search method ■ 61 . However. have to be analysed. 162 Collins English Dictionary. valuable. However. with a nature which is appreciated. Glasgow 1998: value: 2 an amount. When dealing with buildings. construction history or cultural history investigation of a building.162 Quality as Noud de Vreeze (1948) described it: The concept of ‘quality’ can be interpreted non-judgmentally: quality in the sense of nature or condition. 4 degree or standard of excellence. it always arises during a construction engineering. Careful and creative analysis of the information obtained in the research and drawing conclusions further to this can help us make discoveries to support the redesign of a building and to help us understand it. I had to select the elements to use for the analysis and then to draw conclusions about future use. and I felt compelled to discover. as in this case the architecture from the period 1940 to 1970 in the Netherlands. In expressions 161 Collins English Dictionary. These three periods resulted in the three levels of analysis in the ABCD research method. 2 the basic character or nature of something. I use a number of terms in my research which I will explain After that I will explain the Building Construction Matrix which is used to draw conclusions. From this wealth of information obtained in the observation stage. The objective of my PhD research was not to develop a method for assessing the value of buildings in general. property. the concept of quality usually includes an assessment of that condition. The determination of a value is always a subjective assessment. Studying buildings led to a link with the past. or attribute. considered to be a fair exchange in return for a thing.161 Qualities The concept of ‘value’ or ‘valuation’ is associated with many questions. we are interested in their creation. a material or monetary one. esp. In the context of building technology research I refer to ‘qualities’. esp. and the way in which the building can accommodate change all determine the chances a building will get to survive as the sum of continuity and change. a high standard. collect and study everything. using the Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden as an example. This is particularly relevant with respect to architecture from a period where not all buildings have value. The objective of my method is to identify the qualities of a building which we have to consider when we want to stop its decay and shape its future. present and future: these were the key elements of my PhD research. the extent to which we can learn from it. and future existence (or. Finally. Glasgow 1998: quality: 1 a distinguishing characteristic. without making a value judgment. In this sense.3 ABCD research method Past.

or the quality of the interpretation of a piece of music by Bach. the term usually has a less judgmental meaning. age. He also had a personal view on renewal and change. research analysis. engineering and the economy. 4. alert and perceptively. Temminck Groll. even if the new object has an equal art value. In this way.” Vrij Nederland. We talk about the quality of health care. Woningbouw. There is only one way in which we can learn to master the qualitative aspects of that: practicing by looking [at architecture]. Coenraad Temminck Groll (1925) was already writing about ‘old values and of value: due to 1. Examples include the discussions about the qualities of reconstruction period architecture and the policy documents which Building Aesthetics Committees in the Netherlands had to write until 2004.” Bouw no. 164 See e. 2001). 1993).165 The building aesthetics policy documents were supposed to objective rules. Dijkstra. politics. The objective qualities of a building range from a rough sketch of the site through to details of durability and sustainability. and .: J. Kwalitatieve grondslagen van de sociale woningbouw in Nederland (Almere: NWR. 165 C. However. In my view this is an impossible task. These three themes link the contextual elements and building elements in terms of the creation.for architecture students: designing. and exchanging experiences with others. “Lelijk is geen argument. based on restoration: In general we can argue that renewal will reduce values 1 to 5 and only increases the use value. inspiratie & ambities. but are given an air of objectivity by the policy document on aesthetics. 22. Toonbeelden van de wederopbouw.such as: ‘the quality of a building’ or ‘aiming for quality in housing’ reference is made to undeniably positive properties. 3.C. history. The following two quotes concern the two qualities of a building which may be considered to be objective: Tjeerd Dijkstra (1931) in 2001: This observation means that one of the most important quality characteristics of the composition is the least tangible discussion of concepts such as function and construction. However. intersubjective character. clarity. 2. […] … that when something old is replaced by something new. culture.163 Much has been said and written about quality.g. however. Architectonische kwaliteit (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. 62 ■ A B C D re search method 166 T. 2003. object and context. often. there will always be a loss. The assessments are subjective. we lack the words for what is really the essence of a composition: the proportions. […] Until the beginning of the last century. research using the ABCD research method is guided by the following themes: technological observation. complexity and associative meanings. June 12. Tj. . rarity. 20. Huisman. urbanism and 6.L. 5. I am aware that it is almost impossible to assess aesthetics on the basis of objective criteria. and regenerative conclusions. In my view. the new which replaced the old was never decidedly ugly. which could be understood by everyone. 4 (1959): 94-97. de Vreeze. Given my seven years’ experience as a member of the Building Aesthetics and Monuments Committee in Delft. use. it will never be possible 166 163 N. Again these focus on quality. This book aims to give a more positive image of reconstruction period architecture by presenting some outstanding examples. in ‘an analysis of the quality of a building’. to assess buildings. 62-66 and: M. “Oude waarden en welstand.164 Even in 1959. primarily in aesthetic terms. existence and decay or continued existence of the building. Kuipers. art. all qualities are interrelated. Quality is discussed in relation to all aspects of society. our assessment of proportions can develop a more general.

are an important. Delight derives from elegance. who use it and maintain it. The second research stage. Ways to study. In the third stage.167 In studies using the ABCD research method it is essential to start by gathering as much relevant information about the building as possible in the observation stage. 167 Cofaigh. 61. On all my site visits. Photographs by the author. informative and often entertaining source of information. drawing conclusions.168 As I indicated earlier. we arrive at conclusions which cover all three periods. and correct selection of materials. ABCD re search method ■ 63 . durability in performance. Principles and Practice of Sustainable Architectural Design. Suitability for use involves ergonomic considerations. archives and interviews. and visual delight. analysis and interpretation of the information obtained. Durability of performance involves proper length of life.Eoin Cofaigh in 1999: Quality of involves suitability for use. taking all costs into account including the environmental. I have met building and facility managers who were truly proud of their building. The library was completed in 2008. related to the functions they will support. 168 O. the building itself. See: O. from the following sources: the literature. The regeneration of a qualities inspired a surprising approach by Liesbeth van der Poll (DOK) and Aat Vos (AEQUO). especially for those who are not able bodied or strong. style and the contribution to the building’s architecture made by even the smallest details. drawings and models of the building as primary sources. and the literature and interviews as secondary sources. 2. the analysis stage. A Green Vitruvius. the people who live or work in a building. Figure 49: Interior of the DOK public library in Delft. involves the structuring. or faced its demolition with tears in their eyes. 2008.

texture. but to gather the information relevant to the creation of the building and its current and future condition (the three periods). Antonio Gaudí. Context The contextual part of the study concerns the factors relating to the context of the building: brief. maintenance and communications). een uitdaging (’s-Hertogenbosch: Adr. The building is then analysed on the basis of the following aspects: space (interior and exterior). over all periods. the emphasis is always on the building and its current condition. Such studies need a uniform terminology. the buildings should be analysed primarily on the basis of a spatial typology. 1987). re search method 64 ■ ABCD . or may have to change when the function of the building is changed. Herbestemming van grote monumenten. However. The contextual factors have affected the creation and existence of the building and will affect its decay or continued existence. Voldoet dit gebouw? Het bepalen van de functionele kwaliteit . structure (load-bearing structure and elements which determine the of space by materials. creation.169 context. 1. typology. I will now explain how I interpreted them and applied them in my research. hence I will matrix is then extended to form the ABCD matrix. Molema. dimensions and weight). architect. research analysis. When this matrix is combined with the considerations based on the contextual factors it forms the regenerative conclusion of the ABCD study of the building. radiation. existence and decay/continued existence.” in: Markus. I will now discuss the terms related to building technology research. architect. I will explain why I decided to develop the method on the basis of my study of the Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden. Analysing the four elements at the three levels (periods) leads to a matrix at the level of the whole building: the Analysing Building Construction in time matrix. Vol. Delft University of Technology. H.3. The terminology of the themes which guide the research: technical observation. J. smell. Where typology is concerned we should not only consider a functional or chronological order of buildings. 1999). determined by: light. Finally. typology and design process. “Building Conversion. The aim is not to document the complete history of its creation. sound. Creative Re-use of Buildings. building services (plant and installations to support climate control.1 Frame of reference When structuring the information. The second part of the study considers the building in greater detail and initially considers the following periods: creation. Nelissen. N. Latham. Designing for Change in Building Use. Principles and Practice. based on building types. It analyses the contextual aspects (brief.J. site. 169 When developing this list I referred to the following publications: Benes. Instead. site. the list of items to be included in a study following the ABCD research method is used to demarcate the information.M. one after another. as the spatial conditions will remain. een weg tot oorspronkelijkheid (PhD diss. and regenerative conclusions was discussed in detail in Chapter 2. Building Conversion and Rehabilitation. Heinen. or ABC matrix. and design process). comfort. Frey. colour. surface. existence and decay or future existence of the building. The information provided by observation is sifted to obtain the contextual information which is or was relevant to the design.

originally built in 1963 designed by C. Wegener Sleeswijk.Figure 51: The International Institute of Social History commissioned Atelier PRO to regenerate the Willem I warehouse in Amsterdam. Photograph by the author. 1987. ABCD re search method ■ 65 .

See also research element 4. the higher the room) and the same plan with the functional characteristics in 1960. 2000.Figures 52 to 54: Section and plan of the Provincial Library in Leeuwarden with the heights of the rooms indicated by shades of grey (the lighter the shade. from: Tauber. Adapted by the author.3. 66 ■ A B C D re search method .

170 In my view. By combining several type characteristics we develop a categorization of buildings where the qualities of a building are not solely determined by the function. Hence.Brief This describes the reasons for deciding to construct the building. contacts or other jobs may have affected the design of the building. The terms ‘type’ and ‘typology’ are regularly confused. He is correct in not referring to it as a typology. The client. construction and appearance of the building and the options available for the future. others quote this work as an example of a typology: in: De Jong. construction and appearance of the building and the options available for the future. the architect or architects originally responsible for the building have to be considered. to provide the most useful information for the study as a whole. In this way we can identify aspects which relate to options for changing the building. Pevsner. Hence. 66. Concerned with function. chronological listing of a number of buildings of the same functional type. Ways to study. part of a graduation project. typological descriptions are no more than a common. Typology Before looking at the building as such we place it in the context of its typology. The building is placed in the context of the other work by the architect(s) or the practice in which they worked. We can distinguish: Type: group of objects marked by common characteristics and qualities. Often. in which Hielkje Zijlstra and Marvin Nieuwenhuis used this multiple typological approach to develop a typology. local authority regulations and other constraints will be discussed in so far as these determined the design. Occasionally. Architect Obviously. schedule of requirement.A. personal circumstances. it may be possible to include a building in several typologies. Socially relevant aspects can also be included here. in which the layer. The typological approach may be different for each particular building. but this is not strictly necessary. Example of a typology: set of buildings: public buildings type (function): libraries schools museums type (space): atrium hall corridor Site This includes town planning aspects associated with the building. we are only concerned with historical issues which affected the design. So ‘type’ is not the same as ‘typology’. See also: Typologie van stationsgebouwen. Hence. ‘architect’ refers to the original designers. a typology goes beyond this and should add at least one layer to this list. 170 See e. number of common characteristics. Again. If the designing architect made statements or used a particular method relevant to the research themes then I include such information under ‘conclusions’. ABCD re search method ■ 67 .g. however. Delft 1987. This categorization is relevant when a building still exists. The aspects relevant here determined the decision to construct the building at that time.: N. but its function has been function. Within a typology. function will normally be one of the aspects considered. 1979). Typology: system of a number of types whose buildings have some common characteristics. A History of Building Types (New York: Princeton University Press. but there is no need to include a complete monograph on them. Architects who later time’. Here. a study based on the ABCD method includes several ways of considering a building as a type.

5. it would be inappropriate to select buildings purely based on one property. there is the need to use a typological approach to selecting buildings. function + historical development of the type. Given that the function of a building can change. 3. possibly of the same type. which can provide an opportunity to understand the factors which determine the continuity of a building: A new building or reconstruction in historical clothing or turning the forms of town planning into a new architecture as a declaration of loyalty to the present? An important basis for this decision is provided by an analysis of types of buildings. One example of this typology. we can identify links or common factors which provide a more useful outcome than that resulting from an arbitrary set of unrelated studies. Gene Bunnell used a relatively abstract approach:172 public buildings commercial buildings industrial buildings residential buildings and hotels churches and institutional buildings educational buildings Nicolaus based on functions and proposed the following list:173 national monuments (and monuments to genius) government buildings. Some examples: function + architect.171 For each building we can identify the typology which is most relevant to our work. The building itself. function + space. 1985). conservatories and exhibition buildings shops. 5. 68 ■ A B C D . requirements as regards utilisation. Here we are concerned with the f which combines the type of building based on the function with the type of building based on the spatial qualities.17th century government buildings.Umnutzung und Folgekosten erbauter Anlage n published in 1985. function + space. “Dealing with Available Building Space. a Handbook of Recycling Old Buildings (Washington: Preservation Press. A History of Building Types. then the typology is relevant to the selection of the buildings. By comparing several studies undertaking using the ABCD method. 173 Pevsner. Built to Last. Bunnell. 18th century: ministries and public government buildings. re search method G.” in: Reuse and Subsequent Costs of Buildings (Stuttgart: Krämer. value of comparative typological studies (in additional to historical studies). and a square building arranged around a courtyard (atrium) is a type of building. Schweger et al. 11th . 18th century: houses of parliament government buildings. Consequently. Example: a library is a type of building.P. the space it provides and occupies. can be applied to the Friesland Provincial Library in 171 P. technical standards and climatic conditions. or space + materials. 1977). as described 172 Spatial typology If several buildings are studied using the ABCD research method. 18th century: town halls and law courts theatres libraries museums hospitals prisons hotels banks and exchanges warehouses and railway stations market halls. Such an analysis establishes the constant factors which have come about as a result of historical development. makes it possible to distinguish types of buildings. stores and department stores factories So each set of buildings includes several other types.

Form. station or power station. A typology that includes spatial characteristics is more useful when we are concerned with the regeneration of buildings. yes. is not something everyone is able to do. This distinguishes: ‘Living & Working’. Moore and R.e.175 When the function changes a building is transferred to a different functional type. in terms of appearance. A start is provided by: F. but by the function of the building (i. From: Moore. 2000).K. we also have to recognise these factors. Example: Tate Modern London museum since 2001. 1995. This emphasises the value of applying a typology in the ABCD method which is based on spatial characteristics rather than types based on functions. Leisure & Learning’ and ‘Museums Transformed’. and a school a school. A construction has its own appearance.D. If you immediately construct that representation and you immediately make a town hall into a town hall. Space & Order (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. This introduces a dilemma when classifying buildings by their function. 1979). 176 R. It is one of the most interesting aspects of our profession. Both the Museum of Contemporary Art in the former Hamburger Bahnhof station in Berlin and Tate Modern in the former Bankside Power Station are included under ‘Museums Transformed’. 175 See e. Ching. Ryan. by spatial or structural characteristics. Apart from creating architecture.176 See Figures 55 to 57. When a building is described as a type. by Herzog & de Meuron and the removal of the hall in 1997. while the spatial type characteristics remain the same. Here. rather than on the function of the building as a whole. Building Tate Modern. it does not matter if it is a museum. Rietveld described this as follows: Seeing what an object intends to be. a representation) and it is odd that for some time we thought that was necessary.: Powell. 174 Figures 55 and 56: Design drawing for Tate Modern in London.g. Architecture. while it was originally a power station. His architecture was based on creating spaces in which various functions could be provided. Architecture Reborn. 2000. ABCD re search method ■ 69 .174 Even lists of buildings which have found new uses are initially arranged on the basis of their new function. but now we can say: the appearance should not be determined by the construction. Building function. 4-5.above. Rietveld’s approach is relevant. making a visual correction. type which are not primarily arranged by the function of the building. Herzog & de Meuron Transforming Giles Gilbert Scott (London: Tate Gallery Publishing.

But that will happen only rarely. It takes a lot of time. The nature of the building will be correspondingly purer and construction and time then this will lead to strong and clear architecture. If the building is composed of more elements or if it is a completely select the construction to 70 ■ A B C D re search method match the function. The better the the better the plans are and the better the internal and external areas have been judged and the better the construction matches them. and if you do not get . and that is an unhealthy approach which can never lead to a clear result. In that case you would often have to hide the construction. 2004. then you get a sort of traditional formalism which really does not have anything to do with architecture. the fewer visual corrections will be needed and the easier it will be to design the building. Photograph by the author.Figure 57: Tate Modern after regeneration. and only when following examples which have been developed and accepted long ago. unless the construction is so interwoven with the function that they both use the same vocabulary of forms.

Bless. to help us understand the answers and solutions. De kunst van de ingenieur. sound. These elements largely determine the appearance of a building. 2002). the literature. This process is affected by many factors: changes in the construction industry (with delegation to consultants and subcontractors). Additionally. the process. although this generally takes second place to the load-bearing structure. These boundaries are generally created by materials. 13. timbre. An analysis of the information obtained from interviews. The building services installations can also lend structure to a building. form. Hence. the division of the key dimensions into system dimensions. Dimensions. The structure is generally determined by the space. 1982). Space ‘Space’ refers to both the space occupied by the building and to the space created inside the building. This applies with respect to design. Of course.177 Design process Here we are concerned with the way in which the concept for a building is developed and what considerations and events were relevant to this. The requirement of intervening in a building ‘with respect for what exists’ can only be met if we have an adequate understanding of the creation and existence of the building. These related to the remit of his chair: spatial and material 178 177 F. structures. but these three elements are used in the ABCD research method as the key analysis elements for the building in terms of the themes and the three levels (periods). photographs. de verantwoordelijkheid van de architect en zicht op Delft (Amsterdam: University Press Salomé. construction and the end result. ABCD re search method ■ 71 . 236-237. The outcome of that will often affect the design and therefore the design preservation and maintenance of a building and affect the options for making changes. Space is a decisive element in the experience. and helps to understand them. system of measures. colour. the boundaries of the space and therefore by materials. but there really is not much you can do. models and drawings allows a division into chronological steps of the development of the design and the design method. texture. space and materials. By analysing plans. cross-sections and elevations we can learn about the elements which lend a structure to the building. materials and structure. smell and atmosphere are other aspects which determine how we experience space. tendering procedures. Röling. requirements and legislation. other aspects are also relevant. construction. W.it right at once then you can try to make adjustments. I added the element ‘services’ (building services plant and installations). They form their own structure. This structure (in the sense of organisation or arrangement) is contained in the volume. Building Elements Wiek Röling (1936) referred to the following concepts in his leaving address as professor of non-residential construction at Delft University of Technology: space. and a good example of architecture is a spontaneous creation. the right building will essentially appear by itself. Rietveld (Amsterdam: Bert Bakker. from context to detail.178 These concepts create the link between ‘building’ and ‘architecture’. over time. We have to identify the essential aspects and starting points which have a major impact on the continued existence of the building. construction project about regulations. The key question is why certain choices were made at the time. Structure ‘Structure’ refers both to the load-bearing structure and the system of measures used. Space is largely determined by its boundaries and the interfaces between those boundaries. operation and options provided by a building. light. texture. although it may take a lot of perseverance to maintain that spontaneity.

and also play a key role in our experience of the atmosphere. They are also determined by the space. smell. maintenance and communications. structure. The building services are important when designing or redesigning a building given legislation and regulations. the ceilings will be too low for the installation of new building services plant. The use of materials is often an indicator of the timelessness of a building. design activities usually continue until the building has been completed. the elements space. Building services may be integrated with or separate from other elements. timbre. in terms of aging. construction process. are often only tested in practice. Changes in the schedule of requirements. surface. everything changes. the building owners make changes and interventions in the original design. They may affect the system of dimensions of the space. Time Levels The For these studies. and the requirements concerning climate. What was meant to be Once the design is complete. When the matrix is combined with the considerations based on the contextual factors it forms the regenerative conclusions of the ABCD research of the building. and the possibilities and impossibilities for future use. regulations. The ageing of the materials used may have a positive or negative impact. the to be included in a study. 43-54. the building is constructed.179 We are studying existing buildings in a context which is subject to change. budget cuts or deferred decisions can have a major impact on the design as it is built. texture. Making things. Parkes. See: J. radiation. colour. size and weight are all factors which determine how we experience materials. techniques which have to prove themselves. Preserving PostWar Heritage. The extent to which the original design principles are respected. structure and materials.” in: Macdonald. re search method 72 ■ A B C D . Investigating the elements space. structure. the funding available for making changes is also important. legislation. What is to be or not to be The results from the analysis levels discussed above provide the input for an assessment of the options available with respect to the building in the longer term. The original concepts and changes over time are analysed to draw conclusions about the qualities and potential of the building. mood and wellbeing. What has been Services The building services installations are not always simply added on to a building. Light. When considering change. Time itself. However. Often the changes made further to late 179 Building services installations such as climate control systems often determine the options available when looking for new uses for post-war buildings. the construction method. comfort. Hence. There is a need for inventive solutions.Materials Materials implement the structure and space. Over time. is one aspect. have a major impact on the end result. As mentioned earlier. When constructing a building it is advisable to make investments which My PhD research showed that during the lifecycle of a building a limited qualities of that building more than a generous budget. it is essential that the elements of the buildings studied are placed in time. “Towards the Fully Integrated Building: Serving Post-War Buildings. structure and materials. materials and services are studied at the three time levels of analysis. materials and services at the three time levels of analysis produces the Analysing Building Construction in Time matrix: the ABC Matrix. There are many things which can happen to a building during its condition. Increasingly. eventually.

Choisy Roorda van Eysinga.Figure 58: Multifunctional halls of Twente University of Technology. Photograph by the author. 2005. Still in use by artists in 2005 but unfortunately demolished shortly after that. Smelt and Wittermans in 1963. ABCD re search method ■ 73 . designed by Van Embden.

2 Matrix The Analysing Building Construction in time matrix (ABC matrix) which I used earlier. 2007).180 At that time. only incorporates study outcomes which relate to the building itself. 74 ■ A B C D re search method . SHH07. Studies on Historical Heritage (Istanbul: Technical University Research Centre for Preservation of Historical Heritage TA-MIR. these contextual aspects can also be analysed at the three time levels to draw conclusions which are relevant to the future existence of the building. In the study of the Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden this was developed using the following matrix: ABCD matrix meant to be has been to be or not to be Brief Site Architect Typology Design process Space Structure Materials Services 180 H. Yildiz (ed. The ABC matrix can be extended with the contextual factors to result in the ABCD of the studies. A. the contextual aspects were not included. 67-74. Zijlstra. However.3. “Analysing Building Construction in Time. the ABC Research Matrix” in: G.).

Often one would rather leave the old.). The building was the result of a design competition and has an apparently timeless neutrality in plan and section as well as the choice of materials for the interior and exterior. 1966. Bouwen in Fryslân 1940-2000 (Leeuwarden: Friese Pres Boekerij. 182 “De Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland in zijn nieuwe paleis. Tauber en G. van der Bout (ed.” Friesland no. without affecting the original design. was asked to regenerate the building extensively at the end of the twentieth century.en bouwgeschiedenis (Leeuwarden: Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek. The original design. An essential element of this regeneration project was the role given to the original architect in the regenerative design process. 5 (1966): 12-14. But we hope to have spare capacity for around thirty years.3. when the building had 50% more space than needed. but there will come a time when it will have a history. Tauber. Now it is a new building. 184 P.3 Application of the ABCD research method From the range of buildings studied for my PhD research I selected the Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden (Tresoar) as an example to illustrate the ABCD research method. This is an excellent example of: Continuity + Changeability = Durability In a recent survey of architecture in the Province of Friesland. 2000). the Provincial Library was described as ‘.’ 182 In 1966. Furthermore the original architect.J. The building of the Friesland Provincial Library proved to be one of those. F.’ 183 Thirty-three years. 30. However. librarian Sjoerd Douma (1912-1980) commented ‘The library will grow faster than you would expect. was given the opportunity to completely refurbish the building which had been in use technology. plans and sections facilitated change. October 7. See Figures 59 to 61. van den Broek. inadequate building than modify it. some built structures appear to be so effortlessly accommodate the new functional requirements made of them. Piet Tauber (1927). “Friesland heeft weer plaats voor zijn boekenschat. working with his son Frans. 2000) object 61.H. In fact..” Franeker Nieuwsblad. librarian Gerard van den Broek wrote ‘A building has a rigid structure which can only be changed with great effort and corresponding cost. De Provinciale Bibliotheek Friesland. at the time of the second handover after the regeneration in 1999. 40 jaar ontwerp.’ 184 183 181 J. undoubtedly one of Friesland’s most remarkable 1960s buildings..’ 181 Piet Tauber. this provided an opportunity to develop the original concept better and more clearly than was possible in 1966. the local press commented ‘You can immediately see that a building has been created which will withstand the centuries. After the opening in 1966. later. ABCD re search method ■ 75 . There were only modest changes to the exterior of the building.

76 ■ A B C D re search method .

We have to understand the building during the different stages of its lifecycle before we can add a new stage. We want to identify the qualities of the building so we can drill down to the essence. There is time and quality. The interpretation of the information obtained during the study (archives. etc. from context through to detail. ABCD re search method ■ 77 . Perceptions and appreciation change over time.Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden This example shows how the ABCD research method is applied. literature. illustrations are also essential. Apart from written documents. the comprehensive qualities which allow for an affective consideration of the changes based on an understanding of the building. The conclusions do not provide guidelines for a new design. interviews. Instead. Especially when analysing buildings with a view to their redesign it is important to be aware of all the elements which made the building into what it is today. the contextual factors and building elements of the library are summarised as the three time levels in the ABCD matrix. Finally.) is expressed in the analysis of the visual material. The following three chapters cover all aspects.

78 ■ A B C D re search method .

prison.W.187 The Provincial Library was based on the collection of Franeker University (1585 . Kok. From 1941 to 1977 the library was headed by Sjoerd Douma (1912 . After that the library had its own director. The Provincial Library was officially opened on 1 October as a public library for study purposes. Huizenga. who previously worked as a junior librarian at the Delft College of Technology.000 books and in 1852 a dedicated reading room was 185 D. library. no. 186 G. 5 (1966): 12. Bibliotheekbeschrijving. From 1961 on. the Friesland Provincial Library housed not only its own collection of 450. sections of the collection were moved to alternative sites. but also the Buma Bibliotheek collection. were particularly poor. The lack of space for library users and shortage of facilities grew. In 1959 the minimum age for library users was reduced from 18 to 16. 5. The collection includes documents in Latin and Ancient Greek.185 From 1849 to 1897 both libraries were housed in the Palace of Justice at the Zaailand in Leeuwarden.1980). 187 S.” Friesland no.000 per year.188 At that time the collection included 11.P. The Chancery dates from the sixteenth century and was originally built as the Friesland court. Buma. Initially the people of Leeuwarden objected as Douma was not from Friesland.190 189 190 “Friesland heeft weer plaats voor zijn boekenschat.” Open: vaktijdschrift voor bibliothecarissen. Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek (Leeuwarden: Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek van Friesland. the library suffered from serious space shortages in the Chancery. which they moved into in 1934. In 1977 this collection included 45.000 items (compared with 290. “Friesland heeft weer plaats voor zijn boekenschat. The National Archives and Buma collection were moved to different sites in 1936 but even so it was concluded in 1939 that the Chancery building was too small for the collection. as well as in the reading room. 188 J. 1991). as a result of which many secondary school students went to the quiet library to do their homework. 6 (1977): 307-312.1811). available for loan throughout the country.” Bibliotheekleven no.1 Brief In 2000. “Een nieuw gebouw voor de Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland en voor de Buma-Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden. See Figure 63.189 During the Second World War the conditions under which the books were stored. The history of this collection goes back to a legacy left in 1876 by Dr. he turned out to be an inspiring leader and held a number of national and provincial offices. In winter they could not be heated above 11 degrees and the reading room could only accommodate 28 visitors. A. However. as did the need for new accommodation. In 1957 the collection was still spread across four sites in the city but plans were being developed for a new building. opened. Karstkarel.J.000 in 1968). 1985). Leeuwarden 700 jaar bouwen (Zutphen: Terra Publishers. 5 (1966): 13. Douma. As a result it was not possible to absorb major collections.186 See Figure 62. It was subsequently used as a hospital. From 1934 to 1966 the Buma Library was housed in a building at Grote Kerkstraat. Hence.000 items. As the library had limited opening hours and required few personnel it was merged with the Provincial Library in 1955. L. “De Buma Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden. A royal decree was issued in 1843 to the effect that part of the Provincial Archives and Library were to provide public access. Until 1921 the post of librarian was combined with that of national archivist. archives and museum. and from 1897 to 1939 in the Chancery. ABCD re search method ■ 79 . as an independently operating unit of the Provincial Library. and at the same time the number of loans increased to 33. 26-28. 44 (1959): 112. The library management had saved the funds for a dedicated building.” Friesland no.4 Context 4.

