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hipnozi

sazogadoebaSi garcelebulia azri, rom


hipnotiziori mZlavr Zalas flobs mis nebayoflobiT Tu uneblie monawileebze. ramdenad
marTebulia es mosazreba hipnozis Sesaxeb? ra
aris hipnozi, ra mniSvnelovani niSnebiT
xasiaTdeba da rogoria misi sasargeblo/
validuri fsiqologiuri gamoyeneba? termini
hipnozi hipnos-idan, berZnul miTologiaSi
Zilis RmerTis saxelidan, momdinareobs. Tumca,
hipnozi (Hypnosis) - cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareoba, romelic xasiaTdeba Rrma modunebiT
(relaqsaciiT), STagonebisadmi mimReblobiT da
aRqmis, mexsierebis, motivaciisa da TviTkontrolis cvlilebebiT.

hipnoturi stimulacia da
hipnobiluroba
hipnozi hipnoturi stimulaciiT (hypnotic induction) iwyeba. es aris mosamzadebel aqtivobaTa
erToblioba, romelsac minimumamde dahyavs
garegani gamRizianeblebi da monawileebs mxo-

cnobierebebis Semcvleli mdgomareobebi

cedurebs, radgan es procedurebi arRvevs


sizmris bunebriv mimdinareobas.

Zili aranairad ar monawileobs hipnozSi, Tu


ar CavTvliT imas, rom zogjer Rrmad relaqsirebuli adamianebi garegnulad Zilis magvar
mdgomareobaSi imyofebian (Tu adamians marTlac
sZinavs, maSin is ar reagirebs hipnozze). ufro
zustad Tu ganvsazRvravT, hipnozi aris cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareoba, romelic
xasiaTdeba zogierTi adamianis gansakuTrebuli
unariT _ moaxdinos STagonebaze reagireba,
rasac Tan axlavs aRqmis, mexsierebis, motivaciisa da TviTkontrolis gancdis cvlilebebi
(Orne, 1980). imyofebian ra hipnotur mdgomareobaSi,
monawileebi momatebuli STagonebadobiT
xasiaTdebian hipnotizioris STagonebis mimarT
_ isini xSirad grZnoben, rom maTi qceva yovelgvari ganzraxvisa da cnobieri Zalisxmevis gareSe xorcieldeba (Hilgard, 1968).
mkvlevrebi xSirad ver aRweven Tanxmobas
hipnozis dros moqmedi fsiqologiuri meqanizmebis Taobaze (Kirsch & Lynn, 1995, 1998).
zogierTi adreuli Teoriis mixedviT, hipnozis
zemoqmedebis qveS myofi individebi transis
mdgomareobaSi gadadian, romelic didad
gansxvavdeba fxizeli cnobierebis mdgomareobisgan. sxva Teoriebis Tanaxmad, hipnozi sxva
araferia, Tu ara momatebuli motivacia.
arsebobs Teoriebi, romelTa azriT hipnozi
socialuri roluri TamaSis nairsaxeoba, placebo reaqciis saxeobaa hipnotizioris mowonebis dasamsaxureblad (ix. Tavi 2). faqtobrivad,
mkvlevrebma gamoricxes mosazreba imis Sesaxeb,
rom hipnozi gansakuTrebul, transismagvar
cvlilebebs iwvevs cnobierebaSi. Tumca, vinaidan individebs hipnoturi zegavlenis gareSec
SeuZliaT hipnoturi mdgomareobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli qceviTi paternebis ganxorcieleba,
naTeli xdeba, rom hipnozs motivaciuri an
placebo procesebis garda sxva damatebiTi
efeqtebic gaaCnia. hipnoturi stimulaciisa da
hipnobilurobis ganxilvis Semdeg aRvwerT mis
zogierT efeqts.

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210

lod SeTavazebul stimulebze amaxvilebinebs


yuradRebas da STaagonebs, rom isini cnobierebis
gansakuTrebul mdgomareobaSi gadasasvlelad
emzadebian. mosamzadebeli aqtivobebi gulisxmobs garkveuli gamocdilebis warmodgenas an
movlenebisa da reaqciebis vizualizacias.
ganmeorebadi praqtikis SemTxvevaSi mosamzadebeli procedurebi daswavlili signalis
funqcias iZens, Sesabamisad, monawileebi swrafad
gadadian hipnotur mdgomareobaSi. STagonebis
tipuri procedurebi moicavs Rrma relaqsaciis
mdgomareobis SeTavazebas, Tumca zogierTi
adamiani iseTi aqtiuri, qmediTi stimulaciiTac
hipnotizirdeba, rogoricaa velosipediT
siarulis warmodgena (Banyai & Hilgard, 1976).
hipnozis scenuri warmodgenebi gviqmnian
STabeWdilebas, rom hipnozis Zala hipnotiziorisgan momdinareobs, Tumca, hipnozis erTaderTi umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria monawilis
unari Tu niWi~ imisa, rom hipnozs daeqvemdebaros. hipnobiluroba gviCvenebs, Tu ra xarisxiT eqvemdebareba individi hipnoturi reaqciebis
gancdis standartul instruqciebs. arsebobs
individualur gansxvavebaTa farTo speqtri,
STagonebadobis sruli arqonidan totalur
STagonebadobamde.
suraTi 6.5 gviCvenebs kolejis studentTa
procentul ganawilebas hipnobilurobis xarisxis mixedviT, rodesac maT pirvelad gaiares
hipnoturi stimulaciis testi. ras niSnavs am
skalaze maRali~ an Zalian maRali~ maCvenebeli? testis dasrulebis Semdeg hipnotiziori
iZleoda posthipnotur instruqciaTa serias,
romelic TiToeuli individis qcevas Seexeboda.
rodesac hipnotiziori eubneboda, rom maTi
gaSlili xelebi rkinis naWrad iqceoda, Zalze
hipnotizirebuli individebi ver axerxebdnen
xelebis moxras. Sesabamisi instruqciis SemTxvevaSi maT SeeZloT xeli gaeqniaT ararsebuli
mwerisaTvis. aseve, Zalze hipnotizirebul individebs ar SeeZloT ara~-s niSnad Tavis gaqneva,
Tu hipnotiziori eubneboda, rom maT aRar
SeeZloT amis gakeTeba. hipnobilurobis dabali~ maCveneblis mqone studentebi TiTqmis ar
avlendnen msgavs reaqciebs.
hipnobiluroba (Hypnotizability) - aCvenebs, Tu ra
xarisxiT eqvemdebareba mocemuli individi standartul hipnotur STagonebas.

suraTi

6.5

pirvelad gamowveuli hipnozis done


grafiki gviCvenebs hipnoturi zemoqmedebis qveS pirvelad moxvedrili 533 individis Sedegebs. hipnobiluroba stanfordis hipnoturi damyolobis 12-debulebian skalaze gaizoma.

hipnobiluroba SedarebiT stabiluri maxasiaTebelia. mozrdilebSi es maCvenebeli, faqtobrivad, ucvleli rCeba 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi
sxvadasxva dros Catarebuli gazomvebis dros
(Morgan et al., 1974). kolejSi hipnobilurobis testirebaSi monawile 50 cdis pirs (qalebi da
kacebi) 25 wlis Semdeg Cautarda ganmeorebiTi
testireba da miRebuli Sedegebi mniSvnelovnad
korelirebda (koeficientiT 0.71) adrindel
monacemebTan (Piccione et al., 1989). bavSvebi ufro
STagonebadni arian, vidre mozrdilebi; hipnoturi STagonebadoba maqsimums aRwevs mozardobis periodSi da Semdeg mcirdeba. arsebobs
garkveuli monacemebi hipnobilurobis genetikuri determinantebis Sesaxeb. kerZod, identuri
tyupebis maCveneblebi ufro uaxlovdeba erTmaneTs, vidre araidenturi tyupebis (Morgan et al.,
1970). miuxedavad imisa, rom hipnobiluroba SedarebiT stabiluria, is ar korelirebs arc erT
iseT pirovnul maxasiaTebelTan, rogoricaa mimndobloba an konformuloba (Fromm & Shor, 1979;
Kirch & Lynn, 1995). metic, hipnobiluroba moiazrebs
hipnotur mdgomareobaSi mTlianad CarTvis
unikalur kognitur unars.

hipnozis efeqtebi
hipnobilurobis gazomvis proceduris
aRwerisas saubari gvqonda hipnozis zogierT
standartul efeqtze: hipnoturi zemoqmedebis
qveS individebi reagireben motoruli SesaZleb-

saidan
viciT
hipnozi metia, vidre simulacia
eqsperimentSi studentTa ori jgufi
monawileobda. erTi jgufi realurad iqna
hipnotizirebuli. meore jgufs hipnozis
simulirebis instruqcia misces: pirveli
eqsperimentatoris instruqciis Tanaxmad,
maT unda moetyuebinaT meore eqsperimentatori da daerwmunebinaT igi, rom marTlac hipnotozirebulni iyvnen. amis
Semdeg orive jgufs waredgina tonebis
seriebi da moeTxova am tonebis simaRlis
Sefaseba. eqsperimentis mniSvenlovani
nawili iyo moTxovnis instruqcia, romelSic cdis pirebs eubnebodnen, Tu ra unda
ganecadaT (Reed et al., 1996, p.143).
isini, visac erTjerze metad waredgina
toni, midrekilni iyvnen hipnotur mdgomareobaSi darCenisken, rac mniSvnelovnad
amcirebs maT mier gagonili bgeris intensivobas. Tqven, albaT, am bolo cdaze isev
hipnotur mdgomareobaSi dabrundebiT da
amitom Zalze mcire bgeras gaigonebT.
savaraudoa, rom is saerTodac ver gaigonoT.
Tu hipnozis yvela efeqts eqsperimentatoris moTxovnebis Sesabamisad individis moqmedebis survils mivawerT, unda
movelodeT, rom hipnotizirebuli da simulianti monawileebi msgavsad unda asrulebdnen moTxovnebs, realurad ki ase ar

xdeba. namdvilad hipnotizirebuli individebi gamocdilebaTa farTo speqtrs aRweren: isini TavianT realur gamocdilebasTan miaxloebul gancdebs ufro hyvebian,
vidre imas, risi gagonebac surs maTi azriT
eqsperimentators ( Reed et al., 1996).

am SemTxvevaSi simuliantebi arasworad


varaudoben, rom rac unda ganecadaT, realuri
hipnozi iyo. aseTi tipis eqsperimentebidan
naTeli xdeba, Tu konkretulad ra damoukidebeli
wvlili Seaqvs hipnozs adamianis gamocdilebaSi.
hipnozis erT-erTi Rirebuleba, romelzec
ar kamaToben, tkivilis Semcirebis unaria
(hipnoturi analgezia). Cveni goneba winaswari
ganWvretiTa da SiSiT aZlierebs tkivilis
stimulebs. am fsiqologiuri efeqtis Semcireba
hipnoziT aris SesaZlebeli (Chaves, 1999). tkivilis kontroli sxvadasxva hipnoturi STagonebiT miiRweva: sxeulis mtkivneuli nawilis
araorganulad (xis an plastikatisgan gakeTebulad) an mTliani sxeulisgan gancalkevebulad warmodgena, gonebis ganTavisufleba
sxeulisgan da drois sxvadasxvagvarad `damaxinjeba~. adamianebs maSinac ki SeuZliaT
tkivilis gakontroleba, rodesac yvela azri
da warmodgena gandevnilia cnobierebidan
(Hargadon et al., 1995). hipnozi gansakuTrebiT
Rirebulia qirurgiuli pacientebisaTvis, romelTanac SeuZlebelia sruli anesTeziis miRweva, dedisTvis fiziologiuri mSobiarobis
dros da simsivniani pacientebisTvis, romlebic
daavadebasTan da mis mkurnalobasTan dakavSirebul tkivilTan gamklavebas swavloben. TviThipnozi (autohipnozi) tkivilis kontrolisadmi
saukeTeso midgomaa, radganac pacients tkivilis
gamoCenisTanave SeuZlia kontrolis gaZliereba.
erT-erT kvlevaSi ikvlies metastazuri simsivnis
mqone 86 qali, romlebic tkivils TviThipnoziT
akontrolebdnen. aRmoCnda, rom maTTan tkivili
orjer naklebi iyo, vidre sakontrolo jgufSi
(Spiegel et al., 1989).
mkvlevrebi tkivilis Semcirebis faqtebiT
aCveneben, rom hipnozis efeqtebi scildeba
monawileTa eqsperimentatoris an Tavad maTi
molodinebis Sesabamisad moqcevis survils.
Zalze hipnotizirebad individebTan tkivilis
Semcireba hipnoturi STagonebiT ufro efeqtu-

cnobierebebis Semcvleli mdgomareobebi

lobebisa (magaliTad, maT xelebs ver xridnen)


da perceptuli gamocdilebis (magaliTad, maT
eCvenebodaT buzebi) Sesaxeb miTiTebebze. Tumca,
rogor unda davrwmundeT, rom es qcevebi
hipnozis gansakuTrebuli SesaZleblobebidan
momdinareobs da ar aris monawilis Zlieri
survili, rom daimsaxuros hipnotizioris mowoneba? am mniSvnelovan kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad mkvlevrebi xSirad atareben eqsperimentebs,
romelSic erTmaneTs adareben da upirispireben
namdvilad hipnotizirebul individebsa da
simuliantebs.

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rad miiRweva, vidre tkivilis Semamcirebeli


sxva teqnikebiT (Miller & Bowers, 1993).

saidan
viciT

Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

hipnozi amcirebs tkivils

212

moxaliseebs Camouyalibes kunTebis autaneli tkivili. individebis mier tkivilis amtanoba eqsperimentTa sam seriaSi
izomeboda: (1) Zalze mamotivirebeli
instruqciebiT; (2) hipnoturi analgeziis
gamowveviT da (3) placebo kafsulis
gadaylapviT, romelic cdis pirebs eZleodaT, rogorc tkivilis momxsneli. (1) da
(2) seriebs Soris gansxvaveba hipnozis im
efeqtis Sefasebis saSualebas iZleoda,
romelic cdis piris mier instruqciaTa
kargad Sesrulebis survilisgan damoukideblad miiRweoda. (2) da (3) seriebs Soris
gansxvaveba imis demonstrirebis saSualebas
iZleoda, rom hipnozi placebo efeqtze
metia. eqsperimentatorma, romelic atarebda
testirebas, ar icoda, Tu romel cdis
pirebs hqondaT miRebuli placebo kafsula
da arasworad egona, rom yvela hipnoturi
analgeziis qveS iyo. aRmoCnda, rom 24 cdis
piridan naxevari cdis pirebisa Zalzed
hipnobilurebi iyvnen, danarCen naxevars
ki dabali maCvenebeli hqonda hipnobilurobis skalaze.placebo abebi mniSvnelovanwilad amcirebda tkivils yvela monawilesTan, motivaciuri instruqciebis xarisxisagan damoukideblad. amasTan, hipnozis molodini tkivilis Sesamcireblad, aseve,
yvela monawilesTan iZleoda mniSvnelovan
efeqts placebo molodinis efeqti. Tumca,
Zalze hipnobilur monawileebSi tkivilis
amtanoba hipnoturi analgeziis gamowvevis
periodSi gacilebiT meti iyo, vidre naklebad hipnobilurebTan da vidre sxva
nebismier danarCen mdgomareobaSi _ hipnozi
ar iyo mxolod placebo (McGlashan et al.,
1978).

dabolos erTi SeniSvna hipnozis Sesaxeb:


hipnozis Zala ar momdinareobs hipnotizioris
gansakuTrebuli SesaZleblobidan Tu unaridan;

es mxolod im pirovnebis an pirovnebaTa


hipnobilurobis Sedegia, romelic hipnoturi
zemoqmedebis qveS imyofeba. hipnozSi yofna ar
niSnavs pirovnuli kontrolis dakargvas;
faqtobrivad, hipnozSi yofnis gamocdileba
individs kontrolis gavarjiSebis axali gzebis
daswavlis saSualebas aZlevs _ hipnotiziori
SeiZleba mwvrTnels SevadaroT, romelic
wvrTnis subieqts, romelic axorcielebs qcevas.
es yvelaferi kargad unda gvaxsovdes, rodesac
vuyurebT scenaze gaTamaSebul sanaxaobas, sadac
adamianebi ucnaur qmedebebs axorcieleben
hipnoturi zemoqmedebis qveS. scenis hipnotiziori imiT qmnis cocxal sanaxaobas, rom
egzgibicionisturi maxasiaTeblebis mqone adamianebs sxvebis TandaswrebiT iseT qcevebs
axorcielebinebs, rasac adamianTa umravlesoba
arasodes ar gaakeTebda. mkvlevrebisa da
TerapevtebisaTvis hipnozi warmoadgens teqnikas,
romliTac SesaZlebelia cnobierebis SesaZleblobebis gamokvleva da modificireba.

meditacia
aRmosavluri mravali religia da tradiciuli fsiqologiuri mimdinareoba muSaobs
cnobierebis gamocalkevebaze yoveldRiuri,
aqtualuri safiqralebisgan. isini cdiloben
mentalur da spiritualur me~-ze Sinagani
fokusirebis miRwevas. meditacia warmoadgens
cnobierebis Secvlis formas, romelic mowodebulia Rrma simSvidis mdgomareobis miRwevis
saSualebiT sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb codnisa da
subieqturi keTildReobis, kargad yofnis
gaRrmavebisTvis. meditaciis dros pirovneba
SeiZleba fokusirdebodes da iwesrigebdes
sunTqvas, iRebdes garkveul pozebs (iogas pozebi), minimumamde dahyavdes garegani stimulacia,
axdendes specifikuri mentaluri xatebis generirebas an aTavisuflebdes gonebas yovelgvari
azrisagan.
garkveulwilad sakamaTod rCeba meditaciis
gazomvadi efeqtebi. kritikosTa TvalsazrisiT,
TiTqmis ar arsebobs fsiqologiuri sxvaoba
meditacia (Meditation) - cnobierebis Secvlis forma, romelic mowodebulia TviTcnobierebis Semcirebis saSualebiT sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb
codnisa da TviTSegrZnebis gaumjobesebisaTvis.

akrZalvebisgan. zogierTi mkvlevari fiqrobs,


rom meditaciis regularuli praqtika afarToebs
gonebis farglebs dasavluri fsiqologiis mier
aRiarebuli sazRvrebs miRma da mis Sedegad
SesaZlebelia gazomvadi inteleqtisa (IQ; ix.
Tavi 10) da kognituri unarebis (Cranson et al.,
1991) maCveneblis zrda. meditaciis wamyvani
budisti maswavlebeli naT hani (Nhat Hanh, 1991)
gvirCevs, gavacnobieroT sakuTari sunTqva,
ubralod davakvirdeT Cven irgvliv arsebul
garemos da davgegmoT yoveldRiuri moqmedebebi,
rac fsiqologiuri wonasworobisken maval
gzaze dagvayenebs.

halucinaciebi

halucinacia (Hallucinations) - mcdari aRqma, romelic Cndeba obieqturi gamRizianeblis ararsebobis pirobebSi.

suraTi

6.6

es iluziaa da ara halucinacia!


miuxedavad imisa, rom realurad ar arsebobs,
adamianTa umravlesoba am suraTze samkuTxeds
xedavs. halucinaciebis SemTxvevaSic adamianebi
ararsebuls aRiqvamen, Tumca halucinaciebi
individebis cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareobidan warmoiqmneba da ara perceptuli procesebisgan.

cnobierebebis Semcvleli mdgomareobebi

normalur TvaldaxuWul~ modunebul mdgomareobasa da meditaciis konkretul procedurebs Soris (Holmes, 1984). Tumca, meditaciis
damcvelebi amtkiceben, rom meditaciis realuri
fiziologia SeiZleba daxasiaTdes, rogorc
mSvidi sifxizle anu minimaluri sxeulebrivi
aRgznebis, magram maqsimaluri cnobierebis
mdgomareoba (Dillbeck & Orme-Johnson, 1987; Morrell,
1986). amrigad, meditacia, sul mcire, Seamcirebs
SfoTvas, gansakuTrebiT maTTan, visac stresul
garemoSi uwevs funqcionireba (Anderson et al.,
1999; Shapiro et al., 1998). Tumca, meditaciuri praqtikis mizani gacilebiT metia, vidre Tavis
droebiTi daRweva daZabulobisgan. meditaciis
praqtikosebis Tanaxmad, rodesac aseT praqtikas
regularuli xasiaTi aqvs, meditaciis zogierT
formas xelewifeba cnobierebis gaZliereba,
gaciskrovnebis miRwevaSi daxmarebis gaweva imiT,
rom individs saSualeba misces nacnobi sagnebis
axleburad danaxvisa da aZlevs aRqmisa da
azrovnebis ganTavisuflebis SesaZleblobas
avtomaturi, kargad daswavlili paternebis

uCveulo pirobebSi SesaZloa adgili hqondes


cnobierebis damaxinjebas, rodesac individi
xedavs an esmis is, rac awmyoSi realurad/
obieqturad ar aris mocemuli. halucinacia
aris naTeli aRqma, romelic Cndeba obieqturi
stimulaciis ararsebobis pirobebSi; es aris
individis Secvlili realobis mentaluri konstruqcia. halucinaciebi gansxvavdeba iluziebisgan, romelic realuri stimulis perceptuli damaxinjebaa. ganvixiloT suraTi 6.6.
masze adamianTa umravlesoba samkuTxeds xedavs,
Tumca, is realurad~ ar aris gamosaxuli. am

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faqts halucinacias ver vuwodebT, radganac,


rogorc avxseniT mexuTe TavSi, samkuTxedi Cven
mier samyaros aRqmis normaluri procesebis
Sedegad Cndeba~. Cven ver gavaqrobT am
iluzorul samkuTxeds imiT, Tu gavixsenebT,
rom is ar aris realuri. iluziisgan gansxvavebiT, halucinaciebi individualuri gamocdilebaa, romelsac ar iziareben igive situaciaSi
moxvedrili sxva adamianebi. zogierTi halucinacia xanmoklea; Tu pirovneba sakuTari
TavisTvis halucinaciis ararealurobis swrafad
dafiqsirebas SeZlebs realobasTan misi dapirispirebiT, halucinaciuri gancda savaraudod
dasruldeba. Tumca, zog SemTxvevebSi individebi
ver axerxeben halucinaciebis realurobis~
daZlevas da es halucinaciebi maT cxovrebaze
zemoqmedeben (Siegel, 1992).
halucinaciebs xels uwyobs momatebuli
agznebadoba, intensiuri saWiroebis mdgomareoba
an SemaSinebeli azrebis gandevnis uunaroba.
isini maSinac Cndeba, rodesac tvini uCveulo,
iSviaTi gamRizianeblis zemoqmedebas ganicdis,
magaliTad, maRali sicxis, epilefsiuri gulyris
an Sakikis dros; aseve, mZime gonebrivi aSlilobis mqone pacientebTan, romelnic ise reagireben
Sinagan mentalur movlenebze, TiTqos isini
garegani sensoruli gamRizianeblebi iyos.
xSirad halucinaciebs iseTi fsiqoaqtiuri
nivTierebebic iwvevs, rogoricaa LSD da peioti
da, aseve, halucinaciebi axlavs alkoholze
uaris Tqmas mwvave alkoholizmis SemTxvevebSi
(aseT halucinaciebs delirium tremens-s uwodeben,
DTs). am qimiurad gamowveuli halucinaciebis
arsebobas tvinze nivTierebaTa pirdapiri zemoqmedeba uwyobs xels.
zogierT kulturul da religiur garemoSi
halucinaciebi sasurveli da mniSvnelovani
movlenaa (Siegel, 1992). am pirobebSi halucinaciebi
mistikur xilvad, gamocxadebad aRiqmeba, rac
maT mnaxvels gansakuTrebul statuss aniWebs.
amgvarad, sxvadasxva garemo pirobebSi
spiritualur ZalebTan aSkara kontaqtis erTi
da igive mkafio aRqma SeiZleba ganixilebodes,
rogorc sulieri avadmyofobis an rogorc
gansakuTrebuli niWis maniSnebeli. xSirad aseTi
gonebrivi statusis Sefaseba Tanabrad aris
damokidebuli rogorc damkvirveblis Sefasebaze,
ise Tavad perceptuli gamocdilebis Sinaarsze.

religiuri eqstazi
meditacia, locva, marxva da spiritualuri
komunikacia religiuri gamocdilebis gaZlierebas, intensifikacias emsaxureba. uiliam
jemsisaTvis (1902) religiuri gamocdileba warmoadgens unikalur fsiqologiur gamocdilebas,
romelic xasiaTdeba movlenebis erTaderTobisa
da dakavSirebulobis, gamocdilebis realurobisa da mkafioobis gancdiT, agreTve komunikaciis unaris arqoniT, sxva sityvebiT rom
vTqvaT, mTliani gamocdilebis xasiaTiT. mravali adamianisaTvis religiuri gamocdileba
namdvilad ar warmoadgens maTi Cveulebrivi
cnobierebis nawils.
TiTqmis ar moiZebneba apalaCias wminda
aCrdilis (Holy Ghost) tomis xalxis religiur
gamocdilebaze ufro Zlieri religiuri gamocdileba. maTi rwmenebi da qcevebi cnobierebis
unikalur formas qmnis, romelic maT gansakuTrebuli qcevebis ganxorcielebis saSualebas
aZlevs. RvTismsaxurebisas maT Sxamiani gvelebi
da cecxli uWiravT xelSi, svamen striqninis
sawamlavs. am qcevebisTvis mosamzadeblad usmenen
grZel qadagebebs da monawileoben xmamaRal,
yuradRebis mimzidvel
simRerebsa, velur
trialsa da cekvebSi:
enTuziazmi SeiZleba Zaladobis zRvars
miuaxlovdes... wevrebi Wylopineben da ir-

gvelis xelSi damWerTa religiuri jgufis


wevrebis fsiqologiurma kvlevam aCvena, rom
isini kargad adaptirebuli, gawonasworebuli
adamianebi arian, romlebic jgufSi yofniT
Zlier fsiqologiur da socialur mxardaWeras
iReben. sulis momaswaveblebis~ ritualSi monawileoba maTTvis personaluri jildos tolfasia, romelsac maTi cxovrebis verc erTi
aspeqti ver gautoldeba~ (Watterlond, 1983).

cnobierebis Semcvleli
nivTierebebi
adamianebi antikuri xanidan iyenebdnen
sxvadasxva nivTierebebs realobis aRqmis
Sesacvlelad. arsebobs arqeologiuri monacemebi, rom aSS-is samxreT-dasavleTsa da meqsikaSi 10 000 wlis manZilze uwyvetad iyenebdnen
Rrma Zilis marcvlebs~ (sophora seed) anu
meskalis5 marcvals. antikuri actekebi ludSi
azavebdnen meskalis marcvlebs. antikuri xanidan
moyolebuli, CrdiloeT da samxreT amerikis
mcxovreblebis ritualebis nawils Seadgenda
Teonanaqtalis, fsilocibis sokos gadaylapva,
romelic RmerTebis sxeulis~ saxeliTac aris
cnobili. am sokos mcire dozebi naTel
halucinaciebs iwvevs.
dasavlur kulturebSi narkotikebi garTobasTan, dasvenebasTan ufro asocirdeba, vidre
jgufur sakralur ritualebTan. adamianebi mTel
msoflioSi iReben narkotikebs, raTa modundnen,
gaumklavdnen stresebs, Tavi aaridon arsebuli
realobis usiamovnebebs, komfortulad igrZnon
5

erTgvari narkotiki.

Tavi socialur situaciebSi an ganicadon cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareobebi. as welze


meti xnis win uiliam jemsi, romlis citirebac
Cven ukve ramodenimejer movaxdineT, rogorc
amerikaSi fsiqologiis damfuZneblis, aRwerda
cnobierebis Semcvlel nivTierebebze mis mier
Catarebul eqsperimentebs. azotis oqsidis
SesunTqvis Semdeg jemsi aRniSnavda, rom am
mdgomareobis umniSvnelovanesi momentia Zlieri
metafizikuri iluminaciis moWarbebuli aRmagznebeli SegrZneba. WeSmariteba TiTqmis
uxilavi movlenebis siRrmeSia da amavdroulad
Riaa dakvirvebisaTvis. goneba myisierad da
TvalSisacemi sisxartiT wvdeba arsebulis
yvela logikur mimarTebas da amis analogi ar
moiZebneba normalur cnobierebaSi; ver gavavlebT paralels normaluri cnobierebis funqcionirebasTan~ (James, 1882, p.186). amgvarad, cnobierebis Seswavlisadmi jemsis interesi cnobierebis TviTgamowveuli Secvlili mdgomareobis kvlevamde gafarTovda.
cnobierebis Secvlis mizniT nivTierebebis
gamoyenebis popularizacia aldos haqslis (Aldos
Huxley, 1954) publikaciis _ aRqmis karibWis~ gamoqveynebis Semdeg daiwyo. haqsli sakuTar cnobierebaze meskaliniT eqsperimentirebda. misi wignis
gamosvlidan ramdenime aTwleulis Semdeg, 1998
wels Catarebuli gamokiTxvis Sedegebis mixedviT, romelSic 12 wlidan zemoT asakis daaxloebiT 25 500 moqalaqe monawileobda, aSS-is moqalaqeTa 6,2% aRniSnavda, rom ukanaskneli erTi
wlis manZilze miRebuli hqonda erTi an meti
akrZaluli nivTiereba (Substance Abuse and Mental
Health Services Administration - SAMHSA, 1999). sixSire
gacilebiT maRali iyo gviani mozardobis asakSi:
16-17 wlis mozardebis 16,4% da 18-20 wlis mozardebis 19,9% aRniSnavda narkotikebis romelime
tipis moxmarebas. garda amisa, SerCevis 51,7%
gamokiTxvamde erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi xandaxan
iRebda alkohols, 27,7% ki - eweoda sigarets. es
monacemebi xsnis imas, Tu ratom dgas aucileblobiT mecnierTa dRis wesrigSi narkotikebis gamoyenebis mizezebisa da Sedegebis kvleva.

damokidebuleba da miCveva
fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebi qimiuri naerTebia,
romelic cnobieri aRqmis droebiTi SecvliT
zegavlenas axdens mentalur procesebsa da

cnobierebebis Semcvleli mdgomareobebi

xevian da glosolaliis (lingvistur Sinaarss moklebuli xelovnurad Seqmnili


ena) gaurkvevel, eqstazur axal enaze~
metyvelebaze gadadian... maTi xelebi
erTmniSvnelovnad civia, cecxlis xelSi
daWeris Semdegac ki. es situacia SesaZloa
Tanxvdebodes sxva religiur kulturebSi
arsebuli transuli mdgomareobebis kvlevebis monacemebs. es mexsierebis arqoniT,
TiTqmis sensoruli amneziiTac SeiZleba
aixsnas, ris sailustraciod mkvlevrebs
gvelebisa da cecxlis xelSi mWerTa magaliTebi mohyavT (Watterlond, 1983, gv. 53, 55)

215

Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

216

qcevaze. xvdebian ra tvinSi, ejaWvebian sinafsis


receptorebs da garkveuli reaqciebis blokirebas an stimulirebas axdenen. amiT safuZvlianad cvlian tvinis sakomunikacio sistemas,
zemoqmedeben aRqmaze, mexsierebaze, gunebaganwyobilebasa da qcevaze. mocemuli nivTierebebis gaxangrZlivebuli gamoyenebis Sedegad
viTardeba tolerantoba, anu imave efeqtis
misaRwevad ufro da ufro meti doza xdeba
saWiro (tolerantobis zogierT fsiqologiur
safuZvelze me-7 TavSi visaubrebT). tolerantobas Tan sdevs fiziologiuri damokidebuleba,
procesi, romlis drosac organizmi eCveva da
damokidebuli xdeba mocemul nivTierebaze,
nawilobriv imitom, rom narkotikis xSiri arsebobiT, SemcvelobiT gamoifiteba neirotransmiterebi. tolerantobisa da damokidebulobis
tragikuli Sedegia miCveva. adamians, romelic
miCveulia mocemul nivTierebaze, organizmSi
esaWiroeba narkotiki da Tu nivTiereba ar aris
damangreveli, mtkivneuli simptomebiT (kankali,
oflianoba, gulisreva da alkoholis ararsebobis zogierT SemTxvevaSi ki sikvdili) itanjeba.
Tu individi mocemuli nivTierebis gamoyenebas imdenad sasurvelad da sasiamovnod miiCnevs,
rom viTardeba swrafva, Zlieri survili (miCvevis
an miCvevis gareSe), mdgomareobas fsiqologiur
damokidebulebas uwodeben. fsiqologiuri
damokidebuleba SeiZleba nebismieri nivTierebis
fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebi (Psychoactive drugs) qimiuri naerTebi, romelic cnobieri aRqmis
droebiTi SecvliT zegavlenas axdens mentalur
procesebsa da qcevaze.
tolerantoba (Tolerance) - situacia, romelic
nivTierebis xangrZlivi gamoyenebis Sedegad
iqmneba, rodesac igive efeqtis misaRwevad individs ufro da ufro meti doza sWirdeba.
fiziologiuri damokidebuleba (Psysiological dependence) - procesi, rodesac organizmi eCveva
da damokidebuli xdeba mocemul nivTierebaze.
miCveva (Addiction) - mdgomareoba, rodesac organizmi iTxovs narkotiks, raTa funqcionireba
SeZlos, mis arqonaze yovelgvari fizikuri da
fsiqologiuri reaqciebis gareSe; xSirad Tan
sdevs tolerantobasa da damokidebulobas.
fsiqologiuri damokidebuleba (Psychological dependence) - narkotikis fsiqologiuri saWiroeba
an survili.

mimarT ganviTardes. nivTierebaze damokidebulebis Sedegad adamianis cxovrebis stili


imdenad fokusirdeba narkotikis miRebis irgvliv, rom izRudeba an mcirdeba misi funqcionirebis SesaZlebloba. garda amisa, narkotikis miRebis yoveldRiuri Cvevis SesanarCuneblad da danaxarjebis dasafarad xSirad
ubiZgebs nivTierebaze damokidebul individs
qurdobisken, yaCaRobisken, prostituciisken an
narkotikebiT vaWrobisken. dResdReobiT
narkotikebze miCvevis Tanmxlebi yvelaze momakvdinebeli safrTxea hipodermuli nemsebis
Tanaziari moxmarebis Sedegad SidsiT daavadebis
saSiSroeba; intravenuri narkotikebis momxmareblebma sruliad gauazreblad SeiZleba
`gauziaron~ organizmis siTxe imaTac, visac es
momakvdinebeli daavadeba aqvT.
mozardebi emociuri stresebisgan Tavis daRwevisa da yoveldRiur stresorebTan gasamklaveblad akrZaluli nivTierebebis gamoyenebis
Semdeg xangrZlivi uaryofiTi SedegebiT itanjebian.

saidan
viciT
nivTierebebis borotad gamoyenebis
Sedegebi
mozardebis mier narkotikebis moxmarebis rvawliani kvleva 1976 wels daiwyo.
gamokvlevaSi monawileobda damamTavrebeli klasis 1634 moswavle los anjelesidan. sruli yovelwliuri monacemebi
Seikriba 739 monawileze. maT Soris 10%ze naklebi regularulad an qronikulad
moixmarda narkotikebs, 10%-ze naklebs ki
saerTod ar hqonda narkotikebTan aranairi
Sexeba. miRebuli Sedegebis dayofa oTx
jgufad gaxda SesaZlebeli (Newcomb &
Bentler, 1988; Stacy et al., 1991):
narkotikis yoveldRiuri moxmareba
uaryofiTad moqmedebda pirovnul da socialur adaptaciaze, arRvevda urTierTobebs, amcirebda swavlis potencials,
zrdida kriminals Zaladobis gareSe da
xels uwyobda dezorganizebul azrovnebas.

fsiqoaqtiur nivTierebaTa saxeebi


gavrcelebuli fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebis
nusxa mocemulia 6.1 cxrilSi (me-16 TavSi sxva
tipis fsiqoaqtiur nivTierebebze visaubrebT,
romlebic fsiqikuri aSlilobebis dasaZlevad
gamoiyeneba). Cven mokled mimovixilavT, Tu rogor
aRwevs TiToeul klasSi Semavali nivTierebebi
maTTvis damaxasiaTebel fiziologiur da
fsiqologiur gavlenas; garda amisa, SevexebiT
nivTierebebis borotad gamoyenebis pirovnul
da socialur Sedegebs.
cnobierebis yvelaze fundamentur cvlilebebs iwvevs nivTierebebi, romlebic halucinogenebis an fsiqodelikebis saxeliT aris
cnobili. es nivTierebebi cvlis rogorc garegani samyaros, ise Sinagani cnobierebis aRqmas.
rogorc dasaxelebidan Cans, es nivTierebebi
xSirad iwveven halucinaciebs da `me~-sa da
`ara me~-s Soris sazRvrebis gaqrobas. oTxi
yvelaze cnobili halucinogenia meskalini
(miiReba kaqtusisgan), fsilocibini (miiReba
sokosgan) da LSD da PCP (sinTezirdeba
laboratoriebSi). PCP, anu angelozis mtveri,
iwvevs gansakuTrebulad ucnaur disociaciur
reaqciebs, romlis drosac adamians ekargeba
tkivilis SegrZneba, ibneva da garSemo arsebuli

sinamdvilisgan gamocalkevebulad grZnobs Tavs.


halucinogenuri nivTierebebi moqmedeben tvinSi
specifikur receptorul ubnebze, qimiur neirotransmiterze _ serotoninze (Aghajanian & Marek,
1993).
kanafi fsiqoaqtiuri efeqtis mqone mcenarea.
misi aqtiuri ingredientia THC, romelic
napovnia rogorc haSiSsa (mcenaris dafxvnili
fisi) da, aseve, marixuanaSi (mcenaris gamxmari
foTlebi da yvavilebi). THC-s SesunTqviT
gamowveuli gancdebis buneba damokidebulia
dozirebaze: mcire dozebi iwvevs msubuq, sasiamovno gabruebas, didi dozebi ki _ xangrZliv
halucinogenur reaqciebs. regularuli gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi aRiniSneba eiforia, kargad
yofnis gancda, sivrcisa da drois aRqmis rRveva
da, ra Tqma unda, sxeulidan gasvlis gancdebi.
Tumca, konteqstidan gamomdinare, SesaZloa
negatiur efeqtsac hqondes adgili _ SiSi, SfoTva
da dabneuloba. mkvlevrebma wlebis manZilze
icodnen, rom kanafinoidebi, marixuanas aqtiuri
qimiuri naerTebi, Semakaveblad moqmedebs tvinis
specifikur receptorebze; es kanafinoiduri
receptorebi hipokampSi, anu mexsierebaze pasuxismgebel Tavis tvinis ubnebSia ganlagebuli.
mxolod bolo aTwleulSi iqna nakvlevi axlad
aRmoCenili anandamidi _ neirotransmiteri,
romelic, aseve, Semakavebel efeqts axdens igive
receptorebze (Di Marzo et al., 1994; Staht, 1998). amitomac aRweven kanafinoidebi cnobierebis Semcvlel efeqts anandamidisadmi (tvinSi bunebrivad
arsebuli nivTierebisadmi) mgrZnobiare tvinis
ubnebze. garda amisa, mecnierebma aRmoaCines,
rom Sokoladi Seicavs nivTierebas, romelic
gavlenas axdens tvinis mier anandamidis moxmarebaze (di Tomaso et al., 1996) Sokoladis
molekulebma SeiZleba Seakavos kanafinoiduri
receptorebi an zemoqmedeba moaxdinos nervuli
reaqciebis zomaze. es molekulebi ar aris aRmoCenili TeTr SokoladSi, riTac SeiZleba
avxsnaT is faqti, rom adamianebs ufro xSirad
undebaT rZisa da Savi Sokoladi.
opiatebi, rogoricaa heroini da morfini,
Trgunavs fizikur mgrZnobelobasa da gamRizianeblebze sapasuxo reaqciebs. heroinis intravenuri miRebis Tavdapirveli efeqtia siamovnebaSi gadaSveba _ yvela safiqralisa da sxeulebrivi moTxovnebis gacnobierebis adgils eiforiis grZnoba ikavebs. heroinis moxmareba

cnobierebebis Semcvleli mdgomareobebi

Zlieri nivTierebebi, rogoricaa


stimulatorebi da narkotikebi, zrdida
suiciduri da TviTdamangreveli azrebis
sixSires da amcirebda socialur mxardaWeras, riTac xels uwyobda martoobas.
nivTierebis efeqtebi icvleboda maTi
tipisa da kombinirebuli gamoyenebis Sesatyvisad. ase, magaliTad, kokaini zrdida
konfrontacias da asustebda axlo urTierTobebs, Tumca, fsiqologiuri da fizikuri
janmrTelobisaTvis yvelaze damangrevel
efeqts Zlieri nivTierebebisa da sigaretis
kombinacia iZleoda.
moulodneli iyo, rom mozardebTan,
romlebic zomierad iRebdnen alkohols
da sxvas arafers (aranair narkotiks), aRiniSneboda momatebuli socialuri integracia da TviTpativiscema. es mozardebi
Tavis TanatolebTan SedarebiT ukeTesad
adaptirebulni SeiZleba yofiliyvnen.

