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# COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

## Department of Electrical Engineering ___________________________________________________________________________

Course: EEE455 Wireless Communication Systems Class: BTE-B4 Date: September 17, 2009 Fall Semester 2009 Home Assignment # 1 Due Date: September 28, 2009

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Part A: Assigned Reading: Rappaport Chapter 4

1.

Received signal-to-noise ratio: a. What is the importance? b. What factors determine this ratio? c. What are the significant differences between wired communications and wireless communications?

2. 3.

What is meant by fading? What is meant by: a. Large scale fading? b. Small scale fading?

4. 5.

What is the propose of large scale fading models? Antenna Gain: a. How is it defined? b. What is meant by an isotropic antenna? c. What is meant by effective antenna area and how is it related to peak gain? d. What is meant by effective isotropic radiated power PEIRP?

6. 7.

What is the definition of path loss? The Friis free space propagation equation: a. What applications is it relevant to? b. What (far field/near field) conditions need to be satisfied? c. How is the equation derived? d. How is the equation often applied in practice? e. What is meant by Fraunhofer distance? f. Indoor applications typically involve higher frequencies. Why?

8.

Find the far-field distance for an antenna with maximum dimension of 1 m and operating frequency of 900 MHz. Solution: Example 4.1

9.

If a transmitter produces 50 W of power, express the transmit power in units of (a) dBm, and (b) dBW. If 50 W is applied to a unity gain antenna with a 900 MHz carrier frequency, find the received power in dBm at a free space distance of 100 m from the antenna. What is Pr (10 km)? Assume unity gain for the receiver antenna.

Solution: Example 4.2 10. Assume a receiver is located 10 km from a 50 W transmitter. The carrier frequency is 900 MHz, free space propagation is assumed, Gt = 1, and Gr = 2, find (a) the power at the receiver, (b) the magnitude of the E-field at the receiver antenna, (c) the rms voltage applied to the receiver input assuming that the receiver antenna has a purely real impendence of 50 and is matched to the receiver. Solution: Example 4.3 11. Reflection: a. What is the general characteristic of reflection? b. Under what conditions does this mechanism dominate? 12. Diffraction: a. What is the general characteristic of diffraction? b. What principle forms the basis of diffraction? 13. Scattering: a. What is the general characteristic of scattering? b. Under what conditions does this mechanism dominate? 14. 15. 16. Is the received signal power in a LOS Only environment greater than or less than the received signal power in an environment with both LOS and NLOS signal paths? What is meant by an empirical model and an analytical model? 2-ray ground reflection model: a. Is this model an empirical or analytical model? b. Under what conditions is this model applicable? c. For this model, what is the general expression for the received power and how is this expression derived? 17. Example 4.6

A mobile is located 5 km away from a base station and uses a vertical /4 monopole antenna with a gain of 2.55 dB to receive cellular radio signals. The E-field at 1 km from the transmitter is measured to be 10-3 V/m. The carrier frequency used for this system is 900 MHz.

a. Find the length and the effective aperture of the receiving antenna. b. Find the received power at the mobile using the two-ray ground reflection model assuming the height of the transmitting antenna is 50m and the receiving antenna is 1.5m above ground. Solution: Example 4.6 18. Log distance path loss model: a. To what environments is this model applicable? b. What does this model estimate? c. What is the path loss equation for this model? d. What is the path loss exponent, what are typical values and how is it determined? 19. Log normal shadowing model: a. Wow is this model related to the log distance path loss model? b. What is meant by the shadowing standard deviation? c. To what environment is this model applicable? d. This model can be used to estimate the probability that PR(d) will exceed a certain threshold.how? e. This model can be used to estimate the percentage of coverage area of a basestation.how? 20. Four received power measurements were taken at distances of 100 m, 200 m, 1 km, and 3 km from a transmitter. These measured values are given in the following table. It is assumed that the path loss for these measurements follows the model in Equation (4.69.a) , where d0 =100 m: a. Find the minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimate for the path loss exponent, n b. Calculate the standard deviation about the mean value c. Estimate the received power at d = 2 km using the resulting model d. Predict the likelihood that the received signal level at 2 km will be greater than -60 dBm e. Predict the percentage of area within a 2 km radius cell that receives signals greater than -60 dBm, given the result in (d).

Distance from Transmitter Received Power 100 m 200 m 1000 m 3000 m 0 dBm -20 dBm -35 dBm -70 dBm

Solution: Example 4.9 21. Okumura model: a. To what environment is this model applicable? b. What additional system restrictions apply? c. What does this model estimate?....average path loss? d. What is the path loss equation for this model? 22. Find the median path loss using Okumuras model for d = 50 km, hte = 100 m, hre =10m in a suburban environment. If the base station transmitter radiates an EIRP of 1 kW at a carrier frequency 0f 900 MHz, find the power at the receiver (assume a unity gain receiving antenna). Solution: Example 4.10 23. 24. 25. Hata model: What are the main differences between this model and the Okumura model? Extended Hata model: What are the main differences between this model and the Hata model? What models are applicable to a. Outdoors (non-microcell and microcell, non PCS & PCS) b. Indoors (microcell, PCS) 26. Example 4.11

## Part B: Practice Problems

27. 28.