2000. 80 ■ A B C D re search method . Adapted by the author.Figure 59: Aerial photograph of Leeuwarden with the Provincial Library. from Wetting.

Provincial Library was housed. 1999. 1991. 2000. From Huizenga.Figures 60 and 61: Provincial Library in Leeuwarden in 1968 and the plan of the upper archives and Tauber. ABCD re search method ■ 81 . Figure 62: The Chancery (1571) where the Figure 63: Reading room in the Chancery. From Leeuwarden in contrast.

G. there should be open shelves for some 15. The Municipal Library and Fryske Academy were also to be integrated. Vijfentwintig jaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek. 82 ■ A B C D .A.000 books and it should be possible to give tours of the building. one second prize was awarded. The schedule of requirements was finally completed in the summer of 1955 and included the following key requirements: 191 192 Huizenga. Marburg. The Provincial Competition Council appointed a building committee and they had to whether to appoint an architect directly. Copenhagen. The conclusion was that no winner could be selected. Göteborg. 36 (1966): 1388. Fulda. a commission would face the administration with a difficult choice between a few well known architects. to Onno Greiner (1924).191 A schedule of requirements had to be drawn up. and three third prizes were awarded. Because of the large number of submissions. Library director Douma was in favour of the first option as he thought there should be close cooperation between the architect and the librarian to develop a good design. He also studied the libraries in: Cologne. Douma gathered extensive information on the subject and visited libraries in: Groningen. it would give good young architects an opportunity.In 1947 the Provincial Executive of Friesland decided that the Provincial Library needed a dedicated building. W. However.195 By 1 May 1958. Leiden. Lugano. Its members included: J.192 Until 1985. Bern. 195 Huizenga. 18.J. Heidelberg. the librarian. due to pressure from the Royal Institute of Dutch Architects (BNA) and an open competition was launched. be asked to develop a plan. but two years later it was sold to the PTT. Rotterdam. in 1955 this proposal was rejected.1966) (then chairman of the BNA)194. a hall would be required for lectures and exhibitions and there should also be two meeting rooms. This took long as it was first necessary to decide on the functions to be accommodated in the building. Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek. The procedure to develop a schedule of requirements made slow progress. the jury period of three months was extended by another three months. Tuinstra (architect and chairman of the Provincial Building Aesthetics Committee) and Douma. See Figures 64 and 65.” 214. the Provincial Council decided to hold a competition: Not a single large library had been built in the past 25 years: a competition would attract architects’ attention. D. not having an architect to discuss the potential impact of the various options on the design was considered as a disadvantage. Tübingen. Douma also visited the library in Enschede which had recently been completed. van der Steur (1899 . the library in Luzern was a particularly good example for the Friesland Provincial Library. Eventually the Provincial Executive proposed that the Chief Government Architect. However. Gerretsen (architect). Heidelberg and the Zentralbibliotheek in Luzern which opened in 1954. van der Steur (1899 . The Hague. Malmö. or select one after an open competition. Delft. 21. 17. while Kelderman received a commendation. W. Halmstad. public awareness of the Provincial Library and Buma library should be improved. Van Ooy and Tauber. 165 designers had entered the open competition. When considering these issues. “Een nieuw gebouw voor de Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland en voor de Buma Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden. to Hendriks and Van der Velden. Paderborn.G. The designs were judged in twelve meetings.193 A jury was appointed to judge the results of the competition. Vijfentwintig jaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek. Bruin (architect). Wiesbaden. 193 Huizenga. at the end of 1953. the Chancery would only have to accommodate the National Archives.1966) see: Bouw no.A. re search method Douma. The Oldehoofsterkerkhof was selected as the new site. Stockholm and Århus. However. Jo Vegter (1907-1982) from Leeuwarden. when the new Provincial Hall was opened. 194 J. In 1951 a site was bought on Turfmarkt. the Provincial Council held its meetings in the large hall of the new library. In his view. Once that was built.

Figure 65: ABCD re search method ■ 83 .Figure 64: Leeuwarden’. 1959.

some of them insurmountable. Furthermore. According to him. Tauber’s Perystilium design for the second competition.197 According to Tauber. Douma was not in favour of Tauber’s design for the first round ‘In my view.E. Buffinga. 16 (1968): 590-591. It was decided to hold a closed competition among the four prize-winning architects. In January 1959 all 165 submissions were shown at an exhibition in the Leeuwarden Exchange. Greater attention was to be given to the position of the lending desk relative to the entrance. He wrote “I do not believe the rumours according to which the notes with names had been seen before the prizes were awareded. he did see many shortcomings in it. or even to select the design which won the second prize as the basis for the design. van Krevelen of the Provincial Executive and. the reason that he was eventually commissioned was that he was the only one of the four architects who had made a completely new design for the second round. Furthermore the lending desk personnel would have to be able to keep an eye on the visitors in the central hall and in the open shelves section. Even in 1968 the architectural profession still had some doubts about the selection of the winner of the second round of Figures 66 and 67: Perspective drawings. the structure of the “271258” (Tauber) and “BOOM” (Van Ooy) designs is in appropriate. the other architects had only adjusted and detailed their original designs. then aged 32. Despite the protest of the rest of the jury. The jury was extended with P. at Douma’s request. 2000. the competition did have its use in that four architects in their early thirties received prizes. Tauber’s plan After four meetings. Hence he proposed that Greiner be awarded second place and that Van Ooy and Tauber should only receive a commendation. “Prijsvraag Bibliotheekgebouw Leeuwarden. From Tauber. However. Tauber from Alkmaar. re search method A. 197 196 S.’ At that time he preferred Greiner’s design.” Forum no. Instead he wanted to work with one of the architects on his short list. he submitted a minority report to the Provincial Executive with a different award of the prizes. In 1960 the whole concept of competitions was criticised. lending desk and reading room of the Provincial Library do not appeal to me.The jury advised the Provincial Executive to hold a closed competition as a second stage.” 84 ■ ABCD . “Commentaar. 2 (1959): 47.196 However. In design “271258” the lack of separation between the administrative section. Douma disagreed with this. See Figures 66 and 67. was selected as the winner of the second competition. and to meet the revised requirements.” Bouw no. Douma also managed to get some changes made to the schedule of requirements. such as a strict separation between the Provincial Library and the Buma collection. Douma. he did not want a further competition to be held. the competition in 1968. van Elsen of the Enschede library. At the time he thought that this was the only right way to respond to the criticism on his first plan. Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden. They shouldn’t say things like that. especially as it is unlikely that the members of the jury would not have guessed the sources of the four designs in this round given their presentation. with M.

the use it is put to.’ 199 In 1964. On the other hand. Tauber was happy about the cooperation between architect and client. who was disappointed by the outcome. 8 (1960): 451. ABCD re search method ■ 85 . Bouwen naar opdracht (Haarlem: Architext. which is what Douma envisaged at the start of the project. The competition in Friesland put a greater emphasis on the development of the requirements (which obviously had some flaws) than on presenting a concept. Professor Peter Pennink advocated the use of competitions to generate ideas but felt that they were not the best way of translating the schedule of requirements into the perfect design ‘A client who. the social aspects. the nature of the client. de Haan and I. Tauber said the following about the importance of ‘the brief’ ‘In my view. 1990).A. that really helps me. “brief” refers to: the whole range of factors. I need somebody who responds.In a letter to Greiner. Beste Greiner…. H. especially as I do listen so much to my clients. Pennink. In 1990 he wrote ‘It is important to me that the client has spontaneity.K. Tauber Architecten. participating in a competition is a liberating experience. “Een brief over prijsvragen. 17. the interrelationship 199 P. Hence. after initiating a competition based on a fixed schedule of requirements and a given site plan.. Haagsma.’ 198 198 In principle. has high hopes is likely to be disappointed when the results are announced. and more so than “function/purpose”.” Bouwkundig Weekblad no. a second round was unavoidable.

” which Tauber always remembered. the National Archives. 40 jaar ontwerp. Tauber. .en bouwgeschiedenis. In future. “De Roosenburg Groep” was named after architect Dirk Roosenburg (1887 . On that occasion. the extension of the storage space for the Tresoar may be combined with space for a new Friesland Museum. As the buildings were linked. Additionally Tauber’s introduction to then Chief Government Architect Vegter which impact on the practice of the young Tauber. The way the competition for the library in Leeuwarden impact on the relationship between Tauber and Greiner. 86 ■ A B C D re search method 202 G. 201 Interview with P. the Provincial Library. Tauber. the activities of the library and the archives are now combined.H. 3 January 2002. especially as their visitor numbers were rising.1: National Insurance Bank. Amsterdam. As of 1 September 2002. On the contrary.with the surroundings and the place in the overall urban structure. van den Broek.H. and as many expressions of human relationships and activities.1962) from The Hague who set the group up.201 Tresoar Since 2000 the number of users visiting the Provincial Library in libraries in the Netherlands to introduce a computer-based catalogue. but you do have to understand it. inaugural address.J. Delft University of Technology 1964. In 2001. “Het vernieuwde huis vol verhalen.202 The number of visitors to the library has fallen as the catalogue can now be accessed over the Internet and photocopies and digital data can be sent by post. the library developed plans for greater cooperation with the National Archives next door. Buma library. 35. the Friesland Literary Museum and Documentation Centre have cooperated under the name Tresoar (Frisian for ‘treasury’).000 boeken aan de Boterhoek” and Tauber. 200 P. 11. Bouwen naar opdracht. The projects which resulted from this included the embassy in Washington and the National Archives in Friesland which were to be built close to the Provincial Library at the edge of the Noordelijke Bolwerk Leeuwarden. they were still good friends in 2002 and regularly met through the ‘de Roosenburg Groep’. Tauber attended the tour of the KLM building in The Hague in 1956 or 1957 which was given by Roosenburg.’ 200 The development of the plan for the library. De Provinciale Bibliotheek Friesland. Roosenburg proudly presented the building services plant rooms and commented “You don’t have to be able to do all this yourself. 500. see:research element 4. Certain functions could be merged.

206 Karstkarel.” Leeuwarder Courant. 64. See Figure 68. (25 November 2002) and P. de Groot. Also published in: Leovardia.204 See Figures 69 and 70. In 1435.” Leovardia no. 2 (2000). 30 November 2002. See Figures 71 to 74. 2002). Smook. plans were soon developed for the construction of a number of large public buildings which could not be accommodated elsewhere. The plan for the underground car park and the square were made by VVKH architects in Leiden. These working class areas were redeveloped in stages. “Leeuwardens vroegste verleden op de schop. In 1964 it was decided to provide access to the centre of Leeuwarden by creating a system of main access roads. Roodbaard. the tower of a church which was never completed.P. stables for horses and a mercantile exchange. They were replaced by a number of public buildings such as the Provincial Library and National Archives. See Figure 78. structures. Later a second route from the town centre. Groot. There was only limited house construction between the old boundary of the inner 203 town and the Noordelijke Plantage. on an open site along the canal. 43. through the Oldehoofsterkerkhof would connect to it. 9.206 The remaining greenery was incorporated into a green walking route through the town. 132-135.207 See Figures 77 to 81. Plans for an underground car park 208 under the The entrance to the car park was designed as a slope parallel to the Boterhoek. 204 R. 9. The Oldehoofsterkerkhof was used as a site for transferring parcels to messengers for delivery and as a car park. The plan by architect Fons Verheijen (1949) of the VVKH practice in Leiden was implemented in 2006. 208 Tauber. See: P.g. 1984). 205 Karstkarel. three villages on mounds (Nijehove.203 Even maps from the thirteenth century already show the Oldehove.. a hospital. The excavations for the underground car park started in 2005.: a prison. e. adjoining the Oldehove site. These were extended in 1620 and the Netherlands where the defensive structures around a town were demolished.” www. “Oldehoveplein vraagt om totaalvisie. A. nl/oldehove.A. no. the earliest inhabited part of the current town centre of Leeuwarden. It is now known as the Noorder-Plantage and has incorporated the Prinsentuin gardens since 1652. ABCD re search method ■ 87 . The tower of the former church at Oldehove (built between 1529 and 1633) became the symbol of the city of Leeuwarden.2 Site The Friesland Provincial Library was built on a site in Leeuwarden with a long history: the Noorder Plantage (Northern Plantation) on the former rampart and at the square in front of the Oldehove.” Leeuwarder Courant. Leeuwarden 700 jaar bouwen.gemeentearchief. 245 and 246. Tauber resisted the plan in the press.html (accessed Februari 28. As a result.4. The site of the rampart then became a town park. the park-like northern part of the original rampart was mostly preserved as it did not fall victim to large-scale urban expansion.en bouwgeschiedenis. Jager. Other plans were proposed in 2002.H.H. working with Fons Verheijen. between 1950 and 1966. this busy route isolated the green zone from the city centre.F. 207 P. 1 (2000): 21-24. P. Binnensteden veranderen (Zutphen: De Walburg Pers. In 2002 Tauber made his own plan for the redesign of the Oldehoofsterkerkhof. 84. However. However. De Provinciale Bibliotheek Friesland. instead it ran between the Oldehoofsterkerkhof and the rampart. rather than within the town. 40 jaar ontwerp. Leeuwarden 700 jaar bouwen.205 In the nineteenth century the housing shortages were solved by expanding into areas outside the city borders. the busy ring road between the library and the Oldehoofsterkerkhof. Tauber. The planting of the former ramparts was designed by L. See Figures 83. “Jeugdherinneringen: de jaren vijftig onder de Oldehove. “Brug te veel. The pedestrian route from the city centre would cross a bridge to reach the Noorder Plantage. The north access road was not built outside the core of the city centre. See Figures 75 and 76. Oldehove and Hoek) were combined to form the town of Leeuwarden.

The many old houses behind the circular wall of the cemetery have been demolished and they have been replaced by this impressive new building designed by P. The area between them was closed off due to problems with homeless people and the staff car park. emphasises the relationships between the square. Tauber. but still formed the wall at the end of the Oldehoofsterkerkhof. 211 “Friesland heeft weer plaats voor zijn boekenschat. A rotation relative to the border of the plot both strengthens its independence from the rest of the road and enhances the effect of the wall on the square relative to the rest of the space of the square. 212 “De Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland in zijn nieuwe paleis. but slightly offset from the imaginary plot line parallel to that road. This line could even be recognised in the elevation could actually be parallel to a connecting line between the former blocks of buildings on the other side of the Oldehoofsterkerkhof. To the right of the building there is space for parking nine cars. Fryske Academie. the freestanding storage and plant building on the east side. National Archives. 88 ■ A B C D . This line soon became unrecognisable when the block on the east was demolished to create space for the construction of the new town hall.209 Hence. An ice skating rink is built here in December and January. Fryske Kultuerried and the Dutch Open University. A street is being created in front of the new building and they are working hard on placing this book palace into a harmonic environment. and in 2005 a fence was installed underneath it. extended facade enhances the effect of the Oldenhove. In exchange for this land. A key feature of the site was the slope of the rampart. It will probably be moved back in 2009 and painted dark blue. The single. As a result. re search method Interview with Sijbe Sevenster on 3 December 2008 and phone call with Frans Tauber on 4 December 2008. between the National Archives and the library had to be demolished. the building was positioned in the park and more detached. in 1966 the solution seemed a long way away: Much has changed in this area. Tauber claimed that he determined the direction of the front elevation instinctively and that it was not related to the direction of the blocks on the other side of the large square. The wall around the garden has been demolished and they are now creating a sloping bank there. Tauber considered the fence to be particularly ugly. with the main entrance on Boterhoek: I chose a single mass because of the cultural nature of the building and the site near the square and the rampart. This created space for the connection between the city centre and the Prinsentuin. 7 October 1966. However. the building and the rampart.” Bouw no. the library building was not constructed parallel to the ring road. The partly raised pavement.’ 212 210 209 “Besloten prijsvraag bibliotheek Leeuwarden. So. elevation was used in the design of the building. Tauber designed one building mass surrounded by greenery.210 Starting in 1988 the Boterhoek became the cultural centre of Leeuwarden with the library. 5 (1960): 37.211 In 2007 the Leeuwarden Historical Centre was built on the other side of the National Archives.H. This allowed part of the mass on the park side to disappear into the slope while the In 1998 good use was made of the slope to create more storage space. See Figure 82. which serves as an extension of the rampart.When the 1957 competition was held. this was never actually created. 5 (1966): 12-14. In 2004 an air bridge was built between the library and the archives. See Figures 85 and 86. In 1959. However.” Franeker Nieuwsblad. Since 2006 the Oldehoofsterkerkhof has again been used as a square and forms part of the area. The semibasement was excavated to the west. there is still much to be changed at the Boterhoek. See Figure 247. into the rampart. See Figure 68. the connecting road was assumed to be in the place where the ring road was built later.” Friesland no.

From Toekomstbeeld. ABCD re search method ■ 89 .Figure 68: The Provincial Library seen from the Oldehoofsterkerkhof. 1971. Figures 69 and 70: Leeuwarden in 1200 and 1400. with a skating rink being erected. 2008. Photograph by the author. and the National Archives to the right. Structuurplan van de gemeente Leeuwarden.

Figures 71 and 72: Town plans of Leeuwarden. Figures 73 and 74: Details of the 1825 and 1980 plans of Leeuwarden. From Smook. 1984. From Smook. from 1825 and 1980. 1984. 90 ■ A B C D re search method .

Figures 75 and 76: The buildings which used to be on the site of the Provincial Library. and the library during the building works in 1999. ABCD re search method ■ 91 . From Leeuwarden in contrast. 1999.

1995. greenery and one of the pedestrian routes to the Noorder Plantage. 92 ■ A B C D re search method . From Toekomstbeeld 1971 (left) and from Brouwer. with the Noorder Plantage marked. Figure 79: Aerial photograph of Leeuwarden and the surrounding area. 1971. From Brouwer.Figures 77 and 78: Structure plan for Leeuwarden. showing the main access roads. 1995 (right).

From Viruly.Figure 80: Around 1960 the Oldehoofsterkerkhof was used to transfer parcels from vans to couriers or local delivery. 1960. ABCD re search method ■ 93 . The difference in elevation between the square and the Boterhoek is clearly visible.

around 1982. From Viruly. 94 ■ ABCD re search method . 1972.Figure 81: Aerial photograph of the Oldehoofsterkerkhof being used as a car park.

with the entrance and exit to the car park in the centre of Boterhoek. From Tauber. 1967. 2000. 2002. Figure 83: Final situation as designed by architect Fons Verheijen of VVKH in Leiden.Figure 82: Site plan. 2000 Figure 84: Tauber’s 2002 plan for a square at two levels. From Tauber. ABCD re search method ■ 95 . From Tauber.

Side elevation with the semi-basement extension built in 1999. now completely overgrown. 96 ■ A B C D re search method .Figures 85 and 86: Part of the back of the library disappears into the rampart. Photographs by the author. 2008.

ABCD re search method ■ 97 .

4.3

Architect

Pieter Hendricus Tauber was born in April 1927, in the area within the West Friesland ring dyke, where it meets the Alkmaar town centre along the Frieseweg (road). At that time this was part of the municipality of Oudorp.213 The factors which guided his development as an architect included: growing up in a family involved in building construction, his school in the village of Oudorp, which was almost as peaceful as it had been in the nineteenth century, and the rural countryside around Alkmaar. These environs instilled a yearning for clarity and simplicity in him. His mother was good at drawing and sewing and encouraged him to draw, tinker and assemble cardboard models. He started by drawing hollow trees with gnomes living in them, and then gradually went on to drawing houses. His father was a building site supervisor and, at home, also made construction drawings for someone planning to build his own home. Hence he taught his son the basics of the profession and became his most important source of inspiration. In January 2002, Tauber compiled a book of 80 impressive drawings his father made while at technical school when he trained as journeyman bricklayer (1914 to 1917) and then as a master bricklayer.214 When he was nine years old, Piet was given his own small drafting board and used the straightedge and set square to draw houses at scale 1:100. He spent a lot of time drawing and later also took up painting. His time at secondary school (HBS) coincided with the Second World War and he had a lot of time to himself. The family had many books and magazines about architecture and he also borrowed many books from the public library. He witnessed the Amsterdam School, the drive of
213

the De 8 and Opbouw the Wieringermeer area. In 1943 he still draw a romantic cottage. But when the schools were closed September 1944 he designed a secondary school along functionalist lines. In his secondary school essays he always wrote about architecture and explained that at because the oak beams were visible. After reading a 1936 issue of Bouwkundig Weekblad (Architecture Weekly) devoted to Gerrit Rietveld until it fell apart, he appreciated the honesty of Rietveld’s work with its spatial compositions of white planes. In this way he discovered that -isms develop when one aspect of the overall vocabulary of architectural elements is isolated and emphasised. As a result of this development he wanted to familiarise himself it in his work. During his studies at Delft and throughout his career he always took an impressionistic approach, reacting spontaneously to a brief.

At Delft University of Technology
When he started his course at the Architecture Department of the Delft Technical University in 1946, Tauber was keen to start architectural forms and the basics of construction engineering. This approach was based on centuries of practical training. First you had to learn about construction, and then do it. Later, when he became a lecturer and professor he regretted it when this student he was unhappy about it and together with some other students he wrote a letter to architect Jacobus Oud (1890 - 1963) who regularly wrote in De Groene Amsterdammer in favour of modern architecture. He was against the traditionalism advocated by Marinus Grandpré Molière (1883 - 1927) who, was the only professor of architecture in Delft in the immediate post-war

214

I obtained most of this information from meetings with Tauber. Interview with P.H. Tauber, 3 January 2002. I also included his comments of 14 June and 15 August 2002. M. ten Berge and H. de Raad, “Een interview met de Alkmaarse architect Piet Tauber,” Oud Alkmaar no. 2 (2002): 1-20.
re search method

98 ■ A B C D

period. As a follow-up Tauber visited Oud at home in Hillegersberg and also visited Grandpré Molière, who told Tauber that the rest of his studies would not be affected by his course of action. However, Henk Brouwer, as the representative of a group of older students who wanted to introduce a more modern approach slowly, did criticise him severely. Even so, soon after that they invited Tauber to join their study circle, ‘Semper Spatium’. A few years later, when Tauber was secretary of this circle, he and the chairman at that time, Wim Snieder, visited Kees van der Leeuw (1890 - 1973) the then president curator of Delft Technical College, to promote the appointment of more modern professors to the department of architecture. This Vijzelstraat in Amsterdam, with interiors by Bart van der Leck and architect Ben Merkelbach (1901 - 1961) also attended. Some time after that, Cornelis van Eesteren (1897 - 1988) became mentor of the Semper Spatium study circle.215 architecture department and made designs for Nicolaas Lansdorp (late Amsterdamse School), Gerard Holt (1912) (romantic modern) and Johannes Berghoef (1903 - 1994), Granpré Molière and Johannes Van den Broek (1898 - 1978). When studying under Berghoef he appreciated the houses and architecture which became more beautiful over time, under Granpré Molière the theoretical issues, and under Van den Broek dealing with large, modern design briefs. Around the time of the fourth year of his course, he worked for three months in Berghoef’s practice and nine months at Van den Broek’s practice and he also got married in this period. In 1952 Van den Broek asked him if he wanted to represent Delft at a CIAM summer school in Venice. Tauber explained that he would like to go but could not afford it, as he had also registered for a Stylos (society of students in Architecture at the Delft University) trip to Scandinavia. Van den Broek then gave Tauber 200 guilders so he could go on the trip. went to Venice himself to talk about developments in the Netherlands. The architectural history essay he wrote about seventeenth century architect Philips Vingboons (1607 - 1678)
215

helped Tauber with his development as an architect. It helped him appreciate good plans and windows clearly delineated in the wall planes. We can recognise Tauber’s discovery of the ‘Raumplan’ developed by Adolf Loos (1870 - 1930) and Le Corbusier’s (1887 - 1965) ‘Plan Libre’ in his closed plan for the Provincial Library and the open plan for a crematorium in Schagen.

His own office
After completing his studies and period of military service, Tauber set up his practice in 1955 in Alkmaar, in a house of his own design with the his wife, who had trained as a stenography and typewriting teacher, did the bookkeeping for him. He actually completed his Den Dolder in 1950, before graduated. His father worried that this might too much time in addition to the architecture course, so he made the drawings for the window frames. When Tauber went to Alkmaar for Christmas in 1949, his father showed him the preliminary drafts of the window frame drawings. However, over Christmas, Tauber Sr suffered and asthma attack and died, aged 53. He did not live to see his son’s success and to work with him. Shortly after his graduation, Tauber designed 500 houses in the Kuyperwijk district of Delft. While doing his military service he managed to make arrangements so he could keep working. One of the ways he tried to get work was by participating in competitions. There was a regular group of young architects such as Tauber and Greiner who often did well in these competitions. Wining the competition for the Provincial Library in Leeuwarden in 1959 provided the foundations for his architectural practice. Vegter, then Chief Government Architect, commissioned a court building and post Alkmaar. In the summer of 1960, Tauber won a closed competition for the chancery of the Dutch embassy in Washington. In 1961 both the family and the practice moved to the Beatrixlaan in Alkmaar. Again, Tauber wanted to built a in the end he decided to build two separate houses, one of which still do today.
ABCD re search method ■ 99

S.J. Mulder and M. Kloos, Jonge Architecten in de Wederopbouw 1940 1960 (Bussum: Thoth, 1993), 17.

In 1990, the practice had seven architects, including his son Frans, who worked independently on their projects. According to Tauber this was both the strength and the weakness of the practice. The strength was that everyone enjoyed their work, which resulted in high quality designs for the clients. However, the weakness of the practice was that it did not present a uniform image to colleagues and the architectural press. 216 Tauber worked on more than 375 commissions and 30 competitions. His work was inspired by architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright (1876 - 1959) and Edwin Luytens (1869 - 1944). architects such as Arne Jacobsen (1902 - 1971) and Alvar Aalto (1898 - 1976). Tauber stuck closely to the schedules of requirements of the competitions as ‘you didn’t want to lose a project because of that’. He carefully compared the schedule of requirements with his design. practice which he managed jointly with his son, an interior architect. However, Piet Tauber continued to work on some projects which were particularly important to him, such as connecting the Friesland Provincial Library to the adjacent National Archives in Leeuwarden which he had also designed. A unique feature of the Provincial Library is that Tauber was also involved in later interventions. In 1990, in an artcile about the practice, Ids Haagsma wrote that for him there were three elements in Tauber’s work which stood out: the craftsmanship, the straightforward and clear ground plans and the intriguing location of the windows in the exterior walls. He thought that the dynamic elements in particular contributed to the unique nature of the buildings ‘They are largely responsible for the independence, the autonomy of the building.’ 217 In the same booklet, Tauber himself wrote ‘After all, I am a construction engineer, which is why I usually use rectangular shapes. Sometimes I think I’m more of an engineer with a feeling for architecture, than an architect.’ 218

Later, Tauber rarely used a neutral main volume surrounded by exterior walls with an abstract design, as he used for the library. The language of truncated volumes, such as the book tower of the Provincial Library, and the use of copper and brickwork became more recognisable and contemporary elements of his architecture.