217

cxrili

6.1

fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebi: samedicino gamoyeneba, xangrZlivoba da


damokidebuleba
samedicino gamoyeneba
opiatebi (narkotikebi)
morfini

fsiqologiuri

fiziologiuri

tkivilgamayuCebeli

3-6

maRali

maRali

kvlevis procesSi

3-6

maRali

maRali

kodeini

tkivilgamayuCebeli,
xvelis aRmkveTi

3-6

zomieri

zomieri

ara

8-12

ara

ar aris cnobili

ar aris cnobili

maRali

PCP (penciklidini)

veterinaruli
anesTetiki

varirebs

meskalini (peioti)

ara

8-12

ara

ar aris cnobili

fsilocibini

ara

4-6

ar aris cnobili

ar aris cnobili

kanafi (marixuana)

qimioTerapiis
Tanmxlebi gulisrevis
aRmkveTi

2-4

msubuqad zomieri

ar aris cnobili

sedatiuri, Zilis
wamali, anesTetiki,
antikonvulsanti

1-16

zomierad maRali

zomierad maRali

SfoTvis Semamcirebeli, sedatiuri,


Zilis wamali,
antikonvulsanti

4-8

msubuqad zomieri

msubuqad zomieri

antiseptiki

1-5

zomieri

zomieri

hiperkinezia, narkolefsia, wonis kontroli

2-4

maRali

maRali

kokaini

ara

1-2

maRali

maRali

nikotini

nikotinis saReWi
rezini mowevisTvis
Tavis dasanebeblad

varirebs

msubuqad maRali

zomierad maRali

wonis kontroli,
stimulanti mwvave
respiratoruli
sirTuleebisas,
analgetiki

4-5

ar aris cnobili

zomieri

depresantebi
barbituratebi
(magaliTad,
seqonali)
benzodiazepini
(magaliTad, valiumi)

alkoholi

Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

damokidebuleba

heroini

haluciogeni
LSD

218

efeqtis
xangrZlivoba
(saaTebSi)

stimulatorebi
amfetamini

kofeini

xSirad iwvevs miCvevas. me-3 TavSi aRvniSneT,


rom tvini Seicavs endorfinebs (endogenur
morfinebs), romelic mZlavr zegavlenas axdens
guneba-ganwyobilebaze, tkivilsa da siamovnebis
gancdaze. opiumisa da morfinis msgavsi narkotikebi tvinis igive receptorul ubnebs
ikavebs (Harrison et al., 1998; Reisine, 1995). amrigad,
opiatebi da marixuana (rogorc zemoT aRiniSna)
imitom aRweven maTTvis damaxasiaTebel efeqtebs,
rom isini Seicaven iseT aqtiur komponentebs,

romelic tvinSi bunebrivad arsebuli nivTierebebis msgavsi qimiuri TvisebebiT xasiaTdeba. rodesac nervuli receptorebi xelovnulad
stimulirdeba cnobierebis Semcvleli nivTierebebiT, tvini kargavs faqiz balanss.
depresantebSi Sedis barbituratebi da,
gansakuTrebiT AaRsaniSnavia, alkoholi. am
nivTierebebs axasiaTebT gonebrivi da fizikuri
aqtivobis daTrgunva (Seneleba) centralur
nervul sistemaSi nervuli impulsebis gadacemis

cnobierebebis Secvlili mdgomareobebi

Sekavebis an Semcirebis saSualebiT. depresantebis moqmedebis efeqti, nawilobriv, miiRweva


sinafsebSi nervuli komunikaciisTvis xelis
SewyobiT, sadac gamoiyeneba GABA neirotrasmiteri (Dehaney & Sah, 1999; Malizia & Nutt, 1995). GABA
xSirad nervuli gadacemebis Semakaveblis funqcias asrulebs, riTac aixsneba depresantebis
Semakavebeli efeqtebi. barbituratebi Zalze
saxifaTo SeiZleba iyos. 15-wlian kvlevaSi
gamovlinda, rom narkotikebis dozis gadametebis
SemTxvevaTa daaxloebiT naxevari barbituratebze modioda (Howard, 1984). yvelaze xSirad
daniSvnadi depresantebi, rogoricaa valiumi
da qsanaqsi, mniSvnelovanwilad xasiaTdeba
miCvevis ganviTarebis SesaZleblobiT (Miller, 1999).
alkoholi iyo erT-erTi pirveli fsiqoaqtiuri nivTiereba, romelic farTod gamoiyeneboda uxsovari droidan. misi gavlenis qveS
myofi adamianebi sulelebi, xmaurianebi, megobrulebi da enawylianebi xdebian; zogierTi
maTgani agresiuli da moZalade xdeba, zogi ki
iTrguneba da depresiul gancdebSi iZireba.
mkvlevrebma dRemde ar ician, Tu konkretulad
rogor moqmedebs alkoholi tvinze, Tumca, sxva
depresantebis msgavsad, rogorc Cans, isic

zemoqmedebs GABA-s aqtivobaze (De Witte, 1996).


mcire dozis SemTxvevaSi alkoholma SeiZleba
gamoiwvios relaqsacia da mozrdilTa reaqciebis siswrafis mcired gaumjobeseba, Tumca,
organizms mxolod mcire odenobis alkoholTan
SeuZlia gamklaveba. didi raodenobiT alkoholi
xanmokle periodSi iwvevs centraluri nervuli
sistemis gadatvirTvas. avtosagzao da ubeduri
SemTxvevebi 6-jer ufro xSiria adamianebTan,
romelTa sisxlSic 0,10% alkoholis Semcvelobaa, vidre maTTan, visTanac es maCvenebeli
2-jer naklebia. alkoholuri intoqsikaciis
meore Sedegi, romelsac wvlili Seaqvs ubedur
SemTxvevebSi, Tvalis gugebis gafarToebaa, rasac
Tan sdevs RamiT xedvis problemebi. rodesac
sisxlSi alkoholis Semcveloba 0,15% aRwevs,
adgili aqvs momatebul negatiur zemoqmedebas
azrovnebaze, mexsierebasa da gansjis unarze,
rasac Tan axlavs emociuri arastabiluroba
da motoruli koordinaciis rRveva.
alkoholis moxmareba umTavresi socialuri
problemaa aSS-Si. alkoholTan dakavSirebuli
avtokatastrofebi 15-25 wlis adamianTa sikvdilianobis wamyvani mizezia. rodesac smis
raodenoba da sixSire zemoqmedebs samsaxurze,
auaresebs socialur da ojaxur urTierTobebs
da seriozul problemebs uqmnis janmrTelobas.
aseTi viTarebis Sesatyvisi diagnozia alkoholizmi. fizikuri damokidebuloba, tolerantoba da miCveva _ es yvelaferi xangrZlivi
intensiuri smis fonze viTardeba. zogierTi
individisTvis alkoholizmi smaze uaris Tqmis
unaris arqonasTan asocirdeba; zogierTisTvis
ki, alkoholizmi gamoixateba ramodenime Wiqis
Semdeg smis SeCerebis unaris arqonaSi. 1998
wels Catarebuli gamokiTxvis monacemebis
Tanaxmad, 18-25 wlis respodentTa 13,8%-s aReniSneboda intensiuri sma, anu isini svamdnen 5
da met Wiqas erT jerze/dalevaze yovel xuT
an met dReSi erTxel erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi
(SAMHSA, 1999), Tumca, yvela asakis respodentTa
saSualo maCvenebeli mamakacebTan (9,7%) gacilebiT maRali iyo, vidre qalebTan (2,4%).
stimulatorebs, rogoricaa amfetamini da
kokaini, aRgznebisa da eiforiis mdgomareobis
gamowvevis mizniT iReben. stimulatorebi
moqmedeben tvinSi iseTi neirotrasmiterebis
donis momatebiT, rogoricaa norepinefrini,
serotonini da dopamini. magaliTad, stimula-

219

Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

220

torebi akaveben tvinSi im molekulebis moqmedebas, romelTac, Cveulebriv, dopamini gamohyavs


sinafsebidan (Giros et al., 1996). kokainiT xangrZlivi
sargebloba iwvevs cvlilebebs tvinis siamovnebis gancdaze pasuxismgebel sistemaSi (Gawin,
1991). stimulatorebis zemoqmedeba sam sxvadasxva
efeqts iwvevs: momatebuli TviTdarwmunebuloba,
moWarbebuli energia da hiperaqtiuroba da
eiforiasTan miaxloebuli guneba-ganwyobileba.
intensiuri momxmareblebi ganicdian SemaSinebel
halucinaciebs da uviTardebaT rwmena imisa, rom
sxvebi maTTvis tkivilis miyenebas cdiloben.
am rwmenebs paranoidalur iluziebs uwodeben.
kokainis moxmarebis Tanmxleb gansakuTrebul
safrTxes eiforiul aRmafrenasa da Zalze
depresiul Cavardnebs Soris arsebuli kontrasti
qmnis. es garemoeba aiZulebs kokainis momxmareblebs, rom yovelgvari kontrolis gareSe
gazardon narkotikis moxmarebis sixSire da
dozebi. kokainis yvelaze sufTa formaa crack-i,
gansakuTrebiT damangreveli quCis narkotiki,
romelic swrafad abruebs da swrafadve kargavs
moqmedebis Zalas. vinaidan mcire odenobiT da
iafad iyideba, es nivTiereba yovelTvis xelmisawvdomia Raribebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis;
crack-i mraval socialur jgufs angrevs.
ori stimulatori, romelTac xSirad ar
aRviqvamT fsiqoaqtiur nivTierebebad, aris
kofeini da nikotini. SeiZleba sakuTari gamocdilebidan vicodeT, rom ori finjani magari
yava an Cai sakmarisi raodenobis kofeins Seicavs
imisaTvis, rom Rrma zegavlena moaxdinos gulze,
sisxlsa da cirkularul funqciebze da daZinebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi Segviqmnas.
TambaqoSi aRmoCenili qimiuri naerTi nikotini
sakmarisad Zlieri stimulatoria, romelsac
adgilobrivi amerikeli Samanebi maRali koncentraciiT iyenebdnen mistikuri mdgomareobebisa
da transis gamosawvevad; Tumca, zogierTi
Tanamedrove momxmareblisgan gansxvavebiT, maT
icodnen, rom nikotini miCvevas iwvevs da did
sifrTxiles iCendnen misi moxmarebisas. miCvevis
gamomwvevi sxva nivTierebebis msgavsad, nikotini
tvinSi bunebrivad gamomuSavebul qimiur
naerTebs hgavs. kvlevebiT dadgenilia tvinis
moqmedebis is regionebi, romelic pasuxismgebelia nikotinsa da kokainze miCvevis ganviTarebaze (Pich et al., 1997). nikotinSi Semavali qimiuri
naerTebi im receptorebis stimulirebas axdens,

romelic Tavs kargad gvagrZnobinebs raime


kargis/sworad gakeTebis Semdeg; rac gvagrZnobinebs, rom yvelaferi wesrigSia _ fenomeni,
romelic xels uwyobs gadarCenas. samwuxarod,
nikotini tvinis igive receptorebs aRizianebs,
romelic gvatyobinebs, rom yvelaferi kargadaa,
roca veweviT, Tumca, realurad es ase ar aris.
nikotinis mier janmrTelobaze uaryofiTi
zemoqmedeba mTlianobaSi didad aRemateba yvela
sxva fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebis zemoqmedebas
erTad, heroinis, kokainisa da alkoholis CaTvliT. sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis samsaxuris
monacemebis Tanaxmad, weliwadSi 400 000
sikvdili sigaretis mizeziT xdeba. miuxedavad
imisa, rom moweva Seuqcevadi avadmyofobisa da
sikvdilis mTavari mizezia, is legalizebulia
da yovelwliurad milionebi ixarjeba sigaretis
reklamirebaze. 60 mln amerikeli jer kidev
mwevelia, Tumca, mowevis sawinaaRmdego
kampaniebi garkveul Sedegs aRwevs da mcirdeba
mwevelTa saerTo raodenoba (SAMHSA, 1995).
yovelwliurad 2,1 milioni adamiani iwyebs
mowevas da maTi umravlesoba 18 welze naklebi
asakisaa. es, nawilobriv, warmatebuli sareklamo
kampaniis Sedegi SeiZleba iyos, romelic xSirad
swored axalgazrdobazea mimarTuli: mozardTa
Soris mwevelTa raodenobis mniSvnelovani
momateba mTeli rigi sareklamo kampaniebis
Sedegad moxda (Pierce & Gilpin, 1995).
es Tavi N.N-is SemTxvevis ganxilviT daviwyeT
da SevecadeT mis gamocdilebasTan Segvedarebina
warsulis mogonebisa da momavlis dagegmvis
Cveni unari. es magaliTi imis saCveneblad
warmovadgineT, Tu rogor badebs Cven mier
ganxorcielebuli sruliad Cveulebrivi aqtivobebi cnobierebis Sesaxeb zogierT saintereso
SekiTxvas: saidan modis Cveni azrebi? rogor
Cndeba isini? sad inaxeba es azrebi? axla ukve
viciT zogierTi Teoria, romelic pasuxs gascems
am kiTxvebs da viciT, rogor unda SevZloT am
TeoriaTa gadamowmeba. Cven vnaxeT, rom
cnobiereba, saboloo jamSi, saSualebas gvaZlevs, rom gvqondes mTeli rigi gamocdilebisa,
rac adamianad gvaqcevs.
aseve, ganvixileT cnobierebis ufro da ufro
naklebad Cveuli gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi. Cven
davsviT kiTxva: ratom arian adamianebi
ukmayofiloni yoveldRiuri Cveuli cnobierebiT da ratom eZeben misi Secvlis mraval-

ferovan gzebs? Cveulebriv, ZiriTadi fokusi


arsebuli amocanebis mimdinare moTxovnebsa da
situaciebze gakeTda, Tumca, Cveni cnobierebis
realobidan gamomdinare, SezRudvebsac vacnobierebT; aseve, vacnobierebT, rom SezRudulia
Cveni gamocdilebis diapazoni da siRrme, rac
arsebuli potencialis srulad gamovlenis
SesaZleblobas gvarTmevs. drodadro, albaT,
sevda Segvipyrobs Cveuli realobis farglebs
miRma gaRwevis Zlieri survilis gamo da Cveuli
usafrTxo stabilurobis nacvlad Tavisuflebis
ganusazRvrelobas varCevT.

Sejameba
nebismieri kulturis warmomadgenlebi eZieben
cnobierebis Secvlis saSualebebs. dakvirvebadi
sizmrebis mqone adamianebi acnobiereben, rom
sZinavT da SeuZliaT sizmris dasasrulis kontrolireba. adamianebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdebian imiT, Tu ramdenad eqvemdebarebian hipnozis zemoqmedebas. mkvlevrebi adareben nam-

dvilad hipnozirebuli adamianebisa da simuliantebis reaqciebs, raTa gaimijnos hipnozis


originaluri efeqti hipnotizioris gulis mosagebad ganxorcielebuli qcevebisagan. hipnotizmi
gansakuTrebuli mZlavri teqnikaa tkivilis
Sasamcireblad. adamianebs xSirad aqvT faruli
damkvirveblis~ gamocdileba, rac gulisxmobs
hipnozis zemoqmedebis qveS yofnisas movlenebis
farul, aracnobier aRqmas.
meditaciiT SesaZlebelia cnobierebis cvlilebebisa da sxva tipis kognituri winsvlis
ganxorcieleba. halucinaciebi warmoadgens
mkafio perceptul gamocdilebas garegani gamRizianeblis ararsebobis pirobebSi. zogierTi
adamiani flobs religiur gamocdilebas, romelic ar aris Cveulebrivi cnobierebis nawili.
cnobierebis Secvlis mizniT nivTierebebis,
rogorc eqstraordinaluri saSualebebis,
gamoyeneba xSirad saxifaToa, radganac arsebobs
albaToba miCvevis ganviTarebis da zogjer
sikvdilisac ki. narkotikebi centralur nervul
sistemaze neirotrasmiterebis stimulirebiT,
daTrgunviT an SecvliT zemoqmedeben.

sakvanZo
sakiTxebi
 cnobiereba gonebis Sinaarsebis gacnobierebas,
maT Sesaxeb codnas warmoadgens;
 arsebobs cnobierebis
sami done: (1) samyaros
bazisuri cnobiereba, (2)
gaazreba imisa, Tu ras
vacnobierebT da (3)
TviTcnobiereba;
 RviZili periodis cnobierebis Sinaarsi gansxvavdeba aracnobieri
procesebisgan, winarecnobieri mexsierebisgan,
yuradRebis miRma darCenili informaciisgan,

aracnobierisgan da cnobieri aRqmisgan;


 sakvlevi teqnikebi, rogoricaa xmamaRla fiqris
oqmebi da eqsperimentis
SerCeva cnobierebis Sinaarsis Sesaswavlad gamoiyeneba.

cnobierebis
funqciebi
 cnobiereba gvexmareba gadarCenaSi da gvaZlevs realobis pirovnuli da
kulturuli konstruqtebis Seqmnis SesaZleblobas;
 mkvlevrebi swavloben
cnobier da aracnobier

procesebs Soris arsebul


urTierTmimarTebas.

Zili da sizmari
cirkaduli ritmi asaxavs
biologiuri saaTis moqmedebas;
Ramis Zilis ganmavlobaSi
icvleba Tavis tvinis aqtivobis paternebi. REM
Zili xasiaTdeba Tvalebis swrafi moZraobiT da
Tanxvdeba mkafio sizmrebis periods. mTliani Zilis daaxloebiT 1/4 REM
Zilia 4-5 calkeuli periodis ganmavlobaSi;

sakvanZo sakiTxebi

cnobierebis Sinaarsi

221
221

Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

222
222

Zilis raodenoba da REM


da NREM Zilis Tanafardoba asakTan erTad icvleba;
REM da NREM Zili sxvadasxva funqciebs emsaxureba, Senaxvisa da aRdgenis CaTvliT;
Zilis darRvevebi, rogoricaa insomnia, narkolefsia da Zilis apnoe
uaryofiT gavlenas axdens dRis manZilze adamianis funqcionirebis
unarze. dRis Zilianoba,
aseve, farTod gavrcelebuli seriozuli problemaa;
froidi Tvlida, rom
sizmrebis Sinaarsi aracnobieri masalaa, romelmac gaiara sizmris cenzura;
sxva kulturebSi sizmrebis interpretacia regularulad xdeba da amas
gansakuTrebuli kulturuli rolis mqone adamianebi axorcieleben. interpretacia momavlis winaswarmetyvelebis funqcias emsaxureba.
sizmris zogierTi Teoria maTi wyaroebis biologiur warmomavlobaze
amaxvilebs yuradRebas,
Tumca, es Teoriebi srulad ar Tanxvdeba sizmris Sinaarsebs.

cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareobebi


 dakvirvebadi sizmrebi
aris gacnobiereba imisa,
rom sizmars vxedavT da
mimarTulia sizmris kontrolze.
hipnozi cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareobaa, romelic xasiaTdeba STagonebaze reaqciis saxiT hipnotizirebuli adamianebis
aRqmis, mexsierebis, motivaciisa da TviTkontrolis SecvliT.
meditacia cvlis cnobier
funqcionirebas ritualuri praqtikis saSualebiT,
romelic garegani sazrunavebidan Sinagan gamocdilebaze gadaanacvlebs
yuradRebas.
 halucinaciebi naTeli aRqmaa, romelic Cndeba obieqturi gamRizianeblebis
ararsebobis pirobebSi.
zogierT kulturul jgufSi adamianebi intensiur religiur gamocdilebas ganicdian.
fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebi, cvlian ra nervuli
sistemis aqtivobas, zemoqmedeben mentalur procesebze cnobierebis droebiTi SecvliT.
cnobierebis cvlilebebis
gamomwvev fsiqoaqtiur niv-

TierebaTa ricxvSi Sedis:


halucinogenebi, opiatebi,
depresantebi da stimulatorebi.

ZiriTadi sakiTxebi
aracnobieri
gamocdilebis SerCevis
meTodi
dakvirvebadi sizmrebi
dRis Zilianoba
Tvalebis swrafi
moZraobiT Zili (REM)
Tvalebis swrafi
moZraobis gareSe Zili
(NREM)
TviTcnobiereba
insomnia
meditacia
midrekileba
narkolefsia
sizmris muSaoba
tolerantoba
faruli Sinaarsi
fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebi
fsiqologiuri
damokidebuleba
SeTanxmebuli validizacia
cirkaduli ritmi
cnobiereba
winarecnobieri mexsiereba
Zili apnoe
xiluli Sinaarsi
xmamaRla fiqris oqmi
halucinaciebi
hipnobiluroba
hipnozi

daswavla da qceviTi analizi

7
daswavlis unaris kvleva

ra aris daswavla
biheviorizmi da
bihevioraluri
analizi
klasikuri ganpirobebuloba

pavlovis saocari
dakvirvebebi
ganpirobebulobis
procesi
SeZena
klasikuri ganpirobebulobis gamoyeneba
operantuli
ganpirobebuloba:
swavleba Sedegebis Sesaxeb

efeqtis kanoni
qcevis eqsperimentuli analizi

pirobiTi ganmtkiceba
ganmamtkicebelTa
Tvisebebi

ganmamtkicebelTa
cxrilebi

qcevis formireba
(Seipingi)
fsiqologia Cvens
cxovrebaSi: afuWebs Tu
ara bavSvs dausjeloba
biologia da daswavla

instinqturi swrafva
gemos aversiiT
daswavla
kogniciis gavlena daswavlaze

cxovelTa kognicia
dakvirvebiT daswavla
sakvanZo sakiTxebi

ZiriTadi cnebebi

223

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

avis wignSi _ jadoqari lorenco~ _ mwerali robert franklin


lesli daSavebuli cisferi Cxikvis, lorencos Tavgadasavals aRwers, romelic
leslis ojaxis stumari gaxldaT. stumrobis
epizodSi lorenco iseT rames swavlobs, rac
bevri TqvenganisaTvis SeiZleba nacnobi iyos:

224

rodesac lorencom miaRwia im asaks,


romelsac Cven mozrdilobas veZaxiT, didi
dResaswauli movawyveT da misi megobari
adamianebi moviwvieT. erTma Cemma megobarma
am dResaswauls Cxikvis bari micva~ (Bar
Mitzvah) uwoda. sufra savse iyo lorencos
sayvareli kerZebiT, rasac davumateT Rvino,
funTuSa da Sebolili oraguli. wveulebis
bolos leam (leslis meuRlem) lorenco
samzareuloSi Rvinis Wiqebis narCenebTan
miyuJuli aRmoaCina. mis Zaxilze yvela
stumari saswrafod Secvivda samzareuloSi,
raTa sakuTari TvaliT enaxa danis saxelurze mofarTxale Citi. misi mTvrali
Wyipini kasetis Senelebuli CanaweriviT
JRerda. ukan gaCoCebuli, is TaviT Cavarda
samzareulos niJaraSi, romelic naxevrad
savse iyo WurWlis sarecxi siTxiT. rodesac

am sabediswero SemTxvevis Semdeg ratom


erideba lorenco Rvinos? pasuxi, romelic
savaraudod gvafiqrdeba, isaa, rom man axali
asociacia daiswavla leslis sityvebiT, man
praqtikuli codna SeiZina~, romelic SeiZleba
kidev araerTxel gamoiyenos cxovrebis manZilze.
dameTanxmebiT, STambeWdavia, Tu rogor iswavla
lorencom Wkua da dainteresdebiT kidec, ra
meqanizmiT moxda es. rogor aiTvisa lorencom
es axali asociacia ase advilad? igive war-

onkanis qveS meWira, man raRac amoiluRluRa~ da fexebis rtyma daiwyo.


me is linoleumian iatakze gadmovsvi,
vinaidan sveli frTebiT gadmofrenis
uflebas ver mivcemdi. leam mas win sarke
daudo, raTa lorencos kargad daenaxa, Tu
rogor gamoiyureboda. es is gamadidebeli
sarke iyo, romelsac mamakacebi maSin
iyeneben, rodesac ulvaSebs iWrian. Cvenma
damwuxrebulma lorencom iribad gaxeda
sarkes Tavisi damZimebuli quTuToebidan,
waibarbaca da Senelebuli moZraobiT Zirs
daemxo. mas Semdeg, rac saswrafod galiaSi
moaTavses, kidev ufro saSinlad gamoiyureboda.
meore dilas erTic ar daukvnesia. Cvenma
TavgadasavlebiT aRsavse Citma axali praqtikuli codna SeiZina. veterinaris gamoZaxebisa Semrcxva, amitom me da lea vuvlidiT nabaxusev frinvels.
mas Semdeg, lorencom samudamod Seaqcia
zurgi sasmels, miuxedavad dResaswaulebisa.
man im sakvebzec ki Tqva uari, romelic
RviniT mzaddeboda. misi TavSekaveba ar
iyo absurduli.

matebiT SegiZliaT sakuTar Tavs dausvaT


SekiTxva: rogor euflebiT axal asociaciebs?
fsiqologebi didi xania dainteresebulebi
arian ganpirobebulobiT, anu im meqanizmebiT,
romelTa saSualebiTac qceva da movlena
dakavSirebulia erTmaneTTan. winamdebare TavSi
ganpirobebuloba (conditioning) - gzebi, romliTac
movlenebi, stimulebi da qceva asocirdeba
erTmaneTTan.

daswavlis unaris kvleva


am kvlevis dasawyebad saWiroa, upirvelesad,
ganvsazRvroT daswavlis cneba.

cvlileba qcevaSi an qceviT


potencialSi
aSkaraa, rom daswavlis procesi maSin SeiZleba CaiTvalos ganxorcielebulad, rodesac
Sedegi gvaqvs saxeze, magaliTad, SegiZliaT
manqanis marTva an mikrotalRovani Rumelis gamoyeneba. SeuZlebelia, davakvirdeT uSualod
daswavlis process, radgan, Cveulebriv, am procesiT gamowveuli cvlilebebi tvinSi ar Cans,
magram daswavlis procesis arseboba aSkara xdeba
qcevis ganmtkicebiT. Tumca, miuxedavad amisa,
xSirad qcevaSi ar vlindeba, rac naswavlia.
xSirad, agreTve, adamians aqvs zogadi ganwyobebi,
magaliTad, damokidebuleba Tanamedrove xelovnebisadmi an aRmosavluri filosofiis codna,
rac ar vlindeba gazomvad moqmedebebSi. aseT
SemTxvevebSi, miRweulia potencia qceviTi cvlilebisaTvis, radgan naswavlia damokidebuleba
da Rirebulebebi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen
im literaturis SerCevaze, rasac adamiani kiTxulobs, agreTve, Tavisufali drois gatarebis
formaze. esaa saxecvlili daswavlis magaliTi
sxvaoba naswavlsa da qcevaSi gamoxatuls Soris.

SedarebiT mudmivi cvlileba

ra aris daswavla
daswavla aris procesi, romlis Sedegadac
viRebT SedarebiT stabilur, mudmiv cvlilebas
qcevaSi an qcevis potencialSi da romelic damyarebulia gamocdilebaze. Tumca, am gansazRvrebaSi
gamoiyofa sami kritikuli nawili.

imisaTvis, rom aRvweroT, rogorc naswavli,


daswavlili qceva an qceviTi potenciali unda
iyos stabiluri da mudmivi sxvadasxva SemTxvevaSi. magaliTad, Tu erTxel viswavleT curva,
yvela SemTxvevaSi SevZlebT am codnis gamoyenebas, viqnebiT zRvaze Tu sacurao auzze. aRsa-

daswavlis unaris kvleva

ganixileba ganpirobebulobis ori ZiriTadi tipi:


klasikuri ganpirobebuloba da operantuli
ganpirobebuloba. TiToeuli maTgani organizmis
gansxvavebul reaqciasa da informaciis gadamuSavebis formas warmoadgens. ganpirobebulobis
TiToeuli formisaTvis aRvwerT ara marto
ZiriTad meqanizmebs, romlebic mas marTaven
laboratoriis pirobebSi, aramed yoveldRiur
cxovrebaSi misi gamoyenebis magaliTebsac.
sanam ganpirobebulobis am formebs ganvixilavT, daswavlis fenomens evoluciuri poziciidan unda SevxedoT. daswavla, umetesad,
genetikuradaa CvenSi Cadebuli, iseve, rogorc
Cveni gamocdilebis sxva mravali aspeqti. adamianebi, iseve, rogorc sxva organizmebi, memkvidreobiT iReben daswavlis unars. daswavlis
unarebi gansxvavdeba genetikuri kodis mixedviT.
iseT arsebebs, rogorebicaa qvewarmavlebi da
amfibiebi, daswavlis unari garemosTan urTierTobiT umtkicdebaT da swavloben kidec cotas.
maTi gadarCena damokidebulia iseT garemoSi
cxovrebaze, sadac maTi Tandayolili unarebiT,
upasuxon garemos ama Tu im movlenas, isini an
iReben imas, rac sWirdebaT, an ganeridebian arasasurvels.. sxva cxovelebSi, adamianebis CaTvliT,
genebs gacilebiT ufro mcire roli aqvT garemoqcevis urTierTqmedebis ganpirobebaSi da gacilebiT elastiuri da variabiluria daswavlasTan
mimarTebaSi. cxovelebs SeswevT unari, daiswavlon imis mixedviT, Tu rogor icvleba garemo
maTi qcevis, moqmedebis Sedegad. ar unda
dagvaviwydes, rom genetikurad mxolod daswavlis
unars viRebT. rogor moxdeba am unaris realizacia, es genebze ukve aRaraa damokidebuli.

225

niSnavia, rom stabiluri cvlileba araa yovelTvis mudmivi cvlileba. magaliTad, SeiZleba
gavxdeT badros sakmaod kargi mtyorcneli mocemuli droisaTvis, magram Tuki Tavs davanebebT
am sports, gansazRvruli drois Semdeg SevniSnavT, rom ise kargad veRar vflobT mas, Tumca,
xelaxla swavlis SemTxvevaSi igrZnoba is siadvile, romliTac daswavla xdeba, TiTqos codnis
raRac nawili Senaxulia warsuli gamocdilebis
Sedegad. am konteqstSi cvlileba SeiZleba
mudmivi iyos.

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

gamocdilebaze dafuZnebuli procesi

226

daswavla mxolod gamocdilebiT SeiZleba.


gamocdileba gulisxmobs informaciis miRebas
(Sefasebas da transformacias) da reagirebas,
rac gavlenas axdens garemoze. daswavla Sedgeba
mexsierebis gakveTilebis Sedegad aRmocenebuli
sapasuxo reaqciisagan. naswavli qceva ar gulisxmobs cvlilebas fizikuri momwifebis an tvinis
ganviTarebis SemTxvevaSi, organizmis asakis matebasTan erTad, agreTve, avadmyofobis an tvinis
dazianebis dros. zogierT xangrZliv cvlilebas
qcevaSi sWirdeba gamocdilebisa da momwifebis,
mzadyofnis kombinacia. magaliTad, warmovidginoT skala, romelzec asaxulia, ra asakSi
iwyebs bavSvi tualetis damoukideblad gamoyenebas. yovelgvari cda am Cvevis daswavlisa im
asakamde, romelSic kanonzomieria am unaris
SemuSaveba, anu sanam bavSvi sakmarisad ar ganviTardeba, amao iqneba. fsiqologebi gansakuTrebiT
dainteresebulebi arian imiT, Tu qcevis ra
aspeqtebi SeiZleba Seicvalos da ra meqanizmebiT SeiZleba ganxorcieldes es cvlilebebi.

biheviorizmi da bihevioraluri
analizi
Tanamedrove fsiqologiaSi daswavlis Teoriebis didi nawili saTaves jon uotsonis
(John Watson, 1878 -1958) Sromebidan iRebs. uotsonma
daaarsa fsiqologiuri skola, romelic cnodaswavla (Learning) - gamocdilebaze damyarebuli
procesi, romlis drosac SedarebiT mudmivad
icvleba qceva an qceviTi potenciali.
daswavla-gamovlenis gansxvaveba (Learning-Performance distinction) - gansxvaveba imisa, Tu ra iyo
daswavlili da ra gamomJRavnda qcevaSi.

bilia, rogorc biheviorizmi. daaxloebiT 50


wlis manZilze amerikul fsiqologiaSi dominirebda bihevioristuli tradiciebi, romlebic
gamoxatuli iyo uotsonis mier 1919 wels gamosul wignSi _ fsiqologia bihevioristis
gadmosaxedidan~. igi amtkicebda, rom introspeqcia adamianebis verbaluri moxsenebebi maTi
gancdebis, xatebisa da SegrZnebebis Sesaxeb, ar
iyo misaRebi saSualeba qcevis Sesaswavlad,
rogorc zedmetad subieqturi meTodi. rogor
unda ganesazRvraT mecnierebs aseTi TviTdakvirvebebis sizuste? magram Tuki introspeqcia
uaryofilia, raRa iqneboda fsiqologiis sagani?
uotsonis pasuxi am kiTxvaze iyo dakvirvebadi
qceva. misi sityvebiT: cnobierebis mdgomareobebi, egreT wodebuli spiritualizmis fenomeni, araa obieqturad gansazRvradi da am mizeziT
verasodes gaxdeba monacemi mecnierebisaTvis~
(Watson, 1919, gv. 1). uotsonma, aseve, gansazRvra
fsiqologiis ZiriTadi mizani, rogorc qcevis
kontroli da prognozi~ (Watson, 1913, gv. 158).
skinerma (B.F. Skinner, 1904-1990) ufro ganavrco
uotsonis ideebi. misi pozicia cnobilia, rogorc radikaluri biheviorizmi. man aRiara, rom
evoluciis Sedegad yoveli saxeoba aRWurvilia
qcevaTa gansazRvruli paternebiT. Tavis yvelaze
popularul wignSi _ Tavisuflebisa da
Rirsebis miRma~ (1972) _ igi amtkicebs, rom am
paternebis miRma arsebuli yvela saxis qceva
ganxilul unda iqnes, rogorc daswavlis martivi formebi.

bihevioraluri analizi (Behavioral Analysis) - fsiqologiis ganxra, romelic yuradRebas daswavlisa da qcevis garemo determinantebze amaxvilebs.

meTodebisa da sferos gafarToebiT SeviswavloT.


amocana isaa, rom aRmoaCinon universaluri
kanonzomierebebi, romlebic saerToa cxovelTa
yvela saxeobisaTvis, adamianebis CaTvliT.
mkvlevrebi askvnian, rom daswavlis procesi
yvela saxeobaSi gvxvdeba, ra Tqma unda, sxvadasxva
formiT, magram SenarCunebuli ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebiT. amitom kvlevebi cxovelebze
xSirad xvdeboda kritikis qarcecxlSi. daswavlis kompleqsuri formebi martivi procesebis
kombinacias warmoadgenen. bihevioraluri analizi cdilobs aRmoaCinos is ZiriTadi principebi, romelTa mixedviT adamianis qceva icvleba gamocdilebis Sesabamisad. ZiriTadi aqcenti ki qcevasa da garemo movlenebs Soris
kavSirze keTdeba da ara _ qcevasa da fsiqikur
movlenebs Soris kavSirze.

Sejameba
daswavla aris procesi, romelic SedarebiT
mdgradi qcevis an qceviTi potencialis cvlilebidan momdinareobs da gamocdilebas emyareba.
qceviTi analizi amodis uotsonisa da skineris
Teoriebidan da yuradRebas amaxvilebs daswavlisa
da qcevis garemo determinantebze.

klasikuri ganpirobebuloba
warmoidgineT, rom kinoSi xarT da saSinelebaTa films uyurebT. filmis gmiri daxurul
kars uaxlovdeba, musika iZabeba, Tqven ki giCndebaT survili, iyviroT ar Sexvide!~ amasobaSi
aRmoaCenT, rom guliscema aCqarebuli gaqvT, SeiZleba gaiofloT kidec, magram ratom? raRacnairad Tqvenma sxeulma iswavla fiziologiuri
reaqciis warmoSoba (guliscema), rodesac erTi
garemo movlena dakavSirebulia meoresTan (daZabuli musika saSiS vizualur efeqtTan). am
tipis daswavla cnobilia, rogorc klasikuri
ganpirobebuloba, daswavlis ZiriTadi forma,
romelSic erTi stimuli an movlena gvamcnobs,
winaswarmetyvelebs sxva stimulis an movlenis
gamovlenas. organizmi swavlobs axal asociacias
or stimuls Soris pirvelsa, romelic adre
ar iwvevda reaqcias, da meores Soris, romelmac

klasikuri ganpirobebuloba

skinerma wamoiwyo kvleva, romelic miiyvanda


mas am poziciis formulirebamde. 1924 wels
gamosuli uotsonis wignis _ biheviorizmis~
_ wakiTxvis Semdeg skineri swavlas agrZelebs
harvardSi. igi eTanxmeba uotsons Sinagani
mdgomareobebisa da fsiqikuri movlenebis ararsebobaSi, Tumca, aqcents ufro metad akeTebs
ara maTi, rogorc monacemebis, gamoyenebis
SeuZleblobaze, aramed maT, rogorc qcevis
gamomwvevi mizezebis ararsebobaze (Skinner, 1990).
sxva sityvebiT, igi Tvlis, rom fsiqikuri
movlenebi, rogorebicaa azrovneba da warmosaxva,
ar iwveven qcevas, metic, isini, Tavis mxriv,
ganixilebian, rogorc qcevis formebi, romlebic
garemo stimuliTaa ganpirobebuli. magaliTad,
vaSimSiloT mtredi 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi;
movaTavsoT mowyobilobaSi, sadac mas SeuZlia,
niskartis patara diskze dakakunebiT moipovos
sakvebi. aRmovaCenT, rom is swored ase akeTebs.
skineri am SemTxvevaSi daasabuTebda, rom mtredis
qceva ganpirobebulia garemo movlenebiT
SimSiliT da sakvebis, rogorc ganmamtkiceblis,
gamoyenebiT. SimSilis subieqturi gancda,
romlis pirdapir Seswavla an gazomva ar
SeiZleba, ar aris am qcevis mizezi, es qceva
mxolod deprivaciis Sedegia. amitom arafris
mTqmelia imis daskvna, rom mtredma SimSilis
an sakvebis mopovebis surviliT daiwyo diskze
kakuni. imisaTvis, rom avxsnaT, ras akeTebs sinamdvileSi mtredi, ar aris saWiro misi Sinagani
fsiqologiuri mdgomareobis garkveva. saWiroa,
ubralod, gavecnoT daswavlis martiv principebs, romlebic saSualebas aZlevs mtreds, asociacia daamyaros qcevasa da jildos Soris.
esaa skineris biheviorizmis sakvanZo wertili
(Delprato & Midgley, 1992).
swored es Sexeduleba daedo safuZvlad
bihevioralur analizs, fsiqologiis im sferos,
romelic aqcents daswavlisa da qcevis garemo
determinantebis aRmoCenaze akeTebs (Grant Evans,
1994). sazogadod, bihevioraluri analizi
cdilobs imis damtkicebas, rom adamianuri
buneba SeiZleba sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis

227

gamoiwvia reaqcia. rogorc naxavT, Tqven gaqvT


Tandayolili unari, sxartad daawyviloT movlenebi garemoSi asociaciis principiT, es ki
qceviTi midrekilebaa.