If Pt = 10W, Gt = 0 dB, Gr = 0 dB, and fc = 900 MHz, find Pr in Watts at a free space distance of 1 Km. Assume a receiver is located 10 Km from a 50 W transmitter. The carrier frequency is 6 GHz and free space propagation is assumed, Gt = 1 dB, Gr = 1.
a. Find the power at the receiver. b. Find the amplitude of the E-field at the receiver antenna.

3.5

## . If a signal of 1 mW was received at d0 = 1 m from the transmitter, and at a

distance of 10 m, 10% of the measurement were stronger than -25 dBm, define the standard deviation, , for the path loss model at d = 10 m. 31. If the received power at a reference distance d0 = 1 km is equal to 1 microwatt, find the received powers at distances of 2 km, 5 km, 10 km, and 20 km from the same transmitter for the following path loss models: a. Free space b. n = 3 c. n = 4 d. Two-ray ground reflection method e. Extended Hata model for a large city environment. f. Plot each of these models on the same graph over the range of 1 km to 20 km. Comment on the differences between these five models. Note: Assume f = 1800 MHz, ht = 40m, hr = 3m, Gt = Gr = 0 dB. 32. A transmitter provides 15 W to an antenna having 12 dB gain. The receiver antenna has a gain of 3 dB and the receiver bandwidth is 30 kHz. If the receiver system noise figure is 8 dB and the carrier frequency is 1800 MHz, find the maximum T-R separation that will ensure that a SNR of 20 dB is provided for 95% of the time. Assume n = 4, = 8 dB, and d0 = 1 km. 33. Assume a SNR of 25 dB is desired at the receiver. If a 900 MHz cellular transmitter has an EIRP of 100 W, and the AMPS receiver uses a 0 dB gain antenna and has a 10 dB noise figure, find the

percentage of time that the desired SNR is achieved at a distance of 10 km from the transmitter. Assume n = 4, = 8 dB, and d0 = 1 km. 34. Four received power measurement were taken at distances of 100 m, 200 m, 1 km, and 2 km from a transmitter. The measured values at these distance are -0 dBm, -25 dBm, -35 dBm, and -38 dBm, respectively. It is assumed that the path loss for these measurements follows the model

## d PL(d )[dB ] = PL(d ) + X = PL(d 0 ) + 10n log + X d 0

Where d0 = 100 m. a. Find the minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimate for the path loss exponent, n. b. Calculate the standard deviation of shadowing about the mean value. c. Estimate the received power at d = 2 km using the resulting model. d. Predict the likelihood that the received signal level at 2 km will be greater than -35 dBm. Express your answer as a Q-function. 35. Consider a wireless communications system with the following parameters: transmitted power: + 20 dBm minimum usable received power: -100 dBm transmitting antenna gain: 10 dB receiving antenna gain: 0 dB carrier frequency: 1 GHz

a. What is the range (the distance over which the wireless system will work) in free space? b. Assume the signal propagates over an ideal flat surface with reflection coefficient of -1. Compute the range for a transmitting antenna height of ht = 25 ft and a receiving antenna height of hr = 6 ft, and compare with part (a). 36. We would like to provide radio communication to an 8 km x 8 km square area by placing one base station in the middle. Zero dB antennas are employed in both the base-station and the mobile. The communication being proposed requires a power level of -107 dBm at the receiver to achieve a satisfactory reception. a. Compute the necessary transmitted power that achieves the required signal level at the mobile receiver over 90% of the cell area. Assume that the mobile receiver is the only user and the radio propagation is given by a Hata model with path loss (dB) = 127 + 35 log10 R where R is the distance in km. b. The nature of the terrain of the selected cell suggests that the radio propagation model should also include shadowing, i.e., path loss (dB) = 127 + 35 log10 R + X where X is a Gaussian random variable with zero-mean and standard deviation = 8 dB. Determine the

transmitted power required to achieve a time availability of 90% for the 90% coverage area. 37. a. What is the ideal downlink cell radius in city environment according to the Hata-model with the following system parameters: carrier frequency fc = 960 MHz, base station output power = 20 W 43.0 dBm, base station antenna gain including feeder loss Gbs = 8 dB, base station antenna height hbs = 30 m, mobile station net antenna gain Gms = 3 dB, mobile station antenna height hms = 1.0 m, mobile station sensitivity Sms = 102 dBm, when i) 50% coverage probability is required at the cell border ii) 90% coverage probability is required at the cell border. The slow fading standard deviation is = 8 dB. b. What is the cell radius with the above system parameters (except for MS antenna height) if also indoor coverage is required when: i) 50% coverage probability is required at the cell border, ii) 90% coverage probability is required at the cell border. The average wall penetration loss is log-normally distributed with 20 dB mean and standard deviation 10 dB. In this case the minimum mobile antenna height is 3.0 m. Part C (Section A): Problem to be returned for Grading 38. Rappaport:: Problem 36 Part C (Section B): Problem to be returned for Grading 39. Rappaport:: Problem 37