216 217 218

De Haan, Tauber Architecten. Bouwen naar opdracht, 11. Ibid., 18. Ibid., 10.
re search method

10 0 ■ A B C D

4.4

Typology

This chapter on the typology related to the Friesland Provincial Library in Leeuwarden is based on a functional an historical typology of library buildings in general, and a functional and spatial typology of the library building as a rectangular box with a Examples from history which were particularly relevant to the development of this type of building. Examples of buildings with elements which recur in the design of the Provincial Library. The library at Luzern which the client noticed in particular For comparison: the Friesland Provincial Library itself. A range of international examples of libraries with corresponding spatial characteristics built in the same period. Some examples of libraries built in the Netherlands between 1940 and 1970. A development of the building type, based on the spatial characteristics of the building of the Provincial Library (i.e. a rectangular box with a In terms of the historical development of library buildings, there Friesland Provincial Library.219 Firstly, the ways in which the books are stored and delivered to readers have changed over time. Initially, the books were presented on lecterns. Later, bookcases were installed over the lecterns. These lecterns were arranged around the room, this arrangement is known as the stall system. Later there was a preference for placing the books in the bookcases in
219

or the recesses along the walls, this arrangement is known as the wall system or ‘Saal-System’ (room system).220 The latter system could be combined with galleries along the bookcases. Pictures of the library of the British Museum in London (1854 - 1856) show a combination of both systems. See Figures 88 and 89. When the number of books grew, a distinction had to be made between books on open shelves and those in closed stacks. function dates from 1816 and was designed by Leopold della Santa. This resulted in a division into: a reading room; a catalogue/lending area, and book stack for storage.221 See Figure 87. The stacks with the bookcases gradually developed and the cast iron (later steel) mezzanine stairs integrated in the cabinets. These systems were also selected for the libraries designed around 1960. In 1977, when designing the university library in Groningen, he wrote: As a matter of principle, none of the sketches for the stacks shows a completely different structure, such as load-bearing cabinets in their own shell. This approach was actually used by the old storage buildings of 1898 and 1919 which had to be demolished. In the purely functionalist period, it was an expression of the stacks section. In Germany we find examples of this, using steel Pohlschröder bookcases. These were characteristic for the 1950s and 60s. This certainly does not help the flexibility of the building as a whole.222

For a survey of typologies, see: A. Kortüm and E. Schmidt, “Bibliotheken,” in: J. Durm, Handbuch der Architektur. Vierter Teil. 6. Halbband: Bebäude für Erziehung, Wissenschaft und Kunst. 4. Heft: Gebäude für Sammlungen und Ausstellungen (Darmstadt: Diehl, 1893), 41-173; Pevsner, A History of Building Types, 91-110 (Libraries); R. Stromeyer, Europäische Bibliotheksbauten seit 1930 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1962).

220 221

Pevsner, A History of Building Types, 96. M. Brawne, Bibliotheken. Libraries (Teufen: Niggli, 1970), 18. 222 W.R.H. Koops and Ch.J.J. Klaver, Het nieuwe gebouw van de Universiteitsbibliotheek te Groningen (Groningen: Groningen University, 1987), 41-42.
ABCD re search method ■ 101

and also the Reading Room of the British Museum. “Het ontwerp van de Universiteitsbibliotheek. The central reading rooms with their high ceilings became more intimate. This type was particularly popular in the United States.H. Intimacy is limited to the space between the lamp shade and the desk.223 Tauber illustrated this with some sketches. Tauber. 172-183. storage was mostly in archival cabinets in closed. in 1958 to 1959. This approach is developed further in the sketch designs for the Groningen University Library. The cabinets are on rails and slide so only limited space for access aisles is needed. there was also an increasing demand for open shelves. between 1964 102 ■ A B C D re search method Figure 87: Plan of a library designed by Della Santa in 1816 with the three separate functions. wetenschap en cultuur (Groningen: Library of the University. 1893. after the initial increased separation between the stacks and lending desk. 223 P. from the catalogue room.” in: L. Adapted by the author.. Het nieuwe gebouw van de Universiteitsbibliotheek te Groningen. see Figure 91. It was only during the construction. The two libraries in Paris. environmentally-controlled rooms. Less than ten years later he was at the forefront of the move in Swedish architecture to functionalism. albeit in the background. the expressiveness of the rooms. was eventually also applied to special library collections. the stairs to the upper floor are located in the double-height catalogue room. Boekenopslag = stacks. apart from the storage. monumental rooms with walls covered in several tiers of bookcases. Gradually the stairs and double-height space move from the centre. There was a notable reduction in the degree of monumentality. It is interesting to note that the renowned Swedish architect Gunnar Asplund still used this approach between 1918 and 1927 when he built the public library in Stockholm. but removed in 1999. There. After that. and 1966. In the middle of that large room you have these tiny people at the reading tables. Bibliotheek.” in: Koops. 41-42. See Figure 90. that the design was changed from a doubleheight reading room with book gallery to reading rooms on the upper floor around the double-height space. Geneviéve and the Bibliothéque Nationale. In fact.This system was used in the Provincial Library in 1966. Tauber. towards the edge. Engels et al. to my designs for the Provincial Library in Leeuwarden. Also: P. leeszaal = reading room. In recently built libraries this is sometimes referred to as the supermarket model. This history was also relevant. catalogi = catalogues. which was made as compact as possible. However. In 1990. the control of the conditions under which the books are stored became more important. from Durm. 1990).H. the legislation introduced for storage conditions. Tauber wrote: What I notice in 19th century libraries is the emphasis put on the temple of science. have large. There was a trend towards neutral layouts which could be divided in many different ways. . “De bibliotheek als gebouw. Later.J.

From Brawne.Figures 88 and 89: The reading room in the British Museum. ABCD re search method ■ 103 . 2004.

Figure 90: The library as a supermarket.1990. D = St. 1990. E = Functionalism. based on an American example. 10 4 ■ A B C D re search method . mid-20th century.18th century. Geneviève. Paris 19th century. From Barbieri. C = Baroque library 17th . Figure 91: Spatial development of libraries according to Tauber. B = Lorenzo library in Florence. 1997. A = Medieval monastery library in Hereford 16th century. F = Development 1970 . From Engels.

1990. ABCD re search method ■ 105 . From Caldenby.95: Asplund’s library in Stockholm.Figures 92 .

From Thompson. 106 ■ A B C D re search method .98: Library in Gent by H.Figures 96 . 1963. van der Velde.

228 S. Alvar Aalto (Barcelona: Editorial Gustavo Gill. see: O.226 Aalto’s later library designs often feature fan-shaped rooms (Wolfsburg 1962. Vijfentwintig jaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek. Thompson. Rovaniemi 1965 . Dreyer. It is accessed through stairs and a small balcony.A. for the walls in the entrance public areas. See Figures 92 to 95. A number of rooms are arranged around a courtyard garden.” La Technique Des Travaux. Hultin.1968. The Swedish Architectural Rieview no 8 (1961): 165-167 229 Huizenga. The reading rooms are reached from the central hall. Otaniemi 1965 . The books are arranged around them. The way of entering the library. In terms of the typology. C. 225 A. 1/2 (1954): pp. no. See Figures 111 to 113. 25-32. Kokkola 1969 and Mount Angel. Daylight enters the central hall through tall windows. Visitors enter the building by stairs and then reach a central hall. daylight. an element of Tauber’s design for the library in Leeuwarden. Stone is used as the exterior wall cladding.1940).229 This building also had a rectangular plan. lending desk and some tables. 197.” Architektur. the following elements stand out: the rectangular plan.1927) by architect Asplund (1885 . B. when designing the plan for the library in Viipuri he combined two rectangles. An earlier example. The stacks are located in an elongated volume which is the tallest and most visible part of the building. This is where the catalogues are found. Oregon.1969. 1967 . Caldenby and O. turn 90 degrees and then enter the main hall. After visiting the Zentralbibliotheek in Luzern the client suggested it as an example for the Provincial Library in Leeuwarden. “Bibliothek I Östersund. Spens. the book tower as the expression of the volume. “Stadsbibliotek I Solna. straightforward elevation designs and use of materials are similar to Tauber’s design. 1963). Fleig. the neutral design of the elevations.224 The central hall with a corridor around it. The entrance is placed asymmetrically in the building. Cederlöf. “Bibliothek te Luzern. After crossing a hall with cloakroom. The roof has daylight to reach deep into the building. the central hall with 224 plaster and bare wood are also recognisable in the design for the Provincial Library.225 See Figures 96 to 98. Two of these. Alvar Aalto’s designs were a major source of inspiration to Dutch architecture after the Second World War and also Aalto worked on the library in Viipuri (Viborg) from 1927 to 1935. In addition to Aalto’s library in Viipuri. The largest volume again contains a large hall with stairs leading to the upper level. as well as a limited number of tables.1940) designed by Henry van der Velde (1863 . See Figures 114 to 118. visitors reach the central hall with the catalogues.228 See Figures 103 to 106 and 107 to 110. 226 M. are worth mentioning because their basic rectangular plan. 1990) 92-102. 115-133 and: Brawne. Seinäjoki 1963. Asplund (Stockholm: Stockholm Arkitektur Förlag & Grinko Press. Library Buildings of Britain and Europe.S. Libraries. the central hall with space.Earlier. See Figures 99 to 102. Library Buildings of Britain and Europe (London: Butterworths.227 However. 41 (1952): 733 and: Thompson. The Swedish Architectural Rieview no. I will discuss the design and its construction in the following chapters. 1981). The storage of the books in a separately designed building volume which lends expression to the interior became more common after the introduction of multi-tier shelving in the 1950s. Frölén. Here are some drawings and photographs of the Friesland Provincial Library to support the typological comparisons. 227 K. 2 (1966): 58-62. 1994). several other Scandinavian libraries were featured in the press. central hall. Bibliotheken.1970). Visitors go up the stairs.” Bouw no. U. “La Bibliothèque Centrale de Lucerne (Suisse). in Solna and Östersund. Tauber mentioned a building which provided some of the inspiration for the Friesland Provincial Library: the library in Stockholm (1918 . the entrance and the central hall which is approached by going around the corner. 22-29.1957) also had a book tower with a square plan. the library in Gent (1935 . Zentralbibliotheek Luzern.” Architektur. Viipuri Library 1927-1935 Alvar Aalto (London: Academic Editions. catalogues and a few tables are elements we also recognise in the design of the Friesland Provincial Library. ABCD re search method ■ 107 .

1962. From Spens. 1994 and Stromeyer.Figures 99 to 102: Viipuri library by Alvar central hall with stairs. 108 ■ A B C D re search method .

Figures 103 to 106: The library in ABCD re search method ■ 109 .

Figures 107 to 110: The library in 110 ■ A B C D re search method .

Figures 111 to 113: Luzern library and plans of the ground ABCD re search method ■ 111 .

2000. Tauber’s archive (photographs) and from Tauber. 112 ■ A B C D re search method .Figures 114 to 118: Provincial Library in Leeuwarden shortly after its completion.

1972. From Wild.Figures 119 to 122: The library in Marburg. ABCD re search method ■ 113 .

From Wild. 1972. 114 ■ A B C D re search method .Figures 123 to 126: The library in Braunschweig.

8 (1968) also covered a circular library in Utrecht. 233 “Einer der letzten Bauten von Arne Jacobsen †. Jhaveri.231 See Figures 123 to 126. Münster. 236 Nijenhuis en Ebbinge. However. Kiel. Barbieri and L. 234 235 F. ABCD re search method ■ 115 . 232 “Nationale en Universiteitsbibliotheek te Jeruzalem. 8 (1968) featured a library in Wassenaar. 16 (1968): 595-599. especially. Two smaller libraries are excellent examples from Scandinavia: the library in Rødovre in Denmark (1967) by Arne Jacobsen and the library of Växjö in Sweden (1963 . with a tall book tower at the centre of an open. Bücherei. built in 1969 by Kraaijvanger. 1958). The reading rooms open onto the double-height space. 1972). in the this period there are hardly any library designs in the Netherlands similar to the type of library which Tauber created in Leeuwarden. by van Nijenhuis and Ebbinge. Knol and Maas.234 See Figures 136 to 139. 26 (1961): 524-526. van Duin. the stacks and reading rooms and the recesses in the elevations have the closed character mentioned by Tauber in 1990. 36 (1969): 1366-1373. The interior is less rigidly arranged. Hannover and.” Bouw no. the clearest similarities between the Friesland Provincial Library and other libraries are found when we look at libraries in other countries.1966) by Erik Uluots. Design & Planning. Kuit. Few libraries were built and discussed in the literature between 1940 and 1970.” Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 220-223. The service areas are arranged along an exterior wall near the double-height space and the central hall. H. Ronner. 230 E. 1997). Zweden. 56-61. 238 Apart from the libraries mentioned above.Many of the elements employed in the Friesland Provincial Library can also be recognised in libraries in other countries. This structure is also apparent in the plan of the Friesland Provincial Library after the renovation of 1999. while Bouwkundig Weekblad magazine no.. The former building has a main hall at the central of the rectangular 233 The library at Växjö has an apparently straightforward square plan with rooms around a central double-height space. 202-205. The National and University Library in Jerusalem (1961) by Avraham Alexandroni also has some remarkable similarities with the Friesland Provincial Library. built in 1968. The Phillips Exeter library (1965 . Bouw magazine no. 237 “Bibliotheekgebouw Katholieke Universiteit te Nijmegen.” Bouwkundig Weekblad no.235 The central hall as a distribution area has regained the monumentality realised in 1927 by Asplund in Stockholm. Libraries for Schools and Universities (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. (Basel: Birkhaüser.” Bouw no. 24-25. Design & Planning. The library in Enschede. The library of Braunschweig University of Technology (1968) by Wilhelm. However.236 See Figures 145 to 147.238 See Figures 131 to 135. Van Putten. 223-228.237 See Figures 148 to 152. has a concept comparable to the Friesland Provincial Library. This symmetry is also apparent in the exterior. Kraemer also has a rectangular plan incorporating a central hall with stairs leading to a balcony. designed in 1967 by G. Nicolai in 1955 was discussed in detail in Mevissen. Barth. See Figures 127 to 130. “Openbare bibliotheek en leeszaal in Assen. designed by C. Wild. the library of Marburg University. 231 Wild. Plannenmap bibliotheken (Delft: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde. and S. The library of Nijmegen University.232 The simple arrangement of volumes with a single structure on the roof and the stone cladding underline the neutrality of the building. See Figures 140 to 144. “Bibliotheek te Växjö. Mainz. Public Library Building (Essen: Heyer. Remarkably. Only the library in Assen. 1987). 292-301 and: U. 8 (1968): 136-137.230 See Figures 119 to 122. The rectangular plan features two courtyards and the central hall with single balcony. Uluots. has a similar simplicity in terms of its plan and design of the elevations. Kahn Complete Work 1935-1974.1971) by Louis Kahn (1901 1974) in New Hampshire is another example of a symmetrical square plan.” Bauen und Wohnen no. Louis I. especially Germany. Hauptbiblothek in Rødovre. 5 (1971). rectangular plan. W. Libraries for Schools and Universities. Stuttgart. German examples: the university libraries of Karlsruhe.

116 ■ A B C D re search method . From ‘Nationale en Universiteitsbibliotheek te Jeruzalem’. 1961.Figures 127 to 130: University library in Jerusalem.

Figures 131 to 135: Rødovre library. 1971. Hauptbiblothek in Rødovre’. From ‘Einer der letzten Bauten von Arne Jacobsen †. ABCD re search method ■ 117 .

1968.Figures 136 to 139: The library in Växjö with an open plan ground interior courtyard on the upper From Uluots. 118 ■ A B C D re search method .

I. Barbieri.Figures 140 to 144: The Phillips Exeter library by L. ABCD re search method ■ 119 . Kahn in New Hampshire. Brownlee. 1992. From Büttiker. 1993. 1997 and photographs by the author. 1991.

1968. From Nijenhuis.Figures 145 to 147: The library in Assen. 120 ■ A B C D re search method .

ABCD re search method ■ 121 . From ‘Bibliotheekgebouw Katholieke Universiteit te Nijmegen’. 1969.Fragment of the plan High-rise section Figures 148 to 152: Nijmegen University Library.

Left: plan of the ground 122 ■ A B C D re search method drawings from Barbieri. . 1997.Figures 153 to 157: The library in Zeewolde.

However. Increasingly.1972) for the National Library in Berlin (1964 . Bibliotheken.241 The only option to expand the Friesland Provincial Library substantially. see Figure 86. later libraries by Aalto and the University Library in Cambridge (1968) by James Stirling (1926 . without affecting the original volume. The square framework was replaced by an irregular plan within which the functions obtained their own structured shapes. The freedom which Van Velsen incorporated in the plan of the Zeewolde library is implemented in the cross-section here. Plannenmap bibliotheken. ABCD re search method ■ 123 . 106-109.239 The building of the Friesland Provincial Library was extensively refurbished in 1999. Plannenmap bibliotheken. the buildings were designed in sections. but is interpreted as a shell within which the functions were given shape and represented by different materials. and irregular shapes such as in the designs by Hans Sharoun (1893 . it was completely redesigned. The square plan returns. in this case it provides a framework rather than a rigidly imposed shape.1978).1995) designed by Dominique Perrault on a rectangular plan. Barbieri and Van Duin. 100-103 and 114-119.240 See Figures 153 to 157. See Figures 158 to 162. This discussion of typology is concluded with the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris (1989 .1992). Essentially. The rectangular shell was the framework within which the functions were relocated. 24-29.Later designs rarely feature the simplicity of these geometric plans. 86-91. Barbieri and Van Duin. This assignment is comparable with the library in Zeewolde which was designed by Koen van Velzen (1990). Libraries. 239 240 241 Brawne. with the exception of four towers at the corners. Perrault accommodated the different parts of the building below the raised ground level. was to extend the basement.

Figures 158 to 162: The Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris by D. Perrault. Photographs by the author, 2001. Drawings from Barbieri, 1997 and Sens, 2002.
124 ■ A B C D re search method

4.5

Design process

See Figures 165 and 166. many differences between them. He commented ‘My familiarity in architectural styles, provided me with the means of expression to make each building unique where possible, in relation to the brief and the site.’ 242 Later he rarely used the simple structure of a rectangular box with stone elevations, with holes in a certain pattern, as used for the library in Leeuwarden. However, the elevations of the building had similarities with other designs of the period. See Figures 163 and 164. In 1958, Tauber participated in his twelfth competition: the Friesland Provincial Library. As we saw in the preceding section. He was inspired by several architects of his time, especially those from Scandinavia. The competition stated: Motto 271258. The placement on the site is good and the arrangement of the mass of the building in relation to the surroundings is more than acceptable. In functional terms, the building is good with respect to the library services. The intended openness of the library operations around the closed stacks will probably lead to objections. The stacks have a good location and form. The entrance, central hall and reception area cannot be seen from the lending desk. The entrance to the Buma Library is not attractive but could probably be improved. The construction and structure are clear and simple. The external appearance is a clear and fair reflection of the overall structure of the building, with a clear separation between the lower section, upper section and stacks. 243 The design had the motto: 271258. Tauber explained this as follows ‘27: the year I was born; 12: the 12th competition I entered; 58: 1958 (the year of the competition).’ 244 In this design, Tauber placed the elongated building along Boterhoek. The plans for the two levels showed a linear approach and the entrance was reached via a corner, along steps and balconies. The public areas and rooms were placed in the lower front of the building. In the centre behind that the design envisaged a strip to accommodate the other functions were located at the back. The lending and reading rooms were envisaged on the upper level, at the front, with service rooms at the back. The elongated volume was interrupted by the section for the stacks, which extended to three levels, in contrast to the rest of the building. The stacks were designed as a vertical structure, like the library in Bonn. The horizontal level has a recessed plinth of stone and brick. The glass upper section extended slightly over this. The projecting stone stacks block was clearly recognisable at the back. Tauber completely revised his design for the second competition. This time the motto was ‘Peristylium : a range of columns around a courtyard or the area itself.’ This provided the key theme of the building. The jury’s comments on the second design were:

242 243

De Haan and Haagsma, Tauber Architecten. Bouwen naar opdracht, 18 “Prijsvraag voor bibliotheekgebouw te Leeuwarden,” Forum no. 2 (1959): 34-44.

244

Interviews with P.H. Tauber, 3 January 2002 and 6 March 2002.
ABCD re search method ■ 125

The urban planning aspects are good, and so is the main design structure. The building has a very efficient structure, the work areas are cleverly arranged around the lending desk. The reception area is also well laid out and thoughtfully connected to the central hall which can be monitored from the lending desk. The location of the stacks relative to the adjoining areas is particularly good. The Buma section is also laid out effectively. The difference in level between the two parts of the open shelves could be a disadvantage although it does not conflict with the schedule of requirements. The structure of the stacks is not clear. The spatial aspects of the interior are harmonic and refined. The exterior is unpretentious. The exterior walls form a shall which does not emphasise the load-bearing structure. These exterior walls will require careful detailing. The overall nature of the building is inviting. This design stands out from the others because of its harmonic concept which combines a good urban planning approach, high efficiency and sophisticated design.245 Tauber’s starting point for the design for the second competition was to arrange the required functions on one level where possible, up high enough to give a view across the rampart. main volume had become more compact. The main shape was now a rectangular box from which a smaller rectangular volume rose up like a tower. The horizontal divisions in the exterior walls had gone. The were replaced by a stone-like shell behind which the various rooms were placed. A small subbasement with stacks and service areas was added. The stacks in the tower were still vertically structured while the stacks in the subbasement were horizontally arranged. The architect used the main by the stairs, for functions used by library users such as the open shelves, various rooms and lending desk. Only a small part of the upper mezzanine, was used for library visitors. Another part was occupied by the void of the double-height ground
245

as a clearly recognisable volume. It is interesting to note that the atrium was enclosed by glazing on both daylight far into the building. See Figures 167 to 169, 223 and 224. In 1959 the Provincial Council asked Tauber to develop his design in detail. A construction committee was formed at the request of Douma, the librarian. Douma ‘You have to start by trusting the architect you select and the librarian you have’.246 The initial meetings with Design, in 1960.247 Between January 1960 and spring 1961 this design was detailed further. In the following long wait for government approval, Douma and Tauber had many long discussions. The Final Design drawings show few differences with the initial draft with the abstract shell, and the main entrance was little changed. The book tower was slightly taller and now fully incorporated into the building. The interior and exterior walls of this rectangular volume were clad in stone. The main entrance was moved slightly closer to the centre of the facade. The plans were changed more extensively. A semibasement was added across the full area. This mostly housed horizontal stacks and some service areas. The layout of the main tower was placed centrally in the volume, and the main reading room was relocated. Some of the double-height spaces were closed up to create more mezzanine. On the rear of the ground central hall was closed off by a wall. The mezzanine now had galleries on two sides of the main double-height space. The corners of the stacks tower were truncated and only the outer surface was clad in copper. Its volume became less recognisable in the interior. See Figures 170 to 175, 223 and 224. As I mentioned earlier, Douma had some concerns about the competition. Later he wrote:

246

“Het winnende ontwerp in een prijsvraag voor een bibliotheekgebouw te Leeuwarden,” Bouwkundig Weekblad no. 2 (1960): 37.
re search method

Huizenga, Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek, 20. 247 See the additional set of drawings for the book by Tauber, De provinciale Bibliotheek Friesland. 40 jaar ontwerp- en bouwgeschiedenis, handed over at 3 January 2002, incorporated in Figures 231 and 232. “Final Design” is a term used by architects. The stages in a project are: Preliminary Design, Final Design, and Preparing for Construction.

126 ■ A B C D

Figures 163 and 164: The Provincial Library (1958 - 1966) by Tauber and De Doelen in Rotterdam (1955 - 1966) by E.H. en H.M. Kraaijvanger. From Tauber, 2000 and Van Toorn, 1992.

First of all, a schedule of requirements should be defined which lists all the rooms and areas required, with a sketch of the operations in the organisation which should include information about the arrangement of the rooms and their dimensions. Secondly, this schedule of requirements should be implemented in a design. You could say that the first task is the business of the librarian, and the second of the architect. And in general that is correct. However, one could claim, as has been done repeatedly in the literature on library buildings, that to get the best results both tasks have to be left to the librarian and architect working together. As a librarian, it is in discussions with the architect that you are likely to discover how you really want it to be. Translating the schedule of requirements into a design is definitely the architect’s job. However, in most cases they will be making one sketch after another, especially when working on a building as complicated as a large public library. However, even if there have been extensive discussions beforehand it is almost impossible to avoid misunderstandings which are revealed in the design. It is therefore important to leave the option to change the design or the schedule of requirement open for as long

as possible, as long as both parties agree. And that is perfectly feasible when cooperating in an open manner. When working on it and discussing it, hopefully, we will develop a design to satisfy both parties.248

1964, further changes were made at Douma’s request. These changes can be seen in the as-built plan of 1966, discussed changes did detract from the initial clear layout of the building.249 See Figures 176 to 181, 223 and 224. A unique aspect of the Provincial Library is that Tauber was involved in all later changes to the building. The importance of this in the way the building has changed over time is discussed in the next few chapters.

248

Douma, “Een nieuw gebouw voor de Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland en voor de Buma-Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden,” 214. 249 Interviews with P.H. Tauber, 3 January 2002.
ABCD re search method ■ 127

plans. 2000. From Tauber.Figure 165: Design for the competition in 1958. 128 ■ A B C D re search method .

ABCD re search method ■ 129 . From Tauber. 2000. section and elevations.Figure 166: Design for the competition in 1958.

130 ■ A B C D re search method .Figure 167: Design for the competition in 1959. From Tauber. 2000. plans.

2000. plan of the mezzanine and sections. ABCD re search method ■ 131 .Figure 168: Design for the competition in 1959. From Tauber.

2000. From Tauber.Figure 169: Design for the competition in 1959. elevations. 132 ■ A B C D re search method .

Figures 170 and 171: The ABCD re search method ■ 133 .

Figures 172 and 173: The 134 ■ A B C D re search method basement and ground .

2000. From Tauber.Figures 174 and 175: The mezzanine and sections. ABCD re search method ■ 135 .

plans of the basement and ground 136 ■ A B C D re search method .Figures 176 and 177: Design as built in 1966.

plans of the mezzanine and sections. 2000. ABCD re search method ■ 137 . From Tauber.Figures 178 and 179: Design as built in 1966.

elevations. From Tauber. 138 ■ A B C D re search method . 2000.Figures 180 and 181: Design as built in 1966.