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

pavlovis saocari dakvirvebebi

228

klasikuri ganpirobebulobis pirvel radikalur kvlevas Tamamad SeiZleba ewodos fsiqologiis yvelaze cnobili saswauli. rus fiziologs,
ivan pavlovs (1849-1936) miznad ar dausaxavs
klasikuri ganpirobebulobis, an sxva fiziologuri fenomenis kvleva. klasikur ganpirobebulobas igi SemTxveviT, saWmlis momnelebeli
sistemis kvlevisas waawyda, risTvisac 1904 wels
nobelis premia miiRo.
pavlovs gamiznuli hqonda, gamoekvlia gadamuSavebis procesi ZaRlebSi, maT jirkvlebsa da
saWmlis momnelebel organoebSi milebis CadgmiT
(ix. sur. 7.1). igi am teqnikiT gamoyofili sekretis
raodenobas gansazRvras da gaanalizebas SeZlebda. sekreciis gamosawvevad pavlovis asistenti ZaRls pirSi damuSavebul xorcs udebda.
es procedura meordeboda gansazRruli raodenobiT, ris Semdegac pavlovma aRmoaCina, rom
ZaRls nerwyvi gamoeyofoda manam, sanam mis pirSi
xorci moxvdeboda, ubralod saWmlis danaxvaze
da asistentis danaxvazec ki. metic, ZaRlma
nerwyvis gamoyofa ukve misi nabijebis xmazec

daiwyo. aRmoCnda, rom nebismieri stimuli,


romelic sistematurad win uswrebda saWmlis
miRebas, nerwyvis gamoyofas iwvevda. sruliad
SemTxveviT, pavlovma aRmoaCina, rom daswavla
Sedegia erTmaneTTan asocirebuli ori stimulisa.
pavlovSi, rogorc mecnierSi, am fenomenis
mimarT cnobismoyvareobam gaiRviZa. man arafrad
CaTvala im droisaTvis udidesi fiziologis,
ser Carlz Seringtonis rCeva, Tavi daenebebina
am suleluri axirebisaTvis. pavlovma miatova
Tavisi kvleva gadamuSavebis Sesaxeb da amiT
samudamod Secvala fsiqologiuri azrovnebis
mimarTuleba (Pavlov, 1928). mTeli darCenili
sicocxlis manZilze igi agrZelebda im cvladebis Zebnas, romlebic gavlenas axdenen kla-

suraTi

klasikuri ganpirobebuloba (Classical Conditioning)


- daswavlis tipi, romelSic qceva (ganpirobebuli reaqcia) gamowveulia stimuliT (ganpirobebuli stimuli), romelic, Tavis mxriv, ganmtkicebulia biologiurad mniSvnelovan stimulTan asociaciis gamo (ganupirobebeli stimuli).

7.1

pavlovis eqsperimenti
Tavis eqsperimentSi pavlovma gamoiyena sxvadasxva
neitraluri stimuli: xmebi, zari, Suqi da metronomi.
eqsperimentatori iyenebda erT-erTs am stimulTagan
da sakvebs, nerwyvs agrovebdnen specialuri milis
saSualebiT.

damokidebulia ganupirobebel stimulTan


asociaciaze. ramdenime cdis Semdeg ganpirobebul
stimuls mohyveba reaqcia, romelsac ewodeba
ganpirobebuli reaqcia (CR). Zalian xSirad,
ganpirobebuli reaqcia hgavs ganupirobebel
reaqcias. magaliTad, pavlovis ZaRlebisaTvis
orive reaqcia nerwyvis gamoyofa iyo. Tumca,
zogierT SemTxvevaSi, ganpirobebuli reaqcia
bevrad gansxvavdeba ganupirobebeli reaqciisagan:
ganpirobebuli reaqcia warmoadgens nebismier
pasuxs, rac, Tavis mxriv, daswavlis Sedegia.
amgvarad, buneba uzrunvelgvyofs ganupirobebeli stimuli-reaqciiT, magram daswavla
klasikuri ganpirobebulobis meSveobiT ganpirobebuli stimuli-reaqciis kavSirs qmnis.

ganpirobebulobis procesi
rogor viRebT ganupirobebeli da ganpirobebuli stimulebis damTxveviT klasikuri
ganpirobebulobis efeqts? ramdenad myifea
daswavla? ramdenad myaria asociaciebi? am TavSi
vupasuxebT im kiTxvebs, romlebic ibadeba cxovelTa saxeobebze Catarebuli sxvadasxva kvlevis
Sedegad.
refleqsi (Reflex) _ specifikuri stimuliT gamowveuli dauswavleli pasuxi, romelsac biologiuri mniSvneloba aqvs organizmisaTvis.
ganupirobebeli stimuli (Unconditioned stimulus)
_ klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi stimuli, romelic iwvevs ganupirobebel reaqcias, pasuxs.
ganupirobebeli reaqcia (Unconditioned response)
_ klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi ganupirobebeli
stimulis mier gamowveuli reaqcia winaswari
varjiSis an daswavlis gareSe.
ganpirobebuli stimuli (Conditioned stimulus) _
klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi aqamde neitraluri
stimuli, romelic iwvevs ganpirobebul reaqcias.
ganpirobebuli reaqcia (Conditioned response) _
klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi reaqcia, romelic
aRmocendeba aqamde neitraluri stimulis safuZvelze. es xdeba imis Sedegad, rom neitraluri stimuli Sewyvilebulia ganupirobebel
stimulTan.
SeZena (Acquisition) _ klasikuri ganpirobebulobis eqsperimentis stadia, romlis drosac
ganpirobebuli reaqcia pirvelad aris gamowveuli ganpirobebuli stimuliT.

klasikuri ganpirobebuloba

sikurad ganpirobebul qcevaze. klasikuri ganpirobebuloba, agreTve, pavloviseul ganpirobebulobad iwodeba, radgan ganpirobebulobis
fenomeni swored mis aRmoCenad iTvleba.
pavlovis mniSvnelovanma kvleviTma gamocdilebam mas saSualeba misca, martivi strategiuli gegma aerCia, raTa ZaRlebSi nerwyvis
gamoyofa ganepirobebina. eqsperimentebSi ZaRli
sagangebo mowyobilobaSi iyo moTavsebuli, sadac
regularuli intervalebiT iRebda stimuls
zaris saxiT, ris Semdegac mas garkveuli
raodenobis sakvebi eZleoda. aRsaniSnavia, rom
ZaRlisaTvis aranairi kavSiri ar arsebobda zarsa
da sakvebs Soris. erTaderTi reaqcia zaris
pirvel gagebaze saorientacio refleqsi iyo
ZaRlma yurebi dacqvita da Tavi miatriala xmis
wyaros dasadgenad. Tumca, zarisa da sakvebis
miwodebis ganmeorebiTma dawyvilebam gamoiwvia
saorientacio refleqsis Sewyveta da nerwyvis
gamoyofa.
fenomeni, rasac pavlovi Tavis adrindel
kvlevebSi akvirdeboda, SemTxveviTi ar iyo. is
SeiZleba kontrolirebuli pirobebiT yofiliyo
gamowveuli. imis dasamtkiceblad, rom es zogadi
efeqti iyo, pavlovma zaris garda gamoiyena
mravalnairi stimuli, rogoricaa: naTura, eJvani,
metronomi.
klasikuri ganpirobebulobis birTvad refleqsebi unda CaiTvalos. refleqsi aris
dauswavleli pasuxi, reaqcia, magaliTad, nerwyvis
gamoyofa, Tvalebis xamxami da misTanani. yvela
refleqsi bunebrivadaa gamowveuli specifikuri
stimuliT, romelic biologiurad aqtualuria
organizmisaTvis. nebismier stimuls, romelic
bunebrivad iwvevs refleqsur qcevas, ganupirobebeli stimuli ewodeba, radgan swavla araa
stimulis kontrolisaTvis aucilebeli piroba.
qceva, romelic gamowveulia ganupirobebeli
stimuliT, ganupirobebeli qcevaa.
tipuri, klasikuri ganpirobebulobis eqsperimentSi (sur. 7.2) neitraluri stimuli, magaliTad,
sinaTle, zari da a.S., romelsac, Cveulebriv,
aranairi mniSvneloba ara aqvs refleqsuri
qcevisaTvis, meordeba wyvilSi ganupirobebel
stimulTan ise, rom ganupirobebeli stimuli
mohyveba neitralur stimuls. neitralur stimuls, magaliTad, zars, dawyvilebuls ganupirobebel stimulTan, ewodeba ganpirobebuli
stimuli (CS), radgan misi Zala, gamoiwvios qceva,

229

suraTi

7.2

klasikuri ganpirobebulobis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

ganpirobebulobis procesamde, ganupirobebeli stimuli (UCS) bunebrivad iwvevs ganupirobebel


reaqcias (UCS). neitralur stimuls ara aqvs gamomwvevi efeqti. ganpirobebulobis procesis dros
neitraluri stimuli wyvildeba ganupirobebel stimulTan. amgvari dawyvilebis Sedegad neitraluri
stimuli gadaiqceva ganpirobebul stimulad da ganpirobebul reaqcias iwvevs, romelic ganupirobebeli
reaqciis msgavsia.

230

SeZena da Caqroba
ganupirobebeli da ganpirobebuli stimulebi,
saerTod, ramdenjermeE unda dawyvildes, vidre
ganpirobebuli stimuli ganpirobebul reaqcias
ar gamoiwvevs (sur. 7.3, nawili 1). ganupirobebeli
da ganpirobebuli stimulebis sistematuri
dawyvilebiT, ganpirobebuli reaqcia aRmocendeba mzardi sixSiriT da amitom SegviZlia
vTqvaT, rom organizmma SeiZina ganpirobebuli
reaqcia.
klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi, iseve, rogorc
kargi anekdotis moyolis dros, dro Zalian
mniSvnelovania. ganpirobebuli da ganupirobebeli stimulebi droSi ukiduresad axlos

unda gamovlindnen imisaTvis, rom organizmma


isini dakavSirebulad aRiqvas (am wesis gamonakliss mogvianebiT aRvwerT sxva TavSi gemos
aversiis daswavlasTan dakavSirebiT). mkvlevrebma SeimuSaves oTxi droiTi paterni or
stimuls Soris, rogorc es naCvenebia suraTze
7.4 (Hearst, 1988). yvelaze farTod gavrcelebuli
tipia Seferxebuli ganpirobebuloba, romelSic
ganpirobebuli stimuli Cndeba da narCundeba
manam, sanam ar gamovlindeba ganupirobebeli
stimuli. kvalis ganpirobebulobaSi ganpirobebuli stimuli Sewyvetilia, sanam gamovlindeba
ganupirobebeli stimuli. kvalSi igulisxmeba
is gavlena Tu nakvalevi, rac SeiZleba organizmze daetovebina ganpirobebul stimuls. Tan-

suraTi

7.3

SeZena, Caqroba da spontanuri


aRdgena klasikur
ganpirobebulobaSi

xvedril ganpirobebulobaSi orive stimuli


gamovlenilia erTdroulad, xolo, droSi gadaweul ganpirobebulobaSi, ganpirobebuli stimuli gamovlenilia ganupirobeblis Semdeg.
ganpirobebuloba, Cveulebriv, yvelaze efeqturia Seferxebuli ganpirobebulobis para-

suraTi

7.4

ganpirobebuli da ganupirobebeli
stimulebis oTxi variacia droSi
mkvlevrebi daakvirdnen oTx SesaZlo droiT
ganawilebas ganpirobebul da ganupirobebel
stimulebs Soris. ganpirobebuloba yvelaze
efeqturia Seferxebul ganpirobebulobaSi
ganpirobebul da ganupirobebel stimulebs
Soris mcire intervaliT.

digmaSi, anu mokle intervaliT or stimuls


Soris. Tumca, zusti dro, romelic saWiroa
ganpirobebulobis aRmocenebisaTvis, damokidebulia ramdenime faqtorze, magaliTad, ganpirobebuli stimulis intensivobasa da ganpirobebul reaqciaze. SevCerdeT ganpirobebul
reaqciaze. magaliTad, iseTi kunTuri reaqciisaTvis, rogoricaa Tvalebis xamxami, erTwamiani
an naklebi intervalia saukeTeso; visceraluri
reaqciebisaTvis, rogoricaa guliscema da
nerwyvis gamoyofa, intervali SeiZleba 10-15
wamamde gaizardos. ganpirobebuli SiSis aRmocenebisaTvis ki saWiroa kidev ufro didi
intervali, wamebi da, zogjer, wuTebic ki.
ganpirobebuloba iSviaTad aRmocendeba
Tanxvedri an droSi gadaweuli procesebis dros.
droSi gadaweuli ganpirobebulobis aRmoceneba
SeiZleba ramdenime wyviluri gamovlinebis
Semdeg SevityoT, magram igi maleve qreba, radgan
cxoveli swavlobs, rom ganpirobebul stimuls
mohyveba ganupirobebeli stimuli. orive
SemTxvevaSi ganpirobebuloba sustia, radgan
ganpirobebuli stimuli ar niSnavs ganupirobeblis aRmocenebas (winaswarmetyvelebisa da
SemTxveviTobis mniSvnelobas momdevno TavSi
davubrundebiT).
magram ra emarTeba ganpirobebul stimuls
(magaliTad, xmas), romelic aRar winaswarmetyvelebs ganupirobebel stimuls (saWmlis
fxvnils). aseT garemoebaSi ganpirobebuli
reaqcia (nerwyvis gamoyofa) droTa ganmavlobaSi
sustdeba da TandaTan saerTod aRar vlindeba.
rodesac ganpirobebuli reaqcia saerTod aRar

klasikuri ganpirobebuloba

SeZenis dros (CS+UCS) ganpirobebuli


stimulis siZliere swrafad matulobs.
Caqrobis dros, roca ganupirobebeli
stimuli aRar moyveba ganpirobebul
stimuls, ganpirobebuli reaqciis siZliere nulamde Camodis. ganpirobebulma
reaqciam SeiZleba Tavi iCinos mcire
Sesvenebis Semdeg, maSinac ki, roca ganupirobebeli stimuli ar arsebobs.
ganpirobebuli reaqciis xelaxal gamoCenas spontanuri aRdgena ewodeba.

231

suraTi

7.5

stimulis ganzogadebis gradientebi

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

saSualo mwvaneze ganpirobebulobis aRmocenebis Semdeg subieqti reagirebs msgavsi Tvisebis


mqone stimulzec, rogorc es naCvenebia sqemis A nawilSi, sust generalizaciaSi. magram,
rodesac subieqts miewodeba ferebis ufro farTo speqtri, reaqciebi miT ufro sustdeba, rac
ufro Sorsaa miwodebuli feri sawyisi stimulisagan. ganzogadebis gradienti xdeba Zalian
Zlieri, rogorc es sqemis B nawilSia mocemuli. eqsperimentators SeuZlia ganzogadebis
gradientis Secvla subieqtisTvis diskriminaciuli wvrTnis Catarebis Semdeg. aseT SemTxvevaSi
saSualo mwvane stimuli dawyvildeboda ganupirobebel stimulTan.

232

vlindeba ganpirobebuli stimulis an ganupirobebeli stimulis Semdeg, adgili aqvs Caqrobis


process (ix. sur. 7.3, nawili 2). ganpirobebuli
reaqciebis mudmivoba araa organizmis qceviTi
repertuaris ZiriTadi aspeqti; Tumca, ganpirobebulma reaqciam SeiZleba susti formiT
Segvaxsenos Tavi, Tuki ganpirobebuli stimuli
marto aRmocendeba (ix. sur. 7.3, nawili 3).
pavlovi am movlenas gansazRvruli drois Semdeg, ganupirobebeli stimulis eqspoziciis gareSe swavlobda da mas spontanuri droebiTi
aRmoceneba uwoda.

Caqroba (Extinction) _ ganpirobebulobaSi, ganupirobebeli stimulis an ganmamtkiceblis ararsebobis Sedegad ganpirobebuli asociaciis
Sesusteba.
spontanuri aRdgena (Spontaneous recovery) _ Camqrali ganpirobebuli reaqciis xelaxali gamovlena garkveuli periodis Semdeg.
stimulis generalizeba (Stimulus generalization) _
ganpirobebuli stimulis avtomaturi gavrcoba
yvela im msgavs stimulze, romelic ar yofila
Sewyvilebuli ganupirobebel stimulTan.

rodesac sawyisi dawyvileba aRdgenilia,


Caqrobis Semdeg, ganpirobebuli stimuli
sagrZnoblad Zlierdeba. es uecari daswavla
dakavSirebulia im maragTan, romelic pirvelad
daswavlam gamoiwvia da amitom amjerad naklebi
droa saWiro axali asociaciis asaTviseblad.
ase rom, zogierTma eqsperimentulma asociaciam

stimulis ganzogadeba (generalizacia)


davuSvaT, ZaRlma iswavla, rom garkveuli
sixSiris zaris xma niSnavs sakvebis miRebas.
specifikuria Tu ara ZaRlis reaqcia mxolod
am stimulis mimarT? araa gasakviri, magram am
kiTxvis pasuxia ara~. zogadad, radgan erTxel
gansazRvrulma ganpirobebulma stimulma gamoiwvia gansazRvruli ganpirobebuli reaqcia,
msgavsma stimulma SeiZleba imave warmatebiT
gamoiwvios msgavsi reaqcia. magaliTad, Tu
ganpirobebuloba dakavSirebuli iyo maRali
sixSiris mqone zarTan, dabali sixSirec gamoiwvevda ganpirobebul reaqcias. bavSvs, romelsac
ukbens didi ZaRli, am SemTxvevis Semdeg patara
ZaRlebisac SeeSindeba. am avtomatur dawyvilebas
stimulisa, romelic arasdros yofila dakavSirebuli ganupirobebel reaqciasTan, stimulis
ganzogadeba ewodeba. rac ufro mimsgavsebulia
mocemuli stimuli sawyis ganpirobebul stimulTan, miT ufro Zlieri iqneba reaqcia. rodesac reaqciis siZliere izomeba mocemul ganzomilebaSi yoveli SemTxvevisaTvis, cxadi xdeba
generalizaciis gradienti (ix. sur. 7.5).
generalizaciis gradientis arsebobam Tavad
unda gvikarnaxos klasikuri ganpirobebulobis
meqanizmi yoveldRiur gamocdilebaSi. radgan
mniSvnelovani stimuli bunebaSi iSviaTad
vlindeba zustad erTi da imave formiT, stimulis ganzogadebis faqtori afarToebs daswavlis speqtrs sawyisi gamocdilebis miRmac. amgvarad, axali movlena SieZleba aRqmul iqnes,
rogorc imave Sinaarsis an qceviTi mniSvnelobis
mqone, miuxedavad aSkara gansxvavebebisa.

stimulis diskriminacia aris procesi, romlis


drosac organizmi swavlobs, gansxvavebuli
reaqcia moaxdinos erTi da imave saxis gansxvavebul stimulebze (magaliTad, gansxvaveba
wyalsa da zeTs Soris). organizmis mier
stimulis diskriminaciis daswavla SeiZleba
eqsperimentuli procesiT, romlis drosac sxvadasxva intensivobis zaris SemTxvevaSi mxolod,
magaliTad, 1,200 herci sixSiris zars mohyveba
ganupirobebeli stimuli, xolo sxvebi mis
gareSe meordebian. ganpirobebulobis pirvel
etapze ganpirobebuli stimulis msgavsi stimuli msgavs reaqcias, Tumca arc ise Zliers,
warmoSobs. diskriminaciis treningis gagrZelebasTan erTad reaqcia sxva msgavs stimulebze
iklebs. organizmi TandaTan swavlobs, romeli
stimuli moaswavebs ganupirobebel stimuls
da romeli _ ara.
organizmma rom qceva optimalurad, saWiro
drosa da adgilas gamoavlinos, unda arsebobdes
balansi stimulis diskriminaciasa da ganzogadebas Soris. ar aris saWiro, bevri dro daeTmos
stimulis diskriminacias; amasobaSi, SesaZloa
mtaceblis arseboba gamogvrCes da arc zedmeti
reaqciaa saWiro, raTa yvela Crdili ar gvaSinebdes. klasikuri ganpirobebuloba organizms
uzrunvelyofs meqanizmiT, romelic saSualebas
aZlevs am ukanasknels, Sesabamisad reagirebdes
garemos struqturebze (Garcia, 1990).

SeZena

stimulis diskriminacia

am qveTavSi ufro vrclad ganvixilavT im


pirobebs, romlebic saWiroa klasikuri ganpirobebulobisaTvis. aqamde Cven klasikurad
ganpirobebuli reaqciebis SeZena aRvwereT, Tumca ar agvixsnia es fenomeni. pavlovi Tvlida,
rom klasikuri ganpirobebuloba ganpirobebuli
da ganupirobebeli stimulebis dawyvilebis Sedegia. misi azriT, Tu reaqcia klasikuradaa
ganpirobebuli, ganpirobebuli da ganupirobebeli stimulebi TiTqmis erTdroulad unda
gamovlindnen, anu adgili hqondes droSi

zogierT garemoebaSi mniSvnelovania, rom


reaqcia mxolod stimulis mcire raodenobaze
aRmocendes. organizmma ar unda gadatvirTos
sakuTari Tavi imiT, rom yvelanairi cxovelisgan
garbodes, romelic namdvil mtacebels waagavs.

stimulis diskriminacia (stimulus discrimination) _


ganpirobebulobis procesi, romlis drosac organizmi swavlobs, gansxvavebulad upasuxos gamRizianebels (stimuls), romelic ganpirobebuli
stimulisagan raime ganzomilebiT gansxvavdeba.

klasikuri ganpirobebuloba

SeiZleba Caqrobis Semdegac Seaxsenos organizms


Tavi. sxva sityvebiT, Caqrobam mxolod Seasusta
daswavlili asociaciis gamovlena da ara
saerTod amoSala mocemuli paterni. swored
amitom unda gavmijnoT daswavla da gamovlenis
xarisxi daswavlis sawyis ganmartebaSi.

233

Tanxvedras. Tumca, Tanamedrove kvlevebma


erTgvarad Secvales es Sexeduleba.

pirobiTi ganmtkiceba
klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi dominanti 1960
wlamde pavlovis Teoria iyo. 1960 wels robert
reskorlam (Robert Rescorla 1966) Caatara erTob
mravlismTqmeli eqsperimenti, romelSic ZaRli
gamoiyena, rogorc cdis subieqti. reskorlas
eqsperimentSi zari (ganpirobebuli stimuli)
emTxveoda Soks (ganupirobebeli stimuli), rac,
Tu pavlovi sworad msjelobda, sakmarisi
iqneboda klasikuri ganpirobebulobis aRmocenebisaTvis.

suraTi

7.6

saidan
viciT

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

klasikuri ganpirobebulobis
mniSvneloba

234

eqsperimentis pirvel fazaSi reskorla


wvrTnida ZaRlebs _ gadamxtariyvnen barierze ise, rom aridebodnen masSi gamaval
eleqtroSoks (sur. 7.6). Tu ZaRli ver
SeZlebda gadaxtomas, iRebda eleqtroSoks;
Tu gadaxtomas moaxerxebda, eleqtroSoks
airidebda. ZaRlebis gadaxtomis sixSires
reskorla iyenebda SiSis ganpirobebulobis
gasazomad.
rodesac ZaRlebma daiswavles barierze
xtoma, reskorlam isini or jgufad dayo
da axali amocana dausaxa. SemTxveviT SerCevas ganupirobebeli stimuli (Soki) spontanurad da ganpirobebuli stimulisagan
(zarisgan) (sur. 7.7) damoukideblad eZleoda.
miuxedavad imisa, rom ganpirobebuli da
ganupirobebeli stimulebi xSirad vlindebodnen droSi erTmaneTTan axlos an
erTad, isini SemTxveviT, droebiT iyvnen
Tanxvedrilni _ ganupirobebeli stimuli
SeiZleba imave warmatebiT ganpirobebuli
stimulis gareSec gamovleniliyo, xolo
sakontrolo jgufisaTvis ganupirobebeli
stimuli yovelTvis mohyveboda ganpirobebul stimuls. amgvarad, am jgufisTvis
zari sando momaswavebeli iyo eleqtroSokisa.

wvrTnis Semdeg ZaRlebi kvlav moaTavses


saeqsperimento yuTebSi. zari, romelic Soks
moaswavebda, axla periodulad rekavda.
ZaRlebi SemTxveviTi SerCevidan (ganpirobebuli-ganupirobebeli kavSiri) xtebodnen
meti sixSiriT, vidre ZaRlebi meore SerCevidan (sur. 7.8).

amgvarad, garda imisa, rom ganpirobebuli


stimuli droSi Tanxvedrili unda iyos ganupirobebelTan, is, agreTve, sandod unda moaswavebdes ganupirobebel stimuls es ori piroba
aucilebelia imisaTvis, rom adgili hqondes
klasikur ganpirobebulobas (Rescorla, 1988). es
aRmoCena sakmaod mniSvnelovania. cxovrebiseul
situaciebSi, sadac daswavla exmareba adamians
adaptaciaSi, stimuli gacilebiT ufro difuzuria, vidre laboratoriaSi.

informatiuloba
reskorlas kvlevam aCvena, rom pirobiTi
ganmtkiceba gadamwyvet rols TamaSobs klasikur
ganpirobebulobaSi. leon kaminma (Leon Kamin,
1969) aCvena, rom ganpirobebuli stimuli (CS)
SeiZleba informatiuli iyos (ix. sur. 7.9).

suraTi

7.7

reskorlas procedura albaTobis demonstrirebisaTvis


SemTxveviTi SerCevisaTvis 5-wamiani zarebi (ganpirobebuli stimuli) da 5-wamiani Soki (ganupirobebeli stimuli) eqsperimentis manZilze SemTxveviT, spontanurad iyo miwodebuli. pirobiTi
ganmtkicebis jgufis ZaRlebma gamoscades mxolod zarebi da Soki, romelic ukve mosalodneli
iyo zaris Semdeg. mxolod am jgufis ZaRlebma iswavles asociacia ganupirobebel da ganpirobebul
stimulebs Soris.

saidan
viciT

kaminis kvlevaSi CarTuli iyo virTxebis


2 jgufi. eqsperimentuli jgufi pirvelad
iwvrTneboda saxelurisTvis xelis daWeraSi zaris rekvis dros (ganpirobebuli
stimuli) Sokis Tavidan asacileblad (ganupirobebeli stimuli). amis Semdeg eqsperiments daemata kidev erTi ganpirobebuli stimuli sinaTle. amjerad ganupirobebel stimuls ukve ori ganpirobebuli stimuli moaswavebda zari da sinaTle. sakontrolo jgufSi vlindeboda
mxolod zari-sinaTle-Sokis Tanxvedra, anu
am jgufSi zari ar moaswavebda Soks. amis
Semdeg kaminma Seamowma orive jgufSi SiSis
ganpirobebuloba mxolod Suqze an mxolod
zarze. Tu pirobiTi ganmtkiceba sakmarisia
klasikuri ganpirobebulobis asaxsnelad,
maSin virTxebis orive jgufs erTnairad
unda epasuxa zarsa da Suqze, magram eqsperimentuli virTxebi reagirebdnen mxolod
zarze da ara _ sinaTleze, roca sakontrolo jgufSi virTxebs erTnairi reaqcia
hqondaT sinaTlesa da zarze (Kamin, 1969).

suraTi

7.8

pirobiTi ganmtkicebis roli


klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi
reskorlam aCvena, rom ZaRlebi, romlebic pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeli-upirobo ganmamtkicebelis pirobebSi iwvrTnebodnen, anu pirobiTi
ganmtkicebis kavSiriT, ufro metad xtebodnen
(SiSi metad iyo ganpirobebuli), vidre ZaRlebi
upirobod ganmtkicebis kavSiriT.

klasikuri ganpirobebuloba

informatiulobasac aqvs mniSvneloba

235

suraTi

7.9

kaminis procedura
dablokvis efeqtisaTvis

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

eqsperimentuli jgufis virTxebs jer unda epasuxaT zarze


(CS1) Semdeg ki _ zarsa (CS1)
da sinaTleze (CS2), virTxebs
sakontrolo jgufSi unda
epasuxaT mxolod sust Suqsa
da zarze. roca Semowmda ganpirobebuloba mxolod zarze
da mxolod sinaTleze, marto
sakontrolo jgufis virTxebs
hqondaT reaqcia orive stimulze. kaminis mixedviT, eqsperimentulma virTxebma imitom
ar upasuxes sinaTles, rom is
aranair axal informacias ar
Seicavda ganupirobebeli stimulis gamovlenis Sesaxeb;
zaris efeqtma dabloka sinaTlis efeqti.

236

kaminma eqsperimentebis Sedegebi ganpirobebuli stimulis informatiulobis konteqstSi


axsna. eqsperimentuli virTxebisaTvis zarTan
dakavSirebulma gamocdilebam aqtualoba daukarga zars, rogorc ganupirobebeli stimulis
momaswavebels. virTxebisTvis sinaTle SeiZleboda arc arsebuliyo, radgan is aranair damatebiT informacias ar iZleoda. pirveli ganpirobebuli stimulis unars, Seamciros meores
informatiuloba, blokireba ewodeba. virTxebis
sakontrolo jgufisaTvis zari da sinaTle
erTnairad informatiuli iyo, maT ar hqondaT
warsuli gamocdileba dakavSirebuli romelime
maTganTan, amitom erTma ar Seamcira meores
informatiuloba. informatiuloba xsnis, ratom
vlindeba ganpirobebuloba yvelaze xSirad
maSin, rodesac ganpirobebuli stimuli upirispirdeba garemoSi arsebul sxva mraval stimuls.
rac ufro intensiuria da konkretulia stimuli,
blokireba (Blocking) fenomeni, romlis drosac
organizmi ar daiswavlis axal stimuls, radgan
axali stimuli warmodgenilia ukve arsebul
efeqtur signalTan erTad.

miT ufro didia misi SemCnevis albaToba. Tu


gindaT, rom kargi ganpirobebuloba miiRoT,
unda warmoadginoT Zlieri, ucxo stimuli
ucnob garemoSi, an Zlieri, nacnobi stimuli
ucxo situaciaSi (Kalat, 1974; Lubow et al., 1976).
cxadi xdeba, rom klasikuri ganpirobebuloba
bevrad ufro rTuli meqanizmia, vidre amas
pavlovi warmoidgenda. neitraluri stimuli
efeqtur ganpirobebul stimulad iqceva mxolod
maSin, Tu is erTdroulad Tanxvedrili da,
amasTan, informatiulia. modiT, axla yuradReba
im cxovrebiseul situaciaze mivmarToT, romelSic klasikuri ganpirobebuloba did rols
asrulebs.

klasikuri ganpirobebulobis
gamoyeneba
klasikuri ganpirobebulobis codna gvexmareba, gavigoT yoveldRiuri qceva. magaliTad,
ra roli aqvs mas emociebsa da upiratesobaTa
miniWebaSi, sxvadasxva nivTierebebTan damokidebulebaSi; dabolos, rogor SeiZleba klasikuri

klasikuri ganpirobebulobis erT-erTi yvelaze aqtiurad Seswavlili aspeqti SiSis


ganpirobebulobaa. biheviorizmis sawyis etapze
jon uotsonma da misma kolegam rozalin rainerma daadastures, rom SiSis reaqciebis umetesoba unda gavigoT, rogorc neitraluri stimulis dawyvileba raime SiSis momgvrelTan. am
ideis dasamtkiceblad maT Caatares eqsperimenti
patara albertze.

saidan
viciT

emociebi da upiratesobebis miniWeba


gavixsenoT magaliTi saSinelebaTa filmis
Sesaxeb. am SemTxvevaSi aracnobierad daviswavleT asociacia SemaSinebel musikasa (ganpirobebuli stimuli) da gansazRvrul movlenebs
Soris (ganupirobebeli stimuli movlenebi,
romelbic refleqsur reaqciebs iwveven). Tu
kargad CavuRrmavdebiT, aRmoCndeba, rom bevr
movlenaze gvaqvs Zlieri emociuri reaqcia, ris
mizezsac xSirad ver vxsniT. SeiZleba Tu ara,
es klasikuri ganpirobebulobis Sedegi iyos?
ganvixiloT situaciebi (Rozin and Fallon, 1987; Rozin
at all 1986):

 SeWamdiT Tu ara gaurkvevel sakvebs, romelsac ubralod ZaRlis sasqeso organos forma
aqvs?
 dalevdiT Tu ara wylisa da Saqris xsnars,
Tuki Saqari Cayares im yuTidan romelsac SecdomiT ewera Sxami~?
 dalevdiT Tu ara vaSlis wvens, romelSic
sterilizebuli tarakani tivtivebs?
Tu yovel situaciaze upasuxebT araviTar
SemTxvevaSi~, es imas niSnavs, rom klasikurma
ganpirobebulobam Tavisi roli iTamaSa. klasikurad ganpirobebuli reaqcia: _ es sazizRrobaa~ an saxifaToa~, Sedegia aqamde miRebuli
codnisa Tu gamocdilebisa. vinaidan klasikurad
ganpirobebuli reaqcia araa cnobierad gaCenili
azris Sedegi, Zalian Znelia is cnobieri mizezSedegobriobiT CavaqroT.

patara albertis SeZenili SiSi


uotsonma da rainerma (1920) alberti
daaSines patara TeTri virTxiT, romelic
Tavidan Zalian moswonda. maT TeTri virTxis gamoCena daawyviles aversiul ganupirobebel stimulTan bavSvis uknidan
momdinare xmaurTan, romelic gamowveuli
iyo liTonis firfitaze CaquCis dartymiT.
SekrTomis ganupirobebeli reaqcia da
emociuri distresi gaxda mizezi daswavlisa: alberti SiSiT reagirebda TeTri
virTxis danaxvaze ukve 7 cdis Semdeg. emociuri ganpirobebuloba ganzogadda qceviT
ganpirobebulobaSi, radgan albertma iswavla virTxisaTvis Tavis arideba, misgan
gaqceva. amis Semdeg bavSvis SiSi ganzogadda
saerTod bewvian sagnebze baWiaze, ZaRlze
da santa klausis niRabzec ki. albertis
dedam, romelic meddad muSaobda imave
hospitalSi, sadac eqsperimenti tardeboda,
manamde waiyvana igi, vidre mas SiSs
mouxsnidnen, amitom aravin icis, ra bedi
ewia mas (Harris, 1979).

axla cnobilia, rom ganpirobebuli SiSi


Zalian gamZlea. drois gasvlasTan erTad adamians SeiZleba daaviwydes kidec, ratom vlindeba
reaqcia. ganpirobebuli SiSi SeiZleba arsebobdes wlebis manZilze, maSinac ki, roca sawyisi
ganupirobebeli stimuli aRarasodes aRmocenebula gamocdilebaSi. magaliTad, mkvlevrebma
daadastures, rom meore msoflio omidan 15
wlis gasvlis Semdeg, veteran mezRvaurebs jer

klasikuri ganpirobebuloba

ganpirobebuloba gamoviyenoT imunologiuri


funqciis gasamdidreblad.

237

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

kidev hqondaT reaqcia safrTxis niSanze~


omis dros mezRvaurebs sabrZolad gongi
uxmobda wuTSi 100-jer darekili zari. es
gansakuTrebuli smeniTi paterni, romelic Tavis
droze sandod moaswavebda safrTxes, axlac

238

agrZelebs Zlieri emociebis gamowvevas veteranebSi (Edwards & Acker, 1962).


sainteresoa, rom, Tu Zlieri SiSia CarTuli,
ganpirobebulobas SeiZleba adgili hqondes
neitraluri stimulisa da ganupirobebeli
stimulis mxolod erTxel dawyvilebiT. erTi
travmatuli movlena SeiZleba ganapirobebdes
fizikur, emociur da kognitur reaqciebs es
SeiZleba mTeli cxovreba gagrZeldes. magaliTad, erTi Cveni megobari mZime avariaSi moyva
Weqa-quxilis dros. axla yovel jerze, rodesac
is saWesTan zis da wvimdeba, ewyeba panikuri
SiSi im donemde, rom zogjer manqanasac aCerebs
da elodeba, sanam wvima gadaiRebs. erTxel igi
manqanis ukana nawilSi gadacocda da pirisaxiT
qveviT daemxo wvimis Sewyvetamde. me-16 TavSi
vnaxavT, rom Terapevtebma SeimuSaves mkurnalobis
gzebi iseTi saxis SiSebisaTvis, romlebic
TiTqos uaryofdnen klasikuri ganpirobebulobis efeqturobas.
yovelive zemoT moTxrobili ar niSnavs, rom
mxolod uaryofiTi reaqciebia klasikurad
ganpirobebuli. piriqiT, bednierebisa da
aRfrTovanebis reaqciebic SeiZleba ganvixiloT,
rogorc klasikurad ganpirobebuli. cxadia, rom
reklamis Semqmnelebi swored klasikuri ganpirobebulobis meqanizms eyrdnobian, rogorc
dadebiT Zalas. magaliTad, isini amyareben
asociaciebs TavianT produqtsa da vnebas Soris
(jinsebi, sunamoebi da a.S.); isini imedovneben,
rom maTi reklamebis verbaluri elementebi,
magaliTad, seqsualuri~, adamianebisa Tu situaciebis aRsawerad, imoqmedeben ganupirobebli
stimulisa da reaqciis gamosavlenad. maT
gaTvlili aqvT, rom produqti TavisTavad iqceva
ganpirobebul stimulad, xolo misi yidvis
procesi ganpirobebul reaqciad. imisaTvis,
rom moviZioT dadebiTi emociebis meti magaliTebi, sakmarisia, davfiqrdeT im momentebze,
rodis gvaqvs dadebiTi gancdebisa da emociebis
mozRvaveba, magaliTad, roca xangrZlivi
mogzaurobis Semdeg saxlSi vbrundebiT.
nivTierebebze damokidebulebis daswavla
ganvixiloT erTi SemTxveva: manhetenze ipoves
kacis cxedari, romelsac mklavSi CarCenili
hqonda Sprici. sikvdilis mizezad narkotikis
zedmeti doza daasaxeles, magram aRmoCnda, rom

saidan
viciT
narkotikul nivTierebebze
damokidebulebis ganpirobebulobis
aspeqtebi
erT-erT kvlevaSi sigelma da misma
kolegebma gamoiwvies virTxebSi heroinis
ineqciis molodini erT SemTxvevaSi (ganpirobebuli stimuli 1) da deqstrozis
(tkbili Saqari) meoreSi (ganpirobebuli
stimuli 2) (Siegel et al., 1982). wvrTnis pirvel

fazaSi yvela virTxas ganuviTarda mimRebloba heroinis mimarT. sakontrolo dRes


yvela virTxam miiRo heroinis Cveulebrivze
didi, TiTqmis orjer meti doza. virTxebis
naxevars heroini ukve miRebuli hqonda,
xolo meore naxevars ganpirobebulobisaTvis eZleoda deqstrozi. ukanaskneli
jgufidan mokvda orjer meti (64) virTxa,
vidre pirvelidan (32).

savaraudod, virTxebi, romlebic iRebdnen


heroins, ufro momzadebulebi iyvnen am potenciurad saxifaTo situaciisaTvis, radgan
konteqstma (ganpirobebuli stimuli 1) gamoiwvia
iseTi fiziologiuri reaqcia (ganpirobebuli
reaqcia 1) romelmac winaaRmdegoba gauwia wamlis
tipur efeqts (Poulos & Cappell, 1991).
imis gamosakvlevad, igive process SeiZleba
Tu ara adgili hqondes adamianebSi, sigelma da
misma kolegebma gamokiTxes heroinze damokidebulni, romlebic araerTxel sikvdilis piras
iyvnen misulni zedmeti dozis gamo. aTidan
Svid SemTxvevaSi wamali miRebuli iyo axal
da ucxo garemoSi (Siegel, 1984). miuxedavad imisa,
rom es aranair monacemebs ar gvaZlevs, cxadi
xdeba, rom doza, romlis mimarTac individs
SemuSavebuli aqvs mimRebloba, SeiZleba zedmet,
momakvdinebel dozad iqces ucxo garemoSi. es
analizi gveubneba, rom manhetenze napovn kacs
arasodes gaukeTebia wamali swored im adgilas,
sadac igi ipoves.
miuxedavad imisa, rom mocemuli kvleva
exeboda heroins, klasikuri ganpirobebuloba
mniSvnelovani komponentia sxvadasxva wamlis
mimarT mimReblobis gazrdaSi (Goodison & Siegel,
1995; Poulos & Cappell, 1991; Siegel, 1999). ase rom, igive
sawyisebi, romlebsac pavlovi swavlobda
ZaRlebis, zarebis da nerwyvis gamoyofasTan
dakavSirebiT, gvexmareba, avxsnaT zogierTi
meqanizmi adamianis narkotikul nivTierebebze
damokidebulebisa.
klasikuri ganpirobebulobis gamoyeneba
adreul, 1980-ian wlebSi mkvlevrebma gaakeTes
aRmoCena, rom daswavlis procesebma SeiZleba
gavlena iqonion organizmis imunur sistemaze.
istoriulad dadasturebulia, rom imunologiuri reaqciebi _ antisxeulebis swrafi gamo-

klasikuri ganpirobebuloba

es kaci regularulad iRebda gacilebiT ufro


did dozebs, vidre man sikvdilis win miiRo. am
SemTxvevam aaforiaqa mkvlevrebi rogor
SeiZleboda aseT dozas moekla organizmi,
romelsac am nivTierebis sakmaod didi
mimRebloba hqonda?
pavlovma (1927) da mogvianebiT misma kolegam
bikovma (1957) aRmoaCines, rom mimRebloba
narkotikebis mimarT SeiZleba maSin ganviTardes,
rodesac adamiani elodeba wamlis farmakologiur moqmedebas. Tanamedrove mkvlevarma
Sefard sigelma (Shepard Siegel) daxvewa es ideebi.
igi Tvlida, rom is garemo, romelSic gamoiyeneba wamali, aqcevs mas ganpirobebul stimulad im situaciisaTvis, romelSic organizmi
ewinaaRmdegeba wamlis Cveul efeqts. wamlis
miRebisas wamali (ganupirobebeli stimuli)
iwvevs gansazRvrul fiziologiur reaqciebs,
razec organizmi reagirebs sawinaaRmdegod
homeostazis damyarebis mizniT (ix. Tavi 3).
swored esaa am SemTxvevaSi ganupirobebeli
reaqcia. droTa ganmavlobaSi kompensatoruli
reaqciac ganpirobebuli reaqcia xdeba. es
niSnavs, rom garemoSi, romelic, Cveulebriv,
asocirebulia wamlis gamoyenebasTan (ganpirobebuli stimuli), organizmi fiziologiurad
amzadebs Tavs (ganpirobebuli reaqcia) wamlis
mosalodneli efeqtebisaTvis. mimRebloba Cndeba
imitom, rom individis mier moxmarebuli wamali
metia kompensatorul reaqciaze, sanam daiwyeba
raime saxis dadebiTi~ efeqti. mzardi doza
niSnavs, rom izrdeba kompensatoruli reaqciac.
sigelma es ideebi gamoscada laboratoriaSi,
gamoumuSava ra virTxebs mimRebloba heroinis
mimarT.

239

muSaveba, raTa SeebrZolos im substanciebs,


romlebic organizms vneben _ arsebobda. eqsperimentebma ganpirobebulobaze daadastures
am daskvnebis mcdaroba.

saidan
viciT
klasikuri ganpirobebuloba da
imunologiuri funqcia

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

robert aderma da nikolas kohenma (Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen, 1981) virTxebs aswavles saxarinis (ganpirobebuli stimuli)
asocireba ciklofosfamidTan (ganupirobebeli stimuli), wamalTan, romelic
asustebs imunur sistemas. sakontrolo
jgufi iRebda mxolod saxarins. mogvianebiT, roca virTxebis orive jgufs misces
saxarini, im virTxebSi, romlebSic saxarini ciklofosfamidis asociacias iwvevda, warmoiSva metad naklebi antisxeulebi
ucxo ujredebis mimarT, vidre sakontrolo
jgufis virTxebSi. amgvarad, daswavlili
asociacia sakmarisi aRmoCnda imisaTvis,
rom Seemcirebina imuniteti da virTxebi
ufro mowyvladi gaexada sxvadasxva daavadebebis mimarT. daswavlis efeqti imdenad Zlieri iyo, rom zogierTi virTxa
mokvda mxolod saxarinis xsnaris dalevis
Semdeg.

240

aseTma Sedegebma SeiZleba advilad migviyvanos


im daskvnamde, rom saWiroa klasikuri ganpirobebulobis aRmofxvra imunuri sistemis Sesanar-

Cuneblad. kvlevis axalma sferom, fsiqoneiroimunologiam Seiswavla aseTi tipis Sedegebi.


am kvlevaSi Sedis fsiqologia, centraluri
nervuli sistema da imunuri sistema (Ader &
Cohen, 1993; Coe, 1999).
am axali dargis mizania, aRmoaCinos axali
teqnika, romelic saSualebas miscems ganpirobebulobas, Secvalos is medikamenturi dozebi,
romlebsac xSirad seriozuli gverdiTi movlenebi aqvT. aderma da misma kolegam antoni
suxmanma, aRmoaCines, rom maRali wnevis mqone
pacientebs, romlebsac mouxsnes wamlebi, magram
mkurnalobdnen placeboTi, wneva ufro didxans
SeunarCundaT normis farglebSi, vidre maT,
romlebic ar iRebdnen placebo abebs (Suchman
& Ader, 1989). rogor SeeZlo inertul abebs
moexsna maRali wnevis problema? pasuxi viciT
winamdebare Tavidan, romelic exeboda narkotikuli nivTierebis mimarT mimReblobas. warmoidgineT rutina, romelic viTardeba wamlis
regularulad miRebis dros. wamlis miRebis
es rituali SeiZleba aRviqvaT, rogorc ganpirobebuli stimuli, romelic moaswavebs ganupirobebel stimuls wamlis miRebas. mxolod
Tavad am aqtma SeiZleba Seamciros sisxlis
wneva. amgvarad, placebo, romelic ubralod
qmnis rituals, iwvevs sasargeblo organul
reaqcias.
imisaTvis, rom kvlevis Sedegi samkurnalo
meTodad iqces, mkvlevrebi unda darwmundnen,
fsiqoneiroimunologia (Psychoneuroimmunology)
kvlevis dargi, romelic swavlobs interaqcias
iseT fiziologiur procesebs Soris, rogorebicaa reaqcia stresze da imunuri sistemis
funqcionireba.

saidan
viciT
imunuri reaqciis ganpirobebuli
gaumjobeseba
mecnierebis jgufma Seqmna ganpirobebulobis situacia, romelSic saxarinis gemo
dawyvilda lisozimTan, nivTierebasTan,
romelic iwvevs reaqcias virTxis imunur
sistemaSi. am paradigmaSi saxarini asrulebda ganpirobebuli stimulis rols,
xolo lisozimi ganupirobebeli stimulisas. dawyvileba mxolod erTxel moxda.
miuxedavad amisa, rodesac virTxebis erT
jgufs saxariniT gazavebuli wamali misces, magram lisozimis gareSe, maT organizmebs hqondaT iseTive Zlieri imunuri
reaqcia, rogoric meore jgufs, romelsac
mxolod lisizimi miewoda (Alvarez-Borda
et al., 1995).

es eqsmperimenti TvalsaCinoebaa imisa, rom


mxolod erTi epizodi, sadac ganpirobebuli
stimuli asocirebuli iyo ganupirobebel
stimulTan, sakmarisi aRmoCnda imisTvis, rom
imunuri reaqcia mxolod ganpirobebul stimulze warmoSobiliyo. amgvarad, cxadi xdeba
klasikuri ganpirobebulobis potencia imunuri
sistemis gasaZliereblad.
vidre fsiqologia da cxovrebas~ waikiTxavdiT, albaT Zalian cota ram icodiT klasikuri
ganpirobebulobis Sesaxeb, Tu ar CavTvliT
bundovan warmodgenas pavlovsa da mis ZaRlebze.
vimedovnebT, rom ukve sakmaod kargad gaecaniT
daswavlis am saxeobas, raTa daafasoT misi
mniSvneloba Tqvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi.
Semdegi Cveni gansjis sagani iqneba daswavlis
iseTi saxeoba, romlis Sesaxebac, savaraudod,
meti gifiqriaT, vidre fsiqologiis kursis Seswavlas daiwyebdiT. Tu odesme mainc gifiqriaT

imaze, Tu rogor cvlis qcevas dajildoeba da


dasja, ukve erTi nabijiT win xarT operantuli
ganpirobebulobis sakiTxSi.

Sejameba
mas Semdeg, rac pavlovma SemTxveviT aRmoaCina
klasikuri ganpirobebulobis ZiriTadi principebi, mTeli Tavisi darCenili kariera im
specifikur cvladebs dauTmo, romlebic
ganpirobebulobaze axdenen gavlenas. klasikur
ganpirobebulobaSi ganupirobebeli stimuli
iwvevs refleqsur qcevas, romelsac ganupirobebeli pasuxi, reaqcia ewodeba (unconditioned response). manamde neitraluri, ganpirobebuli
stimulis ganupirobebel stimulTan Sewyvilebis Semdeg, ganpirobebuli stimuli iwvevs
ganpirobebul reaqcias. drois faqtors didi
mniSvneloba aqvs ganpirobebuli reaqciis SeZenisaTvis. stimulis generalizacias maSin aqvs
adgili, rodesac ganpirobebuli stimulis
msgavsi gamRizianebeli ganpirobebul reaqcias
iwvevs. cxovelebis gawvrTna SesaZlebelia ise,
rom maT gadalaxon generalizacia da SeZlon
Sesatyvisi da Seusatyvisi ganpirobebuli stimulis garCeva, gansxvaveba. klasikurad ganpirobebuli reaqciebis SeZena damokidebulia ganpirobebul da ganupirobebel stimulebs Soris
kontingentursa da informatiul damokidebulebaze. cxovrebiseuli magaliTebi klasikuri
ganpirobebulobisa gvxvdeba emociebis, narkotikul nivTierebebisadmi mimReblobisa da
fsiqoneiroimunologiis sferoebSi.

operantuli ganpirobebuloba: swavleba Sedegebis


Sesaxeb
davbrundeT kinoTeatrSi: saSinelebaTa filmi
damTavrda da Tqven gaWirvebiT adeqiT Tqveni
adgilidan. megobari, visTan erTadac uyureT
films, gekiTxebaT, rogor imoqmeda filmma. Tqven
pasuxobT: me viswavle, rom saSinelebaTa filmze
aRar unda wamovide~. albaT, marTali xarT, magram
ra saxis daswavlaa es? pasuxs kidev erTxel
gadavyavarT XX saukunis dasawyisSi.

operantuli ganpirobebuloba: swavlebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb

rom wamlis uaryofiTi efeqtebic ar gamovlindeba ganpirobebulobis Sedegad.


mkvlevrebs imedi aqvT, rom SeimuSaveben
teqnikas, romelic ganavrcobs da gazrdis imunur
reaqciebs klasikuri ganpirobebulobis meSveobiT.

241

suraTi

7.10

kavSiri (S-R). amgvarad, katebma iswavles iseTi


reaqciis gamovlena, (magaliTad, Rilakze an
kvanZze kawvra) romelic gansazRvruli stimulis pirobebSi (datyveveba labirinTSi) miiyvans
maT sasurvel miznamde (momentaluri Tavisufleba). gaiTvaliswineT, rom S-R kavSiris daswavla TandaTanobiT moxda da, amasTan, cdisa da
Secdomis meTodiT. etapobrivad, is qcevebi,
romelTac dadebiTi Sedegi hqondaT, gaxSirda,
isini TandaTan iqcen dominantur reaqciebad,
rodesac cxoveli kvlav xvdeboda labirinTSi.
Torndaikma am kavSirs qcevasa da mis Sedegs
Soris efeqtis kanoni uwoda: reaqcia damakmayofilebeli SedegiT iZens met albaTobas miznis
miRwevisas, vidre is reaqcia, romelic arasasurvel Sedegs iwvevs.

qcevis eqsperimentuli analizi

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

efeqtis kanoni

242

daaxloebiT imave dros, roca pavlovi muSaobda ZaRlebTan klasikur ganpirobebulobaze,


eduard Torndaiki (Edward L. Thorndike, 1898)
akvirdeboda katebs, romlebsac unda epovaT
gamosasvleli yuTi-labirinTebidan (sur. 7.10).
Torndaikma male gamoaqveyna kidec Tavisi dakvirvebebis Sedegebi da daskvnebi. Tavdapirvelad
katebi ibrZvian mxolod datyvevebis winaaRmdeg,
magram, radgan erTxel maTma romeliRac impulsurma moqmedebam gamoiwvia karis gaReba,
yvela warumatebeli da gamousadegari impulsebi
CaixSo da win wamowia mxolod isini, romelsac
SeiZleba katebi mieyvana sasurvel Sedegamde~
(Thorndike, 1898, gv. 13).
ra iswavles Torndaikis katebma? Torndaikis
analizis mixedviT, daswavla iyo asociacia
situaciis stimulsa da reaqcias Soris, romelic iswavla cxovelma, anu stimuli-reaqcia
efeqtis kanoni (Law of effect) _ daswavlis ZiriTadi kanoni, romlis mixedviTac stimulis
Zala, gamoavlinos reaqcia, Zlierdeba, rodesac
reaqcias mohyveba jildo da sustdeba, rodesac
mas ar mohyveba jildo.

skinerma aiTvisa Torndaikis Sexeduleba imis


Taobaze, rom garemo Sedegebi Zlier efeqts
axdens qcevaze. man SeimuSava kvlevis programa,
romlis mizanic iyo stimulis ganpirobebulobis sistematuri variaciebis migneba, im meqanizmisa, romelic ganapirobebs gansazRvruli
qcevis did albaTobas sxvadasxva garemo
pirobebSi.
bunebrivi monacemebi qcevis mecnierebaSi gansazRvruli qcevis gamovlinebaa
gansazRvrul dros. eqperimentuli analizi ikvlevs albaTobas sixSiris an
reaqciis xarisxis terminebiT. eqsperimentuli analizis amocanaa, aRmoaCinos yvela is cvladi, romelzec damokidebulia
reaqciis sixSire (Skinner, 1966, gv. 213-214).
skineris analizi ufro eqsperimentuli iyo,
vidre Teoriuli: Teoretikosebi xelmZRvaneloben derivaciebiTa da winaswametyvelebebiT
sakuTari Teoriebidan, magram iseTi empiristebi,
rogoric skineri iyo, eyrdnobian mxolod
realur, konkretul monacemebs. isini iwyeben
eqperimentis konteqstSi monacemebis SegrovebiT
da ar arian mijaWvulni romelime Teorias.
imisaTvis, rom qceva eqsperimentulad gaeanalizebina, skinerma ganaviTara operantuli ganpirobebulobis procedura. igi manipulirebda
organizmis Qqcevis SedegiT imisaTvis, rom miRebuli efeqti daenaxa. operantulia nebismieri

7.11

operantuli kabina
sagangebo aparatSi Rilakze daWera iwvevs sakvebis
mowodebas virTxisTvis.

qceva, romelic SemuSavebulia organizmis mier


da SeiZleba daxasiaTdes im dakvirvebadi,
konkretuli gavleniT, rasac axdens garemoze.
sityvasityviT, operantuli niSnavs garemoze
gavlenas, misiT operirebas (Skinner, 1938). operantuli qceva ar aRmocendeba gansazRvruli stimuliT, rogorc es klasikur ganpirobebulobaSia.
mtredebi kenkaven, virTxebi eZeben sakvebs,
bavSvebi tirian, zogi adamiani laparakisas
xelebs iyenebs, zogs ki ena ebmis. am qcevaTa
albaToba momavalSi SeiZleba gaizardos an
Semcirdes im Sedegebis mixedviT, rac maT
mohyveba. magaliTisaTvis, Tu bavSvi RuRuniT
aCqarebs sasurvel kontaqts mSoblebTan, samooperantuli ganpirobebuloba (Operant conditioning) _ daswavlis forma, romelSic reaqciis
albaToba icvleba Sedegebis mixedviT.
operantuli qceva (Operant Behavior) _ organizmis
mier ganxorcielebuli qceva, romelic SeiZleba
mis mier garemoSi moxdenili TvalsaCino
cvlilebis terminebiT aRiweros.
pirobiTi ganmtkiceba (Reinforcement contingency)
_ myari kavSiri reaqciasa da garemos im cvlilebebs Soris, romlebsac es reaqcia iwvevs.

pirobiTi ganmtkiceba
pirobiTi ganmtkiceba aris myari kavSiri
reaqciasa da garemos im cvlilebas Soris,
romelsac es reaqcia iwvevs.
magaliTad, warmovidginoT eqsperimenti,
romelSic mtredis mier firfitis kenkvas
(reaqcia) mohyveba marcvlebis miwodeba (Sesabamisi cvlileba garemoSi). es myari kavSiri
anu pirobiTi ganmtkiceba, Cveulebriv, iwvevs
kenkvis intensivobis gazrdas. imisaTvis, rom
gavzardoT mxolod kenkvis qcevis sixSire,
marcvlebi unda mivawodoT mxolod kenkvis
Semdeg. miwodeba unda moxdes mkacrad kenkvis
gansazRvruli periodis Semdeg da ara Tavis
mitrialebisa da daxris qcevebis Semdeg.
skineris Sromaze dayrdnobiT, Tanamedrove
bihevioraluri analizi cdilobs, qceva axsnas

operantuli ganpirobebuloba: swavlebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb

suraTi

mavlod igi ufro mets iRuRunebs. operantuli


ganpirobebuloba amgvarad cvlis sxvadasxva
operantuli qcevis albaTobas imdenad, ramdenadac isini, faqtobrivad, garemo Sedegebis
funqciebad gvevlinebian.
Tavisi axali eqsperimentuli analizis gasagrZeleblad, skinerma Seqmna aparati, romlis
meSveobiTac is akontrolebda qcevis Sedegs.
mis mier Seqmnili operantuli kabina gamosaxulia suraTze 7.11 da naCvenebia, agreTve, rogor
funqcionirebs is. rodesac virTxa gamoimuSavebs
qcevis im meqanizms, romelic eqperimentators
aqvs gansazRvruli, virTxa aWers Rilaks da
sanacvlod iRebs sakvebs. es meqanizmi saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevars, ikvlios is cvladebi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen daswavlaze
an dauswavlelobaze. magaliTad, Tuki Rilakis
daWeriT virTxa mxolod im SemTxvevaSi miiRebs
sakvebs, roca kabinas Semouvlis (Seipingis
procesiT, romelsac mogvianebiT SevexebiT), is
swrafad iswavlis, rom Rilakis daWeramde kabinas unda Semouaros.
operantul eqsperimentebSi did interess
iwvevs is periodi, romlis ganmavlobaSic
cxovels SeiZleba gansazRvruli qcevis paterni
axsovdes. mkvlevrebma Caiweres paterni da misi
yoveli gamovlena eqperimentis ganmavlobaSi.
es meTodologia saSualebas miscemda skiners,
gaerkvia pirobiTi ganmtkicebis efeqti cxovelis
qcevaze.

243

pirobiTi ganmtkicebis konteqstSi. modiT, ufro


axlos gavecnoT imas, Tu ra iqna aRmoCenili
am pirobiT ganmamtkiceblebTan dakavSirebiT.

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

dadebiTi da uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba

244

davuSvaT, SegipyroT ideam, rom Tqveni virTxa


galiaSi wreze arbeninoT. aseTi qcevis sixSiris
gasazrdelad saWiroa ganmamtkiceblis gamoyeneba. ganmamtkicebeli aris nebismieri stimuli,
romelic myaradaa qcevasTan dakavSirebuli da
zrdis am qcevis gamovlenis sixSires droTa
ganmavlobaSi. dasja aris damsjelis miwodeba
garkveul reaqciaze.
ganmamtkiceblebi yovelTvis empiriuladaa
gansazRvruli im efeqtis mixedviT, romelsac
is qcevis sixSiris albaTobaze axdens. Tu Tqven
irgvliv samyaros gadaxedavT, aRmoaCenT stimulTa sam klass: (1) stimuli, romlis mimarTac
neitralurad xarT ganwyobili; (2) stimuli,
romelic gizidavT da (3) stimuli, romelic
aversiulia, anu cdilobT, Tavi aaridoT maT.
cxadia, rom am stimulTa klasebis Semadgenloba
gansxvavebuli iqneba TiToeuli individisaTvis.
is, Tu ra aris mimzidveli da ra aversiuli,
individualuri organizmis qceviT ganisazRvreba. magaliTad, marwyvi. miuxedavad imisa, rom
marwyvi saerTod gemrielad iTvleba, zogierTi
mas saWmelad uvargisad Tvlis. Tu aseT adamians
SesTavazebT marwyvs, konkretul qcevaze pasuxad
miiRebT principulad gansxvavebul Sedegs,
vidre maSin, marwyvi moyvaruls rom SesTavazoT.
movlenas, rodesac qcevas sasargeblo stimulis miwodeba mohyveba, dadebiTi ganmtkiceba
ewodeba. virTxa Semouvlis yuTs, Tuki am qcevis
ganmamtkicebeli (Reinforcer) _
dadebiTi ganmtkiceba (Positive reinforcement) _
uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba (Negative reinforcement)) _
iwvevs.
operatiuli Caqroba (Operant extinction

Sedegi iqneba sakvebis miwodeba. adamianebi


kvlavac mohyvebian anekdotebs, Tuki amis Sedegad
miiReben xalxis sicilsa da aRfrTovanebas,
rac, Tavis mxriv, maT siamovnebas aniWebs. movlenas, rodesac qcevas aversiuli stimulis
CamoSoreba mohyveba, uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba
ewodeba. magaliTad, adamiani, romelsac marwyvi
ar uyvars, ganaxorcielebs qcevas, romelic mas
aaridebs marwyvis Wamas. qolgis gamoyeneba wvimis
dros imisaTvis, rom ar davsveldeT, klasikuri
magaliTia uaryofiTi ganmtkicebis efeqtisa.
am SemTxvevaSi aversiuli stimulia dasveleba.
qolgis gamoyenebiT ki Cven Tavidan vicilebT
mas.
manqanis usafrTxoebis Rvedis signalic, erTgvarad, uaryofiTi ganmamtkiceblis funqcias
asrulebs; misi damamcirebeli, Semawuxebeli
xmis gaCereba SeiZleba, Tu mZRoli Rveds
gadaiWers.
imisaTvis, rom cxadad gavarCioT erTmaneTisgan dadebiTi da uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba,
davimaxsovroT Semdegi kanonzomiereba: orive
dadebiTi da uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba zrdis
im reaqciis albaTobas, romelic win uswrebs
maT. dadebiTi ganmtkiceba zrdis reaqciis
albaTobas sasargeblo stimulis miwodebiT,
xolo uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba akeTebs imaves,
oRond sapirispiro meqanizmiT, aversiuli stimulis CamocilebiT, SemcirebiT an SeferxebiT.
gavixsenoT, rom klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi
Tu ganupirobebeli stimuli aRar mogvewodeba,
ganpirobebuli reaqcia TandaTan qreba. igive
kanonzomiereba ZalaSia operantuli ganpirobebulobis SemTxvevaSi: Tu ganmamtkicebeli
mcirdeba an saerTod Camocilebulia, adgili
aqvs operantul Caqrobas. amgvarad, Tuki qceva
aRar iwvevs mosalodnel efeqtsa da Sedegs, is
brundeba im doneze, romelzec iyo operantul
ganpirobebulobamde. sakuTar Tavze dakvirvebisas
araa Zneli, aRmovaCinoT qcevebi, romlebic
garkveuli periodi ganmtkicebuli iyo da Semdeg
Caqra. Tu gqoniaT SemTxveva, rom telefonis
aparatSi fulis Cagdebisas moneta gaWedila,
ver gilaparakiaT da dagirtyamT avtomatisTvis?
Tuki am dros fuli Cavardeba avtomatSi, Tqven
sxva drosac gaimorebT imave qcevas, radgan man
erTxel ukve moitana Sedegi. magram momavalSi,
Tuki Tqveni cda uSedegod dasrulda, es qcevac
Caqreba.

albaT icnobT qcevis Caqrobis sxva teqnikasac


dasjas. damsjelia nebismieri stimuli,
romelic droTa ganmavlobaSi amcirebs ama Tu
im reaqcias. dasja aris damsjelis miwodeba,
rasac mohyveba reaqcia. dadebiTi da uaryofiTi
dasja iseve SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT, rogorc
dadebiTi da uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba. rodesac
qcevas moyveba aversiuli stimuli, movlenas
ewodeba dadebiTi dasja (dadebiTi SegiZlia
daimaxsovroT, rogorc raRac, rac situacias
emateba). magaliTad, cxeli Rumelis Sexeba iwvevs
tkivils, rac sjis~ masze adre aRmocenebul
qcevas, amitom momavalSi nakleb savaraudoa,
rom cxel Rumels xeliT SeexoT. movlenas,
rodesac qcevas moyveba sasargeblo, sasurveli
stimulis Camocileba, uaryofiT dasjas vuwodebT (uaryofiTi SegiZliaT daimaxsovroT,
rogorc raime, rac akldeba situacias). amgvarad,
rodesac mSobeli sjis bavSvs imisTvis, rom
man daartya patara Zmas, bavSvi swavlobs, rom
meored Zmas aRar unda daartyas. romeli dasja
xsnis, ratom aRar gindaT saSinelebaTa filmis
naxva?
miuxedavad imisa, rom dasja da ganmtkiceba
Zalian axlos mdgomi cnebebia, isini mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan. amaze,
pirvel rigSi, is migvaniSnebs, rom maT sxvadasxva
terminebiT aRvniSnavT. gansazRvrebis mixedviT,
dasja yovelTvis amcirebs qcevas, gantkiceba
ki yovelTvis zrdis mas. magaliTad, zogierT
adamians awuxebs Tavis mwvave tkivili, Tu miiRo
kofeinis Semcveli sasmeli. Tavis tkivili aris
stimuli, romelic dadebiTad sjis yavis dalevis
qcevas. Tumca, Tavis tkivilis dros xalxi
xSirad mimarTavs wamlebs tkivilis Casaqrobad.
wamlis efeqti aris stimuli, romelic uaryofiTad ganamtkicebs wamlis miRebas (sur. 7.12).

diskriminaciuli stimuli da
ganzogadeba
nakleb savaraudoa, qcevis albaTobis Secvla
yovelTvis gvindodes an gvWirdebodes. SeiZleba
qcevis albaTobis Secvla dagvWirdes konkretul
konteqstSi. magaliTad, xSirad gvinda gavzardoT
imis albaToba, rom bavSvi wynarad ijdeba
saklaso oTaxSi gakveTilis ganmavlobaSi.
konkretuli asociaciebiT, dasjis an ganmtki-

cebis meSveobiT gansazRvruli stimuli,


romelic win uswrebs reaqcias diskriminaciul
stimuls qmnis am qcevis konteqsts. organizmi
swavlobs, rom raime stimulis TandaswrebiT
mis qcevas gansazRvruli efeqti aqvs garemoze.
magaliTad, quCaSi mwvane Suqis anTebisas
ganmtkicebulia quCis gadakveTa; magram rodesac
anTia wiTeli, aseTi qceva SeiZleba daisajos
amas SeiZleba Sedegad mohyves jarima an
ubeduri SemTxveva. skinerma SeimuSava stimuliqceva-Sedegi formula, rogorc sampirobiani
albaToba (contigency, ix. cxrili 7.1) da Tvlida,
rom swored es formula xsnida adamianis
qmedebis did nawils (Skinner, 1953). cxrilSi 7.1
aRwerilia, Tu rogor SeiZleba sampirobianma
albaTobam axsnas sxvadasxva ramdenime tipis
qceva.
laboratoriul pirobebSi qcevis SedegebiT
manipulirebiT, diskriminaciuli stimulis
miwodebiT SegviZlia vakontroloT qceva.
magaliTad, mtreds SeiZleba mivawodoT sakvebi
diskis kenkvisas mxolod mwvane Suqis da ara
wiTeli Suqis anTebis SemTxvevaSi. mwvane Suqi
am SemTxvevaSi diskriminaciuli stimulia,
romelic sazRvravs im SemTxvevas, roca mtredma
unda akenkos, xolo wiTeli Suqi aris diskriminaciuli stimuli, romelic sazRvravs im
SemTxvevas, roca mtredma ar unda akenkos.
organizmi swrafad swavlobs pirobebis garCevas,
reagirebs regularulad mxolod erT stimulze
da ar reagirebs meoreze. sampirobiani albaTobis
komponentebis kontroliT SegviZlia qceva
konkretul konteqstSi CavsvaT.
damsjeli (Punisher) nebismieri stimuli, romelic amcirebs reaqciis sixSires.
dadebiTi damsjeli (Positive Punishment) qcevas
mohyveba aversiuli stimuli, romelic amcirebs
qcevis albaTobas.
uaryofiTi damsjeli (Negative Punishment) qcevas
mohyveba sasurveli stimulis Camocileba, riTac
mcirdeba am qcevis albaToba.
diskriminaciuli stimuli (Discriminative Stimulus) stimuli, romelic moaswavebs ganmtkicebas,
radgan konkretuli qceva dadebiTad iyo ganmtkicebuli.
sampirobiani albaToba (Three Term Coningency)
meqanizmi, romliTac organizmi swavlobs, rom
konkretuli stimulis SemTxvevaSi misi qceva
gavlenas moaxdens garemoze.

operantuli ganpirobebuloba: swavlebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb

dadebiTi da uaryofiTi dasja

245

suraTi

7.12

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

operantuli ganpirobebuloba Tqvens


cxovrebaSi

246

organizmi, agreTve, ganazogadebs reaqcias


sxva stimulzec, romelic diskriminaciuli
stimulis msgavsia. Tuki erTxel reaqcia
ganmtkicda diskriminaciuli stimuliT, msgavsi
stimulic SeiZleba iqces diskriminaciul
stimulad da igive reaqcia gamoiwvios. magaliTad, mtredebi, romlebic gawvrTnes, rom diski
mxolod mwvane Suqis SemTxvevaSi unda ekenkaT,
mainc akenkaven gansxvavebuli tonis mwvane Suqis
SemTxvevaSic. analogiurad, Cven ganvazogadebT
mwvanis sxvadasxva tonebs SuqniSanze.

ganmtkicebis albaTobis gamoyeneba


Tu mzad xarT, rom Tqveni codna samuSaod
gamoiyenoT, gaiTvaliswineT Semdegi rCevebi:
rogor gansazRvravdiT im qcevas, romelic
gindaT, rom ganamtkicoT an CaaqroT?
amisaTvis mizanSi amoiReT specifikuri
qceva, romlis sixSiris Secvlac gindaT.

rodesac ganmamtkiceblebi ar arian pirobiTi, maSin maT naklebi efeqti aqvT


qcevaze. magaliTad, Tuki mSobeli kargi
saqcielisTvis iseve aqebs Svils, rogorc
cudi saqcielisTvis, bavSvi ar iswavlis
kargad moqcevas, Tumca, dadebiTi ganmtkicebis gamo, SeZleba gaizardos sxva
qcevebis sixSire (ra qcevebi SeiZleba iyos
es?).
rogor unda gansazRvroT konteqsti,
romelSic qceva adekvaturi an araadekvaturia? gvaxsovdeT, rom iSviaTad
gvinda qcevis yvela aspeqtisa da gamovlenis Secvla. gavixsenoT magaliTi, romelSic mSobels undoda bavSvis sasurveli qcevis gazrda klasSi. am SemTxvevaSi
unda ganvsazRvroT diskriminaciuli stimuli da vikvlioT, ramdenad farTod iqneba sasurveli reaqcia ganzogadebuli
msgavs stimulze. Tu, magaliTad, bavSvma

cxrili

7.1

sampirobiani albaToba: damokidebuleba diskriminaciul stimuls, qcevasa da


Sedegs Soris
reaqcia

Sedegi

iswavla klasSi wynarad jdoma, ganzogaddeba Tu ara es qceva sxva seriozul


situaciebSic?
gangimtkicebiaT Tu ara raime qceva SemTxveviT? davuSvaT, gsurT romelime qcevis
Caqroba. sanam mimarTavT dasjis meqanizms,
rogorc qcevis Semcirebis saSualebas
(ufro dawvrilebiT seqciaSi fsiqologia
Cvens cxovrebaSi~), unda SeamowmoT, SegiZliaT Tu ara moZebnoT ganmamtkiceblebi
am qcevisTvis. Tu SeZlebT, moaxerxebT,
rom am ganmamtkiceblebis SezRudviT mocemuli qceva CaaqroT. warmoidgineT,
magaliTad, rom axalgazrda ymawvili avlens didi raodenobiT tantrums. hkiTxeT sakuTars Tavs: me xom ar ganvamtkice
es tantrumebi, rodesac zedmet yuradRebas
vaqcevdi mis kivils?~ Tu asea, tantrumis
Semcireba ganmtkicebis SemcirebiT SegiZ-

operantuli ganpirobebuloba: swavlebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb

diskriminaciuli
stimuli

247

fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi

afuWebs Tu ara bavSvs dausjeloba?

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

gjeraT Tu ara, rom ,,gauwkeplaoba bavSvs afuWebs~, anu


bavSvebi, romlebic zogjer
mainc ar gaiwkeplebian, sabolood gafuWdebian? Tu Tqven
am gamonaTqvamis gjeraT, Tqven
emsgavsebiT amerikel mSobelTa
umetesobas. 991 amerikeli mSoblidan 35%-ma aRiara fizikuri
dasjis (magaliTad, mityepa,
Semortyma) gamoyeneba Tavis 1-2
wlis SvilebTan, xolo 94%
iyenebda fizikur dasjas Tavis
3-4 wlis asakis bavSvebTan (Straus & Stewart;1999). mSobelTa sxva,
449-kacian jgufSi mSoblebis
93% TviTon isjebodnen bavSvobaSi fizikurad da 87% eTanxmeboda dasjis am formas (Buntain-Ricklefs et al;1994). Tqven xedavT,
rom mityepa sakmaod xSirad
dasjis meTodia da adamianebi,
ZiriTadad, iyeneben mas, rogorc
dasjis formas, magram ra aris
dasjis am formis Sedegi?
mkvlevrebma daiwyes amaze
pasuxis gacema im SesaZlo kavSiris ZiebiT, rac mSoblebis
mier fizikuri dasjis gamoyenebasa da bavSvis agresiul qce-

248

vas Soris iyo. xalxuri sibrZnis sawinaaRmdegod, bevri


Teoritikosis azriT, Tu mSoblebi iyeneben fizikur agresias
Svilebis winaaRmdeg, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu is gamoiyeneba
araSesatyvisi qcevis Sesacvlelad, agresia gvevlineba bavSvebisaTvis qcevis modelad, rac
situaciurad sxva individebis
qcevis kontrolSi vlindeba. ase
rom, savaraudod, bavSvebi sakuTari mSoblebisgan swavloben
fizikuri agresiis gamoyenebas
(Cven ufro mets vityviT modelirebiT swavlis Sesaxeb mogvianebiT, TavSi ,,dakvirvebiT
swavla~). rogor gamovikvlioT
es hipoTeza?
erT-erT kvlevaSi, sadac indianasa da tenesis 273 sabavSvo
baRis aRsazrdeli monawileobda, mSoblebs sTxoves, SeevsoT kiTxvari imis Sesaxeb,
Tu fizikuri dasjis ra formebs iyenebdnen sakuTar bavSvebTan mimarTebaSi (Strassberg
et al;1994). aqcenti bavSvebis dedebze iyo gakeTebuli. bavSvebis
6%-s hyavda dedebi, romlebic

liaT. ukeTesia, Caqrobis kombinireba dadebiT ganmtkicebasTan.


qceviTi analitikosebi askvnian, rom nebismieri qceva, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba Caqrobas,
jer kidev eqvemdebareba ganmtkicebas. nebismieri
qceva, amtkiceben isini, rac unda ucnauri an
sasacilo iyos, SeiZleba avxsnaT ganmtkicebiT.
magaliTad, fsiqikuri aSlilobebis simptomebi
zogjer imitom narCundeba, rom adamiani iRebs
yuradRebas, TanagrZnobas da Tavisufldeba
Cveulebrivi pasuxismgeblobebisgan, rac ganmtkicebaa da meti araferi. es meoradi sargebeli
ganamtkicebs iracionalur da, zogjer, TviTdes-

arasodes iyenebdnen fizikur


dasjas. 68% bavSvebisa ityipebodnen dedebis mier. danarCeni
26% ki ufro intensiurad isjeboda fizikurad, dedebi maT
an muStebiT urtyamdnen, an
mujlugunebs wahkravdnen
xolme.
dedebis gamokiTxvidan 6
Tvis Semdeg, daakvirdnen am
bavSvebis urTierTobas TanatolebTan. mkvlevrebma daafiqsires bavSvebis agresia
Tanatolebis mimarT. magaliTad, roca isini brazdebodnen, dascinodnen an
scemdnen maT. TiToeuli bavSvi saaTobrivad iRebda qulas
agresiuli qcevisaTvis. rac
ufro intensiur dasjas axorcielebdnen mSoblebi, miT
ufro agresiulebi iyvnen maTi
Svilebi. es monacemebi gvarwmunebs, rom bavSvebi agresiul qcevas TavianTi mSoblebisgan daiswavlian. Tqven
SeiZleba ifiqroT, rom es
bavSvebi SeiZleba TavisTavad
iyvnen agresiulebi. sxva kvleva gviCvenebs, rom es ase ar

truqciul qcevas. Tu SegimCneviaT, rogoraa


ganmtkicebuli morcxvobis qceva, miuxedavad
imisa, rom morcxv adamians sulac ar unda,
iyos morcxvi. ra Tqma unda, SeuZlebelia, yovelTvis davadginoT, ra ganmamtkicebeli moqmedebs
garemodan ama Tu im qcevaze. Tumca, rodesac
qceva xdeba metad an naklebad albaTuri,
SegiZliaT cotaodeni qceviTi analizis Catarebac scadoT.
rekomendebulia, rom, rac SeiZleba met SemTxvevaSi, qcevis Sesacvlelad gamoviyenoT
dadebiTi ganmtkiceba. vnaxoT, rogor SeiZleba
avamoqmedoT sxvadasxva sagnebi da aqtivobebi,
rogorc ganmamtkiceblebi.

jgufebSi: depresia, suicidi,


alkoholizmi, sakuTari bavSvebis mimarT fizikuri Seuracxyofa, (kacebTan) colebis
cema. mkvlevrebma daaskvnes, rom
nebismieri fizikuri dasjis
gamoyenebis Sewyveta mniSvnelovan faqtorad gvevlineba
bavSvTa fizikuri Seuracxyofis,
depresiis, suicidis da alkoholizmis pirvelad prevenciaSi~ (gv. 558).
Cven gvjera, konkretuli magaliTebiT dagarwmuneT, rom bavSvebis gatyepa ar aris Sesatyvisi an efeqturi aRzrdis
strategia. aRsaniSnavia, rom
Cveni mizani ar aris nebismieri
dasjis akrZalva. SesaZloa,
arsebobdes situaciebi, sadac
bavSvis arasasurveli qcevis
SemaCereblad mxolod dasja
gvevlineba. kvleva gviCvenebs,
rom dasja unda iTvaliswinebdes garkveul pirobebs (Walters & Grusec, 1977).
dasja unda iyos:

swrafi da xanmokle;
unda gamoiyenoT imwamsve,
rogorc ki reaqcias aqvs
adgili;
intensivoba unda iyos limitirebuli;

ganmamtkicebelTa Tvisebebi
ganmamtkiceblebi operantuli ganpirobebulobis energiis brokerebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos
isini cvlian an inarCuneben qcevas. ganmamtkiceblebs bevri saintereso da kompleqsuri
Tviseba aqvT. isini SeiZleba daswavlil iqnen
gamocdilebis Sedegad da ar iyvnen biologiurad ganpirobebuli da, SesaZloa, mogvevlinon
aqtivobebad da ara raime sagnebad. zog SemTxvevaSi, Cveuli Zlieri ganmamtkicebeli, SesaZloa, ar aRmoCndes sakmarisi imisaTvis, raTa
dominanturi qceva Seicvalos (aseT SemTxvevaSi

es unda iyos pasuxi specifikur arasasurvel


qcevaze da arasodes _
p i r o v n u l
maxasiaTebelze;

limitirebuli unda
iyos im situaciis
Sesatyvisad, sadac
reaqcias aqvs adgili;
Sedgebodes dasjisagan
da ara _ fizikuri
tkivilisagan.
ufrTxildiT: sakmaod xSirad, mizezi, ris gamoc bevri
mSobeli dasjas iyenebs, aris
is, rom dauyovnebliv wydeba
bavSvis arasasurveli qceva.
mSobeli aRwevs ra Tavis
xanmokle mizans, imavdroulad, bavSvis myiseuli reaqcia ganamtkicebs mSoblis
damsjelobiT qcevas (Grant &
Evans, 1994), magram Sedegi
aseTia _ ,,xanmokle sargebeli,
xangrZlivi tkivili~. mSoblebma moTmineba unda gamoiCinon da Tavi Seikavon xanmokle ganmtkicebisagan sakuTari
Svilebis Soreuli interesebis gamo.

vityviT, rom qcevis Sedegebi ar yofila realuri


ganmamtkiceblebi).

pirobiTi ganmamtkiceblebi
roca am qveyanas moevlineT, auracxeli pirveladi ganmamtkicebeli dagxvdaT, magaliTad,
wyali da saWmeli, romelTa ganmamtkicebluri
Taviseburebani bunebiT iyo gansazRvruli.
droTa ganmavlobaSi bunebrivi stimuli asocirda pirvelad ganmamtkicebelTan da axla, rogorc pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeli, ise gvevlineba
operantuli reaqciebis dros. faqtobrivad,
adamianis qcevis umetes wilze gavlenas xSirad

operantuli ganpirobebuloba: swavlebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb

a r i s ( Chess & Thomas; 1984).


savaraudod, simarTlis marcvali, SesaZloa, imaSic iyos, rom
,,cudi~ bavSvebi ufro xSirad
imsaxureben fizikur dasjas. es
kvleva cxadyofs, rom fizikuri
dasja ar gvaZlevs sasurvel
Sedegs da ver aswavlis ,,cud~
bavSvebs imas, Tu rogor gaxdnen
ukeTesebi (Mahoney et al; 2000).
Tu Cven jer kidev ver dagarwmuneT, rom fizikuri dasja
araswori strategiaa mSoblebis
mxridan, modiT ganvixiloT kidev erTi kvlevis Sedegebi.
analizi dafuZnebulia erT-erTi mizanmimarTuli proeqtis
monacemebze, romelic ikvlevda 6002 amerikul ojaxs, raTa
SeeswavlaT maTi ojaxuri Zaladobis Sedegebi. am kvlevaSi
mecnierebi dainteresebulni
iyvnen gardatexis asakis bavSvebze ganxorcielebuli fizikuri dasjis gavleniT maT
momaval cxovrebaze (Straus &
Kantor; 1994). Sedegebi sakmaod
dramatuli gamodga. mokled
rom vTqvaT, 50% aRiarebda, rom
maT fizikurad sjidnen Tineijerobisas (58% _ biWi, 44% _
gogo). maT, visac sjidnen, mogvianebiT hqondaT problemebi.
isini Semdeg xvdebodnen risk