There was enough space for tours of the building and arranging the collections effectively.000 to 60. 20. the librarian. In 1967 Tauber finished the plans for the new National Archives building next to the Provincial Library. 1.” Leeuwarder Courant. 1967.5 Building: what was meant to be In September 1966 the building of the Friesland Provincial Library was taken into use and it was officially opened on 20 February 1967. 1966 and see also: “Naast materiële het culturele. The costs of building the library amounted to 2. ABCD re search method ■ 139 . October 7.” Leeuwarder Courant. By 1990 the number of loans had doubled.” Franeker Nieuwsblad.000 euro and 250.18 million euro) excluding the cost of the building services plant and furnishings (approx.en bouwgeschiedenis.6 million guilders (approx.000.250 There was still a need for a link between the Friesland Provincial Library and the National Archives. De Provinciale Bibliotheek Friesland. Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek.252 250 “De Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland in zijn nieuwe paleis. 251 “Nieuwe Prov. February 20.251 Douma. According to him it fulfilled all expectations. Bibliotheek is vanmiddag geopend. 40 jaar ontwerp. February 20. and in the first year the number of loans increased by 32%. 23. 1967 and Tauber. Nieuwe Prov. 252 Huizenga. Bibliotheek is vanmiddag geopend. 204. from 30. was happy with the building.000 euro).

during this period. So far. Compared with the situation today. Here. 254 Tauber. These stacks were fitted with a small vertical storage system which could be expanded if required. This part of the building was externally clad with copper and became ‘the expression’ of a tower in terms of both volume and materials. Douma asked the architect to make some major changes to the design.000 m2. De Provinciale Bibliotheek Friesland. give a great feeling of intimacy. “De bibliotheek als gebouw.500 m3. Mr Douma.” in: Engels. The exterior walls with recessed windows.1 Space The building was constructed on a site of 3. Tauber wrote about this: We only had the detailed discussions.253 See Figure 182. the building corresponded with the drawings of the Final Design in 1960. Bibliotheek. in an independent block. While awaiting government approval.890 m2. wetenschap en cultuur. Further stacks were provided in the basement. had always wanted. . 140 ■ A B C D re search method Figures 182 and 183: The volume structure of the Friesland Provincial Library as seen from the rampart. as seen from inside the building.254 253 Tauber. 40 jaar ontwerp. 8. Two elements had key roles in the rectangular plan: the central lending area marked by columns (the peristylium) and the stacks of the Buma department. which the librarian. and even during the construction.5. the built area was 1. 172-183.en bouwgeschiedenis. a horizontally split system of bookcases was used. that was all incredibly relaxed. The single building mass included a ground floor (1. Tauber archives. the floor area was 5.120 m2 and the volume 20.65 metres above street level) with a semibasement and mezzanine.

Additional provisions were made for library users. However. on the ground floor most of the openness was lost due to the installation of the walls with catalogue cabinets. From Huizenga.Figures 184 to 187: The double-height lecture room. the central hall with the catalogue balcony around the double-height area. 1991 (photograph at the top left) and Tauber archives. Only the central hall still had a double-height area around which the study rooms were arranged on the upper level. on closer inspection of the first floor we notice that some of the rooms are no longer double-height as originally envisaged. More area was provided for study rooms for library users. See Figures 182 to 187. However. The rooflight domes allowed daylight to enter the central hall. such as a canteen. the workshops in the daylight. At first sight there are not that many changes to the semibasement and the first floor. The entire open shelves section was now accommodated on this floor. with open connections to each other. ABCD re search method ■ 141 .

78 m (54 x 70 mm). Tauber discussed the grid based on the system used for the stacks: As a matter of principle. no.12 m and 20 x 70 mm = 1.30 metres x 4 = 5. This approach was actually used by the old storage buildings of 1898 and 1919 which had to be demolished. Tauber based his design on 70 millimetres. resulting in an overall width of 29.4 m. beams and floors.257 In 1977. 41-42. Het nieuwe gebouw van de Universiteitsbibliotheek te Groningen. But this certainly does not benefit the flexibility of the building as a whole. I just like the number seven’. the bookcases in the stacks determined the structure of the plan. 12 x 70 mm = 840 mm. The piers between them are 4 x 70 mm = 280 mm or 6 x 70 mm = 420 mm.18 m plus twice 3. or as he saw it.18 m (74 x 70 mm). 100 (1962): 60-64. In the purely functionalist period. as a multiple of 300 mm. The open and closed parts were divided into multiples of 70 mm. “De bibliotheek als gebouw. using steel Pohlschröder bookcases. Hence. The width amounted to 4 times 5. Roosenburg in Zijlstra. Bibliotheek. Borneman.1 or 5. The bookcases resulted in the following pattern: 1 bookcase + 1 aisle = 1. when designing the Groningen University library. The smaller span of 3. 256 255 Tauber.5.20 metres. such as load-bearing cabinets in their own shell. “Biblotheque de Bonn. it was an expression of the stacks section.40 m. Today I would simply have used 5. 257 P.18 metres was used for the building. albeit with a small correction by Tauber of 20 mm. The vertical grid is also based on 70 mm. wetenschap en cultuur. none of the sketches for the stacks shows a completely different structure. re search method Tauber. However. De Provinciale Bibliotheek Friesland. and the round and square columns measured 420 mm. Openings: 8 x 70 mm = 560 mm.30 metres.78 m was related to the book tower. element 4. 40 jaar ontwerp. 1. Compare the floors of the archives of the ring building of the National Insurance Bank by D. Vago and F. the horizontal grid was reduced by 20 mm to obtain 5. Bouwen in Nederland 1940-1970. Hence. The 20 millimetre difference was due to the division of the exterior faces of the walls. 142 ■ A B C D . Amsterdam.1: National Insurance Bank. 23.” L’Architecture D’Aujourdhui. Alemagne. 16 x 70 mm = 1.256 The University Library in Bonn (1958) with selfsupporting Pohlschröder cabinets was referred to as an example. He then commented on the way the stacks were built: Was it such a good idea to accommodate the stacks in a tower? Was a light-weight steel structure for the stacks a good choice in terms of climate stability? Were the reading rooms.255 The dimensions of the building were determined by the functional sizes of the bookcases and aisles in the basement and the division of the exterior walls into open and closed areas. actually of comfortable dimensions with an adequately stable climate? 258 This last comment referred both to the buildings which inspired him and to his library in Leeuwarden. In Germany we find examples of this.” in: Engels. The length of the building was 12 times 51. 4 to 5 m high with equally high glass walls. The original storage system in the stacks tower was based on a vertical system with bookcases.en bouwgeschiedenis.8 m plus twice the wall thickness (420 mm). a grid of 5. on 7 centimetres ‘It’s nothing complicated. resulting in an overall length of 63 metres. 180.12 m.2 Structure The load-bearing structure of the Provincial Library is a straightforward combination of columns. These were characteristic for the 1950s and 60s. 258 Koops. See Figures 188 to 193.

Figures 188 to 190: Plan of the ground and basement. drawings of the internal structure of the ground ABCD re search method ■ 143 . by the author.

Figure 192: Part of the cross-section of the central hall. Tauber 14 4 ■ A B C D re search method . Adapted by the author.Figure 191: Cross-section with dimensions. Adapted by the author from drawings by Tauber dated 3 March 1993.

From Erkamp. 1981.Figure 193: Wall dimensions. ABCD re search method ■ 145 . The window frames on the left appear to be white. Tauber Figures 194 and 195: The apparently random division of the elevation.

The different window sizes resulted in different light intensities on the reveals. Tauber. However a magazine article from 1960 claimed: ‘The relatively narrow steel windows exterior face. The different widths of the windows in the 259 walls gave the simple volume a playful appearance. completed in 1966. “Van Postkantoor naar ABN AMRO-bank.259 The original concept of the peristylium was construction and not all Furthermore. The as-built design. 25 May 1999.” Bouw no. resulted in reveals of approx.3 Materials The changes during the process made the concept behind the building less apparent. which are painted white. Hence Tauber chose different materials for the tower as it was now more apparent as a volume projecting above the roof. according to Piet Tauber. 5 (1960): 140-143. The sills. see also: N. inside the double-height space. The tall. However. For example. 1981). 146 ■ A B C D . which [ …]. It was no longer necessary to extend the exterior cladding onto the interior walls of the double-height space. In August 2002 Piet Tauber told me that he had probably been initially thinking of white window frames as he used those in all his other buildings. 8 (1968): 141.” BNA Regio Alkmaar. narrow windows. In the notes by the architect on page 143. However. The thin stone cladding meant that it was possible to install the window frames close to the exterior face of the walls. the book tower was originally envisaged as an independent element. van Hoeken.H. let a lot of light in but also created intimacy.5.” Bouwkundig Weekblad. See Figures 196 to 202. these were key factors to obtaining a good result. The original plan was to use dark stone for both the interior and exterior of the rectangular block. 350 mm. the contractor was not supervisor was ineffective.261 See Figures 255 and 256. See Figures 194 and 195.260 When. 14. “Jazz in Architecture. no. (September 1960): 110-115. surrounded by deep reveals. 262 “Besloten prijsvraag bibliotheek Leeuwarden. vak van ontmoetingen. used a limited range of materials. 261 P. This resulted in an attractive variation. (Alkmaar: Architectenbureau Tauber. The exterior walls of the Provincial Library were clad with shell limestone and the book tower with copper. Gmelig and F. Then. 260 “Provinciale bibliotheek van Friesland te Leeuwarden. glazing copper. The walls had a thickness of 630 mm (9 x 70 mm) and the window frames close to the outer face and the range of vertical dimensions resulted in an unusual daylight entry. This corresponded to the trend at the time and the design still looked modern later. as now. re search method D. The tall window frames were made of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and painted dark grey-blue. Architectuur. Haskel. the library always had blue-grey window frames.” Architectural Forum. in 2002.’ 262 A photograph from 1968 gives a different impression. B. Tauber converted the Alkmaar main post feature to give the building a new appearance. it was enclosed by original large double-height space was divided into two smaller ones. It was later decided to use copper cladding for the exterior and a plaster interior. The dark blue-grey of the window frames reinforces the impression of windows as randomly placed apertures in a plane. Tauber mentioned this in several publications about the library and was not particularly happy with it. According to Tauber it had always been planned like that. Erkamp.

2002. Photograph by the author. Tauber archives. ABCD re search method ■ 147 .Figures 196 and 197: Roof edge with copper cladding.

December 1964. Tauber drawing.Figures 198 and 199: Copper sills. Photograph by the author. 148 ■ A B C D re search method . 2002.

The frame head detail shows the gap for ventilation. Parts of the frames are hidden by the cladding. Horizontal cross-section. Tauber December 1964. frame head Vertical cross-section.Vertical cross-section. frame jambs ABCD re search method ■ 149 . sill Figures 200 to 202: Details of the window frames in the stone-clad wall.

Figures 203 and 204: Ceiling grid and daylight in the central hall. 2008. 150 ■ A B C D re search method . Photographs by the author.

A grid of planks painted in a light colour central hall. 2008 and the lower by Tauber. This gave the impression of a single. Upper photograph by the author. Both the hall and the rooms around it gave the impression of being very light. See Figures 203 and 204. Figures 205 and 206: Baluster along the edge of the double-height space of the central hall with wooden cladding and main entrance with wood ceiling.The load-bearing structure of the interior included concrete round columns had an abrasive-blasted rectangular columns were plastered. also used in the Scandinavian libraries. See Figures 205 and 206. ABCD re search method ■ 151 . acoustic panels (Bruynzeel Antisone). On the upper hardwood was central hall and also served as a seat along the perimeter of the double-height space. handrails. was used for the stairs. extended surface which allowed the daylight to enter. cladding and ceilings. as they were incorporated into the walls. access stairs and central hall were covered with cork. The plaster with a rough entrance. The bare hardwood.

At the time. 24. and their use was abandoned. Tauber archives. 1 December 1964. the stacks did not have any plant to condition the drawings included conveyor belts in the stacks but these were not installed. Photograph by the author. P. See specification drawing 55 B.H. However. However. In general the building was passively ventilated with fresh air.4 Services Initially the use heating was considered for the Friesland Provincial Library. Initially they were taken to the lift by scooter (non motorised). the library staff working in the stacks were embarrassed to be seen using the scooters. Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek. which they associated with children’s toys.5. 2002.263 263 Huizenga. in 1966 the building was heating system with radiators. re search method Figure 207: Inner face of the exterior walls with the recesses which used to contain radiators behind panelling. It took little time to take the books from the semibasement to the lending desk. See Figure 207. 152 ■ A B C D . Some rooms such as the stacks had mechanical ventilation.

From 1968. p. When new accommodation was built for the Provincial Council and for the training college the lecture room was no longer needed for these purposes. However. but in the changed to a stairlift along the main stairs. Om the ground double-height reception hall used as a legal reading room.1 Space In 1986 wheelchair access was somewhat improved by enlarging a window at the front of the building to a door and installing a small platform lift for wheelchairs.265 264 Huizenga. Due to the growing number of senior vocational colleges in Leeuwarden the number of library users continued to rise which meant that the main reading room became noisier.. Further changes were made when the library was merged with the National Archives. ABCD re search method ■ 153 . A training room was converted to a canteen and a reference library and quiet study room were created.264 The design for the second competition (1959) included a door on the west-side of the building for wheelchair access. In the next chapter. 22. the opening of the quiet study room in 1986 was a great success. 6. I will discuss both the interventions in 2009 and the impact of the range of earlier interventions and the options for the future.000 volumes to 455. the Provincial Council had used the lecture room for its meetings and it was also used for congresses organised by a teachers’ training college. Hence.6 Building: what has been In 1986 the Friesland Provincial Library underwent some minor changes. more radical change was needed given that the foyer was also used by homeless people and passers-by and because of the growth in the number of employees from 13 to 28 and the growth of the collection from 290. To be or not to be. Although this section focuses on the regeneration of 1999. There were also complaints that the foyer and kitchen were too small and that there were not enough toilets. Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek. The wooden upstand of the reading room did not provide enough absorption to suppress the sound of voices from the lending desk.000 by 1991. the other changes will also be addressed. According to a library employee. The next project was the full regeneration of the building which was completed in 1999: the interior was stripped out completely and replaced by a ‘new’ library. 21. what was once a temple in the chancery now felt like a supermarket. 265 Ibid.

See Figures 213 to 218. led by S. This created a completely open reading room around the double-height space. 5 (1966): 12-14. head of the Facilities Department of Friesland Provincial Library. while lending continued normally. The original freestanding boiler house was demolished and the land was swapped with the municipality. as well as separate lending desks for the two departments. head of the Facilities Department of Friesland Provincial Library. 25 January 2002. 2002. 25 January 2002. It meant that the whole collection would have to be housed elsewhere temporarily. During the 1966 relocation it took 126 trips with a 5-ton truck to move 290. in 1993 they advised not to engage an architect for the refurbishment. All the stacks were relocated to the basement and the three-tier system in the tower was removed. They claimed to have all the relevant expertise. The semibasement of the building was extended by 450 m2 by excavating part of the rampart. More facilities were provided for library users. Photographs by the author. The stacks now had a horizontal rather than vertical structure. computer-based catalogue. See Figure 208. See Figures 223 and 224. At the suggestion of building contractor Westerbaan. with all the impact on the personnel and collection this brought with it. 268 Interview with P. 267 Interview with S. Figures 208 and 209: Extension of the semibasement and the new entrance. At the same time the double-height space of the reception hall on the east-side (used as the legal study room since 1986) was also closed off using the same method. 3 January 2002 and 6 March 2002. The decision in 1997 to restructure the building completely was a key moment. During the construction in 1968 the double-height space of the open lending area on the side of the rampart was covered with steel beams and a wooden Douma’s request.266 The relocation also provided a good opportunity to introduce a new. Castelein. Piet Tauber and his son Frans joined the team in 1998. Some functions were relocated. .H. The library engaged consultants. Sevenster. The tower was used to accommodate plant rooms and a room for meetings of all the library staff. The above-ground section is hidden by vegetation.” Friesland no.relocate the library twice. Sevenster. Part of this system was reused by converting it to lower shelving.267 The following changes were made in 1999:268 The layout was revised to be more functional.T. Tauber. Consequently it was decided to 154 ■ A B C D re search method 266 “Friesland heeft weer plaats voor zijn boekenschat. This made it possible to provide a route to the rampart. A construction team was set up in 1996.000 books. and more reading/study rooms. see also: Interview with S. although they suggested that it might be useful to work with an interior architect. This 1999 and replaced by steel decking and concrete.

Remarkably. The entrance at the front was replaced completely. The incorporation of the air handling system is hardly visible from the central hall. Delft) was added to accommodate the stairs and the entrance to the lift. see Figure 221. The radiators in the recesses by the windows on the ground were removed. The maximum has now been reached. In 2004 a connection was created between the Provincial Library and the National air bridge between the buildings. See Figures 235 to 237. They include both round columns and the square ones which were originally incorporated into the brickwork. etc. Sliding cabinets were installed in the stacks. etc. The plans for 2009 include providing a more open reception desk in the hall. humidity and air library. A glazed entrance hall (built by Octatube. In the hall two of the square columns were replaced by round ones. See Figure 222. The space was raised to accommodate building services plant. the space as a whole could accommodate these changes over the years. The double-height space is again completely free in the space. The panels will be replaced by a smoke curtain which is lowered in emergencies. ABCD re search method ■ 155 . A climate control system was installed in the semibasement to meet all requirements concerning temperature.It was only then that the beam on the elevations. See Figures 209 to 212. The rooms close to the air bridge are often used for exhibitions. at the level all sides of the building. and some of the facilities for library visitors will be improved. As a result the columns around the double-height space are now all freestanding. See Figures 219 and 220. Some of the to the full height because of the space taken up by large ducts. The walls on the ground The ground line with the original concept. Archival documents in the stacks were transferred between the buildings to optimise the storage conditions of documents which are subject to the Dutch Archives Act.

Photographs by the author. 2002.Figures 210 to 212: The new entrance at the front of the building. 156 ■ A B C D re search method . exterior and interior views.

Figures 213 and 214: Plans of the semibasement in 1966 and 1999 to illustrate the extension on the west side. ABCD re search method ■ 157 . 2000. From Tauber.

Figures 215 and 216: Plans of ground tower now accommodates building services. From Tauber. the central hall was opened up on all sides to create one large space and the entrance was extended. 2000. re search method 158 ■ A B C D .

2000. From Tauber.Figures 217 and 218: personnel and study rooms were created around the balcony. ABCD re search method ■ 159 . the tower now accommodates an auditorium and the area of the original lecture hall is now used for other purposes.

160 ■ A B C D re search method .Figures 219 and 220: The central hall in 1966 and in 1999. The main difference relates to the great openness on the ground 1999.

2008. Photograph by the author. 2008. Compare with Figure 207.Figure 221: The air bridge which has connected the Provincial Library and the National Archives since 2004. Photograph by the author. Figure 222: Walls on the ground removal of the radiators. ABCD re search method ■ 161 .

2000. Adapted by the author from Tauber. 162 ■ A B C D re search method .Figure 223: Functional analysis of the plans 1958-1959-1960.

Adapted by the author from Tauber. 2000. ABCD re search method ■ 163 .Figure 224: Functional analysis of the plans 1960-1966-1999.

269 See Figures 225 to 227.2 Structure The structure of the Friesland Provincial Library allowed all these changes with relatively few problems. Interview with S. 269 270 Interview with P. Sevenster. After the changes of 1999. The work was made more difficult as the original construction drawings had been lost.square at the top of the drawing and round at the bottom. they were found during the second relocation. 3 January 2002 and 6 March 2002. re search method 16 4 ■ A B C D . 25 January 2002. three new round columns were built in the hall and along the facade line. December 1964. some of the columns in the central hall are now freestanding.270 Figures 225 to 227: The columns in the hall in 1966 . the central hall had both square and round freestanding columns. A further complication was that the original construction drawings had been lost and were only found later. According to Tauber this was because the original load-bearing structure was not ‘designed neutrally’ enough. In the original design the columns incorporated into the walls had square crosssections while the freestanding columns were round. To break through the facade. head of the Facilities Department of Friesland Provincial Library. In the run-up to the refurbishment the structural engineer was kept busy with calculations for the load-bearing structure in view of the many apertures which had to be cut through beams and the installation of heavy building services plant on the roof and in the tower. Tauber drawing. However.6. Tauber. However.H. See Figures 228 to 230.

Figure 228: Demolition of part of the original facade in 1998 to create the new entrance. 2002 (left). Photographs from the Tauber archives and by the author. formwork for the new round column and the hall with new round columns. Figures 229 and 230: Temporary support of the facade. ABCD re search method ■ 165 . Tauber archives.

3 Materials Few changes were made to the range of materials used in the Friesland Provincial Library. The exterior walls were cleaned but insulation. it had been possible to open the windows from the start (this is supported by photographs taken in 1964). The cause of the problem is still to be investigated. See Figures 231 to 233. As a result the semibasement was contaminated water may have led to the spalling of the replaced by carpet. The orange awnings were replaced by screens which were less affected by the wind and which were lowered automatically if too much sunlight entered the building. the solar control changed in 1999. Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek.272 In 1999 all the facade with different glazing. designed the new interiors. Later. 166 ■ A B C D . This avoided an excessively large window frame head on the inside and the ventilation slots could still be used. See Figure 234. Frans. solar control glass was installed [easily recognisable by its blue sheen] and finally double glazing.6. 21. Even the furniture was repaired and reused where possible. However. An important detail was that the cabinet containing the screen was installed some distance from the top of the window frame. The stairs were clad in stone and in 2000 the entrance in the semibasement was also covered with stone. shell limestone and cork. Given the detailing of the terms. However. double glazing had been installed at that time. re search method 272 Interview with Sijbe Sevenster on 3 December 2008 and phone call with Frans Tauber on 4 December 2008. We are now hoping that fans will help. The walls were plastered and the concrete columns were reinstated where possible. According to him. Piet Tauber’s son. This was done for both idealistic and chairs were reupholstered. Huizinga wrote: There were problems with the temperature control from the start. J. 271 Huizenga. See Figure 250. when the library celebrated its 25th anniversary. and there were vents above the windows (see Figure 201). In 2008 it was noticed that all the window sills had been affected by wood rot.271 In August 2002 Tauber disagreed with some of these comments. This got better when some windows could be opened. The heating control was also improved. according to Piet Tauber that was not actually necessary.J. In 1991. In 2008 it was observed that this On several occasions the site drainage and sewers could not cope with the volume of rain. The work in 1999 must have led to a change which affected the moisture management as the wood was found to have a moisture content of 80%.

Tauber archives. the window head and sun screen installed separately from the head. Figure 232: Reading room with bright and. 2000. at the far end. before 1988. ABCD re search method ■ 167 .Figure 231: Elevation with awnings. opening steel windows and the blue solar control glass. From Tauber.

168 ■ A B C D re search method . Photograph by the author. 2008. 2002. Photograph by the author.Figure 233: Sun screens installed in 2002. Figure 234: Window sills with wood rot due to water.

274 See Figures 237 to 239. ABCD re search method ■ 169 . The building services plant in the stacks was replaced. See Figures 242. Moisture. for the old collection of Franeker University. 273 Huizenga. solar control glass was installed and finally double glazing. to the tables by columns coming down from the ceilings. initially required between the catalogue hall on the ground reading room on panelling of the balustrade around the double-height space. The distribution ducts were installed between the diameter of 150 mm were made through the beams to accommodate the lateral branches. original design. An air duct with grilles with integrated into the balustrade. Interview with S. 274 As the original construction drawings were lost until the relocation it was only possible to calculate the permissible roof load at a later stage. After the refurbishment it was possible to maintain this at a constant 55 to 60%.000. A plant room was created in the upper part of the former book tower. Later. was plant rooms were needed. The balanced air handling system controls the temperature and humidity automatically.275 See Figure 241. We are now hoping that fans will help. See Figure 240. I included a quote from 1991: There were problems with the temperature control from the start. See Figures 235 and 236. The balustrade now also incorporates building services ducts. 25 January 2002. This got better when some windows could be opened. installed above the ceilings. The acoustic treatment. unfortunately these are visible from the surrounding areas.Vijfentwintigjaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek. along the lower edge. This space became available as all the stacks were relocated to the semibasement. head of the Facilities Department of Friesland Provincial Library. The new section on the west side. Chillers were installed on the roof.4 Services Above. water and smoke detectors were installed in all rooms in the semibasement and the gas cylinders were installed in a dedicated plant room. The heating control was also improved. but the with individual temperature control and mechanical ventilation. Sevenster. system was also installed.273 In 1991 it was concluded that the fans were not enough to provide adequate conditions for the people and books in the Friesland Provincial Library. For 30 years the relative humidity had been too low in the stacks most of the time. above the new meeting room. The power and data cabling.6. 21. was equipped with a sophisticated climate control system. The following measures were taken in 1999: All radiators and their cladding were replaced. 251 and 254. 275 Every actuation of the gaseous fire suppression system costs EUR 20.

Figures 235 and 236: Cross-sections of central hall before and after the 1999 refurbishment. In addition to controlling the temperature and relative A refrigerated store was installed for the photographic archive. One option would be to separate the system for the stacks from that for the other areas of the building. drawings from 1964 and 1998. The roof was raised to create space for an air duct. Various provisions were made for handling digital data. Ducts are also incorporated in the balustrade which is now slightly larger than before. Tauber archives. See Figure 222. Plans to improve the The energy bill of the library was double that of the National Archives. A smokers’ room was created in the semibasement. The following changes were made in 2004: The radiators on the ground air handling system was installed. 170 ■ A B C D re search method . In part this might be due to the climate control plant for the stacks. A room with full climate control was provided in the stacks.

Photographs by the author. 2002 and 2008 (left).Figures 237 to 239: Raised roof section over the central hall. ABCD re search method ■ 171 . new ventilation louvres in the old book tower. chiller plant on the roof.

Photographs from Tauber archives (top) system).Figures 240 to 242: The mains. the air ducts were installed between and through the cabinets in the system. data and low voltage cabling was replaced. 172 ■ A B C D re search method .

Tauber replied: Now it’s empty you can really see the structure again.277 See Figure 247. digital data is also stored off-site. while the basics are staying essentially the same . project documentation BRT Architecten. The layout of the hall and areas behind it will be opened up. The fall in the number of loans and the greater use of information in digital format could all be accommodated within the existing spatial structure of the building.276 7.1 Space In terms of space on the floors accessible to library users. This is done in the current building. The digitisation of archival and other documents is likely to increase. The maximum capacity has now almost been reached. it’s not going to be demolished and it’ll be ready for the next 40 years. The desk in the hall will be moved back to the lending area and the stairs will be modified. September 2004. See Figures 243 and 244. 276 Interview with P. The design of the building has proven itself to be flexible enough to serve as a library and provide space for users of the National Archives. The management expects to run out of space by the end of 2011. Tauber... 277 ‘‘Tresoar”. In 2004 the library and the National Archives were connected by the air bridge and adopted the name Tresoar. However. After upgrading of the building services plant the archives could be housed in the stacks. ABCD re search method ■ 173 . Further changes are planned for 2009. and I like that clarity. The new Leeuwarden Historical Museum (close to the National Archives) and the Friesland Museum have insufficient space for their archives and are now also using storage at the Tresoar.7 Building: to be or not to be When the Provincial Library was being regenerated in 2000 the construction manager walked through the stripped building with Tauber and asked him if he was upset by that.H. I’m now getting the opportunity to make my building better than it was. The offices of the National Archives will be refurbished in 2009 and extended and the canteen in the library will be adapted so that it can be used for receptions. the Friesland Provincial Library should be able to accommodate further changes in the future. 3 January 2002 and 6 March 2002.

In 2008 flooding of the area between the buildings due to heavy rain caused water to enter the semibasement. The stacks were flooded when the water entered through the door of the former bicycle parking. was never created. It has also been used for skating rinks. A solution will have to be found for this. The ugly fence will be replaced and match those elsewhere on the rampart. ‘‘Oldehoveplein vraagt om totaalvisie”. leading from Prinsentuin to the rampart. Figure 243 and 244: Entrance 278 desk which will Tauber. The Oldehoofsterkerkhof is currently used for public functions such as parties. P. markets and other events. This area has now been closed off by a gate and fence. The underground car park was designed by Fons Verheijen of VVKH architects in Leiden. re search method be changed in 2009 to provide a more open plan. Tauber’s plan for the redesign of the square was not adopted. funfairs and circuses. ” Leeuwarder Courant. Photographs by the author. November 30. 2002. November 25. Groot. 174 ■ A B C D .278 See Figures 245 and 246. The route between the buildings. 2002. ‘‘Brug te veel. 2008.At the end of 2004 the excavations started for the car park under the Oldehoofsterkerkhof. Leeuwarder Courant.

Figures 245. Photographs by the author. 2008. ABCD re search method ■ 175 . 246 and 247: Air bridge between the National Archives and the Provincial Library installed in 2004 and construction activities for the underground car park.

Tauber archives.Figures 248 and 249: Central hall during and after the regeneration in 1999. 176 ■ A B C D re search method .