249

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

250

sxvadasxva tipis pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeli


axdens da iSviaTad _ biologiuri pirveladi
ganmamtkicebeli. fuli, niSnebi, mxardaWeris
gamomxatveli Rimili, oqrosferi varskvlavebi
da bevri sxva simbolo im pirobiT ganmamtkicebelTa ricxvSi Sedis, romlebic Cvens qcevas
gansazRvraven.
faqtobrivad, nebismieri stimuli SeiZleba
iqces pirobiT ganmamtkiceblad, Tu is pirvelad
stimuls dauwyvildeba. erT eqsperimentSi
gamoyenebuli iyo martivi Jetonebi cxovelTa
swavlebis dros.
maswavleblebma da eqsperimentatorebma daadgines, rom pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeli ufro martivi gamosayenebelia da gacilebiT efeqturicaa,
vidre pirveladi ganmamtkicebeli. vinaidan: (1)
ramodenime pirveladi ganmamtkicebeli yovelTvisaa klasSi maSin, roca nebismieri stimulis
gamovlena, romelsac maswavlebeli akontrolebs, SesaZloa gamoyenebul iqnes pirobiT
ganmamtkiceblad; (2) swrafad SeiZleba maTi
gacema; (3) isini advilad gadasatania; (4) maTi
ganmtkicebis efeqti ufro swrafia, radgan is
damokidebulia ganmamtkiceblis miRebaze da ara
biologiur ganpirobebulobaze, rogorc es
pirveladi ganmamtkiceblis drosaa.
zogierT dawesebulebaSi, magaliTad, fsiqiatriul saavadmyofoSi an narkologiur dispanserSi, Jetonebis ekonomika am principebs emyareba.
sasurveli qcevebi (magaliTad, medikamentis
miReba) kargad ganimarteba da roca es qceva
gamovlindeba, Jetonis saxiT sazRauri gaicema
momsaxure personalis mier. mogvianebiT, es
Jetonebi pacientma SeiZleba gadacvalos sxva
tipis jildoze an privilegiaze (Kazdin, 1994;
Martin& Pear,1999). ganmamtkicebelTa es sistema
gansakuTrebiT efeqturia pacientis qcevis
modificirebisTvis Tavis movlis qcevis TvalsazrisiT; gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania maTi
pozitiuri socialuri urTierTobebis gazrdis
TvalsazrisiT.
pirveladi ganmamtkicebeli (Primary reinforcers) _
biologiurad gansazRvruli ganmamtkicebeli
_ saWmeli da wyali.
pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeli (Conditioned reinforcers) klasikuri ganpirobebulobis mixedviT
yofili neitraluri stimuli, romelic ganmamtkiceblad iqca.

saidan
viciT
pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeli
SimpanzeebisTvis
Simpanzeebs aswavles problemis gadawyveta qiSmiSis, rogorc pirobiTi ganmamtkiceblis gamoyenebiT. Semdeg qiSmiSi
JetonebiT Caanacvles. rogorc ki Jetonebi
gamoCnda, maimunebma moTminebiT daiwyes
muSaoba sakuTari ,,fulis~ mosapoveblad.
maT mogvianebiT SeeZloT, gadaecvalaT
Jetonebi qiSmiSze (Cowles; 1937).

savaraudo aqtivobebi, rogorc


dadebiTi ganmamtkiceblebi
davuSvaT, rom Tqven gsurT bavSvs raRac
gaakeTebinoT; ar gindaT, mas gadauxadoT an
misceT oqros varskvlavi da amitom sTavazobT
garigebas: ,,roca saSinao davalebas daasruleb,
SegiZlia kompiuteruli TamaSi iTamaSo~. Tqven
mier gamoyenebuli ,,kompiuteruli TamaSi~

saidan
viciT
bavSvebi imuSaveben imisaTvis, rom
iTamaSon
Caatares kvleva, romlis drosac klasSi
gamoyofili iyo droiTi intervalebi, roca bavSvebi mSvidad uyurebdnen dafas da
zogjer esmodaT zaris xma. zaris xmas
mohyveboda instruqcia: gaiqeciT da iyvireT~.Mmoswavleebi dauyovnebliv wamoxtebodnen da darbodnen klasSi, yvirodnen
da erTobodnen. ramdenime wuTSi Semdegi
signali afrTxilebda maT, rom dabrunebuliyvnen TavianT adgilebze. mogvianebiT
bavSvebs aZlevdnen Jetonebs dabali
sixSiris qcevis maTematikis mecadineobisTvis. bavSvebs Jetonebi saSualebas
aZlevda, CarTuliyvnen SedarebiT maRali
aqtivobis qcevaSi, rogoricaa saTamaSoebiT TamaSi. am tipis proceduriT kontroli SesaniSnavad ganxorcielda ramodenime dReSi (homme et al,1963).
sxva tipis saklaso programa, sadac maswavleblebis mier xSirad gamoiyeneboda dasja, cema
da yvirili, Cavarda.

axla xedavT, Tu rogor SeiZleba gamoiyenoT


premakis principi dabali sixSiris qcevaSi
bavSvebis CasarTavad. socialurad aqtiuri
bavSvisaTvis amxanagebTan TamaSi ganamtkicebs
davalebis Sesrulebis naklebad sasiamovno
qcevas. morcxvi bavSvisTvis ki axali wignis
wakiTxva SeiZleba gamoviyenoT sxva bavSvebTan
TamaSis qcevis ganmamtkiceblad. nebismieri
aqtivoba SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes ganmamtkiceblad da es zrdis imis albaTobas, rom miRweul iqneba im qcevis sixSiris mateba, rac
konkretul SemTxvevaSi naklebad albaTuria.

ganmamtkicebelTa cxrilebi
ra xdeba maSin, roca Tqven ar gindaT, rom
Tqvens Sinaur cxovels ganumtkicoT raime
konkretuli qceva? axalgazrda skiners mouwia
Tavis laboratoriaSi erTi kviriT yofna ise,
rom ar hqonda sakmarisi kvebiTi ganmamtkicebeli
Tavisi mSromeli virTxebisaTvis. is ekonomias
akeTebda da virTxebs saWmlis natexebs raRac
intervaliT aZlevda. miuxedavad imisa, Tu
ramdenjer daaWerdnen isini TaTs Rilaks, met
sakvebs veRar iRebdnen. aRmoCnda, rom virTxebi
ufro metad reagirebdnen am parcialur ganmamtkicebelTa formaze, vidre mudmivmoqmed ganmtkicebaze. rogor fiqrobT, ra mouvidaT cxovelebs, roca isini qcevis Caqrobis safrTxis
winaSe aRmoCndnen da meti saWmeli aRar iyo?
is virTxebi, romelTa qcevac ufro iSviaTad
ganmtkicdeboda, gacilebiT intensiurad aWerdnen GTaTs Rilaks, vidre isini, romlebsac
ganmamtkicebeli yovel jerze eZleodaT.
skineri, raRac, Zalian mniSvnelovans miuaxlovda.
am parcialuri ganmamtkiceblis efeqturobam
migviyvana kvlevamde ganmamtkicebelTa gansxvavebuli intensivobiT miwodebis Sesaxeb (ix.
sur. 7.13). Tqven TviTon gangicdiaT ganmamtkiceblis gansxvavebuli efeqtis roli sakuTar
cxovrebaSi. roca Tqven xels swevT klasSi,
maswavlebeli xan giZaxebT da xan _ ara. realur
cxovrebaSi an laboratoriaSi ganmamtkicebeli
SeiZleba miwodebul iqnes rogorc proporciuli ganmamtkiceblis forma ramdenime
konkretuli reaqciis Semdeg; an ganmamtkicebeli
intervalebiT roca ganmtkiceba drois raRac

operantuli ganpirobebuloba: swavlebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb

mocemul situaciaSi premakis principad gvevlineba, romelic david premakma (David Premak)
1965 wels aRmoaCina. premakis mixedviT, ufro
metad albaTuri aqtivoba (qceva, romelsac Cveul
garemoSi gamovlenis meti albaToba aqvs),
SesaZloa, gamoviyenoT naklebad albaTuri
qcevis ganmamtkiceblad. Tavis sawyis kvlevaSi
premakma aRmoaCina, rom wyliT deprivirebulma
virTxebma savarjiSo borblis datrialebis
mizniT sirbili iswavles maSin, roca am aqtivobas wylis daleva mohyveboda da, piriqiT,
savarjiSoTi deprivirebuli virTxebi zrdidnen
wylis smis qcevas. premakis mixedviT, ganmamtkiceblad organizmisTvis mniSvnelovani nebismieri qceva an aqtivoba SeiZleba mogvevlinos.
premakis principi xSirad gamoiyeneba gansakuTrebiT bavSvTa instituciebis iseTi qcevis
sixSiris gasazrdelad, rogoricaa mSvidad jdoma da vinmes saubris mosmena. qvemoT aRwerilia
erTi klasikuri SemTxveva.

251

intervalis Semdeg gaicema. TiToeul SemTxvevaSi


SeiZleba adgili hqondes fiqsirebul an variabilur ganmtkicebas. axla Cven viciT parcialuri
ganmamtkiceblis efeqtis Sesaxeb da aRmoCnda,
rom parcialurad ganmtkicebuli qceva metad
gamZlea Caqrobis mimarT, vidre Tanmimdevrulad
ganmtkicebuli (Bitterman, 1975). modi vnaxoT, sxva
ra saintereso aRmoCenebi gaakeTes mkvlevrebma
ganmamtkicebelTa sxvadasxva cxrilebTan dakavSirebiT.

fiqsirebuli proporciis (dozis)


cxrilebi
fiqsirebuli ganmamtkiceblis cxrilebSi
ganmamtkicebeli gaicema mas Semdeg, rac organizmi gamoavlens reaqciaTa fiqsirebul odenobas. roca ganmtkicebas mohyveba erTi reaqcia,
cxrils ewodeba fiqsirebuli proporcia-1 (fp1; es aris Tanmimdevrulad ganmtkicebis cxrili).
roca ganmamtkicebeli mosdevs yovel 25-e
reaqcias, cxrils ewodeba fp-25. fiqsirebuli
suraTi

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

ganmamtkicebelTa cxrilebi (

252

7.13

fiqsirebuli ganmamtkicebeli

ganmamtkicebelTa cxrilebi

verbaluri proporcia

qcevis gansxvavebuli paternebi yalibdeba ganmamtkicebelTa oTxi cxrilis gamoyenebiT. grafikebze


arsebuli aRniSvnebi imaze miuTiTeben, Tu rodis
miewodeba ganmamtkicebeli.

fiqsirebuli intervalis cxrili (fixed-interval


schedule) ganmamtkicebelTa cxrili, romelSic
ganmamtkicebeli miewodeba fiqsirebuli drois
gasvlidan pirvelive sapasuxo reaqciisas.
cvalebadi intervalis cxrili (vaiable-interval
schedule) ganmamtkicebelTa cxrili, romelSic
ganmamtkicebeli miewodeba pirvelive pasuxisas
cvladi periodis gavlis Semdeg, romlis saSualoc winaswar gansazRvrulia.
warmatebuli miaxloebebis mixedviT Seipingi
(shaiping by successive approximations) qceviTi
meTodi, romelic ganamtkicebs im reaqciebs,
romlebic warmatebulad uaxlovdebian da
maqsimalurad axlos arian sasurvel reaqciasTan.

proporciis cxrilebi iZleva reaqciis maRal


xarisxs, radgan reaqciasa da ganmtkicebas Soris
pirdapiri korelaciaa. mtreds SeuZlia,
garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi, imdeni sakvebi
miiRos, ramdenic unda, Tu sakmarisad xSirad
akenkavs. rac ufro maRalia proporcia, miT
metia pauza TiToeuli ganmamtkiceblis Semdeg.
ganmamtkiceblis misaRebad meti sapasuxo reaqciebis miRebis moTxovniT proporciis Semcirebam im SemTxvevaSi, roca cxoveli gawvrTnili da momzadebuli ar aris amisaTvis, SeiZleba
migviyvanos Caqrobamde. bevri adamiani gayidvebis
industriaSi fp cxrilebs mimarTavs: maT manamde
unda gayidon saqonlis gansazRvruli raodenoba, vidre jamagirs aiReben.

variabiluri proporciis cxrili


variabiluri proporciis cxrilSi winaswar
gansazRvrulia ganmamtkicebelTa Soris reaqciaTa raodenoba. vp-10 cxrili niSnavs, rom

fiqsirebuli intervalis cxrili


roca saqme gvaqvs fiqsirebuli intervalis
cxrilTan, ganmamtkicebeli miewodeba pirveli
reaqciis Semdeg, anu fiqsirebuli drois gasvlis
Semdeg. FI-10 cxrilSi, magaliTad, roca subieqti
iRebs ganmtkicebas, unda gavides 10 wami, sanam
meore reaqcia ganmtkicdeba _ reaqciaTa raodenobisda miuxedavad.

cvalebadi intervalis cxrili


cvalebadi intervalis cxrilSi saSualo
intervali winaswar aris gansazRvruli. magaliTad, ci-20 cxrilSi ganmamtkicebeli miewodeba,
saSualod, yovel 20 wamSi erTxel. es forma
iwvevs saSualo siswrafiT, magram Zalian stabiluri qcevis formis Camoyalibebas. Caqroba am
dros etapobrivi da Zalian nelia. erT SemTxvevaSi mtredma 18 000-jer akenka pirveli 4
saaTis ganmavlobaSi mas Semdeg, rac ganmtkiceba
Sewyda da 168 saaTi dasWirda am qcevis srul
gaqrobas (Ferster & Skiner, 1957). SegiZliaT CaTvaloT, rom ci-20 cxrili sakuTar Tavze gaqvT
gamocdili, Tu gyoliaT leqtori, romelic
araregularulad, moulodnelad gitarebdaT
koloqviumebs. yoveldRe emzadebodiT momavali
gakveTilisaTvis?

qcevis formireba (Seipingi)


erT-erT eqsperimentSi Cven vilaparakeT virTxebze, romlebic Rilaks aWerdnen TaTs saWmlis
misaRebad. Rilakis daWera daswavlili qcevaa.
Tu mas operantul kameraSi movaTavsebT, albaT,
ar daaWers saxelurs TaTs spontanurad. virTxas
naswavli aqvs Tavisi TaTebis sxvadasxva gziT
gamoyeneba, magram saxeluri sxva dros arasodes
Camouwevia. rogor vaswavloT virTxas qcevebi,
romlebic, savaraudod, iSviaTad vlindebian?
Tqven moifiqreT ganmtkicebis gza, optimaluri
sakvebi, ganmamtkicebelTa cxrilic gaqvT (fp-1),
rogor moviqceT axla? imisaTvis, rom Tqven
aswavloT axali rTuli qceva, unda gamoiyenoT
Seipingi warmatebuli miaxloebebis mixedviT.
am dros Tqven ganamtkicebT nebismier qcevas,
romelic warmatebulia da Tanac miaxloebuli
saboloo mizanTan.
es ase keTdeba. jer unda moaxdinoT virTxis
saWmliT deprivireba erTi dRis ganmavlobaSi.
deprivaciis gareSe saWmelma SeiZleba ar imuSaos, rogorc ganmamtkicebelma. Semdeg Tqven
sistematurad aTavsebT sakvebs kabinis erT
kuTxeSi ise, rom virTxa mas xedavdes. axla Tqven
SegiZliaT daiwyoT Seipingi imiT, rom sakvebis
miwodebis sixSire daukavSiroT virTxis
specifikur qceviT reaqcias, magaliTad, karis
saxelurTan misvlas. saWmeli virTxas miewodeba
mxolod maSin, roca is ufro axlos midis karis
saxelurTan. ganmamtkicebeli ki im SemTxvevaSi
gaicema, Tu virTxa exeba mas, xolo saWmlis
misaRebad man unda saxelurs daaWiros. am dros
virTxa swavlobs, rom saxeluris Camoweva misTvis
sakvebis momtania. ase rom, SeipingisTvis Tqven
unda gansazRvroT progresis etapebi samizne qcevis Sesatyvisad da gamoiyenoT diferencirebuli
ganmtkiceba TiToeuli etapis formirebisaTvis.
axla ganvixiloT sxva SemTxveva, roca Seipingi gamoyenebul iqna patara autisti bavSvis
cxovrebis pirobebis gasaumjobeseblad.

saidan
viciT
qcevis formireba autist bavSvTan
pacienti 3 wlis biWi iyo, romelsac
dausves autizmis diagnozi. mas hqonda
normaluri socialuri da verbaluri

operantuli ganpirobebuloba: swavlebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb

saSualod yovel 10 reaqcias mohyveba ganmamtkicebeli, magram ganmtkicebas SeiZleba adgili


hqondes mxolod erTi reaqciis an 20 reaqciis
Semdeg. aseTi saxiT ganmtkicebuli qceva sakmaod
rezistentulia Caqrobis mimarT. davuSvaT, Tqven
mtredTan muSaoba daiwyeT vp-5 cxriliT da
Semdeg gadaxvediT vp-110-ze. mtredi akenkavs 12000
marcvals saaTSi da ase gagrZeldeba saaTebis
manZilze, ganmamtkicebelTa gareSec ki. azartuli TamaSebic SegviZlia vp cxrilebis kontrols daqvemdebarebulad miviCnioT. am princips
emyareba saTamaSo manqanebis principi _ masSi
monetis Cagdebis Semdeg ar iciT, rodis miiRebT
Sedegs, romelsac eliT da kvlav agdebT da
agdebT monetebs. vp cxrili gayenebT gamocanis
winaSe rodis mova jildo. Tqven gjeraT, rom
is Semdegi Tqveni reaqciis TandarTuli iqneba
da ara ufro mogvianebiT (Rachlin, 1990).

253

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

qcevis deficiti. xSirad axorcielebda


tantumebs da sakuTari Tavis damazianebel
qcevebs. kataraqtis operaciis Semdeg man
uari Tqva saTvaleebis tarebaze, rac
Zlier mniSvnelovani iyo misi mxedvelobisaTvis. pirvelad mas eZleoda kanfeti
saTamaSos Wyvitinis Semdeg. ase rom,
saWmelTan asociaciis fonze es xma pirobiTi ganmtkiceba gaxda. Semdeg treningi
gagrZelda uSuSo saTvalis CarCoTi.
Tavidan Wyvitini ismoda maSin, roca patara
saTvalis CarCos xelSi iRebda, male es
xma ismoda mas Semdeg, rac CarCo xelSi
yovndeboda, bolos _ roca bavSvs ekeTa
saTvale. nel-nela biWi jildovdebida
maSin, roca mas TvalTan axlos mihqonda
CarCo. ramodenime kviraSi bavSvma daiwyo
CarCos Tavze wamocma da male sworad
moirgo Tvalebze. treningis Semdeg etapze
bavSvma iswavla saTvalis tareba dReSi
12 saaTis ganmavlobaSi (Wolf et al., 1964).

254

axla davubrundeT Cvens virTxas. vTqvaT, Tqven


mogindaT aswavloT virTxas galiaSi wreze
sirbili. rogor gegmas ganaxorcielebdiT am
SemTxvevaSi? ra SeiZleba iyos is miaxloebuli
qceva saboloo mizanTan, romelsac Tqven
dasawyisSi ganamtkicebdiT? SesaZloa, Tqven
Tavidan ganamtkicoT saWiro mimarTulebiT Tavis
mibrunebis qcevac ki. Semdeg Tqven virTxas
saWmeli im SemTxvevaSi unda misceT, Tu is
mTel tans miabrunebs saWiro mimarTulebiT.
ras gaakeTebdiT amis Semdeg?
daswavlis ori forma ganvixileT klasikuri ganpirobebuloba da operantuli ganpirob-

ebuloba, romelTac yvelaze xSirad iyeneben


daswavlisas cxovelebTan. cdebs mecnierebi
axorcielebdnen ZaRlebze, katebze, virTxebze
da mtredebze. aRsaniSnavia, rom adamianebic
msgavs qcevas axorcieleben. saboloo jamSi,
mkvlevrebi mividnen daskvnamde, rom daswavla
bevr situaciaSi modificirdeba garkveuli
saxeobis biologiuri da kognituri SesaZleblobebiT. axla Cven gadavalT im procesebis

Sejameba
Torndaikisa da skineris mier aRmoCenili
operantuli ganpirobebulobis meTodika marTavs
organizmis qcevis Sedegebs ise, rom imoqmedos
Zireul qcevaze. dadebiTi da uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba zrdis qcevis gamovlenis albaTobas.
ganmasxvavebel stimulze muSaoba amcirebs
generalizacias samizne qcevis miRma. ganpirobebuli ganmamtkicebeli gacilebiT did gavlenas
axdens adamianis qcevaze, vidre pirveladi ganmamtkicebeli. premakis principi gvamcnobs, rom
metad albaTi aqtivoba SeiZleba iqnes gamoyenebuli naklebad albaTi aqtivobis gansamtkiceblad. ganmamtkicebelTa sxvadasxva cxrilebi
reaqciaTa gansxvavebul paternebs gansazRvraven.
Seipingi moiTxovs, rom samizne qcevasTan
warmatebulad miaxloeba diferencialurad
iqnes ganmtkicebuli.

biologia da daswavla
is Sexeduleba, rom daswavlis ZiriTadi
principebi adamianebTan da cxovelebTan msgavsia,
pirvelad ingliselma filosofosma david iumma
(David Hume) 1748 wels wamoayena. man Tqva, rom
nebismieri Teoria, romliTac Cven gagebis
operaciebs vxsniT adamianSi, raRac damatebiT
mniSvnelobas SeiZens, Tu vnaxavT, rom igive
fenomeni msgavsad aixsneba yvela danarCen
cxovelTanac~ (Hume, 1748/1951, gv.104).
am Tvalsazrisis mimzidveli simartive
kamaTis sagani gaxda, rodesac 1960-ian wlebSi
fsiqologebma aRmoaCines sxvadasxva kanonzomierebebi da SezRudvebi ganpirobebulobis
ganzogadebasTan dakavSirebiT (Bailey & Bailey, 1993;
Garcia, 1993; Todd & Morris, 1992-1993). mesame Tavidan
Tqven ukve icnobT im ideas, rom cxovelebis
ganviTareba iyo reaqcia gadarCenis saWiroebaze.
bevri sxvaoba saxeobebs Soris swored adaptaciiT SeiZleba aixsnas. zustad aseTive evoluciuri perspeqtiviT vudgebiT daswavlis
unars (Leger, 1992). daswavlis biologiuri iZu-

leba aris swored is SezRudva, rac saxeobas


memkvidreobiT gadaecema. es iZulebebi SeiZleba
gamoyenebuli iqnes cxovelTa sensorul, qceviT
da kognitur unarTa mimarTebaSi. ganvixilavT
kvlevis or sferos, romelic cxadyofs, rom
qceva-garemo kavSiri organizmis genotipiTaa
ganpirobebuli _ instinqturi swrafva da gemos
aversiiT swavla.

instinqturi swrafva
cxadia, ginaxavT cxovelebi, romlebic
aTasgvar ileTebs akeTeben. cirkSi da teleekranze. zogierTi cxoveli beisbols, pingpongs TamaSobs, zogi manqanas atarebs. wlebis
manZilze keler brelandi da marion brelandi
iyenebdnen operantuli ganpirobebulobis teqnikebs, rom gamoewvrTnaT aTasobiT sxvadasxva
saxeobis cxoveli. brelandebs sjerodaT, rom
zogadi principebi, romlebic laboratoriuli
kvlevebidan gamomdinareobda, realuradac
imuSavebda da nebismieri reaqcia an jildo
niSnavda cxovelis kontrols laboratoriis
gareT.
Tumca, wvrTnis raRac etapze zogierTi
cxoveli cudad moqcevas~ iwyebda. magaliTad,
enoti iwvrTneboda, rom aeRo moneta, Caegdo
yulabaSi da amiT gamoemuSavebina sakvebi, magram
enoti maSinve ar iRebda monetas da ori monetis
aRebis Semdeg ganpirobebuloba saerTod
wydeboda, anu enoti saerTod aRar iRebda
monetebs. samagierod, is xeliT xexavda yvela
monetas erTad, tenida yulabaSi da Semdeg iqidan
iRebda. aris Tu ara es ucnauri? enotebs xSirad
axasiaTebT xexvisa da recxvis qceva, rodesac
maT sayvarel sakvebs moipoveben niJarebidan.
amis msgavsad, rodesac Rorebs wvrTnidnen, raTa
gamomuSavebuli monetebi did yulabaSi CaeyaraT,
isini Zirs yridnen am monetebs, jer dingiT
ynosavdnen da mere haerSi agdebdnen. isev
ismis kiTxva, unda CaiTvalos Tu ara cxovelis
es qceva ucnaurad an sakvirvelad? Rorebi
zustad ase iqcevian saWmlis mopovebisas, radgan
qcevis es repertuari maT memkvidreobiT aqvT
miRebuli.
aseTma gamocdilebam daarwmuna brelandebi,
rom, miuxedavad imisa, rom raRac etapamde
cxovelebma daiswavles operantuli reaqciebi,

biologia da daswavla

ganxilvaze, romlebic daswavlis zogad kanonebs


SemosazRvraven.

255

daswavlili qceva iswrafvis instinqturi qcevisaken droTa ganmavlobaSi. am tendencias maT


instinqturi swrafva uwodes (Breland & Breland,
1951, 1961). cxovelebis qceva ar aixsneba operantuli principebiT, magram savsebiT gasagebi xdeba,
Tuki am qcevas saxeobebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli
memkvidruli qcevis paternebis konteqstSi
ganvixilavT. es tendencia cvlis qcevas, romelic
SemuSavebulia operantuli ganpirobebulobiT.
cxovelTa swavlebis kvlevaTa umetesoba fokusirebuli iyo Sesatyvisad misawvdomi stimulebisaTvis winaswari ganxilvis safuZvelze
SerCeul reaqciebze. brelandebis Teoria cxadyofs, rom SeuZlebelia daswavlis yvela aspeqtis gakontroleba. qcevebi SeiZleba metnaklebad advilad Sesacvleli iyos, rogorc
cxovelis Cveulebrivi, genetikurad daprogramebuli reaqcia garemoze. ganpirobebuloba maSin
iqneba efeqturi, rodesac samizne reaqcia biologiurad aqtualuria cxovelisaTvis. magaliTad,
ra cvlilebaa saWiro imisTvis, rom Rorma moneta yulabaSi Caagdos? Tu es qceva dawyvilebul
iqneba wylis miwodebasTan, mowyurebuli Rori
bevrad swrafad daiswavlis am rutinas.

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

gemos aversiiT daswavla

256

am wignis avtorebma ramdenime aRiareba unda


gaakeTon: erT-erT maTgans dResac zaravs Roris
xorcisa da muxudos Wamis warmodgenaze, xolo
meores zustad aseTive reaqcia aqvs popkornze.
Cven mZimed avad gavxdiT zemoT CamoTvlili
sakvebis miRebis Semdeg. nakleb savaraudoa, rom
Cven avad am sakvebis gamo gavxdiT, Tumca, aseTi
reaqcia mainc SemogvrCa. imisaTvis, rom avxsnaT
es fenomeni, mivmarToT isev cxovelebs.
daswavlis biologiuri iZuleba (Biological constraints on learning) nebismieri limiti organizmis
daswavlis SesaZleblobaze, romelic gansazRvrulia erTi saxeobis individebis memkvidruli sensorul-kognituri unarebiT.
instinqturi swrafva (Instinctual drift) _ daswavlili qcevis tendencia, droTa ganmavlobaSi
instinqtur qmedebaSi gadavides.
gemos aversiiT daswavla (Taste-aversion learning)
daswavlis biologiuri kanonzomiereba,
romelSic organizmi swavlobs avadmyofobis
gamomwvevi sakvebisagan Tavis aridebas.

davuSvaT, Tqven gTxoves, SeimuSaoT strategia


ucnobi nivTierebebis degustaciisaTvis. Tqven
rom gqondeT virTxis qcevis memkvidruli
paterni, am dros uaRresad frTxilad iqnebodiT.
rodesac isini awydebian axal sakvebs an surnels,
Zalian frTxiloben da Zalian patara raodenobas iReben gasasinjad. Tuki es nivTiereba
maT arafers dauSavebs, Semdeg ubrundebian da
miirTmeven. magram, Tu eqsperimentSi CavrTavT
iseT nivTierebas, romelic avad xdis virTxebs,
maSin isini am nivTierebas arasdros aRar miekarebian. am fenomens ewodeba gemos aversiiT daswavla. am genetikur unars _ sakvebis gasinjvas
da daswavlas, romeli sakvebia usafrTxo da
romelia toqsikuri, didi Rirebuleba aqvs.
gaixseneT Cxikvi lorenco. rogorc Cans, misTvis
Rvinis gemo aversiuli gaxda mas Semdeg, rac man
simTvraleSi~ gamoscada.
gemos aversiiT daswavla Zalze Zlieri meqanizmia. gansxvavebiT klasikuri ganpirobebulobis
sxva aspeqtebisagan, gemos aversiiT daswavla
mxolod erTjeradi dawyvilebiT xdeba. wyvildeba ganpirobebuli stimuli (axali sakvebi/
surneli) da misi Sedegi (ganupirobebli stimulis elementis, romelic, faqtobrivad, iwvevs
avadmyofobas Sedegi). es debuleba WeSmariti
rCeba didi droiTi intervalebis drosac (12
saaTi da meti, dro, romlis SualedSi virTxa
iRebs nivTierebas da avad xdeba). sabolood,
gansxvavebiT klasikurad ganpirobebuli asociaciebisagan, romlebic sakmaod myifea, gemos
aversiiT daswavla myari xdeba erTi gamocdilebis Semdegac. kidev erTxel, imisaTvis, rom
gavigoT klasikuri ganpirobebulobis normaTa
darRvevebi, unda gaiTvaliswinoT is, Tu raoden
dramatulad moiTxoven es meqanizmebi gadarCenas.
jon garsiam, fsiqologma, romelmac pirvelad
daafiqsira gemos aversiiT daswavla laboratoriaSi da misma kolegam, robert kolingma, es
fenomeni gamoiyenes imisaTvis, rom TvalsaCino
gaexadaT cxovelebis mzadyofna konkretuli
asociaciebis daswavlisaTvis. mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines, rom zogierTi ganpirobebuli stimuliganupirobebeli stimuli kombinaciebi SeiZleba
klasikurad iyos ganpirobebuli cxovelTa konkretul saxeobebSi.

saidan
viciT
stimulisa da Sedegebis Tanxvdena

miRebuli Sedegebi cxadyofs, rom virTxebs


aqvT Tandayolili unari, asociacia daamyaron
konkretul stimulsa da konkretul Sedegs
Soris (Garcia & Koelling, 1966). ganpirobebulobis
zogierTi aspeqti, aqedan gamomdinare, damokidebulia ara marto stimulsa da qcevas Soris
kavSirze, aramed imazec, Tu rogor dispozicias
avlens organizmi genetikurad am stimulis
mimarT mocemul garemoSi (Barker et al., 1978).
cxovelebs aqvT memkvidruli klasifikacia im
stimulebisa, romeli SeiZleba moaswavebdes
safrTxes da romeli jildos. amitom eqperimentatorebi, romlebic ecdebian am paternebis
darRvevas, bevrs verafers miaRweven.
mkvlevrebma gemos aversiiT daswavlis meqanizmis praqtikaSi gadmotanac scades. imisaTvis,

suraTi

7.14

Tandayolili unarebi
garsias da kolingis kvlevebma (1966) aCvena, rom
virTxebs aqvT Tandayolili unari, gansazRvruli
stimuli daakavSiron gansazRvrul SedegTan.
virTxebi eridebodnen saxarins, roca is avadmyofobas moaswavebda da ara Soks da piriqiT _
ferad wyalsac eridebodnen, radgan Soks moaswavebda da ar eridebodnen, rodesac mas avadmyofoba mohyveboda.

rom koiotebma Sewyviton cxvris xocva, jon


garsiam da misma kolegebma daawyves batknis
toqsikuri xorci, romelic gaxveuli iyo cxvris
tyavSi. toqsikuri xorciT koiotebi daavaddnen
da ganuviTardaT zizRi batknis xorcis mimarT.
amis Semdeg cxvris danaxvaze isini Setevis
magivrad ukan ixevdnen.
gemos aversiis erT-erTi yvelaze seriozuli
aspeqti Tavs iCens kiboTi daavadebul pacientebSi, romlebic veRar uZleben Cveulebriv
sakvebs qimioTerapiisa da misgan gamowveuli
gulisrevis gamo.

saidan
viciT
mkerdis simsivnis mqone pacientebSi
gemos arideba
22 qalisagan Semdgarma jgufma, romelsac dasmuli hqonda mkerdis kibos diagnozi, gviambo sakuTari kvebiTi prioritetebis Sesaxeb qimioTerapiis rva kursis
ganmavlobaSi, romelTa Sorisac Sualedi
sami kvira iyo. qalebma CamoTvales yvelaferi, rasac Wamdnen 24 saaTis manZilze

biologia da daswavla

garsiasa da kolingis eqsperimentis pirvel fazaSi virTxebi jer ecnobodnen


situacias, romelSic milis alokva iwvevda
sam ganpirobebul stimuls: saxariniT Sezavebul wyals, xmaurs da Zlier sinaTles.
meore fazaSi, rodesac virTxebi mils
lokavdnen, maTi naxevari iRebda mxolod
tkbil wyals, xolo meore naxevari
xmaurs, sinaTles da sufTa wyals. Semdeg
orive jgufi daiyo: TiToeuli jgufis
erTi naxevari moxvda eleqtruli Sokis
zemoqmedebis qveS, rac tkivils iwvevda,
xolo meore naxevari ki radiaciuli
dasxivebis qveS, rac iwvevda avadmyofobasa
da gulisrevas. wylis is raodenoba, romelic virTxebma pirvel fazaSi dalies,
Seadares meore fazaSi daleuli wylis
raodenobas. raodenoba sagrZnoblad mcirdeboda, rodesac surnelovani wyali asocirdeboda avadmyofobasTan (gemos aversia)
da rodesac xmauri da sinaTle asocirdeboda tkivilTan. Tumca, qcevaSi mxolod
patara cvlileba SeiniSneboda ori sxva
pirobis SemTxvevaSi: rodesac surneli
moaswavebda tkivils, an, rodesac Zlieri
sinaTle, xmauri da wyali moaswavebda
avadmyofobas (ix. sur. 7.14).

257

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

Terapiamde da Terapiis Semdeg. isini


ranJirebas ukeTebdnen sakvebsa da sasmels
1-dan (Zalian armowoneba) 9-mde (Zalian
mowoneba). mkvlevrebi aversiis gamovlenas
maSin aRiarebdnen, Tuki sakvebis Sefaseba
4 quliT daecemoda. aRmoCnda, rom qalebis
46%-s ganuviTarda aversia, sul mcire,
erTi sakvebis mimarT. Tumca, aversiebi,
romlebic Cndeboda Terapiis pirveli ori
kviris ganmavlobaSi, xanmokle iyo. cxadi
gaxda, rom, virTxebisagan gansxvavebiT,
pacientebi arCevdnen, rom gulisreva
Terapiis Sedegi iyo da ara sakvebisa, romlis Semdgomi gasinjvisas ganpirobebuli
aversia qreboda (Jacobsen et al., 1993).

258

imis garkveviT, rom aversia SeiZleba klasikurad iyos ganpirobebuli, mkvlevrebs SeuZliaT,
SeimuSavon amis Sesamcirebeli saSualebebi (Berstein, 1991). magaliTad, kiboTi daavadebul bavSvebs
sakvebi qimioTerapiamde miawodes. amasTan, miwodebul kanfetebs an nayins sruliad specifikuri
surneli hqonda anu aversia swored am surnelis
mimarT yalibdeboda. amgvarad, bavSvebs SeeZloT,
kvlavac eWamaT sayvareli surnelis mqone kanfeti
an nayini. mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines sxva aspeqtebic
pacientebSi, rac klasikuradaa ganpirobebuli.
bevr pacients gulisreva ewyeboda qimioTerapiis
seansis dawyebamde. is garemo da ganwyoba, romelSic isini mkurnalobdnen, ganpirobebul stimulad iqca (Tomoyasu et al., 1996). amgvari efeqtebis
safuZvlebis gaanalizeba mkvlevrebs mkurnalobis
meTodikis SemuSavebis saSualebas aZlevs. kidev
erTxel _ ganpirobebulobaSi amgvari gavlenis
efeqtebis safuZvlebis codna mkvlevrebs saSualebas aZlevs, SeimuSaon amave efeqtebis sawinaaRmdego mkurnaloba.
axla cxadi xdeba, ratom unda iyvnen Tanamedrove qceviTi analitikosebi yuradRebiT reaqciis
im tipebis mimarT, romlebic ama Tu im saxeobisaTvis ufro Sesaferisebi arian dasaswavlad
(Todd and Morris 1992). Tu Tqven gindaT moxuc ZaRls
aswavloT xrikebi, mainc ver SecvliT mis
genetikurad ganpirobebul qceviT potencials.
Cveni disciplina ar aris srulyofili, ramdenadac jer ar SevxebivarT daswavlis iseT formebs,
romlebic umaRles kognitur procesebs moiTxoven. axla swored aseTi saxis daswavlas SevexoT.

Sejameba
instinqturi swrafvis fenomeni gulisxmobs,
rom organizmebi limitirebulni arian im
TvalsazrisiT, UTu ras daiswavlian saxeobidan
gamomdinare instinqtTa gamo. gemos aversia
imdenad Zlieria zogierT cxovelTan, rom is
permanentulad daiswavleba ganpirobebuli
stimulisa da ganupirobebeli stimulis erTjeradi SewyvilebiTac ki. qimioTerapiaze myof
adamianTa umetesoba ganicdis ganpirobebul
gemos aversias. mkvlevrebi cdiloben, gamoigonon
klasikur ganpirobebulobaze dayrdnobili meTodebi, raTa Tavidan aicilon, an gaauqmon es
aversiebi.

kogniciis gavlena
daswavlaze
rogorc aRiniSna, qcevis Zalian didi speqtri
SeiZleba aixsnas, rogorc daswavlis martivi
procesis Sedegi. Cndeba kiTxva: arseboben Tu
ara daswavlis iseTi tipebi, romlebsac ufro
kompleqsuri kognituri unarebi sWirdebaT?
kognicia aris nebismieri fsiqikuri aqtivoba,
romelic CarTulia codnis gadamuSavebisa da
warmoCenis iseT procesebSi, rogorebicaa:
azrovneba, mexsiereba, aRqma da metyveleba. amitom
axla ganvixilavT daswavlis iseT formebs,
romlebic ar SeiZleba aixsnas mxolod klasikuri an operantuli ganpirobebulobiT. aqedan
gamomdinare, iTvleba, rom qceva, nawilobriv,
kognituri procesebis Sedegia.
suraTi

am TavSi ganvixileT daswavlis wesebi virTxebis, ZaRlebis da mtredebis magaliTze.


mkvlevrebma daadgines, rom ara mxolod klasikuri da operantuli ganpirobebulobiT SeiZleba sxvadasxva saxeobebis unarebis ganzogadeba (Wasserman, 1993-1994). Tavis evoluciis TeoriaSi Carlz darvinma ganacxada, rom kognituri
unarebi izrdeba da viTardeba cxovelTa fizikur formasTan erTad. amitom axla ganvixilavT cxoveluri daswavlis or, erTob STambeWdav, tips, romelic miuTiTebs cxovelTa kognitur unarebze.

kognituri rukebi
edvard tolmeni (Edward Tolman, 1886-1959) iyo
pirveli, vinc daiwyo kognituri procesebis
kvleva cxovelebSi sxvadasxva eqsperimentuli
situaciebis gamogonebiT, romlebSic meqanikuri,
erTi-erTze asociaciebi ver axsnida cxovelis
qcevas. daakvirdiT 7.15 suraTs. tolmenma da
misma studentebma aCvenes, rom, rodesac labirinTSi blokirebulia Tavdapirveli biliki,
virTxebi iq adreuli gamocdilebiT airCeven
umokles gzas gamosvlisaTvis, miuxedavad imisa,
rom aranairi ganmtkiceba ar miuRiaT (Tolman &
Honzik, 1930). Tumca, virTxebi iqceodnen ise,
TiTqos isini emorCilebodnen gansazRvrl

kognituri rukebi labirinTebSi


siarulis daswavlisas
cdis pirebma upiratesoba pirdapir gzas (gza 1)
mianiWes labirinTSi, roca is Tavisufali iyo.
roca es gza daibloka A blokiT, isini meore
gzaze gadavidnen. roca gamoCnda B bloki, virTxebma Cveulebriv mesame gza airCies. maTi qcevaa
aCvenebda, rom saWmlis mopovebis kognituri ruka
gaaCndaT.

kognitur rukas labirinTis zedxeds, nacvlad


imisa, rom brmad daewyoT gamosavlis Zebna cdisa
da Secdomis meTodiT (Edward Tolman, 1948).
tolmenis Sedegebma aCvena, rom ganpirobebuloba
Seicavs gacilebiT ufro mets, vidre ubralod
asociaciur dawyvilebas. is moicavs daswavlas
da, Semdeg, am daswavlili masalis warmoCenas
qceviT konteqstSi.
tolmenis tradiciiT gagrZelebulma kvlevam
gamoavlina sivrcobrivi mexsierebis gasaocari
unari CitebSi, futkrebSi, virTxebSi, sxva cxovelebsa da adamianebSic ki (Tolman, 1948). kogcxovelTa kognicia (Animal cognition) cxovelebis
kognituri SesaZleblobebi; mkvlevrebi eZeben
kognituri unarebis ganviTarebas sxvadasxva
saxeobebSi, saxeobebis ierarqiis mixedviT, adamianamde.
kognituri ruka (Cognitive map) fizikuri sivrcis gonebrivi reprezentacia.

kogniciis gavlena daswavlaze

cxovelTa kognicia

7.15

259

nituri rukis gasagebad yuradReba unda mivaqcioT im funqciebs, romlebsac isini emsaxurebian:
cxovelebi sivrcobriv mexsierebas iyeneben
sakuTari garemos Tvisebebis amosacnobad;
maTTvis mniSvnelovani samizne obieqtebis misagnebad;
garemoSi sakuTari rutinis dasagegmad.
Tqven SegiZliaT dainaxoT kognituri rukebis sxvadasxva funqcia frinvelTa sxvadasxva
saxeobebSi. es frinvelebi inaxaven saWmels farTo arealze, magram unari aqvT, zustad miagnon
saWmels saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi.