Structural engineering analyses reveal the strength limitations in the short term. According to Frans Tauber all the stone cladding was removed and refitted at that time. It would be worth investigating what changes were made to the exterior walls in 1999.2 Structure 7. one can date it. 279 Telephone interview with Frans Tauber on 4 December 2008 by H. with various functions surrounding it within a shell with elevations with an apparently random division provides a flexible basis to deal with any future changes. However. A box to be filled with the relevant contents still appears to be a useful type of building. Maintaining the concept of the original central hall. a number of squares columns were revealed. The fact that the furniture from 1968 was reused in 2000 is an excellent demonstration of this. reinstated in 1999. The building now makes a timeless impression. This demonstrated the vulnerability of ‘specific details in specific places’ or. In my view. See Figures 248 and 249. Zijlstra.279 This must have affected the moisture management of the cavity. in the past and in the future. A 50 mm cavity does not provide enough space for both thermal insulation and ventilation of the cavity. this will have to provide the starting point when considering any future changes which might be needed. beams and floors of the concrete load-bearing structure could be changed quite extensively within the building envelope. See Figure 252. as Tauber put it ‘building to the brief’. The flooding of the semibasement damaged the stone flooring. and have the potential for further change. See Figure f. The use of plain natural materials of high quality has proven to provide great flexibility. In 2008 it was noticed that the sills of all the window frames were suddenly affected by rot. but the flooring in the semibasement needs replacing after only 10 years. The floors of the stacks now carry the maximum acceptable load. At that time. without it being dated. This was clearly demonstrated by the regeneration in 1999. See Figure 253. there are some problems with the details. ABCD re search method ■ 177 . See Figure 250.7. The original flooring on the upper floors is not affected by wear.3 Materials The columns. The furniture will be replaced in 2009. which are anomalous. There is not much to be criticised in terms of the choice of materials for the exterior walls.

2008.Figure 250: Reused furniture. 2008. 178 ■ A B C D re search method to be affected by rot. 2008. Photograph by the author. 2008. Photograph by the author. Figure 251: Some of the climate control plant for the stacks with full climate control. Photograph by the author. Figure 252: The stone semibasement. was Figure 253: In 2008 the sills of all the original window frames were found seriously damaged by the Photograph by the author. . installed in 1999.

This is the essence of the building: storing books in controlled conditions to preserve them for use by future generations. The merger happened in 2004 and the building services plant was modified accordingly. In March 2002.7. 25 January 2002. A constant hum from the boiler house which reached the plenary meeting room below it (which is used for courses and exams) was a serious problem. the climate control of the archives reduced the available storage capacity even further due to the restricted height of the basement. Unfortunately. the archival stores would have to meet the requirements of the Archives Act and be fully climate controlled with extensive plant required for air handling and safety. Figure 254: The ‘Franeker Folianten’ from the collection acquired in 1585. Hence further changes will be needed in future. There were still many unresolved issues early in 2002 and the final accounts had not been settled. Air handling plant was installed in the library areas and the radiators were removed.4 Services It is likely that the greatest changes in future will be to the building services plant. Furthermore. the costs of operating the plant were found to be three times higher than calculated by the consultants. It appears that the building will be able to cope with this. The contractor who installed the plant managed to resolve some issues. Obviously. Unfortunately the implementation of the designs by the building services consultant in 1999 led to serious problems. Sijbe Sevenster. the library’s maintenance department was left to solve many problems. 2008. 280 Interview with Sijbe Sevenster. Photograph by the author. After a merger. head of the Facilities Department of Friesland Provincial Library. ABCD re search method ■ 179 . However.280 See Figures 251 and 254. head of the Facilities Department of the Provincial Library was somewhat concerned about the plans for cooperation with the National Archives. the safety and access requirements change regularly.

180 ■ A B C D re search method .

made it possible to add and remove floors. The redesign provided him with an opportunity to reinstate some aspects of his original design. a large part of the technical observation information was in his head and he had to communicate this to the construction team. Nowadays.40 m would be used now. In this case. Next.18 because of his personal preference. This means that a design as built does not necessarily correspond with everything the architect originally envisaged.8 Conclusions and ABCD research matrix The conclusions about the future options for the Friesland Provincial Library are included in the previous chapter. Technical observation The building of the Provincial Library was designed for a competition. At that time.20 m. At present. However. This furniture will be replaced in 2009. 70 mm. which featured a beam even in the double-height areas. The selected design served more as a means for testing the schedule of requirements than as a design for what was actually built. this building type has proven still to be fit for use as a library. i. that would be unacceptable. The stone. although Tauber commented that that was not actually necessary.e. The neutral design of the elevations. The fact that the construction drawings were lost which resulted in additional work for the structural engineer is a reminder that every building deserves effective technical documentation. Hence. In this case it was an excellent idea to engage the original architect again after 30 years to regenerate the building. ABCD re search method ■ 181 . The actual requirements and preferences of the user were only incorporated at that stage. This brings us back to the question whether or not the original architect can take the required step back. multiples of 300 mm are generally used. The long time required to obtain approval gave the user a further opportunity to make numerous changes. a period of 50 years before a building can be nationally listed in the Netherlands would be preferable over 30 years. The tables in the canteens and reading rooms were refinished by sanding in 1999 and fitted with linoleum tops in 2008 and the chairs were reupholstered. The disadvantage of this approach is that the impact of some changes may be overlooked. hardwood and copper survived three decades without problems. to allow for future changes. Hence. the architect has to be able to take a step back from their work and be able to approach it as a new assignment. It is likely that a grid of 5. A design which met all the requirements was only developed at a later stage. Research analysis Tauber based the dimensions of the building on multiples of 7 cm. the architect reduced this to 5. However. the ABCD matrix for the Provincial Library context lists the key aspects of the study which ranged from context to detail. The main dimensions were based on the dimensions of the bookcases and aisles between them. although unusual damage has been observed in the most recent decade. architects could still make that choice. Given that. As far as the typology is concerned. Further to the study of the building we can draw some conclusions concerning the research themes. This should have resulted in a grid of 5. The materials selected for the exterior have proven themselves. the original architect was familiar with all aspects of the building. all dimensions are divisible by seven. The cork flooring was replaced by carpet.

Herman Herzberger (1932) is another example as he is working on the regeneration of the music centre in Utrecht. The maximum permissible floor load in the stacks was only reached in 2008. These interventions themselves will be changed in 2009 to provide a more open plan. This would make it easier to regenerate the building once the client had left it. At that time this could be accommodated in the new entrance section and new hall of the library. Originally. This also updated the appearance of the building: contemporary but restrained. This made it difficult to install the required climate control plant. For example. We saw that the Provincial Library had to be changed on several occasions. In 1999. However.06 m on the higher floors. The cross-sectional drawings show how the ducts could be incorporated above the roof. neither of them was presented with the ability to accommodate change as a requirement and they did not design the buildings with that in mind. There are now several cultural buildings around the Oldehoofsterkerkhof which made the car park under the square viable. the voids in the cabinets to accommodate the ducts result in a lower floor load than with full cabinets. compared with 3.e. a pedestrian route was created from the city centre to the Noorder Bolwerk. the columns were not neutral enough to allow for this change. When all the columns became freestanding. in 1999.18 m grid did not conflict with that. which he mentioned during both his inaugural address and his leaving address to Delft University Regenerative conclusions When the Provincial Library was regenerated history was at hand.’ He had a motto. made several options possible for the division the building and allowed for the relocation of functions. The 5. An improvised solution was provided in 1968 but was improved on in 1999. there was no longer an apparent reason for the different shapes. i. However. the chiller on the roof. If not. The more you build to a brief. very few architects have an opportunity such as that presented to Tauber. in the person of the original architect. The double-height space was originally built with both freestanding round columns and with square columns which were incorporated into the walls. However. Because of stricter requirements for the accessibility of public buildings the original design no longer provided adequate disabled access. The rampart made it possible to include a semibasement which could later be extended by 450 m2.The load-bearing structure of the building. Hence the structure was strong enough for the building services plant. Additionally. straightforward and clear. This situation is quite unusual in the Netherlands. the only floors in the tower were formed by the bookcases. and respect the client’s wishes. Tauber thought that an architect had to build in accordance with the brief. At the time the original buildings were designed. At the start of his career. 182 ■ A B C D re search method . The building provided the space for these changes. However. the more problems it causes later. Given that the cooperation with the National Archives will lead to ever stricter climate control requirements for the stacks. the ceiling was only 2. Later he realised that a certain neutrality of the design had some advantages over a design which was highly specific to one function. the available space will have to be used creatively. This was even done during the construction of the building. As Tauber put is.57 and 4. Tauber commented: ‘the structure of a building should be timeless. the noise nuisance which the plant causes to the lower floors has not yet been solved. is rather unsightly when the library is viewed from the square or the rampart. The book tower was originally designed to allow extension by several floors.18 x 5. This significant intervention provided the space for functional changes and additions to the original schedule of requirements.94 m high. despite the problems it has so far been possible to fit the required building services plant. It was relatively easy to remove them. its internal structure. This section of the city was regenerated together with the buildings and because of the people they attract. However. There are obviously examples of architects who oppose the demolition or change of their buildings. when the regeneration was completed. and in the balustrade. next to the tower. The selection of the site also determined the options for regenerating the building. He essentially served as a human archive. The building services plant could be installed in the old book tower. then it will be difficult to change the building. or space was found for them. along the rooflights.

Its external appearance changed significantly. the ABNAMRO bank district office and the palace of justice. 1999. 2002 and 1965. Tauber. 2002.Figures 255 and 256: Main post Alkmaar. However.building to a brief. The original elevations were inspired by Aalto and featured brick and copper. ABCD re search method ■ 183 . As a result it now looks similar to the Provincial Library in Leeuwarden. Several of his buildings in Alkmaar are now empty and await demolition or reuse: the building of the Provincial Library Centre.” BNA Regio Alkmaar. 1965 and by the author (above). but this was usually in vain.H. For the regeneration. ‘‘Van Postkantoor naar ABN AMRO-bank.281 See Figures 255 and 256. with hardwood cladding. his post office in Alkmaar was given a second life. May 25. of Technology and used as the title of the book published on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of his practice in 1990: bouwen naar opdracht . 281 P. Tauber clad the building with stone to give it the typical image of a bank. Photograph by Tauber (left). Tauber often made sketch designs with proposals for the reuse of his buildings.

the architect accepts this. which reduces the openness Rectangular box with atrium and tower The atrium is closed Has been The function is continued Complete redesign within the existing volume Extension into the rampart The surroundings become the cultural centre of the city To be or not to be The function is extended The merger with the National Archives offers opportunities for the future The underground car park and the square benefit its use The route to the rampart should be opened up ABCD matrix Brief Site Architect Typology Piet and Frans Tauber Rectangular box with atrium and tower and glass entrance volume The original design (stage 2) provides the basis for the final design Frans Tauber (successor) Rectangular box with atrium and tower. and accommodating other functions Optimising the use Providing a link to the National Archives Structure Based on multiples of 70 mm The grid of 5. glass entrance volume and air bridge Design process The original design is adhered to Optimising openness Implementing the requirements and legislation Space The atrium is opened Accessibility is improved The entrance is added as a glass volume The functions are relocated within the existing volumes Not neutral enough to accommodate change invisibly Sufficient load-bearing capacity Few changes required Restrained and functional Repair and modification possible Strict statutory requirements and comfort lead to modification and additions Implemented within the available space The atrium and entire plan are opened up New functions. the old fortifications.18 m imposes limitations Square and round columns Neutral Timeless Durable Load-bearing capacity reached Able to accommodate change Materials Ageing transformed into appreciation The flooring in the semibasement and the window frames require significant repairs Services Minimal Replaced within the available space Future modifications will require creative solutions 18 4 ■ A B C D re search method . on the edge of the city centre The road isolates the rampart from the city Piet Tauber Rectangular box with atrium and tower [HVB: eerder gebruikte je steeds ‘vide’.] In three stages The client intervenes.ABCD research matrix of the Friesland Provincial Library Meant to be Government brief Competition The revised design is built On the rampart.

Figure 257: Temporary chandelier at

the restaurant 11 in the former Post the author, 2004.
ABCD re search method ■ 185

186 ■ A B C D

re search method

9

Recommendations

Technology provided me with the inspiration to develop a more comprehensive research method to assess buildings: Analysing Buildings from Context to Detail in time (ABCD ). Technology, at academic level, should be considered in the analysis of a building. Here we are concerned with construction engineering, the study of the requirements associated with constructing buildings. Until 1970, most architectural and construction industry magazines and journals covered the technical aspects of buildings quite extensively. Later this coverage became less extensive. Archivists are also likely to discard technical information. However, a number of architectural elements can only be appreciated by analysing their technical aspects. Technology should be included as an essential aspect when investigating existing buildings in an attempt to understand them. The results of technical studies always relate to practice. Such information is also essential to the redesign of existing buildings. It is important to preserve photographs, drawings, etc. from the period when the building was constructed. Providing information on practice is a key element in construction engineering, which is a learning process. We are not solely concerned with the end result. Changes are made during the life of a building, and they might be made differently if the history and technical aspects of the building were studied in greater detail. Complex dimensional systems were not used in the period from 1940 to 1970. Instead, architects followed their personal preferences, such as Tauber who used the symbolic number seven for the Friesland Provincial Library. Later, the dimensions were based on multiples of 300 mm which would govern the whole construction process. Other studies also indicate that dimensions are increasingly based on multiples of 300 mm. Gradually ceilings became lower, though this trend has now been reversed in residential construction. Building services plant is

vulnerable and regularly replaced or refurbished, even when it is still working effectively. The accessibility or lack thereof of piping and cabling is a key issue in any building which is modified. Buildings are no longer designed by the architect alone, there are now consultants for structural engineering, climate control, sustainability, etc. This cooperation leads to better results than if the architect worked alone. Between 1940 and 1970 the architect became more of a designer-manager of the whole process. Shortly after the Second World War architects still found it difficult to convince clients that consultants were needed. There are examples to prove what problems could arise if consultants were not involved, or too late. At present the architect serves rather like the hub of a team of consultants. An ABCD study requires relevant data. Between 1940 and 1970 there was greater interest in the technical aspects. Architectural publications included technical details. I would advocate the inclusion of more technical information in general architecture publications. Between 1940 and 1970 architects generally wrote explanations of their plans and always included technical aspects and innovations. We should return to that practice as it can provide primary information for later regeneration projects. Both maintenance and changes require us to understand the building concerned. All the aspects covered by my research method should be considered. In essence, a building can be described in detail using the ABCD research method. This should start during its construction. A , available to all relevant parties, should be created, using a protocol yet to be developed. Experience obtained with other buildings can lead to better considered solutions when designing and building new buildings or intervening in existing buildings. Architects’ training should include the observation and analysis of buildings. This requires technical knowledge obtained
ABCD re search method ■ 187

by learning. The essentials of subjects such as forces, mechanics, building physics and materials science will become more interesting if the education includes practical examples. Multidisciplinary monographs on selected buildings would help us understand buildings. These publications should also include interviews with architects and other relevant parties. Project lectures are also an effective tool to teach students about buildings. Such publications should be disseminated widely. Moving images and sound would be welcome additions. However, we should also ensure that the diaries of construction managers and project leaders are included in the archives. The ABCD research method is based on what exists today, and how it came into being. It is not a design method - it is a research method which can help designers to study and understand a building. Change is only possible if there is also continuity. We can recognise layers where changes may have led to interventions in what existed at one time. The ABCD research method is an instrument to show us how changes happened, and what the original concepts for the building were. We have to investigate the history of the design and construction of a building to distil this essence. The funding available for constructing a building or maintaining it, and the way in which changes are made are all important in this context. Sufficient funding at the start should result in considered quality. If costs are cut then the architect has to make concessions which may lead to high costs in future. Hence were are concerned both with the life of the building and the costs associated with it. The building, the idea, the wish to do something with it, spontaneous ideas, surprises and the unique solutions created by taking the space provided by the building and the opportunities available to the designer. Decisions should not be taken lightly simply because there is enough funding available. This does not necessarily mean that when designing new buildings we have to consider their future regeneration. The best buildings often result from unexpected solutions. However, there should be the space for this: in terms of length, width and height between the load-bearing elements, to provide space for creative solutions.

The future is always uncertain. Hence we should not waste money on options for changes which we cannot predict. However, we should invest in space, in dimensions, in permissible loads. We should avoid using building components which are unique to the building and cannot be recreated. The ABCD research method is the result of the development of my PhD research into a method which can be applied in practice. Initially we are concerned with what exists now, and determining why and how it was created, and if and how it can continue to exist. This will provide the basic information about the building. Its qualities can then be identified to help us understand it. This is done before the requirements are defined. We can then consider the options for change needed for the building to continue to exist, on the basis of wellconsidered decisions and respect. I encourage all architects to learn from existing buildings and enable others to learn from the buildings they design. And not only through publications about the completed building with impressive photographs. Instead, we should document the history of the creation of the building and tell our own stories. These should include the technical aspects and be made available for others for academic study. Learning from buildings, by investigating them, should be included in all architects’ education. At the ®MIT department of the Faculty of Architecture of Delft University of Technology we are not only interested in conservation. In fact, we are particularly interested in redesign, in regeneration within the existing context - which means that change is essential. This will also help existing buildings to continue to exist. In this way, continuity and change will lead to durability and sustainability.

188 ■ A B C D

re search method

2008. Photograph by the author.Figure 258: Entrance hall of the UN building in New York. shortly before the start of an extensive regeneration project. ABCD re search method ■ 189 .

190 ■ A B C D re search method .

et al. 2 (2002): 1-20. Vijftig jaar Wederopbouw in Rotterdam. Bout. New York: North Point Press. Zwolle: Waanders Publishers. Rijksadviseur voor het Culturele Erfgoed 2005. Powell. 1962. 2007 Bosma. M. U. Tweehonderd jaar statistiek in tijdreeksen: We Make Things. Leeuwarden: Friese Pers Boekerij. J. Addis. Bekeart. “Stroomingen in de Nederlandsche Architectuur. Zeist: RDMZ. Benes. and J. M. van der. J.” Bouwkundig Weekblad (1958): 581-604. Het bouwen aan de toekomst met respect voor het verleden. 1995.” Plan no. Auguste Perret. Nederlandse Architectuur. Velp: ABT. M. van der and CBS. K. Strauven. Brawne. Plannenmap bibliotheken.H. Hoe sober en doelmatig bouwen de armen arm houdt. Bollerey. Note for the werken van Bouwkundige Ingenieurs. Bibliotheken. Boer. Albertina. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Bouwen in Nederland 600-2000. 1/2 (2000): mededelingen. Libraries. Unesco (May 2005).J. R. Machin. H. 1990. Boer. Britton. London: SAVE Britain’s Heritage. 1988. 2005. J. 1993. Cradle to Cradle: remaking the Way functionele kwaliteit. New York: Viking Penguin. Utrecht: Stichting Teleac. Architecture Design and Technology Press London. Acona. M. Haarlem: Architext. ed. et al. H. Crouwel. what happens after they’re built. Broek. De geschiedenis van de architectuur en stedebouw tijdens de bezetting in Nederland . d’. and F. 1990. Broek. 1956. A. Bakker. Nederlandse bouwkunst na 1900. and K. M. Teufen: Niggli. Uitgevoerde Industrial Buildings.” In Agenda 2005. H. Amsterdam: Stichting beheer IISG. 3000 Years of Design Engineering and Building Construction. 1995. B. 2007. 1995. Architectuur in Nederland. Berge. “De gebouwenvoorraad: opgave voor ontwerpen en beheren. School of Architecture Copenhagen. Duurzaamheid loont. “Waardevolle karakteristieken van de wederopbouw. Blom. Quickscan hergebruik gebouwen. M. van den. K. Braungart. Tectonic Visions in Architecture. Ruimte voor een nieuwe tijd: vormgeving van de Nederlandse regio 1900-1945. M. de. Binney. and W.” Oud Alkmaar no. 1997. and C. S. Barbieri. 1970. Boom. H. The Re-use of Bouw no. Brussels: Nationale Confederatie van het Bouwbedrijf. Bollebakker. F. “50 jaar Nederlands bouwen. Nederlandse Architectuur en Stedebouw ‘45-‘80. London: Phaidon. 3 (1985): 20-21. Rotterdam: Stichting Bouw Research. Broek. 2000. 1 (2002): 8-13.P. 1997. van Duin. 1994. Brand. Oude fabrieken nieuwe functies. “Jaarprogramma. 1971. Ph. Beim. Bie. G. van der. McDonough. R. ABCD re search method ■ 191 . and S. De RDMZ en het project wederopbouw. Voldoet dit gebouw? Het bepalen van de knowledge meeting Conservation Technology. 2007. Utrecht: Bezige Bij. ten and H. Farrer. “Bouwhistorie is basis voor monumentenzorg.” 1800-1999. Scarpa. Bouwen in België 1945-1970. and L. 1 (1946): 4-11. Vrijling. Baalman. H. E. 2001.G. L. A critical view. ten. B. PhD diss. Aarts. Bagnoli. How buildings learn. A. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. Wagenaar.. London: Phaidon. 2003. Bijdendijk. Architecture in details. van der et al. 1984. R. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker. Bosma. J. Blijstra. H. Een geruisloze doorbraak. Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. Bosma. 1999. K. The Hague: Atelier Rijksbouwmeester. F.Literature and sources In order of the last names of the authors. “Innovation. Amsterdam: Argus. Architectuur in Fryslân 1940-2000. 1993.” Monumenten no.. 2001. Asselberg. et al. J. 2005. College van Rijksadviseurs. Zeist: projectbureau industrieel erfgoed. K.” Heemschut no. K. de Raad. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. Bright Future. Straus & Giroux. F. “Een interview met de Alkmaarse architect Piet Tauber. F.” Modern Heritage. Delft: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde.

2001. and J. van et al. Foresta. G. “Aristoteles kan ingenieur veel leren over de kunst van het maken. Een eeuw Nederlandse architectuur 1880-1990. Douma. “Prijsvraag Bibliotheekgebouw Leeuwarden. J. L. 1976. T. Architecture. Deelstra. 4 (2000): 4-6. “La Bibliothèque Centrale de Lucerne (Suisse). J. De techniek en de architectuur. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. Heft: Gebäude für Sammlungen und Ausstellungen. 1/2 (1996): 6-8. 2002. Groningen: B. “Commentaar. Principles and Practice of Sustainable Architectural Design. S. J. U. 6 (1996): 14-16.P. “Klimaatregeling door stralingswarmte. 1991. Sloop of hergebruik?. Amsterdam: Architectura et Amicitia. 2002. Vierter Teil. Brownlee. Bibliotheek. 44 (1959): 209-216.J. Utrecht: LOKV. et al. Emmens. wetenschap en cultuur. De Long. Dorgelo. A Green Vitruvius.M. open stad. F.” Bouw (May 1997): appendix 34-35. a Handbook of Recycling Old Buildings. Kahn Licht und Raum. UAI Whitebook. P. Tendensen. ten. T. “Bibliothek I Östersund. Built to Last. C. Embden. van. Büttiker. Copius Peereboom. Cate. “Een nieuw gebouw voor de Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland en voor de Buma-Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden.” Heemschut no. 6.J. 1960. A. Cayennepeper. “Hergebruik gebouwen alleen zinvol als bestemming hoogwaardiger wordt. Cate. O. ten and D. G.” Bibliotheekleven no.” Forum no. Wethouder Herman Meijer over belangstelling voor wederopbouw. “Bouwhistorisch onderzoek zoals een goede wetenschap betaamt!” Monumenten no. Buffinga. Hoogtepunten.” Bouw no. Devolder. Rotterdam: MFR Rotterdamse Kunststichting. Handbuch der Architektur. Stockholm: Stockholm Arkitektur Förlag & Grinko Press. L. 1999. et al. Surrey: Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain. “Een gebouw is er voor de functie. Architectuur Rotterdam 1945 – 1970. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. de Graaf. Dubbeling. A. E. Doets. 1993. 1987.V. G. New York: Rizzoli. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. 1995. Curtis. Dijkstra. Form. G. 16 (1968): 590-91. Tj. 8 (1961): 165-167. Modern European Architecture. 1999. K. H. Amsterdam: N. 1947. “Wederopbouwarchitectuur: geen louter beschermende houding. 192 ■ A B C D re search method . “Opdrachtgever moet bewijzen dat slopen zinvol is.” De Ingenieur no. Barbieri et al. Cate. Ching. Dijk. Duin. D. 2 (1959) : 47. van. A. G. 2000. S. and. Wissenschaft und Kunst. 11 (1939): 65-83.Bromberg. “The Future of Architecture. Cate. ten and K. Modern Architecture since 1900. and O. G. O. B. T. Rovers. D. Leeuwarden: Gemeente Leeuwarden. Architectonische kwaliteit. H. Louis I. Stehouwer. Beknopte geschiedenis van Friesland. Honderd jaar Nederlandse architectuur 1901-2000. Coolen. J. ten. Caldenby. J. Halbband: Bebäude für Erziehung. Bruggen. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers.O.H. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 20 (1983): 35-38. 17 (1968): 680-684. Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden. Darmstadt: Diehl 1893. Groningen: Universiteitsbibliotheek. Leiden: Fons Verheijen. 1977. Hultin. Brouwer. Structuurschets van de gemeente Cofaigh. T. Berlin: Birkhaüser. E. ten. Cederlöf. Twentieth-Century Architecture. A. and D.” Bouw no. The Swedish Des Travaux no. Leeuwarden. 1946. J. 4.” Bouw no.” Geneeskundig Tijdschrift der Rijksverzekeringsbank no. Fons Verheijen Architect. Campbell. Engels.V. Niet overdrijven. 1993.” Leeuwarden. “Naoorlogse bouwtechniek: terugblik en vooruitzicht. “Wennen aan wederopbouw. 1982. W. 20 (1983): 72-74. Architectuur in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. M.” Architektur. Bouwen in nieuwe banen. 1979. W. S. “Gestolde sociale geschiedenis. 1990. Durm.” Heemschut no. Cate. K. L. Basel: Birkhaüser. 1/2 (1954): 25-32. Nijmegen: SUN. W. 1999. Cate. Oxford: Phaidon. London: James and James. Haaksma. 1990. Architectural Rieview no. Cofaigh.” Bouw no. U. D. Louis Kahn: In the Realm of Artchitecture. 10 (1993): 46-48. de Arbeiderspers. 1992. Een interview met Hubert-Jan Henket. Eekhof. Space & Order. ten and R. Buch. R.” In Resourch Architecture Main Congress Report and Outlook. Bunnell. Dreyer. Asplund. Washington: Preservation Press. Douma. and H.” La Technique Bouw (May 1997): appendix 32-33.