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

klarkis TxilCita Cempionia saWmlis


gadanaxvaSi. gvian zafxulSi es frinveli
marxavs 6000 fiWvis Tesls amerikis samxreTdasavleT nawilis mTebSi. isini marcvals
momaval gazafxulze eZeben, anu maSin,
rodesac damaluli sakvebi sWirdebaT
bartyebisaTvis (Shettleworth, 1993, gv. 180).

260

Citebi ara mxolod dafrinaven erT gansazRvrul garemoSi, aramed, TuUgaumarTlaT,


marcvlebs ki ar esevian, isini miwaSi flaven
maT nawils da gansazRvruli drois Semdeg
84% sizustiT brundebian am adgilze (Kamil &
Balda, 1990). isini kargad agneben im adgilebsac,
sadac adre hqondaT marcvlebi, magram isini
ukve carielia. Citebis is saxeobebi, romlebic
didad arian damokidebulni gadamalul sakvebze,
qceviT maRla dganan maTTan yvelaze axlomdgom
saxeobebTanac ki. aranairi gansxvaveba qcevis
warmatebulobas Soris araa am saxeobisTvis,
romelic samalavis magivrad laboratoriaSi
sivrcobriv eqsperimentSi monawileobs (Kamil et
al., 1997). amasTan, gavixsenoT, rom am Citebis
qceva samalavSi marcvlebis damalva araa
ganmtkicebuli. isini mxolod im SemTxvevaSi
miagneben gadamalul sakvebs, Tuki maTi kognituri ruka SenarCundeba.

konceptualuri qceva
kognituri rukebi, nawilobriv, exmareba cxovelebs garemoSi orientaciaSi, magram sxva ra
kognituri procesebi unda hqondeT cxovelebs
da raSi unda iyenebdnen maT?

me-11 TavSi aRvniSnavT, rom metyvelebis


dawyebisas bavSvebisTvis erT-erT mTavar amocanad iTvleba axali cnebebisa da kategoriebis
daswavla. magram aRmoCnda, rom bavSvebi ar arian
erTaderTi arsebebi, romelTac am amocanis
daZleva SeuZliaT. mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines, rom
mtredebs aqvT kognituri unari, gamoiyenon
konceptualuri gansxvavebebi.

saidan
viciT
mtredebi gadawyvetilebebs
kategorizaciis struqturis mixedviT
iReben
edvard vasermanma da misma kolegebma
(1992) warmoudgines mtredebs adamianebis,
yvavilebis, manqanebis da skamebis fotoebi.
yoveli mtredisTvis oTxi cneba dayofili
iyo or ufro did kategoriad (sur. 7.16).
magaliTad, erTi mtredi miiRebda sakvebs,
Tuki niskarts daartyamda narinjisfer
Rilaks adamianis an manqanis Cvenebis
Semdeg da wiTel Rilaks _ yvavilis an
skamis Cvenebis Semdeg. mtredebma iswavles

magram ra xdeba, rodesac miewodebaT yvavilis


an manqanis suraTi da uwevT, airCion mwvane, an
TeTri Rilaki? maT ar aqvT ganmtkicebis aranairi
gamocdileba, Sesabamisad Cven ar SegviZlia
daswavlis procesze dafuZnebuli qcevis winaswarmetyveleba. ras izamdiT Tqven, Tu msgavs
situaciaSi aRmoCndebodiT? albaT, eqsperimentis
pirvel fazaSi Tqven daiswavlidiT, rom yvavilebi da skamebi erTad moiazreba. eqsperimentis
meore fazaSi ki iswavlidiT, rom unda gamoamJRavnoT erTi an ori reaqcia yvavilis TiToeul fotoze. roca saqme skamebze midgeboda,
Tqven, albaT, igive reaqcia geqnebodaT, rac
yvavilze gqondaT. igives akeTeben mtredebic.
testebis triadebis 60-70 procentSi maT
gamoiyenes kategorizaciis~ msgavsi informacia.

dakvirvebiT daswavla
imisaTvis, rom daswavlis axal formas
gavecnoT, albaT, kargi iqneba SevexoT sakiTxs
adamianebis da virTxebis mier axali sakvebis
SerCevasTan dakavSirebiT. virTxebi gacilebiT
frTxilebi arian am sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi,
vidre adamianebi, ZiriTadad im mizezis gamo,
rom akliaT mniSvnelovani informacia sxva

virTxebisagan. roca Cven, adamianebi, axal sakvebs


vsinjavT, yovelTvis gvaqvs konteqsti. es
konteqsti imas gulisxmobs, rom viciT, sxva
adamianebma ukve gasinjes da moewonaT igive
sakvebi. Tqveni saWmlis Wamis qceva~ sxva
adamianebis codnis paternebiTaa ganmtkicebuli.
es magaliTi gviCvenebs, rom adamianebs SeuZliaT
daiswavlon sxvebis gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT,
risTvisac isini kognitur unarebs gamoiyeneben.
Sesabamisad, Cven vcvliT sakuTar qcevas sxvebis
gamocdilebis mixedviT.
Zalian xSirad, socialuri daswavla im
situaciebSi iCens Tavs, sadac daswavla ar
aris gamowveuli tradiciuli ganpirobebulobis TeoriiT. adamianebi ubralod sxvebze
dakvirvebiT swavloben, anu, Tu adamiani uyurebs,
Tu rogor daisaja an waxalisda sxva raRac
qcevisTvis, cdilobs igive qceva gaimeoros an
Seikavos Tavi. amas dakvirvebiT daswavla hqvia.
asaniSnavia, rom Cveni kognicia dakvirvebiT
daswavlisas garkveul molodinebs gamoimuSavebs. roca models (adamians, romelic raRac
qcevas axorcielebs) vuyurebT, Cven vfiqrobT,
rom, Tu zustad imas gavimeorebT, rasac modeli
akeTebs, igive jildos miviRebT an iseve
davisjebiT. umcrosi Svili SesaZloa ukeT
iqceodes, vidre ufrosi, radgan man ufrosis
Secdomebze iswavla.
daswavlis amgvari unari, razec zemoT iyo
saubari, sakmaod momgebiania. aRaraa saWiro im
cdisa da Secdomis meTodis mravalgzis gamoyeneba, rom raime viswavloT. sxvebis Secdomebis mixedviT SeiZleba daskvnebis gakeTeba.
dakvirvebiT daswavla

suraTi

(Observational lerning)

7.16

kategoriebis swavla mtredebTan


wvrTnis pirveli faza mtredebs aswavlis,
Tu romeli cneba erTiandeba msxvil kategoriaSi. meore faza aswavlis axal reaqcias
kategoriis cnebebis naxevarze. testirebis
faza aCvenebs generalizacias, romelsac
adgili aqvs axali kategoriis cnebebTan
mimarTebaSi (es erTi magaliTia sxvadasxva
mtredebTan stimulisa da reaqciis sxvadasxva
kombinaciisa).

kogniciis gavlena daswavlaze

adekvaturad reagireba da maTi 80% swori


feris Rilaks urtyamda niskarts. wvrTnis
meore fazaSi mtreds axali reaqcia unda
SeemuSavebina ufro mcire kategoriis TiToeuli suraTisTvis. amgvarad, mtreds
unda daertya mwvane RilakisTvis adamianis
suraTis miwodebisas da TeTrze skamis
fotos Cvenebisas. amjeradac, mtredebis
80%-ma Tavi gaarTva amocanas.

261

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

adamianis mier dakvirvebiT daswavlis klasikur magaliTebs adgili hqonda albert banduras laboratoriaSi. mas Semdeg, rac bavSvebma
uyures mozrdili modelis mier Tojinis cemas
da Cqmetas, mogvianebiT maT igive qceva gamoamJRavnes. amasTan, sxva bavSvebma, romelTac ar
unaxavT es qceva, msgavsi agresia ar gamoavlines
(Bandura et al., 1963). kvlevebma aCvena, rom bavSvebi
agresiuli qcevis imitacias maSinac ki axdendnen,
roca multiplikaciur filmSi qcevas akvirdebodnen.
amgvarad, Cven prosocialur (daxmarebis) da
antisocialur (dazianebis) qcevas modelebze
dakvirvebis Sedegad vswavlobT. amasTan, Cven
garSemo sakmaod bevri modeli arsebobs. sain-

262

teresoa, ra cvladebi gansazRvraven imas, Tu


romeli modeli moaxdens gavlenas Cvenze?
kvlevebma aCvena (Baldwin &Baldwin, 1973, Bandura,
1977), rom modeli gansakuTrebiT didi gavlenis
mqonea, roca:
adgili aqvs qcevis Sedegebis ganmtkicebas;
modeli aRiqmeba dadebiTad, moswonT da
endobian;
arsebobs msgavseba modelisa da damkvirveblis Tvisebebs Soris;
damkvirvebeli iRebs jildos modelis
qcevaze yuradRebis miqcevisaTvis;
modelis qceva xiluli da TvalSisacemia
is cxadad gamoirCeva sxva modelebisagan;
damkvirveblis kompetenturobis xarisxzea
damokidebuli qcevis wamowyeba.
mizezTa am CamonaTvalis gagebisaTvis, warmoidgineT sakuTari Tavi modelis situaciaSi da
naxavT, ra roli aqvs TiToeul erTeuls am
siidan. magaliTad, warmoidgineT, rom uyurebT
viRacas, vinc paraSutiT gadmoxtomas swavlobs;
an gaixseneT, rogor SeiZleba vinmem iswavlos
mafiis srulfasovan wevrad yofna mxolod
sxvaTa dakvirvebiT.
radgan xalxi ase efeqturad swavlobs modelisagan, advili gasagebia televiziis didi
nawili ratom muSaobs swored qceviT gavlenaze:
axdens Tu ara gavlenas telemayureblebze is,
rasac uyureben televizorSi jildosa da
dasjis saxiT? gansakuTrebuli yuradReba mieqca
Zaladobis faqtebis Cvenebas televiziiT
mkvleloba, gaupatiureba, qurdoba, terorizmi
da TviTmkvleloba Sedegad ki bavSvebis da
mozrdilebis qceva. xels uwyobs Tu ara
Zaladobis Cveneba Zaladobis imitacias?
fsiqologiuri kvlevebis mixedviT, pasuxi am
kiTxvaze dadebiTia zogierTi xalxisTvis,
gansakuTrebiT SeerTebul StatebSi (Comstock &
Scharer, 1999). kvlevis ramdenime aTwleulis
Semdeg gamoikveTa sami saSualeba, romliTac
televizia uaryofiT gavlenas axdens mayureblis cxovrebaze (Smith & Donnerstein, 1998): pirvel
rigSi, Zaladobis yureba zrdis agresiul qcevas.
es asociacia gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania
bavSvebisaTvis _ agresiuli Cvevebis SeZena
Zaladobis adreul asakSi xilviT, SeiZleba
antisocialur qcevaSi gadaizardos ufro
gviandel asakSi; meorec, xdeba yoveldRiur

saidan
viciT
mediaZaladoba cxovrebiseuli agresiis
mimarT tolerantobas ayalibebs
meoTxe da mexuTe kursis 42 studentidan
TiToeuli Seiyvanes eqsperimentul oTaxSi, sadac unda eyurebinaT an Zaladobis
scenebiani filmi karates Svili~, an
araagresiuli sportuli sanaxaoba 1984
wlis zafxulis olimpiadidan. am kasetebis yurebis Semdeg studentebi daajeres,
rom axla isini naxavdnen namdvil ambebs,
rac Cumad gadaRebuli iyo videoze da
maxlobel oTaxSi paralelurad xdeboda.
sinamdvileSi es iyo videoCanaweri, romelSic ori bavSvi (6 wlis) jer TamaSobs
oTaxSi, xolo Semdeg nel-nela xdeba
erTmaneTis mimarT agresiuli. studentebs
instruqciaSi neba darTes, moeZebnaT eqsperimentatori, Tuki SeSfoTdebodnen imiT,
rasac videoze uyurebdnen. studentebma,
romlebsac karates Svili~ hqondaT
nanaxi, orjer ufro metxans uyures Canawers, vidre maT, vinc olimpiur TamaSebs
uyura. amgvarad, mkvlevrebma daaskvnes, rom
Zaladobis scenebis yurebam gamoiwvia meti
tolerantoba namdvili agresiis mimarT
(Molitor & Hirsch, 1994).

Tqven SeiZleba ifiqroT, rom esaa laboratoriuli kvlevis mcire efeqti, magram warmoidgineT mTeli im Zaladobis gavlena, risi yurebis
saSualebac bavSvebs televiziiT aqvT. gaiTvaliswineT, rom bavSvebma SeiZleba, agreTve, iswav-

lon prosocialuri da damxmare qceva, Tuki


amis magaliTs televiziiT naxaven (Rosenkoetter,
1999; Singer & Singer, 1990). seriozulad unda mivudgeT im azrs, rom bavSvebi swavloben televiziidan imas, rasac uyureben, amitom mSobeli
an momvleli unda zrunavdes bavSvisaTvis
programebis SerCevaze.
dakvirvebiT swavlis analizi avlens or
kanonzomierebas: qcevaze did gavlenas axdens
ganmtkiceba da, agreTve, adamianis kognituri
SesaZleblobebi, romlebsac isini iyeneben qcevis Sesacvlelad. es midgoma qcevis kvlevaSi
yvelaze mZlavri aRmoCnda (Bandura, 1986). me-16
TavSi Cven vnaxavT warmatebul Terapiis programebs.
davubrundeT saSinelebaTa filmis naxvas.
rogor SeiZleba qceviTma analizma axsnas Tqveni
gamocdileba?
Tu Tqven filmze megobris rCevis gamo
waxvediT, e.i. uneblie ganmtkicebas daemorCileT;
Tu kinoTeatrSi moxvdiT imitom, rom es Tqveni
Cveuli rutinaa, aq kognituri rukis gavlenis
efeqti SeimCneva; Tu SemaSinebelma musikam Tqven
SegaSfoTaT da dagafiqraT gmirebis bedze, es
klasikuri ganpirobebulobis efeqtia, magram,
Tu Tqveni mcdeloba, gesiamovnaT filmiT,
damTavrda imiT, rom aRarasodes mogindebaT
saSinelebaTa filmis naxva, es dasjis Sedegia.
mzad xarT kinoTeatrSi dasabruneblad?

Sejameba
mkvlevrebma daswavlis kognituri formebi
aRmoaCines, romlebic klasikuri da operantuli
ganpirobebulobiT ar aixsneba. kognituri rukebi
cxovelebs moqmedebisa da gadarCenis saSualebas
aZleven rTul garemoSi. mtredebs SeuZliaT,
daiswavlon konceptualur gansxvavebebze dayrdnobiT gansxvavebis gakeTeba, rac perceptualur ganmansxvaveblebze ar aris damokidebuli. qceviTi daswavlis Sedegebidan
gamomdinare, adamianebi da cxovelebi swavloben
axal qcevebs cxovrebiseul sibrZneze~ dayrdnobiT. adamianebi prosocialur da antisocialur qcevebs modelirebiT daiswavlian.

kogniciis gavlena daswavlaze

cxovrebaSi Zaladobis gamovlenis araswori


raodenobrivi Sefaseba. mayurebeli SeiZleba
Seipyros SiSma, rom TviTonac ar gaxdes Zala--dobis msxverpli sinamdvileSi; mesame, Zaladobis yurebam SeiZleba migviyvanos desensitizaciamde emociur aSlilobasa da distresamde. ganvixiloT disensitizaciis laboratoriuli magaliTi.

263

sakvanZo
sakiTxebi
daswavla
 daswavla iwvevs SedarebiT mudmiv cvlilebas
qcvaSi an gamocdilebze
damyarebul qceviT potenciaSi.
 bihevioristebs sjeraT,
rom qcevaTa umetesoba
SesaZloa axsnil iqnes
daswavlis martivi procedurebiT.
maT aseve sjeraT, rom nebismieri cocxali organizmisTvis daswavlis
erTnairi principebia gamosadegi.

Tavi 7 / daswavla da qceviTi analizi

klasikuri ganpirobebuloba: daswavlis


ganmsazRvreli
niSnebi

264
264

 klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi pirveli wvlili


pavlovma Seitana Semdegi
aRmoCeniT: ganupirobebeli stimuli ganupirobebel reaqcias iwvevs.
ganupirobebel stimulTan dawyvilebuli neitraluri stimuli ganpirobebul stimulad
gadaiqceva, romelic
Tavis mxriv iwvevs ganpirobebul reaqcias.
 Caqrobas maSin aqvs adgili, roca ganupirobebeli stimuli aRar mohyveba
ganpirobebul stimuls.
 stimulis generalizacia
movlenaa, roca ganpirobebuli stimulis msgavsi
stimuli iwvevs ganpirobebul reaqcias.
 ganmasxvavebeli daswavla
aviwroebs im ganpirobebuli stimulebis speqtrs,
romlebzec reagirebs
organizmi.

 imisTvis, rom adgili hqondes


klasikur ganpirobebulobas,
saWiroa ganpirobebul da
ganupirobebel stimulTa
Soris uwyveti, informatiuli kavSiris arseboba.
 klasikuri ganpirobebuloba
xsnis narkotikis mimarT
tolerantulobas da mraval
emociur reaqcias. igi aseve
gamoyenebul iqna imunuri
sistemis funqcionirebis
Sesacvlelad.

operantuli ganpirobebuloba: swavleba


Sedegebis Sesaxeb
 Torndaikma aCvena, rom komfortuli, sasiamovno Sedegebis gamomwvev qcevebs aqvT
gameorebis tendencia.
 skineris qceviT-analizuri
midgoba eyrdnoba ganmamtkiceblis ganpirobebulobiT
manipulirebas da qcevaze am
gavlenis Seswavlas.
 qcevebis umetesoba dadebiTi
da uaryofiTi ganmtkicebis
Sedegad yalibdeba. da naklebad yalibdeba dadebiTi
an uaryofiTi dasjis Sedegad.
 konteqstualurad Sesatyvisi
qceva aixsneba Semdegi ganpirobebulobiT: ganmasxvavebeli stimuli qceva _
qcevis Sedegi.
 pirveladi ganmamtkiceblebi
is stimulebia, romlebic
ganmamtkiceblad gvevlinebian maSinac ki, roca organizms maTTan dakavSirebiT
aranairi gamocdileba ar
hqonia. ganpirobebuli ganmamtkiceblebi pirvelad
ganmamtkiceblebTan asocirebiT formirdeba.

 sacdeli aqtivobebi ise


funqcionirebs, rogorc
dadebiTi ganmtkiceba.DEGAD
 qcevaze gavlenas ganmamtkicebelTa Semdegi cxrilebi axdenen: fiqsirebuli
proporciis cxrili, variabeluri proporciis cxrili, fiqsirebuli intervalis da variabeluri intervalis cxrilebi.
 kompleqsuri reaqciebi SesaZloa Seipingis Sedegad
iqnes daswavlili.

biologia da daswavla
 kvlevebis mixedviT daswavla SesaZloa konstruirebul iqnes saxeobis specifikurobidan gamomdinare.
 instiqtebma SeiZleba zogjer
gadasZalos Sedegiganmtkicebis procesi.
 gemos aversiiT daswavlis
mixedviT, zogierTi saxeoba
genetikurad mzadaa asociaciis zogierTi formebisTvis.

kogniciis gavlena
daswavlaze
 daswavlis zogierTi forma
ufro rTul, kompleqsur
procesebs asaxavs, vidre
klasikuri an operantuli
ganpirobebulobaa.
 cxovelebi kognitur rukebs
SeimuSaveben da Semdeg maT
rTul garemoSi funqcionirebisTvis iyeneben.
 konceptualuri qceva saSualebas aZlevs cxovelebs,
generalizeba moaxdinon garemos struqturis Sesaxeb.
 qcevebi xan waxalisdeba da
xan isjeba. adamianebs da
cxovelebs dakvirvebiT
swavla SeuZliaT.

ganpirobebuloba
daswavla
klasikuri
ganpirobebuloba
refleqsi
ganupirobebeli stimuli
ganupirobebeli reaqcia
ganpirobebuli stimuli
ganpirobebuli reaqcia
SeZena
Caqroba

dadebiTi damsjeli
uaryofiTi damsjeli
diskriminaciuli stimuli
pirveladi
ganmamtkicebeli
pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeli
fiqsirebuli intervalis
cxrili
cvalebadi intervalis
cxrili
daswavlis biologiuri
iZuleba
instinqturi swrafva

sakvanZo sakiTxebi

ZiriTadi sakiTxebi

spontanuri aRdgena
stimulis generalizeba
stimulis diskriminacia
blokireba
efeqtis kanoni
operantuli
ganpirobebuloba
operantuli qceva
pirobiTi ganmtkiceba
ganmamtkicebeli
dadebiTi ganmtkiceba
uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba
operantulobis Caqroba
damsjeli

265

mexsiereba

ra aris mexsiereba

ebinghausi zomavs mex-

sierebas mexsierebis
tipebi mexsierebis
procesebi

sensoruli mexsiereba

xatiseburi mexsiereba
eqo-mexsiereba
xanmokle mexsiereba da muSa
mexsiereba

xanmokle mexsierebis
moculobis SezRuduloba muSa mexsiereba
xangrZlivi mexsiereba

kodireba da Senaxva
konteqsti da kodireba
mogonebis mimniSnebeli
kodirebis da aRdgenis
procesi arastruqturuli informaciis
daxsomebis gaumjobeseba
metamexsiereba
fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: rogor SeioZleba
mexsierebis gamokvlevebi
dagexmaroT gamocdebisTvis
mzadebaSi
xangrZlivi mexsierebis
struqturebi

mexsierebis struqturebi
mexsierebis struqturebis gamoyeneba
mogoneba, rogorc
rekonstruqciuli procesi

fsiqologiaXXI saukuneSi:
adamianis da kompiuteris
mexsiereba
mexsierebis biologiuri
aspeqtebi

engramis ZiebaSi
tvinis suraTi (skanireba)
sakvanZo sakiTxebi

266

ZiriTadi cnebebi

mexsierebis Sesaxeb am Tavis kiTxvis dawyebis


win kargi iqneba, Tu gaixsenebT raime movlenas
Tqveni cxovrebis yvelaze adreuli periodidan.
rodis moxda is? iseve naTlad gaxsovT es
movlena, rogorc marlon brandos? Tqvens
mogonebaze moaxdina Tu ara gavlena igive
movlenis Sesaxeb sxvebis monaTxrobma?
axla warmoidgineT, ra moxdeboda, moulodnelad rom aRmogeCinaT, rom dakargeT mexsiereba
da araferi gaxsovT warsulidan - arc xalxi,
romelTac icnobdiT da arc movlenebi, romelic
Tavs gadagxdaT; ar gaxsovT, rogor gamoiyureba
dedaTqveni; dagaviwydaT, ra xdeboda Tqvens
dabadebis dReze, rodesac aTi wlis gaxdiT.
Tqveni pirovnebidan warsulis amgvari amoSlis
pirobebSi Tqveni raobac, Tqveni TviTidentobac
daikargeba da ver ityviT, vin xarT, ras warmoadgenT. davuSvaT, dakargeT axali STabeWdilebebis
dafiqsirebis unari. ra mouva Tqvens uaxles

safexurze da daviwye lodini. rogorc Cans,


gazafxuli iyo, radgan Cveni saxlis win mdgom
maRal xes yvavilebis, WriWinis frTebis msgavsi,
bumbuli cvioda. uqaro amindi iyo, bumbuli
haerSi dafarfatebda da nel-nela ecemoda miwaze.
me kisermoRrecili da pirdaRebuli maT
moZraobas miwaze daSvebamde vadevnebdi Tvals
da xeli mqonda gawvdili, raTa erTi bumbuli
mainc dameWira, magram isini ostaturad uvlidnen
gverds Cems xels. ase mivacilebdi yovel
bumbuls miwamde da mere isev axali saswaulis
molodinSi zeviT mivapyrobdi xolme mzeras.
mze ealerseboda Cems oqrosfer Tmebs.
swored es molodini axali saswaulisa iyo
yvelaze tkbili mogoneba Cemi cxovrebis 65
wlis manZilze~.

gamocdilebas? Tqven xom saubris gagrZelebasac


ver SeZlebT da verc satelevizio gadacemis
azrs gaigebT. yvelaferi sruliad ucnobad
mogeCvenebaT, TiTqos yvelafers pirvelad xedavT
da TiTqos arasodes adre araviTari azri ar
gqoniaT TavSi. rogor fiqrobT, SesaZlebelia
nebismieri moqmedebis ganxorcieleba mexsierebis
gareSe?
Tu am sakiTxis Sesaxeb adre arasodes gifiqriaT, es imas niSnavs, rom, rogorc Cans, Tqveni
mexsiereba Tavis funqcias mSvenivrad asrulebs
da rom Tqven Tqvens mexsierebas iseve udgebiT,
rogorc zogierT sxeulebriv procesebs, magaliTad, sunTqvis, an kuW-nawlavis sistemebs, romelTa moqmedebac, normalur pirobebSi, Tqveni cnobieri Carevis gareSe mimdinareobs. magram aqac,
iseve, rogorc kuWis tkivilis Tu alergiis
SemTxvevaSi, Tqvens mexsierebas maSin aqcevT
yuradRebas, Tu raRac arasworad xdeba,

ra aris mexsiereba?

avis avtobiografias marlon


brando Tavisi cxovrebis yvelaze
adreuli epizodis gaxsenebiT
iwyebs: rodesac Tvals vavleb Cemi cxovrebis
ganvlil wlebs da vcdilob gavixseno warsuli,
naTlad araferi magondeba da, mainc, im drois
Cemi pirveli mogoneba ukavSirdeba, asaks,
rodesac sul pawawina viyavi; im rodesac Tavis
asaks bavSvebi verc acnobiereben. maxsovs, erTxel diliT, Tvalebi rom gavaxile, nacrisfer
bind-bundSi mimovixede da mivxvdi, rom ermis
(brandos momvlels) jer kidev eZina. rogorRac
Cavicvi da nabij-nabij daviwye saxlis win
kibeze Casvla _ yovel safexurze marcxena fexs
vdgamdi da radgan sandlebis Sekvra ver
movaxerxe, fratun-fratuniT mivaRwie karis
zRurbls. Camovjeqi 32-e quCis win mzeSi, kibis

267

darwmundebiT, Tu raoden araCveulebrivi ram


aris mexsiereba.
dabolos: ramdenadac es Tavi mexsierebas
exeba, modiT, Tqveni mexsiereba Tavidanve CavrToT
saqmeSi. Cven gvinda, rom Tqven daixsomoT ricxvi
37. gaakeTeT yvelaferi, rac saWiroa am ricxvis,
37-is dasaxsomeblad. diax, es iqneba testi.

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

ra aris mexsiereba

268

magaliTad, gaviwydebaT manqanis gasaRebi, mniSvnelovani TariRi, pasuxi gamomcdelis SekiTxvaze, romelic namdvilad iswavleT da icodiT. ra Tqma unda, es SemTxvevebi Zalian usiamovnod ganicdeba, magram, isic unda gaacnobieroT, rom adamianis tvini saSualod informaciis 100 trilion bits itevs. mexsierebidan garkveuli informaciis amosatanad ki, jer am uzarmazari moculobis gadaxedva unda moxdes. amitomac, ar unda gagikvirdeT, rom zogjer pasuxis
saWiroebisamebr swrafi amotana ver xerxdeba.
Cveni mizania, am TavSi agixsnaT, Tu rogor
ixsomebT amdens da ratom iviwyebT zogjer
imas, rac icodiT. visaubrebT yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi daxsomebasa da daviwyebaze. gaecnobiT
fsiqologiis monacemebs mexsierebis sxvadasxava
formebis arsebobis da muSaobis Sesaxeb. vimedovnebT, rom mexsierebis Sesaxeb mravalricxovani faqtiuri masalis gacnobis Semdeg Tqven
mexsiereba (Memory) _ informaciis kodirebis,
Senaxvisa da aRdgenis fsiqikuri unari.

mexsiereba aris informaciis Senaxvisa da


aRdgenis unari. am TavSi mexsierebas ganvixilavT, rogorc informaciis gadamuSavebis erTerTi formas. mTeli Cveni yuradReba mimarTuli
iqneba imaze, rom gaCvenoT, Tu rogor aRibeWdeba
informacia Cvens mexsierebaSi da rogor gvaviwydeba is (sxva sityvebiT, rogor Semodis informacia mexsierebis sistemaSi da rogor gamodis
am sistemidan). informaciis aRbeWdvisa da aRdgenis procesebis ganxilva SesaZleblobas mogcemT, daazustoT, Tu ra aris mexsiereba. Cven
daviwyebT 1885 wels gamoqveynebuli pirveli
mecnieruli gamokvleviT mexsierebis Sesaxeb,
Semdeg ki ganvixilavT Tanamedrove mkvlevarTa
mier gamoyofil mexsierebis gansxvavebul formebs.

ebinghausi zomavs mexsierebas


ramdenad sworia Semdegi debuleba: masala
swrafad gvaviwydeba, Tu is ar aris gaazrebuli
da mimarTebaSi moyvanili sxva masalasTan, xolo
Semdeg ganmeorebebiT ar aris ganmtkicebuli~.
sxva sityvebiT, Tu naCqarevad daiswavliT
masalas, ramdenime dReSi am masalis didi
nawili dagaviwydebaT. es mniSvnelovani da
uaRresad aqtualuri dakvirveba germanel
fsiqologs, herman ebinghauss ekuTvnis, romelmac
amgvar kanonzomierebaTa mTeli seria daadgina,
ramac, Tavis mxriv, mis mier mexsierebis axali
mecnieruli mimarTulebis Seqmna ganapiroba.
ebinghausis es dakvirvebebi damatebiTi sabuTi
iyo mexsierebis Sesaswavlad empiriuli kvlevebis upiratesobis saCveneblad, magram amisTvis
aucilebeli iyo axali meTodologia da ebinghausmac brwyinvaled gaarTva Tavi am amocanas

suraTi

8.1

ebinghausis daviwyebis mrudi


mrudze gamosaxulia uazro marcvalTa daxsomebis
raodenoba individTa mier ekonomiis meTodis gamoyenebiT 30 dRis ganmavlobaSi. mrudi swrafad eSveba
qveviT da Semdeg daaxloebiT erT doneze Cerdeba.

saTvis. Tu mwkrivis aRdgenas naklebi ganmeoreba


sWirdeboda, vidre Tavidan dasaswavlad iyo
saWiro, iTvleboda, rom informacia Senaxuli
iyo da swored amis gamo dasWirda xelmeored
daswavlas naklebi dro.

saidan
viciT
ebinghausis daviwyebis mrudi
Tu ebinghauss Tavidan 12 ganmeoreba
sWirdeboda mwkrivis dasaswavlad, xolo
9 ganmeoreba _ mravali dRis Semdeg xelmeored dasaswavlad, ekonomiis koeficienti 25% iqneboda (12-9=3 anu 25%). am proceduris gamoyenebiT igi zomavda gansxvavebul droiT SualedSi mexsierebaSi Senaxuli informaciis raodenobas. mrudi, romelic man miiRo, gamosaxulia 8.1 suraTze.
rogorc xedavT, masalis swraf daviwyebas
adgili aqvs daswavlis Semdeg pirvel
dReebSi, xolo Semdeg daviwyebis tempi
TandaTan klebulobs. ebinghausis mrudi
tipuria uSualo mexsierebaze Catarebuli
yvela eqsperimentuli monacemisTvis.

ebinghausis gavleniT, fsiqologebi ramdenime aTeuli wlis manZilze Seiswavlidnen uazro


marcvalTa daxsomebis da mogonebis procesebs.
mexsierebis am, SeZlebisdagvarad, sufTa formis
Seswavlisas, mkvlevrebi imedovnebdnen, rom
ipovidnen im ZiriTad, bazisur principebs, romelTa daxmarebiTac mexsierebis ufro rTuli
procesebis axsna iqneboda SesaZlebeli. mkvlevrebi dRemde cdiloben am bazisuri procesebis
dadgenas, Tumca, axla yuradReba azriani masalis
daxsomebazea gadatanili _ informaciis im saxeobaze, romelsac yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi aqvs
adgili.

mexsierebis tipebi
rodesac mexsierebis Sesaxeb iwyebT fiqrs,
pirveli, rac mogdiT TavSi, aris is situaciebi,
romelSic Tqven iyenebT Tqvens mexsierebas _
igonebT Tqvens sayvarel films, meore msoflio
omis dawyebis TariRs da a.S. faqtobrivad,

ra aris mexsiereba?

_ Seqmna mexsierebis kvlevis meTodebi. igi


iyenebda uazro marcvlebs, romlebic ori Tanxmovnisa da SuaSi erTi xmovnisgan Sedgeboda,
magaliTad, ceg an das. is azrian marcvlebTan
SedarebiT, magaliTad, ZaR, upiratesobas uazro
marcvlebs aniWebda, radgan Tvlida, rom amiT
sufTa mexsierebis kvlevas SeZlebda, Tavisufals
pirovnebis adrindeli gamocdilebis gavlenebisa
da asociaciebisgan. ebinghausi ara mxolod mkvlevari iyo, aramed cdis piric sakuTar eqsperimentebSi. igi Tavis Tavze atarebda cdebs da
Tavis Sedegebs TviTonve amowmebda (zomavda).
dasaxsomebeli amocana gansxvavebuli sigrZis
masalis daswavlaSi mdgomareobda. ebinghausi
ikvlevda uSualo mexsierebas, sadac amocanis
daxsomeba masalis meqanikur ganmeorebaze iyo
damokidebuli.
ebinghausi Tavis eqsperiments iwyebda uazro
marcvlebisgan Sedgenili mwkrivis kiTxviT,
pirveli marcvlidan bolo marcvlamde (TiToeuli marcvlis kiTxva zustad dadgenili periodulobiT xeboda). am proceduras imeorebda
manam, sanam mwkrivis igive TanamimdevrobiT aRdgenas SeZlebda. es ukanaskneli daswavlis
kriteriumad iTvleboda. amis Semdeg xangrZlivi
drois manZilze igi pirveli mwkrivisgan gansxvavebuli marcvlebisgan Sedgenil mwkrivebs
swavlobda. bolos ebinghausi isev Tavdapirvel
mwkrivs ubrundeboda da ganmeorebebis im raodenobas zomavda, romelic saWiro iyo am mwkrivis uSecdomo (igive TanmimdevrobiT) aRdgeni-

269

suraTi

8.2

ra Secdomaa daSvebuli
am suraTze?
Tu baWia uceb gadmoxteba magididan da Tqven gaifiqrebT _
`ra unda baWias samzareuloSi?~
amis mizezi Tqveni mexsierebis
procesebis mier samzareulos
situaciis aracnobieri gadamuSavebaa, romelic baWias samzareulosTvis zedmet elementad
miiCnevs.

mexsierebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi funqcia


isaa, rom Tqvens individualur Tu sazogadoebriv warsul gamocdilebaSi SesaZlebeli gaxdes
saWiro informaciis cnobieri moZieba, magram
mexsierebis mniSvneloba gacilebiT ufro metia.
masze dayrdnobiT SesaZlebeli xdeba yovelgvari
Zalisxmevis gareSe bevri yoveldRiuri saqmis
Sesruleba. magaliTad, rodesac quCaSi manqanis
saWesTan zixarT, gza, maRaziebi quCis orive
mxares nacnobi, Cveulebrivia TqvenTvis. es
mexsierebis meore mniSvnelovani funqciaa, romelic cnobierebis Caurevlad moqmedebs. mexsierebis tipebis ganxilvisas giCvenebT, Tu rogor muSaobs mexsiereba am funqciebis gansaxorcieleblad, xSirad aracnobier donezec.