Hein. Berlijn: Ernst Wasmuth Publishers. 9 (1970): 555-556. Haß. Gool. Graaf. de. van. U.. 1981. K. et al.” Architectural Forum (September 1960): 110-115. Architect van Schagen over de kracht van renovaties. Haarlem: Architext. Gereadts. 2004. “Stop met slopen van de bestaande stad. de. and P. and V. Gmelig and F. Tijdschrift no. 1992. De veranderende bouwopgave. P. 1981. de. Konerding. 1957. P. H.K. de. 2 (1966): 58-62. Stuttgart: Kramer. K. Frampton. Haskel. Studie zu gewerblich genutzten und Onderhoud no.” Monumentum no. K. K. M. “Jeugdherinneringen: de jaren vijftig onder de Oldehove. Moderne Architectuur in Nederland 1900-1940.. Galema. ABCD re search method ■ 193 . Amsterdam: Intermediair Bibliotheek. 2001. Harwood. Architectuur Algemene Beschouwingen. P. D. Haagsma. Groot. Schunck’s Glass Palace. O. Herbestemmingswijzer: herbestemming van bestaand vastgoed. “Multidisciplinair onderzoek dient het bouwen te begeleiden. “Prijsvraag voor bibliotheek te Leeuwarden. 1965. Graaf. H. Geraedts. W. van der Voordt.D. Groenendijk. Umnutzungalter Gebaüde und Anlagen. Hek. A. et al. Frölén. K. “Architecture as reparation. Hendriks. de. S. “Staalbouw 1945-1965. R. Graatsma. gesetzlich geschützten Denkmalen in Hamburg. J.” Renovatie & Onderhoud no. J. C. Massachusetts: MIT Press. F. Architectuur.” Bouw (May 1997): appendix 3. 2001. Greiner. “Jazz in Architecture. Haagsma. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. de Haan. E. London: Ellipsis.” Bouw no. H. D.” Bouw no. Inaugurate speech. Van wederopbouw naar ruimtelijke ordening. Utrecht: Kluwer. “Niet conserveren maar herontwikkelen. 1981. 1967. S. Time and Architecture. Alvar Aalto. Space. Vollaard. 2002. “Van leegstand naar herbestemming. 2004. Weesp: Moussault. Grimoldi. Gids voor moderne architectuur in ontmoetingen. 1 (2000): 21-24. J. Haagsma. Een onderwerp van voortdurende zorg. 1983. G. 4 (1984): 285-300. 3 (2001): 12-13. H. Notes on restoration in architecture. Giedion. de and I. 46 (1985): 117-122. “Een eeuw architectuurgeschiedenis. Das Verschwinden der Bauten des Industriezeitalters. Kamstra and R. A. 1 (1965): 17B-23B. Nuth: Rosbeek Books. 2000. K. 1984.” Leeuwarder Courant. Hendriks. Barcelona: Editorial Gustavo Gill. vak van Grasman. Grandpré Molière. A. 1/2 (2001): 18-19. “Eerst onderzoeken dan ontwerpen. “Wederopbouw in wegwerpcultuur” Bouw (May 1997): appendix 4-9.” Architectural Rieview no. Tauber Architecten. B. Groat L and D. Hassler. Alkmaar: Architectenbureau Tauber.” Plan no. N. “Koldinghus: the conversion of an old Royal Danish Castle. Architectural Research Methods. November 30.” Architektur. Fischer.Erkamp.” Renovatie & Onderhoud no. Groot. K. Graaf. Het Naoorlogse bouwen in Nederland. Fleig. W. 1987. Graaf. Wang. New York: Wiley. 1981. Rotterdam: Wyt Publishers. 8 (2000): 12-13. 6/7 (2000): 10-11. de. Wie is er bang voor nieuwbouw.” Archis no. A Guide to post-war listed buildings. RDMZ helpt wederopbouwwijken in kaart te brengen.” Real Estate Magazine no. “Brug te veel. Amsterdam: Architectura et Amicitia. Exner. 17 (1968): 714-716. Genderenstort. 12 (1998): 78-79. Thomsen. The Hague: State Publisher. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Haan. P. The growth of a tradition. 1996.” Lotus no. Hendriks. Studies in Tectonic Culture. 1990. de Haan. Staatssecretaris Remkes pareert visie professor Thomsen.” Renovatie & Confrontatie met Nederlandse architecten. Graaf. de and I.J. de and I. Interview met Prof. 39 (2005): 12-14. M. N. Amsterdam: Scheltema and Holkema. Hamburg: Denkmalplege Hamburg. van Hoeken. 15 (1959): 403. Delft: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde. The Swedish Nederland. “Stadsbibliotek I Solna. 1996. Sloopstop dodelijk voor stad. van. de. “Veranderingen in de plaats van de arbeiders in het bouwproces. J.” Polytechnisch Leovardia no. Bouwen naar opdracht. 1942.” Renovatie & Onderhoud no. Fanelli. and Th. A. A. England. “Achterstand naoorlogse monumenten mag niet oplopen. De architectuur.

1996. 2002). Ibelings.J. Hillen. Herzberger. 3 (1954): 93-100. 1996. 10 (2005): 82-85. Delft: University Press. Hovens Greve. 13 (1961): 259-260. ‘‘De periode van het individuele modernisme.’’ http://www. Jansen. ‘‘De architectuur van de wederopbouw. Richtlijnen Bouwhistorisch Onderzoek. “Een gunstig werkklimaat. J. 1993. H. ‘‘Leeuwardens vroegste verleden op de schop.’’ Bouw (May 1997): appendix 3. Het gebruik van de stad. De verspreiding van Bouw no. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. ‘‘De bouwfysicus: in samenhang bekijken. Tilman. H.” The Architectural Review no. 2003. 1928: Schoonheid en transparantie. 6 (1965): 499B-505B. Back to Utopia. ‘‘Instandhouding. 3 (1985): 24-25. 3 (1985): 29-31. 19 4 ■ A B C D re search method . logica en vernuft. 6 (1988): 36-51. “The proof of the pudding remains in the eating. Delft: University Press. Jelles.000 jaar maatschappij en techniek. Traditionalistische architectuur in Nederland 1900-1960. W. Samenvatting Colleges 1973-1982. 13 (1961): 258-259.’’ Forum no. Herzberger. 1 (1965): 24B-28B. Schilt and H.Henket. Henket. Leeuwarden: Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek van Friesland. deel A. 1991. Hoeve. ‘‘De invloed van de industrialisatie op de architectuur.’’ Heemschut no. ed. The Hague: Rijksgebouwendienst. De moderne jaren vijftig en zestig.’’ De Architect (March 2004): 13-14. J. ‘‘Verlichtingstechniek 1945-1965.’’ SMAAK no. Henket. Horn – van Nispen.html (accessed Februari 28. den. Henn.” De Architect no. J. 9 (1970): 559-561. H. H.’’ Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. J.’’ Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. “Bureaucracy & the Architecture of the Genius. Definitief ontwerp voor torens Justitie en Binnenlandse Zaken laat meer verscheidenheid zien. J.J. J. Hitchcock. Proceedings of the syposium in honour of Sir Norman Foster doctor honoris causa at the Eindhoven University of Technology. ‘‘Eerste landdag voor architectuurhistorici. van. A. Utrecht: Lemma.’’ Die neue Stadt (1951): 459-462. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij. 6 (1996): 10-13. J. 47/48 (1947): 612b-615b. Ibelings. Hollander. Hulstein. 1 (1991): 20-27. H. J. Hryniewiecki. H. Vijfentwintig jaar aan de Boterhoek: een korte geschiedenis van de Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek.R. Huisman.J. Jager. 1985.J. 601 (1947): 3-6. Kamerling. ‘‘Hubert-Jan Henket gelooft heilig in transparantie: Laagdrempelig is chique. 2002. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. 1984. Hoekstra. G. Bouwkundig Weekblad no. M. ‘‘Zoeken naar een adequate werkwijze. Huizenga. aanpassing en hergebruik van gebouwen. 20 (2005) 36-38. Ruimte maken ruimte laten. Heynen ed.L. H. H. H. T.” Plan no. 1982. H. 1996. Het Openbare Rijk.’’ eigentijdse architectuur over Nederland. 400. Ooit gesloopt Nederland. J. ‘‘Het andere modernisme. April 26. E. H. “Van produceren naar gebruiken en beheren. June 12. ten. ‘‘Waarom een leeftijdsgrens?” Heemschut no. J. Ways to Study and Research.’’ SMAAK no.. R. IJzeren. Huisman.’’ Archis no. Rotterdam: Museum Boymans van Beuningen. ‘‘Een overzicht van de veranderingen in de architectuur ten gevolge van het ontstaan van nieuwe technieken en materialen.’’ Vrij Nederland. and H. Huygen. 2002. Rapport aan: Commissie Waardestelling Wederopbouw Rotterdam. 6 (1996): 3-4.nl/oldehove. Samenvatting Colleges 1973-1982.” Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. H.J. F. H.’’ Plan no. van der. Jonge W. Jong. A. 2000.C. Rotterdam: Commissie Waardestelling Wederopbouw Rotterdam. Laat zon en licht in uw woning binnentreden. ‘‘Man en vrouw in het Wijnhavenkwartier. ‘‘Mens en werkomgeving. Jongepier.’’ Hoe Rotterdam zichzelf kan blijven (Docomomo).” Huisman. de. J. Ibelings. ‘‘Stadtplanung und Städtebau. ‘‘Lelijk is geen argument. ‘‘De architectuur van de jaren vijftig en zestig. Delft: University Press. Ibelings.J. M.A. deel B. Henket.. Hitchcock.R. “Over het oude en het nieuwe bouwen. The economy of architecture.’’ Forum no.. 1997.gemeentearchief. Hoenig. de ed. 14 (2003): 51-53.’’ Plan no. 26 (1985): 49. H. Bouwkundig Weekblad no.

A. London: Cape. Zeist: RDMZ. New York: Wiley.’’ Change in Building Use. 1982.P. K. Technology as an Inspiration in Wederopbouw 1940-1965. Markus.J. ‘‘Het nieuwe gebouw der Rijksverzekeringsbank te Amsterdam. ‘‘Groei van kennis in de architectuur. Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw last. Building Conversion and Rehabilitation. 2001. Kronenburg. 1958. Klerk. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. de. Architectuurgids van Delft. V.munumentenzorg. Delft: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde.Karstkarel. 2004. Melet. 2002. 1996. Meller.nl/actueel/nieuws/ nieuws_ monstelsel. Kasteren. Het volledige werk. Opmeer en K. ABT 1953-2003. ABCD re search method ■ 195 . van Meijel and P. Categoriaal Onderzoek De Architect no. Macdonald. ‘‘Herbestemming: Nieuwbouw in historische context. J. H. M. Recent Architecture in Holland. Kollhoff. M. Het vrijstaande woonhuis. S. Über Tektonik in der Baukunst. 2. Meuwissen. Categoriaal Architectural Review no. E. 1998. 2002. Klaver. ed. Shaftesbury: Donhead. Los. Loeff. J. en I. 1987. E. Bibliotheekbeschrijving. Zeist: RDMZ. K. Kloos. T. Raadhuizen. 1940-1965. Lichtenberg. G. Spoorwegstations. 1992. D. Inaugurate speech at the Maastricht University. Kraus. Buildings that Lange. 66 (2002): 3. 2001. K. M. 2002. 1985. Utrecht: Centraal Museum. van Zijl. Shaftesbury: Donhead. ed. Leeuwarden 700 jaar bouwen. Korte. 2004. Essen: Heyer. Public Library Building. Koster. Arnhem: ABT. Designing for 1940-1965. D. van.W.G. Bejaardentehuizen. ‘‘De constructeur: skelet respecteren.” Boosting. E. 1970. Merwijk. J. 1992. Zeist: RDMZ. 1983. Mevissen. Pleidooi voor een plychrone cultuur. L. De wederopbouw van Nederland 1940-1965. What Time is This Place? Cambridge: MIT Press. 28 (1940): 208-214. P. Braunsweig: Vieweg. Creative Re-use of Buildings. Vol. 1888-1964. Opmeer. Kuper. Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw 1940-1965. Groningen: University of Groningen. no.P. van Winden. P.P. The Buckminster Fuller Reader. Kruisgebouwen. G. J. 1993. et al.’’ Selected Examples. 1993. Modern Matters. 2003. de.H. Principles and Practice. de. J. de. Zeist: RDMZ. Latham. Loeff. en Ch. E. K. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. Kuipers. 2004. Kok. en W. Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw Recent Architecture. Zeist: RDMZ. L. van. van en H. Creative Re-use of Buildings. 2000. Loeff. L. Croes et al.Th. Conserveren in de wegwerp maatschappij. Zwolle: Waanders. 2004. The Refurbishment of Commercial and Industrial Buildings. Mieras. M. Maastricht: University Press. Shaftesbury: Donhead. van Meijel and P.. Leupen.J. Sportaccomodaties. 1860-1950. Meijel. Opmeer. 2004. W. Lansink. Zutphen: Terra Publishers. 62 (2003): 7-19. Korte.C. S. 2004. T.’’ Open: vaktijdschrift voor bibliothecarissen no. W. Marsh.. Vol. Scholen. ‘‘De Buma Bibliotheek te Leeuwarden. L. B. 1. Korte. Provinciehuizen. M. Rietveld. W. R. S. ‘‘Plannen voor een nieuw monumentenstelsel. London: Newnes-Butterworths. Mans. Principles and Practice in Conserving Universiteitsbibliotheek te Groningen. 2000. J. Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw 1940-1965.C. Particuliere plannen. Kuipers. Macdonald. Koops. Building Types: stedelijke elite inzake de volkswoningbouw en de stedebouw in Rotterdam. Frame and Generic Space. 2005. Building Renovation and Recycling.html (accesed October 24. 6 (1977): 307-312. J. Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw Architectural Design. Preserving Post-War Heritage. Denkbeelden en initiatieven van de 1940-1965. 2003. Lynch. 2001. 1972. Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw 1940-1965. 2002). ‘‘The Dutch Melting-pot. Duurzaam huisvesten. London: Construction Press. Chichester: Wiley-Academy. D. Zeist: RDMZ. Toonbeelden van de wederopbouw. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Bücherei. 1979. 616 (1948): 137-156.’’ OASE no. Het nieuwe gebouw van de Onderzoek Wederopbouw 1940-1965.’’ Nieuwsbrief RDMZ no. Cologne: Taschen Publishers. Carlo Scarpa.’’ Bouw (May 1997): appendix 30. Zeist: RDMZ. M. Knittel. 4 (2002). de. Latham. Lion. Shaftesbury: Donhead. Zeist: RDMZ.’’ Bouwkundig Weekblad Architectura no. Sober en Solide. 37 (1989): 34-43. http://www. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers.R. ‘‘Conceptueel ontwikkelen versus Development by Addition. Spirit of the Machine. 1995.

8 (1968): 136-137. Preservation of Modern Architecture. De Paradijsbouwers. Eindhoven University of Technology. J. 1995. Coenen and M. Utrecht: Spectrum. Nieuwe ontwerpen voor Transforming Giles Gilbert Scott. Kuipers et al. and R. Nervi. Leiden: Werkgroep Techniek. City Reborn. Amsterdam in de 20e eeuw.V. P. London: Oxford University Press. Pruys. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. 1976. Provoost.M. P. R. K. N. J. Monumenten van Herrezen techniek. ‘‘The Skyline. 25 (2003). ‘‘Openbare bibliotheek en leeszaal in Assen. Art and Technics.’’ The New oude gebouwen. van. London: King. C.M. van Woerkom.C. Architecture Reborn. . Neumeyer.’’ Bouwkundig Weekblad no. Roegholt. 1991. materialen en technieken.’’ Gebouwbeheer no.H. M. 100 (1992).’’ Werk no. Pieterson. P. Notitie voor Gered Bedreigd. K.’’ Heemschut no. A History of Building Types. Technologie en Samenleving. 1971.’’ The Hague: H. Deel 2 (1945/1970). Ruler. Risselada.L. ‘‘De invloed van de ontwikkelingen in het gewapend beton. Roos. et al. W. Cambridge: MIT University Press. New York: Princeton University Press.Mieras. de bouwtechniek en de bouwwetenschap op de hedendaagse architectuur. London: Tate Gallery Publishing. Mulder.’’ Renovatie & Onderhoud no. F. An Engineer Imagines. 1994. Design Kritiek. and W.M. van Tijen: ‘Ik ben een rationalist. A History of Building Types . Heinen. 8 (1960):p. Delft: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde. 451. J. 2007. A. Mies van de Rohe on the Building Art .’’ Process: Architecture no. N. PhD diss. Nijenhuis and Ebbinge. Müller-Menckens G. P. Jonge architecten in de wederopbouw 1940-1960. D. W. ‘‘Ir. Pevsner. N. Jhaveri. 1994 Ronner.M. A. Re-Architecture. A. Na-oorlogse bouwkunst in Nederland. London: Artemis. Powell. 1997. R. Re-Arch.’’ uitdaging. M. maar er is meer op de wereld.’” Plan no. Delft: VSSD. Nicolai.. Libraries. Mumford. Nahum. L. J. ed. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons. 196 ■ A B C D re search method Nederland. Rongen. 1979. München: Saur. R. 2008. M. Moore. Kuipers. 1987. Nijhof. J. J. M. Nusselder. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. W. 1999. M. Gesloopt Bouwkundig Weekblad no. Zeist January 15.J. H. 1951. Nelissen. Ortega Y Gasset. Omgaan met naoorlogse bouwkunst.. van. 1952. J. Leopold N. 2000.K. 1900-2000 architecture in the Netherlands a chronology.’’ Blueprint (April 1989): 53. E. Re-Urb.M. London: Merell. 11 (1951): 326-330. 1979.J. Pereira Rodes. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. L. M. Herzog & de Meuron Piano. Vanstiphout. 3 (2001): 14-17. Probleme der Umnutzung. A Walk Through Rotterdam. 1977. Wederopbouw. ‘‘Die Nachkriegsarchitektur in Holland. Discovering the assignment. Rotterdam: Episode Publishers. Neues Leben für alte Bauten. October 12. De nieuwe onzakelijkheid. de Back.. ‘‘Renzo Piano Building Workshop.P. ‘‘Herbouwde binnensteden onder druk. Schilt and M. Pruys. ‘‘Italy’s Brunel. 1987. G. Rietveld. 2007. Ryan. Santen. Kahn Complete Work 1935-1974. Rauwerdink.. een de gebouwde omgeving. and S. Röling. ‘‘Op zoek naar cultuurhistorische waarden in naoorlogse voorraad. Amersfoort: RACM. Herbestemming van grote monumenten. 1993. Louis I. Nieuwe plannen voor oude steden.H. Nannen. 1979. ed. S. Het technisch labyrint. S. Amsterdam: University Press Salomé. ‘‘Hergebruik voor tweederde onder de nieuwprijs. Röling. PhD diss. New York: Princeton University Press. Building Tate Modern.P. Rice. Delft University of Technology. historie en architect en zicht op Delft. 9 (1970): 521-528. and W. Amsterdam: Kosmos. Bussum: Thoth. 1954. de verantwoordelijkheid van de RDMZ-Kennisoverleg Instandhoudingstechnologie no.A. 1 (2001): 37. 1981 Powell. M. 2001. ’s-Hertogenbosch: Adr.T. 1974. een weg tot oorspronkelijkheid. Beste Greiner…. Lifespan rehabilitation of built heritage. Stuttgart: Koch. Antonio Gaudí. A.. Th. 1 (2000): 20-21. 13 (1961): 257-258. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff. 2007. Vanstiphout. Amsterdam: Aula. S. 2004.J. The Artless Word. Bespiegelingen over leven en denken. Provoost. Molema. 2004. Prudon. Pevsner. A.. 1957. Anti – kunstzinnige opmerkingen over Yorker. Kloos. ‘‘Een brief over prijsvragen. 2002. De kunst van de ingenieur. Basel: Birkhäuser. and D. 2004. Pennink. 1999. Veranderbaarheid en flexibiliteit van gebouwen.C. Mumford.A.’’ Bouwkundig Weekblad no.

’’ De Architect no. ‘‘monumentenzorg in de jaren ’90. Smid. R. Buildings. van. Delft University of Technology. P. Schelling. Techniek in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers.A. Domique Perrault Morceaux Choisis. Tonka. and H.’’ woningen. “Techné. Leeuwarden: Provincial en BUMA Library Friesland. Schagen. New York: Spon. L. Hergebruik van Oude Gebouwen. J. 2002. 2004. 40 jaar ontwerp. Bibliotheek Friesland. Solà Morales. 1990. H.G.F. Tauber. M. I. New York: Wiley. M.H.L. VI: stad. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. Een verouderd gebouw. ‘‘Bouwkunde 1945-1965. J. A. ed. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Alfred Hardy 1900-1965. Gent: GUAEP. The Hague: SDU Publishers.H. 2000. Het herbestemmen van kantoren naar Courant.E. Schrier. Stratton. Sharp. rehabilitatie van de naoorlogse wijken. van den Broek. London: Spon. ‘‘Van Postkantoor naar ABN AMRO-bank. De Provinciale upgradingsproject. Tauber and G. P. The Modern Movement in Architecture. P. 1962. Tellinga. G. P. 2002. M. “Betonskeletbouw. Sebestyen. wat nu? Aanpak van een Alkmaar. Stoller. Investment Time in Scheduling in Urban Tijdschrift voor Architectuur en Beeldende Kunsten no. Tauber. ‘‘Transformatie zonder vervreemding. Integrated life cycle design of structures. Zutphen: De Walburg Press. J. Structure and style. 1999. Stenvert. Tauber. van der.” Techné no. J.’’ Polytechnisch Tijdschrift 1 (1965): 9B-12B. Binnensteden veranderen. 2000. Conserving Twentieth Century bouw en industriële productie.C. 7 (2004). London: Spon. Bouwen naar opdracht II. ‘‘Form contrast to analogy. Rotterdam: Stichting Bouw Research. Ir. H. ‘‘Architectuur bevindt zich in overgangsfase. 1990. R.’’ Baksteen no. Spekkink. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.’’ Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting no. Inaugurate speech.H. Tauber. 9 (1968): 234-241. 1969. New Architecture and Technology.’’ Bouw no. 2002. Architectuur beleven. A. 1950 Welvaart in zwart-wit. P. Inaugurate speech. Sens. and C. and K. Delft University of Technology. Oxford: Architectural Press. De K W tool. Utrecht: Matrijs. 2000. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. The United Nations. 1994. Tauber. Stromeyer. G. Spens. 2000. P.H. P. Selier. ‘‘Prof. P. Cooke ed. Delft University of Technology. Tauber.en bouwgeschiedenis. ‘‘Provinciale en Buma Bibliotheek. de.H. November 25.H. 1961. M. Smith Burns.H.J. Stigt. I.H. 37 (1989): 6-13.’’ BNA Regio Reconstruction. ‘‘Over kantoorgebouwen in het algemeen. Bouwen naar opdracht. H. F. Viipuri Library 1927-1935 Alvar Aalto. D. ‘‘Constructie van gewapend-betonvloeren zonder toepassing van houten bekisting. 2003...” Bouw (1946): 179. 2004.’’ 8 en Opbouw no. Valencia: Sens & Tonka.H. Alkmaar: Piet Tauber. Stevens. Szénássy. Tauber. P. P.Sarja. D. Staal. 1978. 1999.’’ Leeuwarder Selections from the DOCOMOMO Registers. Schot. D. Spek.J. Inleiding in de bouwhistorie. Schuyt. Strauven. 2003. Tauber. 46 (1985): 37-45. Delft University of Technology. E. Industrial buildings Conservation and Regeneration. 2002. May 25. 1984. 1988. Developments in the concept of architectural intervention. Smeallie. Taverne. E.. J. ABCD re search method ■ 197 . A Design Sourcebook for Architects and preservationists. Een nieuwe bouwopgave. 1997. Zutphen: Terra Publishers. van. Farwell speech. London: Academic Editions. 3 (2004): 12-17. 1986. Europäische Bibliotheksbauten seit 1930. Verandering van naoorlogse woonwijken.W. 29 (1941): 244-245. 9 (1937): 79-84. van Tussenbroek et al. H. New construction for Older Buildings. Graduation thesis. 1 (1975): 1-11. 1964. Stratton. Technology and Tragedy. Zutphen: De Walburg Pers. E. P. E.H. ‘‘Oldehoveplein vraagt om totaalvisie. 2003. Nederlandse cultuur in Europese Context. R. PhD diss. 2007. De Grote Verbouwing. I.. Tauber.’’ Lotus no. 16 (1968): 586-589. J.W. Smook. Architectuur in Nederland 1960-1967. Tabachnick. Tauber over zijn Alkmaarse aktiviteiten. W.’’ Bouwkundig Weekblad no. Amsterdam: Scheltema en Holkema.

Meervoudig en Intensief Ruimtegebruik in de Stad. Vanstiphout. Uluots. ‘‘Restaureren wat en hoe?. van ‘‘De vier uren van de moderne architektuur. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij..’’ Archis no. Vlot. ‘‘Metamorfose van het bestaande.. ‘‘Nieuw leven voor NatLab.en dorpsgezichten.’’ De Ingenieur no. Ward.Temminck Groll. Tummers.H. J. 17 (1968): 712-713. Op zoek naar het nieuwe beeld van De stad van morgen 1 (1993). methoden en analysekader. Schouwburgen. Libraries for Schools and Universities. W. Reflexen. Vanstiphout. 17 (1968): 704-707. Nederland. Nederland in Vogelvlucht. Naar een strategisch monumentenzorg in de jaren negentig.L. Tijen.nl/lectoraten/ol05-041013-cilianterwindt. F.J. Haagse gids voor architectuur en Wederopbouw 1940-1965. A.H. Kwalitatieve grond- slagen van de sociale woningbouw in Nederland. Delft University of Technology. ‘‘Veranderingen in het ondernemerschap in de bouwnijverheid.’’ Bouw no. 1959. Vago. H. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Woud. Welvaartstad in wording. ‘‘De permanente ontwerpopgave. 2002. 7/8 (1996): 33-36.’’ Atelier Stad.’’ Monumenten no. 4 (1959): 94-97. van den Dobbelsteen en M. De wederopbouw van Plan no.’’ Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. van der. 1998. 6/7 (1996): 6-8. et al. E. ‘‘Architectuur 1945-1965. ‘‘Authenticiteit. Woud. 2007. Timmer. A.’’ Bouw no. 9 (1970): 531-552.’’ De Architect no. ‘‘Ontwikkelingen in de verhouding opdrachtgevers. and F. Leeuwarden: Sprezzatura. 1959. De Wederopbouw. Zijlstra. A. Restaureren. 1963. van der. van Dorst. 2002. Westenbrugge. Alemagne. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. Integrale Plananalyse – Doel. ‘‘Monumentenzorg in de volkshuisvesting. ‘‘Het einde van de Wederopbouw. Vriend. Vreeze. ‘‘Strategie in de monumentenzorg: een harde sector. ‘‘Oude waarden en welstand. Amsterdam: Van Holkema en Warendorf N. Het schijnbaar onmogelijke en omgaan met de twijfel. Bouw no. Inaugurate speech. D. Wagenaar. Nederlands bouwen na 1945. van den Broek. 1960.’’ Bouw no. Planning the Twentieth-Century City. de. Valentijn. Viruly. S. A. E. 9 (1992): 16-19. Leeuwarden in perspectief. The advanced capitalist world. Amsterdam: Contact. P. 2000. van der. ed. Nederland wordt groter. Amsterdam: Promotion Pictures C. Delft: VSSD. 1 (1965): 2B-8B. T. Categoriaal Onderzoek Wederopbouw stedenbouw in de periode 1945-1960. ‘‘De ethiek van de onthouding.’’ Archis no.’’ Bouw no. H. and H. Toekomst voor verleden.. Terwindt.pdf.’’ Archis no. 10 (1993): 8-12. C. H. Amsterdam: BNA. Wild. 2002. Voigt. Amsterdam: Moussault. Wijdeveld. De beoefening van het niets-doen bij restauraties. Woud. Viruly. Wiekart.’’ Rotterdam 1940-1952. A. Woningbouw. Verheijen. J. van der. ‘‘Creativiteit is het hart van het ingenieurswerk. Maak een stad. Flying over Holland. Monumentenzorg in de jaren negentig. A. 4 (1975): 57-58. Zeist: RDMZ. 1993. 1940-1965. 4 (2004): 34-43. A.hva. Twijnstra. 2004. 198 ■ A B C D re search method . Links bouwen rechts bouwen. aannemers. Zeist: RDMZ.V. 1963. http://www. Vreeze. Vriend. Categoriaal Onderzoek L’Architecture D‘Aujourdhui no. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Woud. C. A. C. van der. 1972. 1974. N. C.’’ Archis no. N. de. Zweden. Architectuur van deze eeuw. 8 (1990): 18-23. 2005. Temminck Groll. Willems. Vriend.L. F. ‘‘Onbeschermde stad. E. Borneman. Almere: NWR. W.’’ De Architect no. Wetting. K.J.’’ Voordt. 1992. ‘‘Biblotheque de Bonn. 2005. Rotterdam en de architectuur van J. Wijdeveld. A. 1972. van der. inspiratie & ambities.’’ Archis no. J. architecten. London: Butterworths. Design & Planning. 100 (1962): 60-64. M. 2004 Hogeschool van Amsterdam. Woud. Amsterdam: Contact. 9 (1994): 8. Tussen prestigieuze projecten en het gewone werk. Kerken Noord-Brabant.V. Th. A. C. A. Chichester: Wiley. Tilman.J. W. Scholte. The Hague: De Nieuwe Haagsche. Thompson.’’ Bouw. 16 (1968): 595-599. Public lecture October 13. ‘‘Bibliotheek te Växjö. ‘‘Ontwikkelingen in uitvoeringsmethoden. 17 (1968): 690-691. 3 (2004): 12. A. Library Buildings of Britain and Europe. E. 8 (1990): 12-17.J.

5 (2004): 2. 2003. Continuïteit + Veranderbaarheid = Duurzaamheid. 10 (1959): 260-262. Leeuwarden in contrast. 29 (1941): 244-245. author unknown ‘‘1970s Revisited. H. J. Delft University of Technology: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde. Zijlstra.’’ Bouw no. ‘‘Totale originaliteit. Nieuwenhuis. CIAM Volkshuisvesting In order of title. ‘‘Analysing Building Construction in Time.jansma. H. Delft: Delft University Press. Nieuwe Provinciale Bibliotheek is vanmiddag geopend. ‘‘Prijsvraag voor bibliotheekgebouw te Leeuwarden. 2004.’’ Friesland no. Utrecht: Spectrum. Zijlstra.’’ Bouwkundig www.’’ Bouwkundig Weekblad no. Zanden.’’ Franeker Nieuwsblad. 1967. H. (2007): 67-74.’’ Bouw no. Weekblad no. ‘‘Studienreise durch Holland. ‘‘Amsterdam weert nieuwe onverhuurde kantoren.Woud.’’ Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. 2003. 2 (2002): 22-29. 26 (1961): 524-526. Zutphen. Zijlstra.’’ TVVL Magazine no.’’ OASE 57 (2001).’’ http:// De Volkskrant.archined. Leeuwarden. ‘‘Integratie als uitgangspunt. Delft.’’ Stedebouw. H.html (accessed March 18. ‘‘DoCoMoMo in New York. ‘‘Sloop en auteursrecht.’’ http://www.’’ Bouw no. ‘‘Bouwen in Nederland 1940-1970.’’ Bouw no. ‘‘Onze bouwmaterialen. ‘‘Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland te Leeuwarden. 36 (1969): 1366-1373. H.’’ Bauen und Wohnen no. H. monument voor het beroepsonderwijs. ‘‘Zwarts & Jansma architecten ontwerpt tijdelijke huisvesting voor het Stedelijk museum in Amsterdam. 5 (1960): 140-143. 1966. Jansma. 8 (1968): 140-143.’’ Monumenten no. 1993. H.’’ PhD diss. Edited by Görün Arun Yildiz. 2006: 43-46. 2004). ‘‘Nationale en Universiteitsbibliotheek te Jeruzalem. 3 (2002): 24-27.’’ Archis no. van. 2006. ‘‘De Provinciale Bibliotheek van Friesland in zijn nieuwe paleis. ‘‘Prijsvraag voor bibliotheekgebouw te Leeuwarden. ‘‘Het winnende ontwerp in een prijsvraag voor een bibliotheekgebouw te Leeuwarden. De Rijksverzekeringsbank van architect ir. 11 (1945): 27-31. ‘‘Einer der letzten Bauten von Arne Jacobsen †. van. 4 (2005): 30-34.’’ Bouw no. van der. 1985. Zijlstra. en R. 2004). A. 1 (1965): 13B-16B. het middelpunt van Friesland. H. Delft University of Technology. ‘‘Bibliotheekgebouw Katholieke Universiteit te Nijmegen. Hauptbiblothek in Rødovre. Zijlstra.’’ TVVL Magazine no. Zijlstra. en M. 6 (2005): 14-17. ‘‘Naast materiële het culturele. ‘‘Ruimte voor duurzaamheid. Groene geschiedenis van Nederland. the ABC Research Matrix.html (accessed Februari 9. 1999. ‘‘Technikon. Projectdocumentatie. ‘‘Besloten prijsvraag bibliotheek Leeuwarden.0. Brussels: EURAU’06. Zijlstra.” Bouwkundig Weekblad no. van der. ‘‘Betontechniek 1945-1965. M. Thesis by H. A.’’ Forum no.’’ In: Architecture & Heritage. 1983. 2 (1960): 36-39 ‘‘Leegstand kantoren naar record.’’ De Volkskrant. ‘‘Nederland recyclet er lustig op los. zwarts.943.R. 1971. 2 (1959)2: 34-44. Woud. ‘‘Friesland heeft weer plaats voor zijn boekenschat. R. Ik ben een rustig ABCD re search method ■ 199 .D. Struktuurnota 1971. Typologie van stationsgebouwen. Zeilmaker.’’ Leovardia no.’’ Die Neue Stadt (1952): 401-402. Het Nieuwe Bouwen. 3 (2003): 8-12. H. ‘‘Bibliothek te Luzern.’’ Monumenten no. 1984. Rotary Leeuwarden. September 25. Architectuurgeschiedenis in de twintigste eeuw. Conference Proceedings. J. ‘‘De Provinciale Bibliotheek Fryslân kreeg een waardevolle herkansing. Zijlstra.nl/archined/3880. Dirk Roosenburg.L. October 7.nl/ article/1004. ‘‘Towards a new Typology. 3 (1999): 60-62. 41 (1952): 733. ‘‘De Provinciale Bibliotheek Fryslân kreeg een waardevolle herkansing.’’ Leeuwarder Courant. Zijlstra.’’ Delta no.’’Bouwkundig Weekblad no. Gemeente Leeuwarden. “Constructie van gewapend beton-betonvloeren zonder toepassing van houten bekisting. 5 (1971): 223-228. Alkmaar: BRT Architecten. September. November 15. Een voorbeeld van Nederlands bouwen in de twintigste eeuw. Februari 20. Zwarts. 5 (1966): 12-14. Istanbul: Technical University Research Centre for Preservation of Historical Heritage. Zijlstra.’’ In: Studies on Historical Heritage.

20 0 ■ A B C D re search method . Ein Gespräch mit Uta Hassler. Re-use and Susequent Costs of Buildings . ‘‘Uitkomst onderzoek: 70% bedrijven wenst flexibel kantoorconcept. interview met Maaskant. ‘‘Van der Ploeg: te weinig geld voor Kanjers. Tauber Alkmaar. 2008. ‘‘Wederopbouw in Nederland. Van Dommelen en De Koning. 2002 and December 3. Stuttgart: Krämer. 2001: 7.mens. January 25. 37/38 (1948): 540b-543b. Archive of P.’’ De Volkskrant. Head of the Facilities Department of Friesland Provincial Library. Miscellaneous Archive of BRT Architecten Alkmaar. February 6. 2002 and various telephone calls. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Interview by Hielkje Zijlstra with Sijbe Sevenster.H. 2002. Toekomstbeeld. 75 jaar statistiek van Nederland. ‘‘Über Risiken des Verschwindens und Chancen intelligenter Schrumpfung. 2008.’’ Polytechnisch Tijdschrift no. Letter from Piet Tauber to Hielkje Zijlstra. Telephone call by Hielkje Zijlstra with Frans Tauber (son of Piet Tauber) who was working on the plans for the refurbishment of Friesland Provincial Library . 2002 and March 6.’’ Detail no. 1975.’’ Project & Interieur. 10 (2002): 1212-1217. January 3. December 4. no. Februari 1. 6 (2003): 11.’’ Bouw no. The Hague: State Publisher. Structuurplan van de gemeente Leeuwarden. Gemeente Leeuwarden. 1971. 52 (1971): 1891. 1985. Interview by Hielkje Zijlstra with Piet Tauber.

ABCD re search method ■ 201 .

202 ■ A B C D re search method .

active conservation administrative section aesthetics age air air bridge air duct agency 51. 184 46 169. 41. 6. III. 40. 31. 151. 100. 155. 59. 175. 99. 2. 31. 108. 3. 57. 75. A. 99. 36. 71. 107. 50. E. 68. 37. 187. 30. 25. 183 45. 14. 77. 146. 32 47. 75. 179. 187. 28. 16. 20. 1. 123. 169 46 84 academic acoustic Amsterdam Noordzeekanaal Amsterdam Parklaan 31 7 20 Amsterdam Public Works Department Amsterdam Rijksverzekeringsbank Amsterdam School 98 7 Amsterdam Spaandammerbos Amsterdam Stationspostkantoor Amsterdam Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam Vijzelstraat analyse / analyzing 74. 188 5. 62. 127. 33 13. 142.L. 155. 185 56. 188 ABN-AMRO bank abrasive blasted ABT 16. 50 88. 71. 184. 146. 1. 98. 20. Alkmaar Allen. 67. 181. 57 33 187 air conditioning air handling air purification Alexandroni. 14. 4. 161. 107. 75 VII. 35. 19. 57. 170. 18.INDEX A Aalto. 33. 21 VIII. 19. VIII. 107. 27. 126. 188 architect engineer architects’ training architectural architectural critics architectural historian architectural history architectural practice architectural qualities architecture 34 25. 57. 182. 15. 102. 50 20. 173. 183 I. 169. 183 VIII. 7. 53 35 7 Alkmaar Beatrixlaan VII. 74.M. 17. V. 86. 105. 15. VII. 27. 18. 14. 11. 69. 59. 173. 184. 69. 79 3. 170. 115 19 ABCD re search method ■ 203 Amsterdam International Institute of Social History Amsterdam Lucasziekenhuis Asselbergs. 82 1. 3. 46 29. 18. 70. 50 Amsterdam Vakbondsmuseum (trade union museum) Amsterdam Willem I Warehouse I. 57. 187 archive archivist 5 51 52 7 65 14 7 17. 54 Asplund. 67. 61. 107. ABCD ABN 6 183. 72. 86. J. 170. 45. 82. 34. VII. 69. 71. 102. III. 154. 21. 64. 67. 39. 53. 11. 63. 37. 50. 125. 99. 51. 43. 17. 11. 140. 27 17. 182. 41. 95. 74. 5. 98. 54. aluminium VIII. 35. 72. 37. 88. 30. 62. 18. 99 16. 39. 16. 25. 75. 179 155 115 99 45. 166 100. 146 151. 27. 52. 40. 102. 62. 25. 187. 71. 38. 52. 1. 100 7. 35. 29. 68. 77. 181. 3. 98. 62. 11. 187 Antwerp application architect 10 appearance 99 65 IX. 59. 100. A. 41. 20. 3. 87. 2.G. 102. 32. 81. 43. 20. 55. 26. 36. 39. 8. 32. 188 79 82 33 American Marshall Plan American New Deal Amsterdam Amsterdam Bijlmer housing estate Amsterdam Bijlmermeer Amsterdam Burgerweeshuis Amsterdam Central Station Amsterdam Frankendaal Amsterdam Confectiecentrum Århus library Arnhem 50 Art College asbestos Arnhem town hall 52 Arup & Partners 51. 21. 18. 68. 63. 63. 71. 64. 1. 40. 79. 50. 26. 99. 31. A. 85. 34. 59. 107. 32.L. 57. . 55. 77. 55. 84. 172 155. 190 48. 146. 32. 61. 52. 61. 56. VIII. 5. 182.

107. 20 5. 20 4 ■ A B C D re search method . Berg. 181 26. 62. F. 94. boiler 82 3. 191 calculation Cambridge university library Candilis. 50. 65 55. 53 49. 19. 142. R. 72 book bookcases book stack book tower Bosma.A. 152. 37 54 44. 20. baluster balustrade Bandoeng Barth. van den Broek. 85. 175. van den Berlage. 14.J. 184 VIII. 155. 120 13. 157. 19. van den Bromberg. 182 Assen library 3. 123. 140. 142. 115. P. 39. 172. Brussel Bruynzeel 27. 183. 84. 184 166. 68. 188 21. 154. 61. 181 154 Bollerey. 171. 152. 169. VII 87. 74. 54 3. Brouwer. Brand. 61 46. 50 123 3 177 20. 125. 96. 182. 126. 102. 51. 86 3.B. 174.J. 77 semibasement Bax. 170. 125. 31. 18. 99 B bachelor 41. 126. S. Boer. Broek. 126. 20. 26. 79. brick brief 10. 11 34. 141. 141. 51. R. 35 115. H. 159 Bakema. 139. 107. beam Beim. A. 59. builder / building bank buildings building aesthetics committees building categorization building elements building envelope building mass building physics Buma. basement 151 169. 182 101 100. 179 51. 172. 164 123 49. Berlin C cabinet cabling 101. 82. 102.J. 166. 183 41. 182. G. A. 140 building regulations Bekeart.P. 62. 99 151 balcony / balconies 10. 153. 98. Th. 46 43 114 101. G. Castelein. 71. 170. 88. 55. 182 31 51 115 50. 169 bunker 40 20. 72 48. 140. 184 21. 34. 178. 181.assembly assessment Atelier PRO atmosphere atrium attitude authentic Aviodome Aylward. 99. 5. 35. 16. G. 182 169. 31. 146. 153. 166. G. 134. 154. 64. 11 Braunschweig university library 14. 19. 100. 182. 67. R. 17. 169. 155. 179 IV. 28. H. 75. 28 14. S. 29. 67. 50 Berlin Free University Berlin National Library Bern library Blom. 52 25. Josic and Woods canteen car park carpet 141. 126. 71. 95. 52 Braungart and McDonough Bream. 88. Belgium Belvedere 14 155. 142. 39 62 67 Buckminster Fuller. 187 34. 27. 27 11 VII 11 177. 79. 166. H. 155. 172. 143.M. 155. 50. L. 32. 141. 115. 86. 28. 40. 88. K. 18. 142. J. 28 92. 57. 98. 173 16. 174. 59 107. 3 42. 177. 184 75. 125. 125. 140. 136. 127.

1. 100. 52. 84. 18. 164. 115. 169. 21. 71. 11. 71. 14. 98. 1. 27. 65. 14. 46. 142. 61. 179. 2. 74. 187 3. 182. 5. 84. 100 circular process city / cities cladding classicism client climate 1. 25. 181. 164. 61. 46. 71. 85. 177 VIII. 154 communication Cate. 125 6 IV. VIII. 42. 85. 28. 50. 153. 27. 4. 182 164. 41. 79. 57. 59. 177. 36. 59. 68. 82. 154. 26. 17. 71. 101. 21. 68 VIII. 21. 71. 39. 12. 59. 72. 44. 77. 82. 62. 35. 169 2. 74. 166. 108. 43. 188 3. 177 VII. 41. 18 5. 10.K. 151. 7. 71 IV. 169. 184 44. 64.M. 21. 179. 183 151. 99 47. 55. 177. 25. 4. 5. 25. 79. 86. 71. 29. changeability characteristics Charte d’Athènes Cherry. 151. F. 2. 154. 181. 188 68 98. 152. 179 26. chronological churche CIAM circle 99 27. 6. VIII. 25. 15 Chief Government Architect Ching. 99 3. 31. 50. 46. 187 107 101. 64. 50. 155. 68 3. 12. 61. 187. A. 5. 37. 13. 55. 68. 59. 46. 62. 144. 5. 54 62. 25. 57. 21. 107. 34. 67. 75. 34. 16. 21. 29 100. 57. 68. 6. 40. 51. 142. 57. 188 64. 30. 19. 25. 45. 75. 33. 35. 55. 43. 142. 100. ten 177 3. 25 82. 51. 59. 102. VIII. 5. 140. 146. 187 12. 50. 64. 18. 98 32. 181 IV. 169. 40. 82. 26. 181. VII. 36. 151. 187 115. 18. 32. 43. 46. 13. 72. 59. 126. 155. 20. 182. 150. 32 17. 61. 13. 15. 12. Cofaigh. 63 82 cloakroom correspondence closed stacks Club Rotterdam Coenen. 166. 155. 179. 75. 68 copper cork costs course court 5. 126. 38. 20. 2. cemetery central hall chairs change 188 VII. 3. 22. 79. 125 43 32. 62. 6. 21. 147. 184 IV. 151. 64. 72 12. 45. 125. 154. 45. 149. 45. 166. 141. 151. 179. 72. 64. 171. 59. 50. 27. 177. 68. 44. 160. 8. 35. 154. 11. 15. 45. 5. 146. 82 3. 107. 28. 72. 99. VIII. 62. 61. 98. 141. 118. 56. 127. 34. 53. 181 17. 61. 77. 41. 169. 72. 61. 67. 63.O.J. 63. 140. 169. VII. 5. 14. 71 62. 59. 115. 18. 184 9. 33. 35. 57. 45. 45. 158.M. 7. 86. 155. 43. 39. 46. 22. 107. 170. 125. 188 continued existence continuity contractor cooling 67. 166. 150. 107. 55. Cologne library colour column comfort courtyard cradle to cradle craftsmanship creation creativity Crimson 64. 62. 146. 179 conservation conservatories construction construction drawings construction engineer 40. 15. 18. 59. 39. 64. 16. 27. 15. VIII. 3. 25. 187 construction industry consultant context 32 contaminated water 166 20. 20. 107. 35. 3. 67. 139. 41. 46. 182 88 84. 35. 8. 46. Chicago 23. 46. 72. 37. 57 commission community composition computer concept conclusion concrete condition 21. 52. 68. 46. 146. 183 35 classification Copenhagen library 16. 32. 166. M. 62. 11. 57 4. 188 31. 75 41. 99 3. 5. 126. 67. 182. 5. 51. 181 VII. 87. 17. 12. 165. 44. 184. 36. 2. 68. 71. 71. 1. 142 86. 192 64. 169. 177. 11. 67. 17. 166. 57 ABCD re search method ■ 205 commercial . 26. 66. 61. 88. 72. 99 69. 176. 27. 178. 170. J. 64. 182. 79.cast iron catalogue cavity ceiling 101. 100 45. 147. 101. 72. 101 7 155.D. 102. 153. 99. 184. 12. 57. 32. 43. 59. 41. 32. 77. 64. 2. 69. 35. 151 35. 71. 44. 39. 55. 182. E. 188 15. 44. 86. 36.

21. 166. 182. 99 Delft Faculty of Architecture educational buildings Eesteren. 126. 75 21. 188 68 20. 156. 84. 39. 155. 63. 15. 139. 98 44. 67. 166 18. 6 62 12. 34. 63. 132. 33. 16. 140. 125. 55. 2. 144. 188 Delftsche School Den Dolder 99 36 2. 25. 129. 138. 13. 57. 13. 169. 27. 73 Elsen. 107. 37. VIII. 40. 19. 26. 165. 107.cultural / culture Cultural Heritage current situation Curtis. Docomomo 84. 188 1. 55 52 documentation 174. 140 re search method . 154. 170 VII. 71. C. 25. 133. 46. 8. 145. 11. 52 VIII. van energy engineer England 21 14. 17. 63. 187 English Heritage Enschede Enschede library entrance Enschede University of Technology Twente VIII. 18. 5. 44. 115 73 7. VIII. 21. van Egyptian 35 Eindhoven Delft University of Technology Eindhoven NatLab building (Philips) Eindhoven University of Technology elevation elevators 177. 55. 64. 25. 3. 71. 62. 5. 39. 43. 32. 74. M. 187 Dronten De Meerpaal DTZ Zadelhoff durability Dutch 51 IV. 75. 36. 84. 167. 43. 19. 3. 33. 96. 7 VIII department store design Design and History (research programme ®MIT) design competition design method design principles design process designer detail diaries 32. 12. 61. 20. 141. 62. 7. 107 155 7 88 D daylight decay Delft Delft Delfgauwse Weije Delft DOK public library Delft Kuyperwijk Delft Tanthof 86. 14. VII. 84. Embden. 126. 10. 64. 181. R. 26. 14. 126. 149. 12. 90. 29. 88. 13. 68. 25. 61. VIII. 53. 12. 53. 184 39. 18. 181 40 VIII 11 71. 6. 143. 182. 2. 181. 140. 44. 182. 21 drainage drawings 29. 5. 122. 98. 59. 107. 127. 46. 82. 64. 30. van 7. 181.J. 55. 11. Tj. 182. 40. 52. 39. 3. 57. 17. 11. 45. 18. 57. 62. 99. 88. 59. 52. S. 184. 54. 100. VIII. 98. 85. 88. 41. 20. 14. 3. 9. 64 De 8 and Opbouw Dutch architecture Dutch Archives Act Dutch Central Bank Dutch Open University E economic education 1. 99 15 58. W. 71. 177. 7. 19 18. 187 Dijk. 13. 151. 126. 52. H. 61. 28. 11. 37. 72 20.R. 206 ■ A B C D 75. 7. 88. 1.J. 188 50. 53. 87. 115. 45. 2. 13. 93. van Doornse Leergangen Dordrecht Energiehuis Dortmund University Douma. 31. 18. 53. 32. 62. Sj. 31. 27. 45 62. 184 170. 46. 151 31. 95. 14. 152. 188 3. 126. 52. 177. 26. 107. 79. 155. 146. 8. 158. 52. van Dijkstra. 82. 84. 43. 164. 187. 183 46 84 40. 18 designated monuments 71. 6. 173. 5. 31. 16. 28 13 82. 13. 188 40 5 IV. 71. 63 IV. VII. 150. 189 environment 102 era buildings Erk. 39. 3 VII. 166. 41. 181. 38. 63. 46. 3. 2. 59. 125. 115. 125. 75. 188 35. 51. 21. 17. 82. 31 41. 14. 164. 98.

174. 159. 177. 52. 52. 85. 67. 166. 169. 40. 53. 54. 50 104 VII. 30. 134. 178 final design Gent library Gent. 32. 64. 125 53 Franeker folianten Franeker university freezing buildings 14 ABCD re search method ■ 207 . 182. 71. 2. HaagWonen 85. 187. 44. 5. glass Goey. 51. 43. 154. 200 26. 50.Europe exchange exhibition existing 7. 54. 68. 126. 150. 34. 101. 2. 88. 26. 15. 101. 169. 99. 47. 99 10 82. 49. 85. A. 53. 141. 166. 173. 101. 146. 179. 40. 82. 173 88 3. 109. 178. 21. 39. 98. 99. 8. 108. 45. 184 Forum Group Groningen university library Frampton. de Göteborg Gerretsen. 12. 151. 75. 51. 126. 102. 172 166. 136. 101. 166 154. 88 11. 163. 40. 181. 157. 188 Exner. 125. 125. 188 46.J. Göteborg court building Göteborg library government 82 115. 77 5. 155. 177. 188 152. 153 gas 27. 50. 14. 59. 126. 142 21. 53. 158. 68 facilities department factory / factories fence fire 88. 36. 170. 21. 69. 36 179 79. 70. 123. 98. 184. 142. 50. 35. N. 73. 21. 68. 86. 68. 127 21. 5. 126. 166. 122. 70. I. 13. 83. 62. 37. 51. 21. 28. 110. 50. J. 184 3. 57. 17. 69. 125. 35. 177. 126. 11. 86. 177 28. 184 3. 46. 5. 82. 51. 181 VII. 184 functional typology funding furniture future 15. 74. 75. and I. 25. 101 existing building 59. 164. 36. 140. 29. 75. 164. foundation foyer 153 26. 7. 53. 154. 107. 167. 86. 46. 84. 153. 11. 34. 50 F facade 30. 64. 152. 173. 212 39. 153. 98. 40. 177. 126. 21. 5. M. 68. 135. 15. 100. 35. 57. 115. 55. 169. 59. 213 40. 12. 51. 53. 25.E. 64. 182. 174 126. 55. 181. G. 162. 151. 1 Friesland Museum Fryske Kultuerried Fulda library 82 86. 107 51 82 11. 72. 142. 88. 153. 134. 102. 41. O.J. 12. 177. 142. W. 99 Government Buildings Agency Grandpré Molière. 84. European Recovery Program (ERP) function / functional 53. 182. 161. 46. 52. 101. 21. 50. 165. 32. 45. 166. 45. 142. 156. 174. 107 34 20. 37. 96. 154. 102. 86. 84. 58. 101. 125 VII. 72. 167. van Germany Giedion. 184 flexibility / flexible flooding floor 3. 59. 43. 17. 102. 104. S. 87. 3. 40 6 47.D. 169. 51. 81. 85. 133. 169. 45. 15. 142. 64. 184 Florence Lorenzo library form formalism formwork Foster. 118. 169 70 165 6 29. 143. 66. 16. 6. 27. (brothers) experience extension exterior 1. 142. 53 61. 50. 169 82. 212 106. 155 1. 22. 146. 16. 3. 44. 56. 20. 140. 55. 174. 115. 46. 46. 30. 182. 72. 19. 67. 61. 100. van G galery / galleries 69. 72. 29. 140. 31. 51. 160. 178. 181. 54. 7. 55. K. 50. 173. 111. gratings Greiner. 28. 179. 140. 187 6. grid Grimbergen guidelines 142. 15. Franeker H Haagsma. 62. 63. 184 2. VIII. 181 Eyck. 50. 107. 142. 35.

39.I. 53. 169 16. 16. 126 15 68 99 54 55. 144. 107. 208. 11. 17. 46. 61. 41. 34. 31. 101. 73. 54 IV. 141. 65. 174. 1. 154. 181. 72. 184 3. 166. 46. 45. 46. 84. 79.C. 26.hall 3. 15.W. van . 182. 22. 62. 182. 170 27 Halmstad library Hamburg handrails hardwood Hardy. 30 insulation 11 55 VII. 12. 6. 86. 50. 46. J. 169.R. 17. 3. 46. H. 99. 72. A. J. E.A. 70. 169. 153. 108. 193 151 82 I Ibelings. 46. 57. Kelderman. 84. 14. 169. 68. 3. 40. 62 1. 18. 146. 75. 14. 82. 64. 5. 52. 63. 26. 68 Hannover university library 151. 182 49. 68. 51. 11 12 11. 177. 77 VIII. Herzberger. U. 28. 179. 40. 68. 165. 2. Huisman J. 63.P. 154. 6. 27. 164. de 6 45 35 27. H. 100. 55. 74. 33. 166. 213 humidity hygiene 155. 7. 54 115. 166 international interpretation intervention interview International Style Hendriks and Van der Velden Hereford monastery library Herzog and de Meuron IV 53. 115. 153. 21. 77. 187 53. identification 115 industrial innovation installation 29. 43. 98. 156. 87 82 115 Karlsruhe university library Karstkarel. 160. L. 125 Hoofddorp Aula Wilgenhof 7. 182 re search method Klingeren. 102. 119 115 79. Holt. 36. 107. 20. 57 104 39. 115. 19. 50. 181. 18. 100. has been Hassler. 40. 27. 74. 88. 43. 51. 87 K Kahn. 45. 126. 22.J. 67. 173. 7. 166. 88. 87. L. 173. 187. A. 126. 28. 141. F. 50. 35. 153 5. 14. 153. 79. 54. G. H.M. 100. heating institutional buildings integrated plan analysis integration / integrated intention interfaces interior 82 21. 1. de jury 82. 183 10. 4. 101 6 16. 15. hospital hotel 42. 50. 59. 188 Hitchcock. 55. 4. 115. 159. 20. 18. 127. 189. 39. 170. 173. 158. 43. 29. 151. 98. 82. 35. 152. 15. kitchen house / housing house building programme houses of parliament Hryniewiecki. 35. 14. 20.H. 88. 67. 155. H. G. 21. 44. 3. 171. 188 151.M. 71. 75. 87. 125. 11. 59. 177. E. 34. 56 34 Jerusalem National and university library Jonge van Ellemeet. 154. 7. 115. Heynen. 64. 37. 3. 153. human 208 ■ A B C D Kiel university library Klerk. 18. 117 35. 54. 53. 55. 99. 75. 17. 59. 55. 29. 50. 177 6. High Court 1. 176. 57. 50. 43 71 72. 150. H. 34. 118. 116 31 VII. 44. Jelles. 17. 27. 45. 40.J. 99. A. 164 68 18 3. 86. 182. 17 Harrison & Abramovitz Harwood. 36 82 13 Heerlen Glaspaleis Schunk Heidelberg library Heinz Headquarters Henket. 164. 27. 210. 101. 63. 188 16 Hilversum Sanatorium Zonnestraal history / historical J Jacobsen. 88. 53. 71. Hoogstad. 30. 63. 68 3. 54. 69 VII. 6. 28. 64. 72. 62. 169 7.