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

implicituri da eqsplicituri
mexsiereba

270

ganvixiloT suraTi 8.2. ra Secdomaa daSvebuli am suraTze? pirveli, ramac gagakvirvaT,


cocxali kurdRelia samzareuloSi, magram
saidan modis es gancda? Tqven, albaT, ar
CamouvliT TiToeul sagans da ar ikiTxavT: _
es samzareuloSi unda iyos? an _ es kabinetSi
unda iyos?
mexsierebis eqsplicituri gamoyeneba (Explicit uses
of memoty) _ cnobieri Zalisxmeva mexsierebidan
informaciis aRdgenisa.
mexsierebis implicituri gamoyeneba (Umplicit uses
of memory) _ kodirebis da aRdgenis procesebis
gaucnobiereblad informaciis daxsomeba da
aRdgena.

es magaliTi kargad gviCvenebs gansxvavebas


mexsierebis gamoyenebis implicitur da eqsplicitur unarebs Soris. Tqven mier kurdRlis
SemCneva implicituri mexsierebis funqcia iyo,
radgan Tqveni mexsierebis procesebma samzareulos Sesaxeb codna naxatis interpretacias
yovelgvari gansakuTrebuli Zalisxmevis gareSe
daukavSira, magram axla Tu gkiTxavT: _ ra aklia
samzareulos am suraTze? am kiTxvaze pasuxis
gasacemad eqsplicituri mexsierebis amoqmedeba
dagWirdebaT. gagiCndebaT kiTxvebi: _ rogoria
tipuri samzareulo? ra aklia? (gaifiqreT
onkanze an gazquraze?). amrigad, rodesac saWiro
xdeba mexsierebaSi Senaxuli informaciis gamoyeneba, es SeiZleba moxdes zogjer impliciturad
_ informacia amodis cnobieri Zalisxmevis
gareSe, zogjer ki _ eqspliciturad _ informaciis
amosatanad cnobieri Zalisxmevaa saWiro.
aseTive gansxvavebas aqvs adgili ara mxolod
warsulis aRdgenis, aramed axali informaciis
miRebis, anu aRbeWdvis (kodirebis) procesSic.
saidan iciT, ra xdeba samzareuloSi? rodesme
dagiswavliaT ra unda xdebodes samzareuloSi,
an rogor unda gamoiyurebodes is? albaT, ara.
ufro savaraudoa, rom es codna Tqven aracnobierad SeiZineT da, piriqiT, samzareuloSi
arsebuli bevri sagnis saxeli, albaT, eqspliciturad daixsomeT. rogorc me-11 TavSi vnaxavT,
asociaciebis damyareba sityvebsa da Sinaarss
Soris bavSvobaSi, eqsplicituri mexsierebis
procesebze dayrdnobiT xdeba. Tqven daimaxsovreT sityva macivari imitom, rom odesRac

deklaraciuli da proceduruli
mexsiereba
SegiZliaT stvena? aba, midiT, daustvineT;
Tu stvena ar SegiZliaT, maSin TiTebi daatkacuneT. mexsierebis romeli formaa pasuxismgebeli am moqmedebebze? Tqven SeiZleba gaxsovT
kidec, rogor swavlobdiT am moqmedebebs, magram
axla amas yovelgvari Zalisxmevis gareSe akeTebT. zemoT moyvanili eqsplicituri da implicituri mexsierebis Sesaxeb magaliTebi
faqtebisa da movlenebis daxsomebas exeba,
romelsac deklaraciuli mexsiereba ewodeba,
magram, rogorc vxedavT, gvaqvs mexsiereba imisac,
Tu rogor unda vimoqmedoT, an gavakeToT raime,
rac proceduruli mexsierebis kompetenciaa.
ramdenadac am Tavis didi nawili faqtebis da
movlenebis daxsomebas da mogonebas exeba,
saWiroa imis ganxilvac, Tu rogor viZenT raimes
gakeTebis, an raRac moqmedebis Sesrulebis unars.
proceduruli mexsiereba mimarTulia im
gzebis daxsomebaze, romelic raime moqmedebis
Sesrulebas, an raimes gakeTebas ganapirobebs.
is safuZvlad udevs perceptuli, kognituri da
motoruli Cvevebis SeZenas. proceduruli
mexsierebis Teoriebi yvelaze xSirad daswavlis

droSi mimdinareobaze amaxvileben yuradRebas


(Anderson, 1996, Anderson et al., 1999): rogor xdeba
gadasvla garkveuli aqtivobis Sesaxeb deklaraciuli faqtebis CamonaTvalidan igive aqtivobis aracnobier, avtomatur Sesrulebaze? an
ratom xdeba, rom Cvevis gamomuSavebis Semdeg
xSirad gviZneldeba am Cvevis gamomuSavebis
procesis met-naklebad detaluri gaxseneba da
deklaraciuli faqtebis aRdgena, romelic, Tavis
droze, safuZvlad daedo am Cvevis SemuSavebas.
am fenomenis TvalsaCinod warmosadgenad
gavarCioT Semdegi martivi moqmedeba - telefonze
nomris akrefa. Tavidan, rodesac telefonze
darekvas cdilobdiT, gixdebodaT yoveli cifris
akrefis win dafiqreba, anu moqmedebdiT deklaraciuli faqtebiT:
Tavidan unda avkrifo 2,
Semdeg unda avkrifo 3,
Semdeg isev 3
da a.S.
magram, Tu sakmaod xSirad mogiwiaT am nomris
akrefa, ukve aRar anawevrebT telefonis nomers
cnobierebaSi calkeul cifrebad, aramed
erTianad, uswrafesad, meqanikurad krefT nomers.
am process codnis kompilacia ewodeba (Anderson, 1987). praqtikis Sedegad Tqven SegiZliaT
sxvadasxva moqmedebebis TanmimdevrobiT Seddeklaraciuli mexsiereba (Declarative memory) _
mimarTulia faqtebisa da movlenebis daxsomebaze.
proceduruli mexsiereba (Procedural memory) _
mimarTulia imaze, Tu rogor unda Sesruldes
moqmedeba; rogor, ra gziT unda moxdes perceptuli, kognituri da motoruli Cvevebis
SeZena da gamoyeneba.

ra aris mexsiereba?

viRacam migaqcevinaT yuradReba am sityvaze,


rogorc am konkretuli sagnis saxelze.
es gansxvaveba implicitur da eqsplicitur
mexsierebas Soris Zalian afarTovebs mexsierebis Sesaxeb Sesaswavl sakiTxTa diapazons
(Buchner & Wipich, 2000; Roediger, 1990). tradiciulad,
ebinghausis Semdeg, mkvlevarTa umravlesoba
eqsplicitur mexsierebas Seiswavlida. eqsperimentatorebi, Cveulebriv, informaciis daxsomebas Txovdnen cdis pirebs, xolo mexsierebis
Teoriebis mizani iyo, aexsnaT am pirobebSi
daxsomebis da daviwyebis faqtebi da kanonzomierebani. axla ki, rogorc Semdgom am Tavis
gacnobisas vnaxavT, Seiqmna meTodebi implicituri mexsierebis Sesaswavladac. amrigad, axla
ufro ukeT SegviZlia gavigoT mexsierebis
saWiroebis da gamoyenebis mravalferovneba. axla
ukve viciT, rom informaciis aRbeWdvis da
aRdgenis procesebSi monawileobs rogorc
eqsplicituri, ise implicituri mexsiereba (Toth.,
et al., 1994). axla ganvixiloT sxva kriteriumis
safuZvelze gamoyofili mexsierebis formebi.

271

genili sakmaod rTuli moqmedeba cnobierebis


Carevis gareSe SeasruloT, magram, amave dros,
Tqven ver ixsenebT cnobierad am moqmedebis
calkeul mdgenelebs. Tu isev telefonis magaliTs davubrundebiT, arc ise iSviaTad, SeiZleba
SegxvdeT adamiani, romelmac SeiZleba ver
gaixsenos telefonis nomeri, sanam akrefis
imitacias ar gaakeTebs. codnis kompilacia is
maxasiaTebelia, romlis gamoc proceduruli
mexsiereba sxva formebSi ar agerevaT. Tu odesme
Tqvens mSoblebs (an nebismier pirovnebas)
ucdiaT TqvenTvis manqanis tarebis swavleba,
SeiZleba miaqcieT kidec yuradReba, rom
miuxedavad imisa, rom mSoblebi TviTon SeiZleba
Zalian kargi mZRolebic iyvnen, mainc ver SeZles
kargad da sworad gadmoecaT manqanis marTvisTvis aucilebel moqmedebaTa Tanmimdevroba.
Tqven, albaT, imisTvisac migiqceviaT yuradReba, rom codnis kompilacia, zogjer, Secdomebis mizezic xdeba. magaliTad, Tu Tqven
xSirad gixdebaT kompiuterze inglisurad beWdva da, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom gawafuli mbeWdavi
xarT, udaod SeuwuxebixarT the-s problemas.
proceduruli mexsierebis gareSe cxovreba
uaRresad garTuldeboda, radgan TiToeuli
moqmedebis Sesruleba yovel jerze nabij-nabij
mogiwevdaT da, miuxedavad amisa, yovelTvis,
rodesac SecdomiT dabeWdavT, advilad gaarCevT
am Secdomis mizezi ucodinarobaa Tu meqanikuri
Secdoma.

mexsierebis procesebi

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

mexsierebis nebismieri forma moiTxovs sami


saxis mnemur moqmedebas: aRbeWdvas (kodirebas),
Senaxvas da aRdgenas. kodireba aris informaciis
gadamuSavebis pirveli safexuri, romelic informaciis mexsierebis sistemaSi Semosvlas
emsaxureba. Senaxva akavebs informacias garkveuli drois manZilze. aRdgena Senaxuli in-

272

kodireba (Encoding) _ procesi, romlis saSualebiTac mexsierebaSi formirdeba mentaluri


reprezentaciebi.
Senaxva (Storage) _ kodirebuli informaciis Sekaveba garkveuli drois manZilze.
aRdgena (Retrieval) _ Senaxuli informaciis aRdgena, amotana mexsierebidan.

formaciis cnobierebaSi amotanas, an mis


gamoyenebas warmoadgens. martivad rom vTqvaT,
kodirebas Semoaqvs informacia sacavSi (Senaxva),
akavebs mas, sanam saWiroeba moiTxovs, xolo
aRdgenas amoaqvs is. axla ufro vrclad ganvixiloT TiToeuli maTgani.
kodireba saSualebas iZleva, rom mexsierebaSi
gare samyaroSi arsebuli sagnebisa da movlenebis
Sesaxeb warmodgenebi Seiqmnas. mexsierebis
warmodgena Cveulebrivi warmodgenis analogiuria. vTqvaT, me mainteresebs rogoria is saukeTeso saCuqari, romelic Tqven bolo dabadebis
dReze miiReT (igulisxmeba, rom es saCuqari
Tan ar gaqvT). ras gaakeTebT amisTvis? Tqven
agviwerT am nivTs, mis Tvisebebs. SeiZleba
dagvixatoT, an imitacia gaakeToT, rogor iyenebT.
yvela SemTxvevaSi es iqneba realurad arsebulis
mxolod warmodgena. miuxedavad imisa, rom arc
erTi maTgani ar aris originalis identuri,
TiToeuli maTgani mainc garkveul codnas gvawvdis am saCuqris yvelaze mniSvnelovan aspeqtebze. mexsierebis warmodgenebi zustad aseve
moqmedeben. maTSi Senaxulia warsuli gamocdilebis yvelaze mniSvnelovani niSnebi, rac
SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs ganviaxloT, warmovidginoT warsuli gamocdileba.
Tu informacia aRbeWdilia mexsierebaSi, misi
Senaxva drois garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi
moxdeba. Senaxvis procesSi Tavis tvinis struqturis xanmokle da xangrZlivi cvlilebebi
xdeba. am Tavis bolos vnaxavT, Tu rogor
cdiloben mkvlevrebi daazuston Tavis tvinis
is adgilebi, sadac xdeba axali da Zveli
informaciis Senaxva. garda amisa, vnaxavT, ra
xdeba amneziis gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi,
rodesac individebi kargaven axali informaciis
Senaxvis unars.
aRdgena ki aginazRaurebT yvela mis winmswreb
Zalisxmevas. aRdgenis process SeuZlia wamebSi
uzrunvelyos adre aRbeWdili informaciis
migneba da amotana. SegiZliaT gaixsenoT, ra
uswrebs win Senaxvas: _ kodireba Tu dekodireba?
axla Zalian advilia amaze pasuxi, magram aseve
swrafad gaixsenebT, ras moiazrebs dekodirebis
cneba da aseve darwmunebuli iqnebiT Tqveni
pasuxis sisworeSi am momentidan ramdenime Tvis
Semdeg? sakiTxi, Tu rogor aris SesaZlebeli
erTi biti specifikuri informaciis amotana
mexsierebaSi arsebuli uzarmazari raodenobis

suraTi

8.3

informaciis gadasvla xangrZliv mexsierebaSi da misi


aRdgena
mexsierebis TeoriebSi aRwerilia informaciis gadasvla xangrZliv
mexsierebaSi da iqidan misi cnobierebaSi amotana Tu gamoiyeneba. TeoriebSi
informaciis Tavdapirveli aRbeWdva miewereba sensorul da xangrZliv
mexsierebas; informaciis gadasvla xangrZliv mexsierebaSi _ Senaxvas,
xolo informaciis gadmosvla ukan _ muSa mexsierebaSi _ aRdgenas

Sejameba
mexsierebas ganvsazRvravT, rogorc informaciis gadamuSavebis process. fsiqologebi
Seiswavlian mexsierebis sistemaSi informaciis
Sesvlasa da gamosvlas. ebinghausi iyo mexsierebis pirveli mkvlevari, romelmac Seqmna
kvlevis meTodologia da aRmoaCina daviwyebis
siswrafis fundamenturi kanonzomierebani. arsebobs mogonebis eqsplicituri da implicituri
formebi. mexsierebis zogierTi forma Seicavs
deklaraciul mexsierebas _ faqtebis Sesaxeb
codnas. zogierTi forma ki _ procedurul
informacias _ codnas, rogor Sesruldes esa
Tu is amocana. kodirebis, Senaxvisa da aRdgenis
Zireuli procesebi kompleqsurad moqmedeben
da gvexmarebian axali gamocdilebis SeZenasa
da gamoyenebaSi.

sensoruli mexsiereba
daviwyoT mexsierebis zogierTi formis sisustis demonstraciiT. 8.4 suraTze sakmaod
rTuli vizualuri scenaa gamosaxuli. gTxovT,
momentalurad (daaxloebiT 10 wamis ganmavlobaSi) SexedoT mas da Semdeg furceli daafaroT.
amis Semdeg ramdenime kiTxvas dagisvamT
suraTTan dakavSirebiT:
sensoruli mexsiereba

(Sensory memory) _

sensoruli mexsiereba

informaciidan, udides interess iwvevs im


fsiqologTa Soris, romelTa mizanic aris imis
garkveva, Tu rogor muSaobs mexsiereba da rogor
SeiZleba misi gaumjobeseba.
marTalia, kodirebis, Senaxvisa da aRdgenis,
rogorc damoukidebeli mnemuri procesebis,
daxasiaTeba SedarebiT advilia, magram am sam
process Soris urTierTmoqmedeba sakmaod rTulia. magaliTad, imisaTvis, rom Tqvens mexsierebaSi vefxvis aRbeWdva moxdes, saWiroa, rom
vefxvis cneba gqondeT; aseve, imisaTvis, rom
mexsierebaSi Cajdes Semdegi winadadeba: _ is
iseTive patiosania, rogorc benediqt arnoldi~,
saWiroa, rom TiToeuli sityvis mniSvneloba
gavixsenoT, unda vicodeT inglisuri gramatikis
wesebi, romlebic sityvebs winadadebebad kravs,
dabolos, Sesabamis kulturasTan dakavSirebul
informaciasac unda vflobdeT, kerZod, Tu
rogori patiosani iyo benediqt arnoldi,
revoluciuri omis es cnobili moRalate.
axla Tqven ukve mzad xarT, ufro Rrmad
gaecnoT informaciis kodirebis, Senaxvisa da
aRdgenis procesebs. Semdgom Cven xanmokle
mexsierebis formebs ganvixilavT, sensoruli
mexsierebiT daviwyebT da xangrZlivi mexsierebis formebze gadavalT (sur. 8.3); agixsniT,
rogor vixsomebT da ratom gvaviwydeba. Cveni
mizania, rom samudamod gaacnobieroT, Tu sad
da rogor iyenebT Tqvens mexsierebas. vimedovnebT,
rom es Tqveni mexsierebis zogierTi aspeqtis
gamosworebaSi dagexmarebaT.

273

suraTi

8.4

ramdens daixsomebT am
scenidan?

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

aTi wamis ganmavlobaSi uyureT am


naxats, Semdeg furceli daafareT
da ecadeT, upasuxoT teqstSi
dasmul SekiTxvebs. Cveulebriv,
xatiseburi mexsiereba mxedvelobiTi velidan mcire xniT mxolod
wamier xats inaxavs.

274

1. ra iaraRi uWiravs patara biWs suraTis


qveda nawilSi?
2. ras akeTebs kaci suraTis zeda nawilis
SuaSi?
3. suraTis dabal marjvena kuTxeSi qals
qolga marjvena xelSi uWiravs Tu marcxenaSi?
am kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad, albaT, suraTze xelmeored daxedva mogindebaT, ara?
sabednierod, amgvari, xelmeored gadaxedvis
SesaZlebloba Cadebulia Tqvens mexsierebaSi.
fsiqologebi varaudoben, rom sensoruli
mexsiereba yovel sensorul modalobas gaaCnia.
TiToeuli sensoruli mexsiereba gamRizianeblis fizikur Tvisebas wamis, an wamze naklebi
drois ganmavlobaSi inaxavs. es mexsiereba kidev
ufro afarToebs garemodan informaciis miRebis
SesaZleblobas. am azris naTelsayofad mxedvelobiT da smeniT sensorul mexsierebaze Catarebul ramdenime gamokvlevas moviyvanT.
xatiseburi mexsiereba (Iconic memory) _

xatiseburi mexsiereba
mexsierebis mkvlevrebma sensorul mexsierebas
sensorul sferoSi xatiseburi mexsiereba uwodes
(Naisser, 1967). xatiseburi mexsiereba umciresi
drois ganmavlobaSi inaxavs aRqmuli informaciis Zalian did raodenobas. xatiseburi mexsiereba, anu xati daaxloebiT wamis naxevars
grZeldeba. pirvelad masze dakvirveba moxda
eqsperimentSi, sadac cdis pirebs, ekranze wamis
mexuTedis ganmavlobaSi miwodebuli informaciis aRdgena evalebodaT.

saidan
viciT
xatiseburi mexsiereba
jorj sperlingi (1969-1963) cdis pirebs
awvdida asoebsa da cifrebisgan Sedgenil
sam mwkrivs

1
L
4

V
5
W

F
3
7

cdis pirebs sTxovdnen ori gansxvavebuli amocanis Sesrulebas. masalis mTlianad aRdgenis SemTxvevaSi maT unda aRedginaT maqsimaluri raodenoba, rasac SeZlebdnen. Cveulebriv, am SemTxvevaSi daaxloebiT oTxi wevris aRdgena xdeboda.
cdis pirTa meore nawils masalis nawilobriv aRdgenas sTxovdnen, anu am dros
maT mxolod erTi mwkrivi unda aRedginaT.
masalis miwodebis Semdeg gaismoda dabali, saSualo, an maRali bgeriTi signali,
romelic cdis pirs miuTiTebda, romeli
mwkrivi unda aRedginaT. sperlingma daadgina, rom ganurCevlad imisa, romeli mwkrivis aRdgenas mosTxovdnen, cdis pirebi am
mwkrivs srulad aRadgendnen.

imis gamo, rom cdis pirebs zustad SeeZloT


aRedginaT bgeriTi signalis Sesabamisi nebismieri mwkrivi, sperlingma daaskvna, rom mTeli
miwodebuli informacia xatisebur mexsierebaSi
gadadis. es miuTiTebs am ukanasknelis did
moculobaze. amave dros, masalis sruli da
nawilobrivi aRdgenis meTodiT gansxvavebuli
raodenobiT masalis aRdgena gviCvenebs, rom
informaciis swrafi daviwyeba xdeba: masalis
sruli aRdgenis moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi cdis
pirebs ar SeeZloT xatisebur mexsierebaSi
asaxuli mTeli informaciis srulad mogoneba.
es dadasturda eqsperimentSi, romlis drosac
bgeriTi signalis miwodeba masalis eqspoziciis

Semdeg odnav dagvianebiT xdeboda. 8.5 suraTze


Cans, rom intervalis gaxangrZliveba nulidan
erT wamamde aRdgenili wevrebis raodenobas
amcirebs. fsiqologebma zustad gamoiangariSes
is dro, romelic xatiseburi mexsierebidan informaciis waSlas sWirdeba (Gegenfurtner & Sperling,
1993; Loftus et al., 1992). imisTvis, rom maqsimalurad
cota ram daikargos Cveni mxedvelobiTi samyarodan, mexsierebis procesebma Zalian swrafad
unda gadaitanon informacia ufro myar sacavSi.
gaiTvaliswineT, rom xatiseburi mexsiereba
ar aris fotografiuli mexsierebis sinonimi,
rogorc amas SeiZleba zogierTi Tvlides. fotografiuli mexsierebis teqnikuri cnebaa
eideturi warmodgena: _ xalxs, romelsac gaaCnia
eideturi warmodgenebi, SeuZlia ufro didi
xnis ganmavlobaSi, vidre xatisebur mexsierebas,
detalebSi aRadginos suraTi _ TiTqos aRiqvams
da aRwers mas. xalxi~ realurad bavSvebia,
radgan dadgenil iqna, rom bavSvTa Soris 8%,
xolo mozrdilTa Soris 0%-ia eidetikosi (Neath,
1998). ar arsebobs met-naklebad damakmayofilebeli Teoria, romelic axsnida, Tu ratom qreba
asakTan erTad eideturi warmodgenebi (Crowder,
1992). miuxedavad amisa, Tu Tqven, am wignis
mkiTxveli, damamTavrebeli klasis moswavle
an kolejis studenti xarT, Tqven namdvilad
ar geqnebaT eideturi warmodgenebi.

eqo-mexsiereba
bgerebze sensorul mexsierebas eqo-mexsiereba
ewodeba. eqo mexsiereba, iseve rogorc xatiseburi, mcire xniT inaxavs ufro met infor-

suraTi

8.5

mogoneba nawilobrivi aRdgenis


meTodiT
uwyveti mrudi gviCvenebs nawilobrivi
aRdgenis meTodiT daxsomebuli masalis
saSualo raodenobas rogorc uSualod
miwodebis Semdeg, ise mogvianebiT. SedarebisTvis, wyvetili xaziT mocemulia masalis mogoneba sruli aRdgenis meTodiT
(sperlingi, 1960).

sensoruli mexsiereba

7
X
B

275

macias, vidre daviwyebamde misi aRdgenis unari


gaaCnia adamians (Crowder & Morton, 1969; Darvin et al.,
1967). eqo-mexsiereba, xatisebur mexsierebasTan
SedarebiT, 5-10 wamiT metxans grZeldeba. misi
aseTi xangrZlivoba SeiZleba droSi bgeraTa
Tanmimdevari urTierTdakavSirebis gzebs davukavSiroT. magaliTad, rodesac vusmenT winadadebas, yoveli bgeris Tanmimdevari Semosvla
xdeba Cvens yurSi. eqo-mexsiereba gvexmareba,
rom es calkeuli bgerebi mTlianobebad Seikras.
eqo-mexsierebaze Catarebulma gamokvlevebma
gamoavlina sensoruli mexsierebis meore mniSvnelovani Tviseba: axlad Semosuli informacia
advilad gandevnis winas. Tu vinme sityvaTa
mwkrivs gikiTxavT, yoveli axali sityva gadaaadgilebs winas eqo-mexsierebaSi. mkvlevrebi Tavidanve darwmunebulni iyvnen, rom bgeraTa msgavseba gansazRvravs sityvaTa amovardnas eqomexsierebidan (Crowder, 1976), magram axla ukve
viciT, rom amis mizezi msmenelis mier smeniTi
gamRizianeblebis kategorizaciac SeiZleba iyo
(Ayres et al., 1979). garedan smeniTi informaciis
Semosvlisas Tqven am gamRizianeblebis nakadis
nawilebad dayofas axdenT _ gansazRvravT, romeli bgerebi erTiandeba mTlianobebad. eqomexsiereba damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor ajgufebT smeniTi modalobiT Semosul gamocdilebas (LeCompte & Watkins, 1995).

saidan
viciT

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

kategorizacia gavlenas axdens eqomexsierebaze

276

studentebze Catarda mexsierebis eqsperimenti, sadac maT ekiTxebodaT asoTa


mwkrivi, romelsac sufiqsi mosdevda.
sufiqsi yovelTvis erTi saxis iyo da
JRerda, rogorc Txis kikini _ mee. eqsperimentis erT seriaSi monawile cdis
pirebi darwmunebulni iyvnen, rom es xma
namdvilad cxvars ekuTvnoda, xolo meore
seriaSi ki darwmunebulni iyvnen, rom am
xmas adamiani gamoscemda (rac, marTlac,
ase iyo). aRmoCnda, rom sufiqsi mxolod
im SemTxvevebSi Sedioda eqo-mexsierebaSi,
Tu cdis pirebi Tvlidnen, rom xma adamianis iyo (Neath et al., 1993).

yuradReba imas miaqcieT, rom moqmedi fizikuri gamRizianebeli erTi da igive iyo, magram
mxolod maSin irRveoda eqo-mexsiereba, rodesac
cdis pirebi mwkrivis da mee-s kategorizacias
axdendnen (asoebsac da sufiqssac adamianis xmiT
wakiTxulad miiCnevdnen). amrigad, kodirebis
da Senaxvis ukve uadres safexurze mniSvneloba
aqvs informaciis gadamuSavebas.
Tqven, albaT, dasvamT kiTxvas: ratom aqvs
sensorul mexsierebas ori ZiriTadi niSani
wamebis manZilze grZeldeba da advilad irRveva.
saqme isaa, rom es niSnebi garemosTan Cvens
urTierTobas asaxavs. Cvenze mudmivad moqmedebs
axali mxedvelobiTi da smeniTi gamRizianeblebi. es axali informacia gadamuSavebas moiTxovs. sensoruli mexsierebis xangrZlivoba
sakmarisia imisaTvis, rom garemos cvalebadoba
asaxos, magram arc imdenad Zlieria, rom winaaRmdegoba gauwios axal sensorul STabeWdilebebs. Cven Semdgom mexsierebis gadamuSavebis
im saxeebs ganvixilavT, romlebic SesaZlebels
xdian ufro xangrZlivi droiT daxsomebas.

Sejameba
sensoruli mexsiereba garemodan informaciis
Semosvlas uzrunvelyofs. xatiseburi mexsiereba
mxedvelobiTi mexsierebis formaa, romelic
SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs didi raodenobis
informacia umciresi drois manZilze SevinaxoT.
eqo _ mexsiereba asaxavs gamRizianeblebs, Tumca,
is ufro didxans grZeldeba, vidre xatiseburi
mexsiereba, mas axali informacia ufro advilad
arRvevs.

xanmokle mexsiereba da muSa


mexsiereba
sanam am Tavis wakiTxvas daiwyebdiT, Tqven,
SeiZleba, arc icodiT, rom xatiseburi da eqomexsiereba gqondaT, magram SeiZleba icodiT
kidec, rom gagaCniaT mexsierebis iseTi forma,
eqo-mexsiereba (Echoic memory) _ mexsiereba,

xanmokle mexsiereba (Short-term memory (STM) _ mexsiereba,

operaciebs, romlebic xels Seuwyoben Zebnis


procesis warmatebiT dasrulebas. ganxilva
xanmokle mexsierebaze saubriT daviwyoT.

xanmokle mexsierebis
moculobis SezRuduloba
xanmokle mexsierebis ZiriTadi funqcia erTjeradi aRqmiT informaciis uSualo aRbeWdvaa
cnobierebaSi. me-5 TavSi aRvniSneT, rom yuradRebis funqcia gare samyarodan garkveul obieqtTa da movlenaTa seleqciaa. ramdenadac Tqveni
yuradRebis moculoba SezRudulia, imdenad,
SezRuduli iqneba xanmokle mexsierebaSi Semosuli informaciis raodenoba. xanmokle mexsierebis SezRudul moculobas yuradRebis SezRuduloba ganapirobebs.
xanmokle mexsierebis moculobis dasadgenad
mkvlevrebma uSualo mexsierebis testi gamoiyenes. SeiZleba, odesaRac Tqvenc SegisrulebiaT
msgavsi amocana:
erTxel waikiTxeT mocemuli cifrebi, xolo
Semdeg CamowereT igive TanmimdevrobiT, ramdensac SeZlebT:
8 1 7 3 4 9 4 2 8 5
ramdeni CamowereT sworad?
axla waikiTxeT asoebisgan Semdgari mwkrivi
da, aseve, ramdensac SeZlebT, aRadgineT igive
TanmimdevrobiT.
I M R S O F L P T Z B
ramdeni aRadgineT sworad?
Tu Tqven sxva adamianebisgan ar gamoirCeviT,
daaxloebiT xuTidan cxra erTeuls aRadgenT.
jorj mileris (George Miller, 1976) mixedviT, adamiani saSualod ixsomebs Svid (plus, an minus
or) erTeuls, romelsac igi magiur cifrs~
uwodebda. es vrceldeba SemTxveviTi wesiT
ganlagebuli cifrebis, asoebis, marcvlebis,
sityvebis da nebismier azrian Tu nacnob
masalaze.
uSualo mexsierebis testiT xanmokle mexsierebis SesaZleblobebi gadafasebulia, radganac
cdis pirebs SesaZlebloba aqvT, amocanis
Sesasruleblad sxva wyaroebic gamoiyenon. gaixseneT, magaliTad, rom eqo-mexsiereba SesaZleblobas gaZlevT, xmamaRla wakiTxuli masalidan ukeT daixsomoT bolo ramdenime wevri

xanmokle mexsiereba da muSa mexsiereba

romelic mxolod xanmokle droiT informaciis


Senaxvas uzrunvelyofs. ganvixiloT Zalian
Cveulebrivi SemTxveva, rodesac satelefono
wignSi amoikiTxeT nacnobis telefonis nomeri.
Tu es nomeri dakavebulia, Tqven isev dagWirdebaT
telefonebis wignSi Caxedva. es magaliTi gasagebs xdis, Tu ratom gamoyves mkvlevrebma mexsierebis calke forma, romelsac xanmokle mexsiereba uwodes.
Tqven ar unda warmoidginoT, rom xanmokle
mexsiereba specialuri adgilia, sadac daxsomebuli masala Sedis; is meqanizmi ufroa,
romelic SemecnebiT SesaZleblobebs warmodgenaTa momcro sqemaze uyris Tavs (Covan, 1999;
Shiffrin, 1993), magram xanmokle mexsierebis resursebi Zalian cvalebadi da aramyaria. Tu telefonis nomris magaliTs gavixsenebT, imisTvis,
rom ar dagaviwydeT informacia (am SemTxvevaSi
telefonis nomeri), Tqven sagangebo zomebi unda
miiRoT, raTa ufro saimedod aRbeWdoT is. Cven
ufro farTod xanmokle mexsierebis im tipis
SesaZleblobebs gavecnobiT, romelic eqsplicituri mexsierebis ganxorcielebas uwyobs
xels. amas imitom vusvamT xazs, rom implicituri
mexsierebis xanmokle formebis Seswavla mkvlevrebma mxolod axla daiwyes (McKone & Trynes,
1999). winaswari monacemebiT, implicitur mexsierebasac SeiZleba gaaCndes xanmokle forma, saidanac informacia implicituri mexsierebis
xangrZliv formaSi gadava.
amave qveTavSi Cven informaciis mexsierebaSi
gadamuSavebis kidev erT formas SevexebiT,
romelic azrebisa da qcevebis Tanmimdevar da
yovelwuTier mimdinareobas gansazRvravs. es
aris muSa mexsiereba. rogorc vnaxavT, muSa
mexsiereba gamoiyeneba iseTi amocanebis Sesasruleblad, rogoricaa metyveleba da msjeloba
(Baddeley, 1986). davuSvaT, Tqven cdilobT, daixsomoT telefonis nomeri da iwyebT fanqris
da qaRaldis Zebnas, raTa CaiweroT is. Tqveni
xanmokle mexsiereba gaZlevT SesaZleblobas,
SeaCeroT telefonis nomeri Tqvens mexsierebaSi,
muSa mexsiereba ki arCevs da iyenebs im fsiqikur

277

(Tu sufiqsi ar erTvis Tan). arsebobs faqtorebi,


romlebic amcireben xanmokle mexsierebis
moculobas oridan oTxamdec ki (Crowder, 1976),
magram Tu mxolod es aris is raodenoba, riTac
iwyebT informaciis SeZenas, maSin ratom aris,
rom xSirad verc amCnevT Tqveni mexsierebis
aseT SezRudulobas?

xanmokle mexsierebis
mniSvneloba
miuxedavad imisa, rom xanmokle mexsierebis
moculoba sakmaod SezRudulia, es mexsiereba
Tavis funqcias mainc warmatebiT asrulebs ori
mizezis gamo: pirveli, mas aqvs informaciis
ganmtkicebis SesaZlebloba ganmeorebebisa da
dajgufebis saSualebiT da, meore, xanmokle
mexsierebidan informaciis amotana Zalian swrafad xdeba.

ganmeoreba
Tqven, albaT, SegimCneviaT, rom saukeTeso
gza Tqveni nacnobis erTxel amokiTxuli telefonis nomris daxsomebisaTvis ramdenjerme misi
gonebaSi (an xmamaRla) ganmeorebaa. daxsomebis
am teqnikas SemaCerebeli ganmeoreba ewodeba.
ra mosdis ganmeorebis gareSe informacias,
kargad Cans erT-erT maxvilgonier eqsperimentSi.

da gansxvavebuli droiTi intervalebis


gamoyenebiT mraval cdis pirze Catarda.
rogorc 8.6 suraTze Cans, aRdgenili
masalis raodenoba sul ufro iklebs
aRbeWdvasa da mogonebas Soris, drois
zrdasTan erTad. sami wamis Semdeg ukve
adgili hqonda daviwyebas, 18 wamis Semdeg
ki cdis pirebs aRaraferi axsovdaT.
ganmeorebis SesaZleblobis ararsebobis
SemTxvevaSi aRdgenili masalis raodenoba
mcirdeba drois gasvlasTan erTad (Paterson & Paterson, 1959).

Sedegi aradamakmayofilebelia imis gamo, rom


informaciis ganmeoreba ar moxda. aradamakmayofilebelia imitomac, rom moxda am informaciis distraqtoris masalasTan interferencia
(interferenciaze Cven Semdgom vimsjelebT).
Tqven, albaT, SegimCneviaT, rom rodesac
wveulebaze pirovnebas gacnoben, is Tavis saxels
da gvars geubnebaT, romelic xSirad swrafadve
gaviwydebaT. erT-erTi ZiriTadi mizezi amisa
isaa, rom saWiroa dro am saxelisa da gvaris
ganmeorebisaTvis. aba, scadeT, rodesac gagac-

saidan
viciT

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

xanmokle mexsierebaSi ganmeorebis


gareSe informaciis daviwyeba xdeba

278

cdis pirebs ukiTxaven sam Tanxmovans,


magaliTad, F, C da V-s. maT es Tanxmovnebi
gansxvavebuli droiTi intervalis Semdeg
unda aRadginon, romlis xangrZlivoba 3dan 18 wamamde meryeobs. ganmeorebis
Tavidan asacileblad, kodirebasa da
aRdgenas Soris CarTulia xelis SemSleli
amocana (distraqtori): cdis pirebs aZleven samniSna ricxvs da avaleben ukuRma
daiTvalon samis gamoklebiT manam, sanam
im sami Tanxmovnis aRdgenis niSans miscemen. eqsperimenti sxvadasxva Tanxmovnebis

suraTi

8.6

xanmokle mexsiereba ganmeorebis


gareSe
rodesac intervali stimulis miwodebasa da
aRdgenas Soris sxva amocaniT aris Sevsebuli
(distraqtoriT), mexsierebis moculoba mcirdeba,
ramdenadac intervali izrdeba.

dajgufeba (Chunking)
jgufi (Chank) azris matarebeli informaciis
erTeulia (Anderson, 1996). es erTeuli SeiZleba
erTi aso an erTi cifri, an ramdenime wevrisgan
Semdgari jgufi, sityvac da winadadebac ki iyos.
magaliTad, cifrebis es Tanmimdevroba 1 9 8 4 oTxi
erTeulisgan Sedgeba da Tavisuflad jdeba
xanmokle mexsierebis moculobaSi. magram Tu
Tqven am cifrebs aRiqvamT, rogorc weliwads
(1984 weli), an jorj orvelis wignis _ 1984"
saTaurs, maSin es erTi erTeuli iqneba da Tqvens
xanmokle mexsierebaSi sxva masalisTvisac dagrCebaT adgili. dajgufeba (Chunking), msgavsebis
an sxva maorganizebeli principis safuZvelze,
dasaxsomebeli masalis patar-patara jgufebad
rekonfiguraciis an xangrZliv mexsierebaSi
Senaxul informaciaze dayrdnobiT ufro didi
jgufebis (patterns) Seqmnis procesia (Baddeley, 1994).
ramdeni erTeulisgan Sedgeba cifrebis mwkrivi
_ 19411917186518121776?
im SemTxvevaSi, Tu erTeulad ganixilavT
TiToeul cifrs, Tqveni pasuxi iqneba 20, xolo
Tu am Tanmimdevrobas gaanawilebT amerikis
SeerTebul Statebis istoriaSi momxdari omebis
mixedviT, pasuxi iqneba 5~. Tu Tqven meore
strategias airCevT, erTi Tvalis gadavlebiTac
Zalian gagiadvildebaT igive TnmimdevrobiT am
mwkrivis aRdgena, xolo Tu am mwkrivs, rogorc
20 damoukidebeli erTeulisgan Semgars ganixilavT, ara Tu misi TanmimdevrobiT, aramed srulad
aRdgenasac verafriT SeZlebT.
Tqveni xanmokle mexsierebis moculoba
aucileblad gaizrdeba, Tu Tqven didi moculobis masalis ramdenime jgufSi gaerTianebis
gzas monaxavT. cnobil pirovnebas S. F-s (igi
gamoCenili mrboleli iyo) 84 cifris daxsomeba
SeeZlo maTi distanciis garbenis droTa mixedviT
dajgufebis safuZvelze.

saidan
viciT
dajgufebis (Chanking) upiratesoba
S.F-is oqmi gviCvenebs mis gonebamaxvilobas. ramdenadac is grZel distanciebze
darboda, man SeamCnia, rom mwkrivis bevri
cifri SeiZleba dajgufebuliyo, rogorc
garbenis dro sxvadasxva distanciaze. magaliTad, man moaxdina 34925614935 mwkrivis
Semdegi saxiT dekodireba: - 3:49,2 aris
sarekordo dro; 56,14 aris 10 milis distanciaze garbenis dro; 9,35 sWirdeba 2 milis
garbenas. Semdgom dasaxsomebeli mwkrivis
dasajgufeblad S.F. iyenebda, agreTve, asaks,
RirSesaniSnav TariRebs, specialur cifrobriv kodebs. aseve, SeeZlo mas Tavisi
xangrZlivi mexsiereba gamoeyenebina, raTa
grZeli, SemTxveviTi wesiT dalagebuli
wevrebi azrian jgufebad gaeerTianebina.
magram, amave dros, S.F-s asoebze saSualo
mexsiereba hqonda, radgan ar hqonda gamomuSavebuli asoTa mwkrivis dajgufebis
araviTari strategia (Chase & Ericsson, 1981;
Ericsson & Chase, 1982).
S.F-is msgavsad, Tqvenc SegiZliaT, axlad
Semosuli informaciis gadastruqtureba moaxdinoT Tqveni pirovnuli gamocdilebidan gamomdinare (magaliTad, daukavSiroT is megobrebis,
an naTesavebis asaks), an daukavSiroT axali masala
Tqvens xangrZliv mexsierebaSi arsebul kodebs.
maSinac ki, rodesac Tqven ver SeZeliT Tqvens
xangrZliv mexsierebaSi arsebuli wesebis,
mniSvnelobebis Tu kodebis gamoyeneba, am strategiiT sargebloba mainc SesaZlebelia. SegiZliaT daajgufoT ritmis, riTmis, an droiTi
intervalebis mixedviT (magaliTad, 181379256460dan miiRebT 4 erTeuls: 181, 379, 256 da 460).
yoveldRiuri gamocdilebidan Tqven iciT, rom
aseTi dajgufebis principi mSvenivrad muSaobs
telefonis nomris damaxsovrebisas.

xanmokle mexsierebidan informaciis


aRdgena
ganmeorebasa da dajgufebazea damokidebuli,
Tu rogor aRibeWdeba informacia, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnes misi Senaxva, magram am

xanmokle mexsiereba da muSa mexsiereba

noben adamians, manam, sanam saubars gaagrZelebdeT, gaimeoreT ramdenjerme misi saxeli da
gvari.
amrigad, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom ganmeoreba
dagexmarebaT, raTa SevinarCunoT informacia
xanmokle mexsierebaSi. magram, Tu es informacia
sakmaod rTulia, an didia gasameoreblad, maSin
mis SenarCunebaSi dajgufebis strategia dagexmarebaT.