M. 82. 127. 59. 126. 102. 152. 188 Leck. 86. 89. 154. 40. 86. Kraaijvanger. 37. 111. 182. 107. 61. 45. 59. 68. 127. 125. 153. 173 51 IV Leiden Slaaghwijk Leupen. 113. 151. 142. 139. 142. 140. 184 84. 140. 54. J. 71. 80. 89 87. 166. 115. 152. 155. 152. 126. 146. 110. 17 14. 88. B. 59. 101. 25. 3. 141. 155. 125. 153 legislation lending 34. 98. 181. 169 Leeuwarden Buma Bibliotheek 139. 182 life-cost planning life cycle lifespan light limestone linoleum listing VIII. Van Putten. 140. 67. van Leeuwarden municipal library 82. 125. 51. J. 175. 92 82. 153. 88 88 173 listed building literature local load-bearing structure location 6. 11. 12. 31. 50. 98. 102. 64. 67. 64 Lansdorp. 139. 151 75. 86. 161. 39. 126. 164. 183. 127. 79. 108. Kuit. Knol. 125. 88. 107. 88. 69. 63. H. 87. 18. 61. 179. 77. 119. 82. 74. 72. 100. 2. 19. 61. 86. 87. 7. 123.J. 49. 127. 87. 174. 102 99 43. level VII. 122. 142. 115 Kraaijvanger. 153. 175. 164. 161. 82. 21. 146. 184 ABCD re search method ■ 209 . 114. 127 1. 87. 50. 55. 107. 141. 84. 107. 126. 153. 95. 72. 123. 125. 59. 109. 71. 15. 54. 141. 81. 55. 139. 62. 169 Leeuwarden Chancery Leeuwarden Exchange 79. 166. 46. 102. 59. 179. 46. 82. 3. 153 Leeuwarden Oldehoofsterkerkhof Leeuwarden Palace of Justice Leeuwarden Provincial Archives Leeuwarden Provincial Council Leeuwarden Tresoar Leeuw. 174 79 82. 169.E. 14. D. P. library / libraries 96. 91. 86. 153. 81. 75. 67 VII. 66. 155. 82. 99 107 33 56. 77. 86. 44. 58. 11. 71. 71. 188 Leuven university 187 Lewi. 126. 54. 105. 139. 155. 173 75. 46. 100. 151. 43 146. 115. 18. 88. 142. 50. 79. 82. 32. N. Latham. 86. 95. 127 115 Leeuwarden Nijehove 87. 91. 89. 177. 93. 125. 21. W. 170.J. 13.C. C. M. 107. 140. 21. 101. 82. 82. 74. 153. 75. 64. 187 Leeuwarden Fryske Academy Leeuwarden Fryske Kultuerried Leeuwarden Historical Museum Leeuwarden Hoek 87 79. librarian 44 7. 154.A. 139. 21. Kraaijvanger. 182 Kokkola library Leeuwarden Noorder Bolwerk 86. 89 Leeuwarden National Archives Friesland 100. 39. 62 L lamp 46. 53. 87. 146. 126. Kraemer. 120. 166. 173 Konijnenburg. 94. 13. 99. 182. 179. 152. 117. 75. 93 VII. 126 31 Loghem. 50 VII. and Maas Krevelen. 99 187. 89. 2. 173. 89 79 87. 42.J. 67. van 84 Leeuwarden Prinsentuin gardens IV. 79. 79. 79. 118. 184. 104. 77. 166 181 12. H. 126. 123. 93. 71. 64.Kloos. 64. 99. Kuipers M. 101. 182 Leeuwarden Noorder Plantage Leeuwarden Oldehove 87. 88. 36. 77.B. 107. 153 84 86 VIII. 140 45. 16. 112. 71. 125. 54. B. E. 84. 28. layer lead learn 34 VII. 102. 173. van der lecture room Leeuwarden Leeuwarden Boterhoek 152. 14. 68. 166. 100.H. van der 99 5 75. 5. 182 15 Leeuwarden Friesland Literary Museum Leeuwarden Friesland Museum Leeuwarden Friesland Provincial Library 2. 84. 181.H. 173. 52. 44. 170. 116. 127 56. 154. 126. 115.

H. 63. 35. 46. 28. II. 27. 101. 28. 14 45 7. 166. 31. 29. 35.P. 68 Mies van der Rohe. 184 32. 99 22 35 54. 29.J. 41. 46. 5. 169. 181. 45. Mulder. masonry 68 46.London London Bankside Power Station London Britisch Museum London Tate Modern Loos. 111 100 44. 14. 74. 2. 59 Marburg university library N National National Monument VII. 61. ministery / ministries MIP model modern modernity 3 7 32. 44. 102 Mobil Oil 49. 173 43. 26. 72. 29. 27. 74. 3. A. 32. 21. 45. 37. 69. 88. 14. 101. 98 5. 140 7. 51 3. 31. 146. 29. 59 82. 79. 16. 32 IV.L. 28 multidisciplinary Münster university library music school 45 12. 101. 55. 67 21. 52. 55. 9. 77. 70 6. 188 115 82 13. 32. E. 140. 34 72. 51. 48. 102. 16. 55 meeting room Merkelbach. 52. P. 126 32. 12. 61. 195 3. 30. 30. 30. 28. 29. 86. 98 5. 18. 35 2. 53. 12. 44. 68. 36. 53. Luzern library Lynch. 25. 57. B. museum mutability VII. 11. 21. 74. 63. 13. 34. 107. 184. 50. 64. 71. 2. 20. 70. 188 67 monograph monument Mulder. 59. 72. 54. 19 12. 99. 69. L. 40. 64. 5. 57. 29. S. 5. 210 ■ A B C D 8. 166. 37. 14. 31. 45. 22. 28. 30. 120 115. 139. 40 115 28. B. machine maintain VII. 177 34. 135. 44. 13. 12. 196 IV. 18. 57. 77. J. 33 21. 115. 38. 72 63. 137. 6. 107. 103. 177. 39. 86. 22. 119 re search method . Netherlands 36. metamorphosis Meuwissen J. 67. 53. 189. 55. 85. K. 62. 34 10. 68 54 99 18. 146 6. 62. Mumford. 21. 184 61. 28. 21. 50. 19 National Plan for our reconstruction National Service for Cultural Heritage nature natural 3. Macdonald. 182 Netherlands Architecture Institute (Nai) New Hampshire Pillips Exeter library New York New York Manhattan Nijenhuis and Ebbinge 29 cover. 115 Maastricht university moisture management money 2. 11. 61. 20. 35. 8.A. 29. 64. 173. 188 mathematic matrix Mecanoo Meijer. 98. 37. 177 modern architecture modification M Maaskant. 15. 11. 40. H. P. 13. 179 40. 103 mezzanine Mieras. 52. 29. 15. 99. 177 Nervi. 3. 55. 50 23. 14. 11. 79. 30. 123. 69 101. 102. 18 mass media master material mass production 20. 21. 75. 34. 22. VIII. 56. 16. 113. 7. 181. meant to be 32 169. 87. 18. 3. 1. 20. 14. 15. 2. S. New York UN (United Nations building) 115. 126. 12. 14. 27. 181. 62. 101. 99 82 82. 131. 17. 31 Mainz university library Malmö library management manufacturing market hall Marsh. 195 Lugano library Luytens. 177. 184 166. 7. 39. VII. 26. 100. 50. 68 28. 68. 43. L.

59. 179. 71. 35. 39.A. 107. 68. 33. 98. 146. K. 9. 84 82. W. Oudorp 98 98. 107. 27. 44. 86. 37. 79. 125. 68. personnel Peutz. 18. 38 Nijmegen library Nimes Carre d’Art non-residential non-residential buildings Nordrhein-Westfalen number 11 non-residential constructions VII. 188 32. 40. 61. L. 127 51 VII 107. 35. 29. 43. 17. 146. 183 1. 182 O object 2. 33 35. platform lift plumbing politician population Ortega Y Gasset. 6. 21. 82. 43. Geneviève 32. 40. A. van Nusselder. 146 VII. 166. 18. 86.P. 126. 92. 20. 183. 28. 88. 46. 88. A. 154. 43.P. Pevsner. 11. 5. 55. 20. 154. 61. 32.R. Peristylium Perrault. 88. 62 VII. 37. 64.K. 187 155 objective observation Octatube office Pereira Roders. 169 post office post-war Powell. 62. 142 6. 62. 166. 155. 28. 17. 39. 27. 182 85 102. 8. 62 58. 63. 171. 39. 146. 142. 146. Ooy. 37. 126. 26. 177 71. 51.J. 29. F. 15. 41. 187. 35. 152. 123. 46. van der P Paderborn library paint palace of justice panelling 82 183 34. 50. 169. prefabrication . 69 27. 61. 99 173. 35. 79. 53. K. 72. 99. 104 Paris Bibliotheque St. 38 125. A. 159 36 67. 5. 59 8 20. 41. 140. 82. R. 50. 45.H. 67. 84. J. 69. 16. 98 50. 6. 16. 124 102. 71 Paris Paris Bibliotheque Nationale Paris Centre Pompidou Paris Musee des Travaux past Patijn. 19 115. 36. 28. 35 ABCD re search method ■ 211 Oregon Mount Angel organisation ornamentation Östersund library Otaniemi library Oud. 101 20.J. 84. 59 40. 12. 169. 170. Pohlschröder bookcases Poll. R. 107. 32. 54. 15. 46. 182. 34. pictures plan libre plant plaster plastic 107 performance / perform 123. 181. 57. 21. 153. P. 101. 21. 46. 164. 75 12. 187 Nunen. 18 12. 121 43 34 52. 51. 46. 2. 33. 36. 64 28. Ohio Akron silo oil crisis 7 50 82. 29. 177. 63. 17 19 87. 13. D. 33. 87. photograph Piano. 51. 153. 40. 54. 99. 63 102. 110 107 1. 12. 51. A. 88. 1. 14.A. 79. 46. 141 18 Oosting. 178. 146.J.A. 54. 102. 124 35. 67. 50. Pennink. 187 Plasterk. pavement pedestrian people 54 88 18. J. 14. 185. 72.Nijhof. 166 11 5 153 46 101. 32. 52. P. 53. 59. 151 152. 139. van open shelves oral history order phone / telephone 12. 45. 45. 42 79. 169. 17. 48. 71. 16. 139. 101 99 173. 69. 64. 27. N. 101. 151. E. 177 3. 61. 25. 50. 32. 173. 3. 44. 50. 25. Perret. 52. 170. 34.

39. 21. 154. 2. 6. 5. 64. 34. 5. 88. 15. 2. 14. 69. 187. 59. 18. 126. 52 Reesink and Plate refurbishment 212 ■ A B C D 3. 40. 21. 88 Rødovre library Roegholt. 50. 170 re search method .M. 62. 20. 1. 19. 169. 184. 153. 68 87.H. 153. 34. 28. 25. 71. 21. 34. 25. 84 VII.M. 169. 188 6. 100. 62 2. 16. 64. 65. 55. 141. 79. 177.Th. 62. 44. 179 3. M. 36. 20. 26. 169. 58. 72 12. 153 VIII. 2. 154. 34. 67. 51. 164. 54. 55. 146. 1. 123. 146. 55. 173. 68. 12. 75. 100. 64 VII. 59. Roos. 39. 177. 40. 39. 50. 155. 33. 44. 154. 126. 59 14. 55 57. 126. 28. 182. 13. 68 52. 7. 52. 54. 44. 68. 123. 142 86 Roosenburg. 12. 166. 57. 18 45 preservation preserve prison process profession programme protection Provoost. reading room reception rectangular recycle reference 53 reconstruction 6. 140. 7. 126. 7. 25. 62. 98 35 Q quality / qualities quickscan 16 VII. 55. 169. Röling. 41. 57. 181. 50. 20. 70. 71 88. 179. VII. 72 15. 57. 12. Th. 71. 13. 101. 72. 161. 181. 41. P. 21. 50. 15. 126. 3. 64. VII regeneration / regenerate VII. 15. 51. 62. 182. Pruys. 6. 26. 187 79. G. 18. 62 7. 176. 189 regulation 21. 87 VIII. 72. 34. 56. 46. 15. Renzo Piano Building Workshop project developer Provincial Executive Prudon. 59. 17. 54. 183 Rietveld. 52. 107. 7. 127. 43. 16. 126. 61. VIII. 41. 43. 15. 96. 59. 154. 14. 125. 21. 7 22. 87. 166. 177. 21. 182 publication(s) Purmerend residential construction 14. VIII. 46. 40. 17. 140. 1. 155 100. 14. 68. 184 32 rehabilitation 6. 32. 62. 36. 187. 71. 71. 107. 16. 154. 71. 87. 68 5. 154. R. 53. 20. VIII. 16. 154. 51. 3. 153. 188 reuse Rice. 155. 75. 6. 75. 102. 12. 17. 50. 25. 174. 55. 37. 146. 34. 58. 59. 34 31. 182 3. 25. 53. 11. 84.Th. 14. 35. 102. 172. 184. W. PTT public 82 reinforced concrete relocate / relocation renewal replace research research analysis research method research theme residential residential builing resources respect restoration 74. 15. 55. 11. 11. 182. 59 VIII. 40. 11. 5. 28. 32. 14. 28. 32. 45. 18. 86. 61. 18. 64. 98. 55 51. 82. 164. 46. A. 53 79. 178. 155. 49. 169 VII. 181 15. 61. 169. 8. VIII 125. J. 21. 181. 53. 183. 125. 188 7 125. 68. 125. 67. 101. 28. 77. 35 50. 16. 44. 21. 18. 22. 187. 174. rooflight 115. 25. 43. 19. 151.present 187 VII. 61. 15. 7. 69. 51. 33. 21. 77. 4. 152. VIII. 71. 59. 64 27. 55. 19. 17. van 20 Rotterdam Rotterdam Basic Plan Rotterdam Blaak 6 51. 40. 20. 25. 27. 63. 174. 107. VIII. 184 ring of consultancies ring road 87. 67. 31. 30. S. 187 VII. D. 57. 34. 188. 72. 5. V. 13. 187 15. 43. 20. 52. 188 2. 88. 6. 67. 28. 45. 187 63. 7. 115. 68. 153. 11. R radiation radiator rampart 64. 72. 17. 98 VIII. 45. 151 31 Roosenburg Groep Rossem. 62. 6. 103. 69. 57. 52. 27. 22. 14. 55. 18. 64. 71. 123. 62. 12. 52 82. 17. 170. 101. 54. 16. VII. 177. 58. 53. 59. 182. 37. 117 railway station Rauwerdink. 39. 33. 21. 40. 35. 84.

M. 40. della Scandinavia Scarpa. 115. 64. 3. Sj. 67. 52. 35. 107. 74. 166. 153. 151 47. 187 Spek. 183 skills skin smell 18. 152. 5. 140. R.Rotterdam Construction Committee Rotterdam Coolsingel Rotterdam De Doelen 6 6. shell shop site 52 size sketch 2. 101. 59. 174. second-hand 16. 146. 13. 79. 68. 188 ABCD re search method ■ 213 . 182. 79. 99. 101 2 46 6. 42. van Schamhart. 154. 14. 95. 177. 56. 115. 71. 22. 37. 82. 29 15 52 15. 85 5. 82. 21. 158. 62. 7. 155. F. 27. 20. 35. 5. 55 service / services seven (7) 1. 98. 62. 88. 43. 71. 55. 93.J. C. 21. 82. Sharoun. 65. 64. 182. I. 146. 71. 17. 46. 28. 126. H. 20. 45 5. VIII. 61. 164. 67. W. 42. 7. 68. 102 99. 125. 173. 100. 146. 109 5. sewer 31 27. 188. 64. 211 spatial 2. 166. 84. 37. 20. 3. G. 107. 52. social society Sanderson showroom Santa. 181. 170. 169. 59. 13. 101. 187 88. 142. 101. 126. 98. 107. 126. 12. 8. 44. 70. 142. 179. 164. 26. 155. 57. sanding 21 13 181 101. 166. 67. 87. 153. 40. 85. 7. 6. 62. 167.G. 182. 142. 51. 84. 35. 41. 20. 26. Snieder. 184. 166 Seyffert. 154. 182.F. 8. 181. 169. 71. 14. 115. 29. 39. 1. 101. 44. 182 74. 115. 69 46 107 99 Second World War Seinäjoki library select Semper Spatium 3. 87. 182. 53. 181. 125. 98. 68. 183 5. 85. 55. 98. 72. 99. 75. 1. 173 64. 67. 79. 26. 74. 139. 82. 72. 158. 59. 46. 99 41 34 41 101 smoke Smook.G. 100. 140. 21. S. 84. 100. 155. 187 VII. Rotterdam Salvation Army building Rotterdam Thomson building Rotterdam Van Nellefabriek Rovaniemi library 107 63. 88. 169. J. 200 52 123 6. 13. 125. 127 20. schedule Schelling. 32 Sevenster. 57. 142. 123. 86. 88. 104. 91. 98. 70. 20. 126. 99 50 166. 35. 177 3. 50. 102. 51. sport square 184 stables Staedion sprinkler 49. 169. 39. 107. 173. 90. 184. 127. 102. 6. 173. 146 27. 16. 63. 95. 63. 139. 142. 42. 55. 46. 184 72. 68. 64. 107. 72. solar control glass Solna library sound source space Schagen. 126. 188 VII. 21. 34. 86. 31. 46. Scheveningen scorecard Scott. 68. L. 169 Solà Morales. 33. 46 64. 191 1. 53. 19 16 Rotterdam Groothandelsgebouw Rotterdam Hillegersberg Rotterdam Hoge School Rotterdam Lijnbaan Rotterdam Pendrecht Rotterdam RO theater 99 31 Rotterdam Housing Department 6.C. A. 17 107.A. 27. 55. 127. 36. 18. 68. 40 1. 197 99 Royal Instute of Dutch Architects (BNA) S saal-system Saint. 64. 71. 164. 42. H. 72 155. VII. 123. 170 87. 50 15. 62. 126. 75. 33. 40. 69. 179. 141 13. 87 53 spatial typology VII. 22. 25. 2. 151.

C. 99. 71. 170. 28. 87. 126. 34. 55. 32. 75. 187 1. 166. 152. 45. 62. 164. 187. 52 3 53 41 25. 99 8. 19. 170. teach techne VIII. 53. 39. 154 68. 25. 25. 75. 123. 107. 33. 151. 39. 146. 86 50 44. 40. 99. 28. C. 20. 31. 75. 29. 169. 72. 41. 55. 31. 107. 101. 184 72. 87. 34. 87. 154. 43. 56. 142. 59. 166. 51. 86. 59. 107 IV. 99. 45. 146. 34. 31. 50. 115. 153 52. 21. F. 38. 104. 187 2. 68 8. T Tabanach. 187 VII. 155. J. 79. 102. 178. 62. 20. 59. van der Stockholm library stone-like shell store / stores Strauven. 26 VIII. 126. 181. 14. 27. 75. 153. 36 154 31. 34. 31. 13. 1. 68. 36. 173. 125. 70. 188 Temminck Groll. E. 15. 45. 42. 151. 28. 183. 2. 40. 127. 102. 184 153 45 3. 105. R. 125. 4. 101. 26. 84. 14. 16. 95. 158. 183. 17. 26. 149. 177. 32. 27. 29.A. 44. 43. 126. temperature temple temporary Terwindt. 54. 102. 164. 184. 17 16 82 123 82. 142. 87. 28. VIII. P. 72. 115. 72. 33 VII. 37. 22. 181. 187. 142. 126. Tauber. 177. 5. 74. 98. 151. 143. 51. 151 sustainable /sustainability 98. 26. 142. 159. 102. 140. 169. 126. 17. 43. 26. 142. 31. 154. 35. 46. 67. 99. 28. 166. 22.G. 98. to be or not to be 100. 40 5. I. 146. 50. 88. 182. 26. 36. 27. 86. 26. 86. 64. 22. 74. 35. 12. 101. 92. 21. 12. 71. 154. 127. 35. 123. 151. 167 40. 3. 166. 5. 32. 52. 29. 169. 18. 182. 172. 54. 28. 5. 79. 187. 25. 169. 41. 102. 144. 166. texture theatre 102. 187. 179 10. 2. 46. 15. 16. 179. 173. 84. 36. 55. 88.L. 56 35 8 62 5. 177. 115. 107. 173. 31. 155. 39. 184 student stuff 6. 101. 12. 146. 10. 139. 125. 181. 45. 44. 107. 166. 29. 45. 14. 18. 30 13. 72. 27. 46. 11. 115 study room The Hague The Hague BIM building The Hague fish auction The Hague KLM building The Hague library 82 15 53 The Hague Federation of Housing Associations 42. 39.H. 7. W. 85. 177. 61. 188 32. VII. 182. VII. 50. 35. J. 100. 72. 46. 102. 151 3. 64. 108. 34. 154. 125. 74. 107. 155. 21. 173 101 5. 14. 100. 154. 68. 146 11. 44. 54.stair 35. 19. 46. 174. 27. 184 re search method . 20. 173. 140. 98. 25. VIII. 32. 77. 74. 43. 34. 54. 188 timeless toilets tourism tower 72. 107. 39. 155. 12. 188 29. 173. 182. 181. 32. 188 Stenvert. D. 79. 71. 71. 40. 179 tendering system 64. 84. 98. 57. 39. 177. 34. 29. 11 153 2. 67. 2. 64. 35 171. 7. Stuttgart university library supermarket supervisor surface surroun symbol system The Hague National Archives The Hague South-West The Hague Spoorwijk three-tier system Tijen. 177. 18. 71. 86. 61. 142. 188 153. 75. stone storage Steur. 102. 63. 36. stripped out structural structure 37. 200 182. 146. 153 IV. Tauber. 39. 187. 30. 25. 177. 34. 92. 26 stall system standard statistic steel teamwork technical technics technique technology IX. 184 5. 164. 140. 184. 50. 101. 69. 98. 61. 164. 79. 17. 140. 169 3. 44. 12. 43. 181. 200 Tauber sr Taverne. 153. 25. 115. 101. 214 ■ A B C D 98. 154. Stirling. 40. 98. 154. 88. 140. 115. 183 5. 46. 146. 115 126 36. 99. 55 58. 177. 101. 143. 125. 21. 168. van timber time 34. 14. 152. 33. 20. 115. 82. 5. 142. 7. 69. 153. 64. 28. 72. 88. 73. 75. 87. 126. 104.

100. 153. 26. 5.J. 100. VII. 101. 6. 166. 181. 68 7. 49. 169. 107 123 3.P. 46. 117. 69. 68. 20. 197 21 41 Wegener Sleeswijk. 115. 64. 142 153 98 82. 146. 36. 98. 14. 20. 5. 74.M. 99 Washington Dutch Embassy 1. 18. 107. 52. 20. 189 IV. 27. 18 77. 183. 39 3 VII. 69. type Tübingen library ventilating / ventilation Verheijen. 140. 71. 30. 34. 43. 86. K. 183. 154. VIII. 174 1. 126. 11. 74. 174 W Wagenaar. 99 106. 50 55. 101. 18. 67. 8. 43. 153. 188 VII. 68 86. 72. 62. 84. 102. 182 warehouses waste weight 65. 98. 46. 17. VII. VII. 18. 155. 183. 52.M. 58. 30. 71. 19. 126 use IV. Växjö library Vegter. 140. 88 5. 16. 29. 149. 55. Smelt and Wittermans 17. 146. 145. 141. 45. 140. 17. 115. 12.town hall tradition training transform transport 3. 18. 21 Verona Castelvecchio Turin Lingotto building typology / typologies 184 IV. 107. 86. 67. 50. 62. 149. wall 6 1. 40.J. 69 Willes Corroon building window 177. 28. 73. 57 82. H. 169. 151. 12. 13. 44. Roorda van Eysinga. 69. 107. 40. D. 41. 40. 161. 13. 54. 2. 71. 50. 51. van der Trucco. Ph. 95. 73. 154. 33. 54. 159.M Vestia viability 53 12. 149. 177 47. 53. C. 164. G. 14. 139. 51. 44. J. 17. 35. 151. 70. 142. 142. 12. 39. 152. Vingboons. 88. 15. 166. 140. 41. 40. 79. 152. 52. 31. 93. Choisy. 75. 45 48 82 48.J. Wieringermeer Wiesbaden library V valuation value 61 VII. 155. 31. 115. 21. 6. 17. 155. 102. 7. 72. 166. 5. 15. 182 Utrecht music performance centre / music centre Utrecht Schouwburg theatre Utzon. 46. 57. 31. 62. 82 Van den Broek and Bakema Vanstiphout.J. 34. 28. 43. ABCD re search method ■ 215 . de Vriend. 44. 115. 2.M. 169. 5. 86. 35. N. 177. 53. 55. 100. 68. 99. 20. 44. 14. 142. 101. 27. 45. 29. wheelchair acces Wiekart. 1. 184 3. 187 15. 142. 34. 16. 85. 43. 123. 153. 102. 153. 26. 91. 155. 69. 16. VVKH architects University / Universities 39. 68. 166. 59 61. 43. D. 182. 87. 101. 31. 50 115. 17. 98. 181 Viborg / Viipuri library 107. 102 United Nations (UN) United States Voordt. 64. 68. 36. 86. 18. 177. 178. 116. 115. 25. 64. void 126 volume 184 99 35. 141. 13. 19. 87. van Venice 99 18. 174. 55. J. 57. 39. 63. 20 73 town planning Van Embden. 153. 182 182. 188 65 26. 192 VII. 7. 108 U UAI Whitebook understand Unesco 25. 33. 64. 19. 107. 166. 43. 102. 38. 94. 123. 32. 67. A. 95. 61. 22. 126. 27. 88. 29. 33. 68. 64. van der Vos. 61. 1. 69. 125. 15. 53. K. 50. 35. 20. 88. 191 cover. J. VIII. 5. 146. 98 36. 50. 52. 167. 71. 21. 125. 3. 87. 86. 101. 101. 55. 25. 3. 187. A. 79. W. 52. 121. 30. 184 35. 21. 174. 62 1 Vreeze. 151. 46. 145. 46. 67. C. 54. 166. 61. 159. 14. 16. 168. 67. 171. Tuinstra. 123. 19. 152. Velzen. 32. 43. 118 Velde. 40. 187. 177. 14. 25. 126. 182. 99. 107. 100. 7. 99. 70. 187 Utrecht VII. 188 urban / urbanism 87.

41. W. 177 Zwarts & Jansma Zwolle Wavin factory 1940-1970 ®MIT IV. 100 workplace conditions Wouters. 14. VII. 57 53. 188 216 ■ A B C D re search method . 31. 74. 2. VIII. H. 21. de wood 6 107 50. 183 IX 30. 166. 107. 14. 67.Wit. 123 53. Wright. 146. 31. 53. Zijlstra. 115. 18. 61. 28. 153. 1. 16. 12. 36. 169. 37. 59. 54 122. 50.L. 101. VII. 142. 21. R. 181. 199 III. 168. 51 Wolfsburg library 7. Z Zeewolde library Zeilmaker. zinc 34 32. 18. 11. F. 151. 15. 36. 3. R. 154. 57. 187 VIII.