279

strategiuli midgomis gareSec aRmoCnda, rom


xanmokle mexsierebidan masalis aRdgena Zalian
efeqturia. saul Stenbergis klasikur gamokvlevaTa seriaSi (Saul Sternberg, 1966, 1969) gamoyenebuli iyo amocana, romelic naTelyofda im
did siswrafes, romliTac cdis pirebi xanmokle
mexsierebaSi Semosul informacias afasebdnen.

saidan

cifrebs Soris ar iyo. Stenbergma daiTvala es dro da aRmoCnda, rom testuri


masalis aRbeWdvasa da Semdeg pasuxs sWirdeboda 400 miliwami, xolo 35 miliwami _
am gamRizianeblis (cifris) mexsierebaSi
Senaxul informaciasTan Sedarebas. erTi
wami sWirdeba 30 aseT Sedarebas. rogorc
vxedavT, xanmokle mexsierebidan informaciis aRdgena araCveulebrivad efeqturi
aRmoCnda.

viciT

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

xanmokle mexsierebidan masalis


efeqturi aRdgena

280

cdis pirebs didi raodenobiT Catarebuli cdebis TiToeul jerze eZleodaT


dasaxsomebeli masala, romelic erTidan
eqvsamde erTeuls moicavda, magaliTad,
cifrebs 52946. cdidan cdamde es masala
icvleboda imis mixedviT, Tu romeli da
ramdeni cifri iyo miwodebuli. TiToeuli
saxis masalis miwodebis Semdeg Stenbergi
maSinve sTavazobda erT gamosacdel tests
cifrs, romlis Sesaxebac cdis pirebs
unda eTqvaT, Sedioda Tu ara es cifri
uSualod mis mier aRqmul masalaSi.
damokidebuli cvladi cnobis siswrafe
iyo. ramdenad swrafad SeeZlo cdis pirs
daeWira xeli Rilakze, romelzec aRniSnuli iyo diax~, raTa daedasturebina,
rom axsovda, rom es cifri iyo dasaxsomebel masalaSi da daeWira xeli Rilakze
aRniSvniT ara~, raTa eCvenebina, rom darwmunebuli iyo, rom es cifri miwodebul

miuxedavad imisa, rom Stenbergis Sedegebis


asaxsnelad gansxvavaebuli Teoriebi iyo SemoTavazebuli (Ratcliff, 1978. Townsend, 1971, 1990),
yvela Tanxmdeba, rom xanmokle mexsierebidan
informaciis amotana Zalian swrafad xdeba.
modiT, gavakeToT garkveuli daskvnebi am aRmoCenidan da paraleli gavavloT did samecniero
biblioTekasTan. mocemul biblioTekaSi wignebis didi raodenobaa (aRsaqmel STabeWdilebaTa
didi raodenoba), magram, Tqvenda samwuxarod,
yovel jerze mxolod sami wigniT sargeblobis
ufleba gaqvT (xanmokle mexsierebis SezRuduli
moculoba). davuSvaT, rom yoveli msurveli
wigns Zalian swrafad kiTxulobs (xanmokle

muSa mexsiereba (Working memory) _ mexsierebis


unari, romelic gamoiyeneba, rogorc iseTi
amocanebis Tanmxlebi, rogoricaa mizezobrioba
da metyveleba. Sedgeba fonologiuri yulfis,
sivrciT-vizualuri matricisa da centraluri
aRmasruleblisagan.
dajgufeba (Chunking) _ informaciis calkeul
wevrTa dajgufebis procesi msgavsebis an sxva
maorganizebeli principis safuZvelze.

ratom aris informaciis aRdgena xanmokle


mexsierebidan biblioTekaSi wignis
monaxvis analogiuri?

mexsierebidan informaciis amotanis siswrafe).


aseTi unaris gamo Tqven mSvenivrad isargeblebT
biblioTekiT da iSviaTad gaacnobierebT biblioTekaSi moqmed ganawess sami wignis gatanis
Sesaxeb. Tqveni xanmokle mexsierebac msgavs
samuSaos asrulebs informaciis miRebasa da
efeqtur aRdgenas Soris.

muSa mexsiereba
Cven gansakuTrebiT gavamaxvileT yuradReba
xanmokle mexsierebaze da im rolze, romelsac
xanmokle mexsiereba asrulebs axali informaciis eqspliciturad aRbeWdvis procesSi. rogorc adre aRvniSneT, Tqven gWirdebaT kidev
iseTi mexsiereba, romelic mudmiv aqtivobaSia
da nebismier momentSi nebismieri Tqveni moqmedebis ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobas mogcemT,
mexsierebis im formebisgan gansxvavebiT, romelic faqtebis aRbeWdvas udevs safuZvlad. amave
dros, aucilebelia mexsierebis TvalsaCino
Sedegis gamovlenamde mimdinare procesebic.
gaxsovT, albaT, am Tavis dasawyisSi Cven gTxoveT
dagexsomebinaT ricxvi. SegiZliaT moigonoT
es ricxvi? Tu SeZeliT misi mogoneba, maSasadame,
Tqven aqtiurad warmoidgineT daxsomebuli
ricxvi es mexsierebis sxva funqciaa. Tu Cven
gTxovT, gaakeToT raRac ufro rTuli, magaliTad, gadaisroloT burTi erTi xelidan

fonologiuri sacavi: masSi xdeba enaze


(metyvelebaze) dafuZnebuli informaciis Semosvla da misi gamoyeneba. fonologiuri sacavi
nawilobriv emTxveva xanmokle mexsierebas. rodesac daxsomebis mizniT imeorebiT am wuTSi
mosmenil TqvenTvis ucnob telefonis nomers,
am dros fonologiuri sacavis moqmedebas
eyrdnobiT;
mxedvelobiT-sivrciTi sqema: _ is fonologiuri sacavis msgavs funqcias asrulebs, oRond
sivrciTi da mxedvelobiTi STbeWdilebebis
mimarT. Tu, magaliTad, vinme gkiTxavT, ramdeni
merxia Tqvens auditoriaSi, Tqven mxedvelobiTsivrciTi sqemis SesaZleblobebs iyenebT auditoriis warmosadgenad da Semdeg iTvliT merxebis raodenobas;
centraluri aRmasrulebeli _ aq xdeba
yuradRebaze kontroli da fonologiuri sacavidan da sivrciT-mxedvelobiTi sqemidan
miRebuli informaciis koordinacia. yovelTvis,
rodesac gaqvT amocana, romelic fsiqikur procesTa koordinacias moiTxovs, Tqven centraluri aRmasruleblis funqcias eyrdnobiT,
romelic warmarTavs Tqvens fsiqikur SesaZleblobebs amocanis sxvadasxva aspeqtis gadasawyvetad (am sakiTxs me-9 TavSi davubrundebiT).
xanmokle mexsierebis muSa mexsierebis cnebis
ufro farTo konteqstSi Seyvana amtkicebs im
mosazrebas, rom xanmokle mexsiereba procesia
da ara _ lokaluri adgili. SemecnebiTi saqmianoba, magaliTad, metyvelebis procesi Tu
problemuri situaciis gadawyvetis msgavsi kognituri aqtioba, bevri gansxvavebuli elementis
swraf da Tanmimdevar amoqmedebas da CarTvas
moiTxovs. muSa mexsiereba SegiZliaT ganixiloT,
rogorc aucilebeli elementebis sagangebo da
xanmokle mobilizacia. Tu gindaT, ukeT daak-

xanmokle mexsiereba da muSa mexsiereba

meoreSi da paralelurad ukuRma iTvaloT samis


gamoklebiT 132-dan, am SemTxvevaSi Tqven mexsierebas ufro met moTxovnebs uyenebT. mkvlevrebma gaaanalizes mexsierebis is funqciebi,
romlebic yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi gWirdebaT
da Seqmnes Teoria muSa mexsierebis Sesaxeb,
sadac es ukanaskneli klasikuri xanmokle mexsierebis formad ganixiles (Healy & McNamara, 1996).
alan bedlim da misma kolegebma (Alan Baddeley,
1986, 1992; Baddeley, Andrade, 2000) muSa mexsierebaSi
sami komponenti gamoyves:

281

cxrili

8.1

individs, mecnierebi mas gansxvavebul amocanebze SesaZlo pasuxTa prognozirebisaTvis


iyeneben.

muSa mexsierebis moculobis teqsti


waikiTxeT es winadadebebi xmamaRla da Semdeg
scadeT gaixsenoT TiToeuli winadadebis bolo
sityvebi.
kaci patronobda gogonas, rodesac is skolis
moswavle iyo, xolo, roca studenti gaxda,
mosvenebas aRar aZlevda.
mas hqonda gawelili Tavis qala, romelic mis
mxrebze ise idga, rogorc msxali langarze.
cifruli eleqtronikis nawarmi mniSvnelovan
rols Seasrulebs Tqvens momavalSi.
taqsim auxvia miCiganis prospeqtze, saidanac tbis
sruli xedi iSleboda.
bolosdabolos, roca man Tvalebi gaaxila,
triumfis sxivic da gabrazebis Crdilic ukve
gamqraliyo.

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

wyaro: deinmeni & karpenteri, 1980.

282

virdeT romelime fizikur obieqts, SegiZliaT


ufro metad gamokveToT is; muSa mexsierebas
Tqveni fsiqikuri obieqtebis _ mexsierebis
warmodgenebis naTlad asaxvac SeuZlia. muSa
mexsiereba koordinacias uwevs, agreTve, am
obieqtebTan dakavSirebul aqtivobebs.
mecnierebma daamtkices, rom muSa mexsierebis
mixedviT adamianebi individualurad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisgan (Daneman, Merikle, 1956;
Jenkins et. al., 1999). erT-erTi ZiriTadi kriteriumi
amis dasadgenad muSa mexsierebis moculobaa.
am mizniT, mkvlevrebi cdis pirebs winadadebaTa
seriis xmamaRla wakiTxvas da, Semdeg, TiToeuli
winadadebis bolo sityvebis aRdgenas sTxoven.
8.1 cxrilSi sacdelad warmogidgenT ramdenime
aseT winadadebas. am amocanis Sesruleba arc
ise martivia. dadgenilia, rom maT, vinc saSualod 4 an met erTeuls ixsomebs, kargi mexsierebis moculoba aqvT, xolo Tu 2,5 erTeuls an
naklebs ixsomebs - mcire moculoba. es gansxvavebuli amocanebis gamoyenebiT Catarebuli
mravali cdidan gamoyvanili saSualo monacemia.
ase rom, 8.1 cxrilSi motanili testidan amaze
mets sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb verafers SeityobT.
imis gamo, rom muSa mexsierebis moculoba imis
sazomia, Tu Tavisi xanmokle kognituri procesebis gamoyenebis ra SesaZleblobebi aqvs

saidan
viciT
muSa mexsierebis moculoba gavlenas
axdens teqstis daxsomebaze
mecnierebma gamoyves individTa sami
jgufi, romelTagan TiToeuls, Sesabamisad,
hqonda maRali, saSualo da dabali mexsierebis moculoba. TiToeul cdis pirs
sTxovdnen waekiTxaT moTxroba mSvenieri
Zveli saxlis~ Sesaxeb, erTi mxriv,
myidvelis da, meore mxriv, mZarcvelis
poziciidan. moTxrobaSi aRwerili sagnebi
da faqtebi savsebiT sakmarisi iyo rogorc
erTi, ise meore poziciis gansamtkiceblad.
magaliTad, saxlis moZvelebul saxuravs
upirispirdeboda monetebis Zveli koleqcia. mkvlevrebs ainteresebdaT, ra gavlenas
moaxdenda maT mexsierebaze is pozicia,
romelic maT moTxrobis kiTxvisas hqondaT. cdis pirebs sTxovdnen, orjer aRedginaT moTxroba erTxel Tavdapirveli
poziciis mixedviT (myidveli an mZarcveli)
da Semdeg meore poziciis safuZvelze
(axla warmoidgine, rom xar...). cdis pirebs,
romelTac mexsierebis didi moculoba
hqondaT, meore poziciidanac sakmao
masalis aRdgena SeeZloT, rac ver SeZles
sxva cdis pirebma (Lee-Sammons & Whitney,
1991).

mkvlevrebma daaskvnes, rom mcire da saSualo


moculobis mexsierebis mqone cdis pirebi Tavidanve irCeven pozicias da am poziciidan xdeba,
ZiriTadad, moTxrobis informaciis gadamuSaveba.
didi moculobis cdis pirebs ki SeuZliaT orive
poziciis safuZvelze am informaciis gadamuSaveba. eqsperimentebi, romlebSic muSa mexsierebis moculoba izomeba, xels uwyobs imis
garkvevas, Tu ra gansazRvravs mexsierebis SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebis individualur gansxvavebebs.

Sejameba
xanmokle mexsierebis funqcia eqsplicituri
saxiT informaciis pirveladi aRbeWdvaa. xanmokle mexsiereba oridan oTxamde erTeuls itevs.
ganmeorebas SeuZlia informaciis SeCereba xanmokle mexsierebaSi. moculoba izrdeba, Tu
informacia azrobriv nawilebad dajgufdeba.
informaciis amotana xanmokle mexsierebidan
swrafad xdeba. klasikuri xanmokle mexsierebis
cneba Secvala ufro farTo, muSa mexsierebis
cnebam. muSa mexsierebis sami komponenti asaxavs
adamianis mier gamocdilebis SeZenis mudmiv
process.

xangrZlivi mexsiereba:
kodireba da Senaxva
ramden xans inaxeba informacia mexsierebaSi?
ganvixiloT 90 wlis qalis mexsiereba, romelsac
TvalnaTliv axsovs san franciskoSi 1906 wels
momxdari miwisZvra da xanZari, romelic am
miwisZvras mohyva. mas zustad axsovs, Tu ras
ganicdida, rodesac igi sxva bavSvebTan erTad
mirboda yuresTan didi brezentis tomrebis
wyliT asavsebad. Semdeg mama arTmevda am svel
tomrebs da asxamda saxuravze im imediT, rom
saxls xanZrisgan gadaarCenda. veraviTarma
Semdgomma STabeWdilebebma ver waSala is SiSi
da SfoTva, romelic am patara gogonam ganicada,
rodesac xedavda, Tu rogor ingreoda qalaqi.

rodesac fsiqologebi xangrZlivi mexsierebis


Sesaxeb saubroben, isini gulisxmoben, rom
daxsomebuli Sinaarsi da STabeWdileba xSirad
SeiZleba mTeli sicocxlis manZilze axsovdes
adamians. aqedan gamomdinare, Teoriam unda axsnas
ara mxolod is, Tu rogor inaxeba informacia
didi xniT, aramed isic, Tu rogor SeuZlia
mexsierebas misi aRdgena-gamoyenebac. xangrZlivi
mexsiereba SegrZnebebis da xanmokle mexsierebis
gziT miRebuli nebismieri saxis gamocdilebis
sacavia. masSi Sedis movlenebi, informacia,
emociebi, Cvevebi, sityvebi, kategoriebi, wesebi
da msjelobebi. xangrZlivi mexsiereba inaxavs
pirovnebis mTlian codnas samyarosa da sakuTari
Tavis Sesaxeb.
fsiqologebisTvis cnobilia, rom xSirad
ufro advilia xangrZlivi droiT daxsomeba,
Tu mis Sesaxeb winaswar garkveuli azri gaqvs.
winaswari informacia gexmarebaT da erTgvari
sqemis rols TamaSobs Semosuli informaciis
ukeT gagebisTvis. daskvnis saxiT mexsierebis
Sesaxeb Cven Semdegi unda giTxraT: Tqveni
mexsiereba gacilebiT ukeTesi iqneba, Tu is
pirobebi, romelSic informaciis aRbeWvda moxda,
daemTxveva an maqsimalurad Tanxvdeba im pirobebs,
romelSic mis aRdgenas cdilobT. amis Sesaxeb
mogvianebiT visaubrebT.

konteqsti da kodireba
manam, sanam kodirebasa da aRdgenas Soris
Sesabamisobas SevexebodeT, gvinda ganvixiloT
fenomeni, romelsac konteqstis Soks~ uwodeben.
xalxiT gavsebul oTaxSi dainaxeT pirovneba,
romelsac grZnobT, rom namdvilad icnobT,
magram ver mogigonebiaT vin aris da mxolod
met-naklebad xangrZlivi da zrdilobiani
dakvirvebis Semdeg gaxsendebaT misi vinaoba.
imasac acnobierebT, rom gagiWirdaT misi mogoneba, radgan mas adre sxva konteqstSi SexvdiT.
ras akeTebs fostaSi werilebis ganyofilebaSi
mosamsaxure qali Tqveni saukeTeso megobris
wveulebaze? Tu gqoniaT Tqvens gamocdilebaSi
aseTi SemTxveva, mixvdebiT ra moiazreba
xangrZlivi mexsiereba (Long-term memory) _
daxsomebis procesi, romelic uzrunvelyofs
informaciis Senaxvas da, Semdgom, nebismier
dros mis aRdgenas.

xangrZlivi mexsiereba: kodireba da Senaxva

dabolos: muSa mexsierebis mier xdeba Tqveni


fsiqologiuri awmyos SeCereba. swored misi
saSualebiT Semodis konteqstSi axali informacia, damoukidebli epizodebis erTmaneTTan
dakavSireba da erTian Sinaarsad Sekvra. is
gaZlevT SesaZleblobas, cvalebadi situaciis
Sesabamisad, mudmivad ganaaxloT, SeavsoT Tqveni
STabeWdilebebi Tu warmodgenebi da gamokveToT
arsebiTi momentebi saubarSi. es yvelaferi
simarTlea, radgan muSa mexsiereba gamtaris
rols TamaSobs Semosul informaciasa da xangrZliv mexsierebas Soris. axla gadavideT droSi ufro gamZle mexsierebis formebis ganxilvaze.

283

kodirebis specifikurobis principSi: - mexsiereba


yvelaze efeqturad maSin moqmedebs, rodesac
aRdgenis procesis konteqsti kodirebis konteqsts emTxveva. vnaxoT, Tu rogor moaxdines mecnierebma am principis demonstrireba.

kodirebis specifikuroba
ra mniSvneloba aqvs konkretul konteqstSi
informaciis swavlas? pirvelad endel tulvingma da donald tompsonma 1973 wels moaxdines
kodirebis specifikurobis mniSvnelobis demonstrireba, rodesac mogonebasa da cnobas Soris
Cveuli urTierTdamokidebulebis sawinaaRmdego
Sedegi miiRes.

saidan
viciT
kodirebis specifikuroba gavlenas
axdens cnobasa da mogonebaze

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

cdis pirebs sTxoven, daiswavlon


sityvaTa mwkrivebi, magaliTad, vagoni _
Savi, magram, amave dros, afrTxileben, rom
maT unda daixsomon wyvilis mxolod meore
sityva. eqsperimentis Semdeg stadiaze maT
sTxoven sityvaze TeTri oTx Tavisufal
asociacias. es sityva specialurad aris
SerCeuli imisTvis, rom am asociaciaTa
Soris sityva Savi aRmoCndes. amis Semdeg
cdis pirebs sTxoven, icnon am asociaciebSi is sityva, romelTa daxsomebac maT
eqsperimentis pirvel fazaSi wyvilebidan
moeTxovebodaT. cdis pirebma mxolod 54%is mogoneba SeZles. xolo maSin, rodesac
wyvilis pirveli wevri dausaxeles, 61 %
aRadgines.

284

ratom iyo mogoneba ukeTesi, vidre cnoba?


tulvingis da tomsonis mixedviT, amis mizezi
konteqstis Secvlaa. cdis pirebisTvis, romlebmac sityva Savi daixsomes vagonis konteqstSi,
kodirebis specifikuroba (Encoding specificity) _
es principi gulisxmobs, rom aRdgenili informaciis raodenoba matulobs, Tu daxsomebis da
aRdgenis procesSi erTi da igive mimniSneblebi
moqmedeben.

rodesac quCaSi moZraobis wesebis daRvevis Semdeg SexvdebiT


am kacs, ratom ver cnobT? mas
xom wveulebaze SexvdiT?

Zneli iyo misi aRdgena, roca konteqsti sityva


TeTriT Seicvala. Tuki aseT mniSvnelovan
cvlilebas konteqstis es minimaluri cvlileba
iZleva, warmoidgineT yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi
arsebuli rTuli konteqstebis cvalebadoba
ramdenad did efeqts gamoiwvevs.
mecnierebma SeZles mexsierebaze konteqstis
sakmaod Zlieri gavlenis eqsperimentuli gamowveva. erT-erT aseT eqsperimentSi myvinTavebi
swavlobdnen sityvaTa mwkrivs zRvis napirze
da wyalqveS. Semdeg ki imave sityvaTa Semowmeba
am or konteqstSi (napirze da wyalqveS) xdeboda.
aRmoCnda, rom daxsomebis efeqturoba 50%-iT
meti iyo, rodesac kodireba da aRdgena erTnair
pirobebSi, erT konteqstSi xdeboda, Tumca, TviT
masalas araferi saerTo ar hqonda arc napirTan
da arc yvinTvasTan (Gooden & Baddeleyi, 1975). aseve,
daxsomeba ukeTesia, Tu masalis aRdgenisas Tanmxlebi musika igivea, rac daxsomebisas (Balch &
Lewis, 1996). Sabis eqsperimentSi daxsomebis efeqturoba ufro maRali iyo, rodesac Sokoladis
sunis fonze xdeboda daxsomeba da aRdgena (Schab,
1990). sunsa da konteqstis efeqts Soris
urTierTkavSirze Catarebulma eqsperimentebma
gamoavlina, rom yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi
gansxvavebuli suni gansxvavebul gavlenas axdens
konteqstis efeqtze.

viciT
mkveTri suni mimniSneblis rols
asrulebs
romeli sunia ufro mniSvnelovani
mexsierebis konteqstis efeqtisTvis? am
mimarTulebiT sxvadasxva sunelis gamoyenebiT ramdenime eqsperimenti Catarda. erT
SemTxvevaSi es iyo cdis pirebisTvis
sruliad ucxo, uCveulo sunis matarebeli
osmantusi (aziuri warmoSobis mcenareulkenkrovani mcenare; Herz, 1997, gv. 375), Cveulebrivi, nacnobi suni, magram uCveulo
kvleviTi laboratoriisTvis (vanili) da
laboratoriisTvis Cveuli (fiWvis) suni.
hipoTezis mixedviT, mxolod ori suni
miipyrobda yuradRebas Tavisi siaxliTa
da uCveulobiT da kodirebis procesSi
CaerTveboda. hipoTeza dadasturda. miuxedavad imisa, rom kodirebasa da aRdgenas
Soris 48 saaTi gavida, cdis pirebi mniSvnelovnad met sityvas ixsomebdnen (20sityviani mwkrividan), rodesac aRdgenis
dros igive suni iyo oTaxSi, rac aRbeWdvisas, magram es mxolod osmantuss da
vanils exeboda (Herz, 1996).

suraTi

am gamokvlevebSi naTlad gamoCnda, rom ara


yovelgvari suni monawileobs konteqstis efeqtSi. sunis mniSvneloba SeiZleba sxvadasxva
konteqstSi icvlebodes. tkbileulobis maRaziaSi SeiZleba vanilma Tavisi Zala, rogorc
konteqstis elementma, dakargos.

rigSi adgilmdebareobis efeqti


konteqstis efeqti Cven, aseve, SeiZleba
mexsierebis erT-erTi klasikuri kanonzomierebis
rigSi adgilmdebareobis efeqtis asaxsnelad
gamoviyenoT. davuSvaT, Tqven unda daiswavloT
sityvaTa mwkrivi. Tu Cven gTxovT, gaixsenoT
TanmimdevrobiT es sityvebi, raodenoba, romelsac Tqven aRadgenT, Sesabamisi iqneba 8.7 suraTze
gamosaxuli Sedegisa: _ Tqven mSvenivrad aRadgenT
mwkrivis dasawyisidan (dasawyisis efeqti) da
bolodan ramdenime sityvas (daboloebis efeqti).
mwkrivis Sua nawilidan ki erTi-ori sityva
gagaxsendebaT. 8.7 suraTze gamosaxuli kanonzomiereba zogadia mexsierebis, rogorc Tavisufali wesiT aRdgenili masalis mimarT (gaixseneT, ramdeni sityvis gaxsenebasac SeZlebT),
ise igive TanmimdevrobiT aRdgenis instruqciis
SemTxvevaSi (gaixseneT igive TanmimdevrobiT,
ra TanmimdevrobiTac moismineT) da, agreTve,
sxvadasxva raodenobis 6, 10, 15 sityvaTa mwkrivis

8.7

mwkrivSi adgilmdebareobis efeqti


mrudi gviCvenebs adgilmdebareobis efeqtis zogad kanonzomierebas. studentebs sTxoven, gaixsenon gansxvavebuli
sigrZis sityvaTa (6, 10, 15 sityva) mwkrivebi an seriuli aRdgenis wesiT (gaixseneT sityvebi imave TanmimdevrobiT,
ra TanmimdevrobiTac moismineT), an Tavisufali aRdgenis wesiT (gaixseneT, ramdensac SeZlebT). TiToeul mrudze
kargad Cans, rom daxsomeba ukeTesia dasawyisSi (dasawyisis efeqti) da boloSi (daboloebis efeqti).

xangrZlivi mexsiereba: kodireba da Senaxva

saidan

285

suraTi

8.8

konteqstis mixedviT
gansxvaveba
Tqven SegiZliaT Tqvens mexsierebaSi informacia matareblis liandagis msgavsad
warmoidginoT. A nawilis analogiurad, SegiZliaT ifiqroT, rom didi xnis win Tqvens
mexsierebaSi Semosuli informacia erTmaneTzea mWidrod miwyobili, rogorc
moSorebiT ganlagebuli liandagis `Spalebi~, B nawilSi
ki vxedavT, rom am efeqtis
acilebis erT-erTi gzaa adre
miRebuli es `Spalebi~ erTmaneTisgan proporciulad daSorebulad ganvalagoT. aseve,
SegiZliaT Zveli informacia
gamokveToT fsiqologiurad
gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobebis
miniWebis gziT.

daxsomebis dros (Jahnke, 1965). mecnierebma daadgines, rom dasawyisis da daboloebis efeqti
bevr satesto situaciaSic moqmedebs (Crowder,
1976; Neath, 1993). ra dRea dRes? daijerebT, rom
erTi wamiT ufro swrafad upasuxebT am kiTxvaze
kviris dasawyisSi da bolos, vidre Sua kviraSi
(Koriat & Fischoff, 1974)?
mrudis aseTi forma mwkrivis wevrebis gansxvavebuli konteqstualuri mniSvnelobiT, Tqveni cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis Sinaarsebis
gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT da sxva faqtorebiT
aixsneba (Knoedler et al., 1999, Marks & Crowder, 1997;
Neath & Knoedler, 1994). konteqstualuri gansxva-

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

rigSi adgilmdebareobis efeqti (Serial position


effect) _ mexsierebidan informaciis aRdgenis procesis maxasiaTebeli, rodesac mwkrivis dasawyisi da bolo wevrebis ukeT mogoneba xdeba,
vidre mwkrivis Sua wevrebisa.

286

dasawyisis efeqti (primacy effect) _ mwkrivis pirveli wevrebis ukeT daxsomeba.


daboloebis efeqti (recency effect) _ mwkrivis bolo
wevrebis ukeT daxsomeba.
konteqstualuri gamokveTa (contextual distinctiveness) _ Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac mwkrivis adgilmdebareobis efeqtze SeiZleba gavlena
moaxdinos konteqstma da gamokveTilma warsulma
gamocdilebam.

vebis gasagebad SeiZleba dasvaT kiTxva: ramdenad


gansxvavdeboda situacia (konteqsti), romelSic
me miviRe informacia, im situaciisgan, romelSic me unda aRvadgino is?~ SevCerdeT daboloebis efeqtze. 8.8 suraTze mocemulia vizualuri gamokveTilobis magaliTi. warmoidgineT,
rom suraTze Tqven matareblis liandags xedavT.
Tqveni yuradReba liandagis bolozea (suraTis
ukana nawilze) mimarTuli da xedavT, rom
boloSi, horizontze liandagebis Zelebi TiTqos uerTdebian erTmaneTs, Tumca, Tanabrad arian
sivrceSi daSorebulni. Cven ki SegviZlia vTqvaT,
rom wina nawilSi ganlagebuli liandagebi
gvecema TvalSi da is Tqveni (liandagis bolosgan) konteqstisgan gansxvavebulia. axla warmoidgineT, rom gindaT, moigonoT bolos nanaxi
aTi kinosuraTi. am SemTxvevaSic liandagis
msgavsi situacia gvaqvs. umravles SemTxvevaSi,
Tqven bolo suraTs ukeT warmoidgenT, radganac
Tqven gamoyofT erTmaneTSi areuli suraTebidan
imas, romelic ufro axlo warsuls miekuTvneba.
am logikas Tu gavyvebiT, Sua~ informacia ukeT
daxsomebadi gaxdeba, Tu mas ufro gamovkveTavT
(erTmaneTSi areuli aRar iqneba). es idea gaTvaliswinebulia 8.8B suraTze, sadac liandagebi
erTmaneTisgan Tanabrad arian daSorebulni.

viciT
mwkrivis elementebis gamokveTa
imisaTvis, rom matareblis liandagebi
Tanabrad daSorebuli davinaxoT, saWiroa,
liandagis Zelebi Tanabrad davaSoroT
erTmaneTs. samagierod, nakls davinaxavT.
mecnierebma es logika mexsierebis eqsperimentSi gamoiyenes, gaatares ra analogia
sivrcesa da dros Soris. cdis pirebs
sTxovdnen, daexsomebinaT asoTa mwkrivebi,
magram gansxvavebuli droiTi intervalis
pirobebSi. drois es cvlileba Semdegnairad xorcieldeboda: _ cdis pirebs unda
waekiTxaT SemTxveviTi ricxvebis garkveuli raodenoba, romelic kompiuteris
ekranze asoebs Soris Cndeboda. Cveulebriv
pirobebSi, A nawilis msgavsad, 8.8 suraTze
or wyvils Sua ori cifri Cndeboda. proporciul pirobebSi ki (B nawilis msgavsad)
pirvel wyvils Soris 4 cifri iyo, xolo
bolo wyvilebs Soris arc erTi. amis
Sedegad wina cifrebi ufro gamokveTili
unda yofiliyo iseve, rogorc liandagis
SemTxvevaSi moSorebuli Zeli Canda ufro
Sors. marTlac, cdis pirebi ukeT ixsomebdnen Soreul (adre aRqmul) masals im
SemTxvevaSi, rodesac es wevrebi ukeT
iyvnen gamokveTilni (Neath & Crowder, 1990).

es eqsperimenti imaze miuTiTebs, rom standartuli daboloebis efeqts adgili aqvs imitom, rom mwkrivis bolo wevrebi ukve avtomaturad gamokveTilia. igive principiT SeiZleba
avxsnaT dasawyisis efeqti: _ yovel jerze Tqven
raRac axals iwyebT, axal konteqsts qmniT. am
axal konteqstSi pirveli ramdenime mocemulobaa
gamokveTili. amrigad, dasawyisis da daboloebis
efeqti SegiZliaT ganixiloT, rogorc erTi da
igive liandagis mimarT ori pozicia _ TiToeuli TiTo bolodan.

mogonebis mimniSneblebi
ramdenadac Cven vagrZelebT aRbeWdvasa da
mogonebaze saubars, droa Tqveni mexsierebac
CavrToT muSaobaSi. vecdebiT gavimeoroT

klasikuri eqsperimenti mexsierebaze da amitom


gTxovT daimaxsovroT sityvaTa ramdenime wyvili.
gaimeoreT da daiswavleT es wyvilebi manam,
sanam eqvsives samjer uSecdomod zepirad ar
ityviT:
vaSli navi
qudi Zvali
velosipedi saaTi
Tagvi xe
burTi saxli
yuri sabani
Tu Tqven ukve daiswavleT sityvaTa wyvilebi,
am tests kidev ufro sainteresos gavxdiT. axla
gvWirdeba Senaxvis intervali dro, romlis
ganmavlobaSic unda SeinaxoT informacia
mexsierebaSi. modiT, drois gayvanis mizniT,
visaubroT zogierT proceduraze, romelsac
Tqveni mexsierebis Sesamowmeblad gamoviyenebT.
Tqven SeiZleba gadawyvitoT, rom gaxsovT, an
ar gaxsovT raRac da mexsierebis romeli meTodiTac ar unda Segamowmon, erTnair Sedegs
miiRebT. es ar aris ase. magaliTad, Cven vnaxavT,
rom implicituri da eqsplicituri mexsierebis
testebi sruliad gansxvavebul Sedegebs gvaZleven. jerjerobiT ganvixiloT eqsplicituri
mexsierebis ori meTodi: mogoneba da cnoba.
mogonebis dros xdeba adre miwodebuli
informaciis reproduqcia. ra aris rigSi adgilmdebareobis efeqti?~ es kiTxva mogonebis kiTxvaa.
cnobis dros ki imis gacnobiereba xdeba, rom
raRac movlena swored isaa, romelic Tqven
adre aRiqviT (gaigoneT an dainaxeT). ra ewodeba
mxedvelobiT sensorul mexsierebas: (1) eqo; (2)
engrama; (3) xati Tu (4) abstraqtuli kodi?~ es
ki cnobis kiTxvaa. cnoba da mogoneba Tqvens
yoveldRiur eqsplicitur mexsierebasac ukavSirdeba. kriminaluri pirovnebis dasadgenad policia mogonebis meTods iyenebs, rodesac dazaralebuls sTxovs aRweros da moigonos borotmoqmedis specifikuri niSnebi: _ rame ucnauri
mogoneba (Recall) _ aRdgenis meTodi, romlis
drosac individs moeTxoveba adre miwodebuli
informaciis reproduqcia.
cnoba (Recognition) _ aRdgenis meTodi, romlis
drosac individs moeTxoveba imis gacnobiereba,
rom raRac movlena swored isaa, romelic Tqven
adre aRiqviT (gaigoneT, an dainaxeT).

xangrZlivi mexsiereba: kodireba da Senaxva

saidan

287

xom ar SeniSneT Tavdamsxmelis garegnobaSi?~


xolo, rodesac dazaralebuls uCveneben eWvmitanilTa fotoebs da ramdenimes Soris unda
amoicnos konkretuli Tavdamsxmeli, an TviTon
borotmoqmeds uCveneben policiis ganyofilebaSi, maSin cnobasTan gvaqvs saqme.
axla gamoviyenoT es ori procedura, raTa
SevamowmoT, Tu rogor daimaxsovreT sityvaTa
wyvilebi ramdenime wuTis win. daasruleT
sityvaTa wyvili:
qudi _ ?

velosipedi _ ?

yuri _ ?

SegiZliaT SearCioT is wyvilebi, romlebic


daiswavleT?
vaSli _ bavSvi Tagvi _ xe burTi _ saxli
vaSli _ navi
Tagvi _ ena
burTi _ mTa
vaSli _ boTli Tagvi _ karavi burTi _ rqa

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

cnobis testi ufro advilia Tu mogonebis?


asec unda iyos. axla am Sedegis axsna mogonebis
mimniSneblebis daxmarebiT vcadoT.
mogonebis mimniSneblebs uwodeben im saSualebebs, romlebic mexsierebaSi garkveuli informaciis moZebnaSi gexmarebaT. es mimniSnebeli
SeiZleba modiodes garemodan, rogorc, vTqvaT,
provokaciuli kiTxvebi (mexsierebis romel
principebs daukavSirebdiT sperlingis da
Stenbergis kvlevebs?~), an, SeiZleba, Tqven
TviTon SeqmnaT (sad minaxavs igi adre?~). Tqven
yovelTvis cdilobT, eqspliciturad gaixsenoT.
amas garkveuli mizniT akeTebT da am mizans
xSirad mogonebis mimniSneblis saSualebiT
aRwevT. ar unda gagikvirdeT, rom advili iqneba
gaxseneba Tu Zneli, damokidebulia mimniSnebelze. Tu Tqveni megobari gkiTxavT, vin
aris is imperatori, ver vigoneb?~ Tqven unda
gamoicnoT vis gulisxmobs (faqtobrivad, es

288

mogonebis mimniSneblebi (Retrieval cues) _ Signidan


an garedan momdinare stimulebi, romlebic gvexmarebian mexsierebaSi garkveuli informaciis
moZebnaSi.
epizoduri mexsiereba (Episodic memories) _ xangrZlivi mexsiereba avtobiografiuli xasiaTis
movlenebisTvis da im konteqstisTvis, sadac
es movlenebi xdeba.
semantikuri mexsiereba (Semantic memories) _ genetikuri, kategoriuli mexsiereba, rogoricaa sityvebis mniSvnelobebi da cnebebi.

gamocnobanas TamaSi iqneba, magram Tu ikiTxavs:


vin iyo klaudiusis Semdeg imperatori?~ am
kiTxvaze Tqven maSinve upasuxebT neroni~.
davubrundeT isev mogonebasa da cnobas.
mexsierebis orive testi moiTxovs mimniSneblebs,
magram cnobis mimniSneblebi gacilebiT Sedegiania. mogonebis SemTxvevaSi Tqven mxolod
mimniSnebels unda miendoT, radgan is migiTiTebT informaciaze. cnobis SemTxvevaSi ki naxevari saqme gakeTebulia. rodesac uyurebT sityvaTa wyvils Tagvi _ xe, Tqven mxolod ki~
an ara~ unda upasuxoT kiTxvas: es aris, adre
rac vnaxe (Tu viswavle?)?~ vidre maSin, rodesac
pasuxobT: Tagvi _ ?; ra vnaxe (ra viswavle)?~
rogorc xedavT, cnobis testi mniSvnelovnad
gagiadvileT, magram axla warmoidgineT, rom
amis nacvlad adre mocemul wyvilebs areulad
gaZlevT. romelia amaTgan swori:
qudi _ saaTi
qudi _ Zvali

yuri _ navi
yuri _ sabani

axla Tqven unda icnoT ara swored is sityva,


romelic adre naxeT, aramed misi Sesabamisi
konteqstic (Cven isev gavixsenebT konteqstis
ideas). Tu Tqven xSirad gagikeTebiaT mravlobiTi
arCevanis testi, gecodinebaT, rogori cbieri
SeiZleba iyos cnobis situacia, magram umravles
SemTxvevaSi Tqveni cnobis Sedegebi ukeTesi
iqneba, vidre mogonebis, radgan mogonebis
mimniSneblebi cnobis SemTxvevaSi ufro mizanmimarTulia. axla mogonebis mimniSneblebis
zogierT sxva aspeqtsac gavecnoT.

epizoduri da semantikuri mexsiereba


Cven ukve aRvniSneT, rom mexsierebis gansxvavebuli formebi arsebobs. Tqven gaqvT rogorc
implicituri da eqsplicituri, ise deklaraciuli da proceduruli mexsiereba. Cven SegviZlia
sxva ganzomilebac SemovitanoT, romlis mixedviTac deklaraciuli mexsierebis formebi gamoiyofa im mimniSneblebis gansxvavebis safuZvelze, romlebic aucilebelia informaciis
mexsierebidan amosatanad. kanadelma fsiqologma
endel tulvingma (Endel Tulving) 1972 wels
pirvelma miuTiTa deklaraciuli mexsierebis
epizodur da semantikur formaze.
epizoduri mexsiereba individualurad inaxavs pirovnebis mier gancdil movlenebs.

viwydeT bevri faqti, romelic aRar ukavSirdeba


im situacias, romelSic is aRiqviT Tu daiswavleT. saukeTeso strategia im SemTxvevaSi,
rodesac ver igonebT semantikuri mexsierebidan
informacias, isaa, rom mas, rogorc epizodurs,
ise miudgeT. Tu etyviT Tqvens Tavs: vici, rom
romaeli imperatorebis saxelebi dasavleTis
civilizaciis speckursSi viswavle~, es dagexmarebaT gamonaxoT mimniSneblebi, romlebic
mexsierebaSi am TeTr laqas Segivseben.

interferencia

magaliTad, Tqveni yvelaze bednieri dabadebis


dRe, an pirveli kocna Tqvens epizodur mexsierebaSia Senaxuli. imisaTvis, rom gaixsenoT
esa Tu is movlena, Tqven gWirdebaT mimniSneblebi, romlebic gizusteben am movlenis dros
_ rodis moxda is, an ra konteqstSi hqonda mas
adgili. informaciis kodirebaze bevrad aris
damokidebuli, SeZlebT Tu ara ama Tu im movlenis gaxsenebas. magaliTad, SeZlebT, gaixsenoT
Tqven mier kbilebis meaTed gamoxexvis stili
riTi gansxvavdeboda meTerTmeted kbilebis
gamoxexvisgan?
yvelaferi, rac Tqven iciT, Tavidan garkveul
konteqstTan erTad Semodis, magram aris informaciaTa garkveuli raodenoba, romelsac
uceb poulobT sruliad gansxvavebul konteqstebSi. am saxis informaciebi mexsierebaSi maTi
Sesabamis drosa Tu adgilTan mikuTvnebis da
mimarTebis gareSe amodis. es semantikuri mexsiereba _ zogadi, kategoriuli mexsierebaa,
rogorc, magaliTad, sityvebis Tu cnebebis
mniSvnelobebi. adamianTa umravlesobisaTvis
iseTi faqtebi, rogoric aris E=MC2, an pasuxi
kiTxvaze _ romelia safrangeTis dedaqalaqi?~
specialur miTiTebas, Tu rodis, an ra situaciaSi SeiZina man es codna, ar moiTxovs.
ra Tqma unda, es ar niSnavs imas, rom Tqveni
semantikuri mexsiereba yovelTvis saimedoa. Tqven
mSvenivrad acnobierebT, rom SeiZleba daga-

vaSli qurdi
qudi wre
Tagvi Jurnali
velosipedi saxuravi
burTi bavSvi
yuri centi
rogor midis saqme? albaT, SeamCnevdiT, rom
wyvilis yoveli pirveli sityva axal sityvasTan
aris dakavSirebuli. Zneli iyo am axali wyvilebis daswavla? rogor fiqrobT, Zvelad daswavlilis mogoneba axla ufro gagiWirdebaT (aba,
scadeT)? orive SemTxvevaSi pasuxi erTia _
Znelia~. es patara savarjiSo mimniSneblis
axal aspeqtze _ interferenciaze miuTiTebs. interferencias adgili aqvs maSin, rodesac mimniSnebeli ver moqmedebs efeqturad da ver
aRadgens Sesabamis informacias. rac ufro didia
am specifikur mimniSnebelze SesaZlo pasuxTa
raodenoba, miT ufro Znelia erTi swori pasuxis
aRdgena (Bower et al., 1994; Chandler & Gargano, 1995).
Cven ukve mogiyvaneT magaliTi yoveldRiuri
cxovrebidan, rodesac gTxoveT, gangesxvavebinaT
kbilis gamoxexvis epizodebi. mogonebebi erTmaneTSi airia, moxda interferencia. proaqinterferencia (Interference) _ mexsierebis fenomeni,
romelic maSin xdeba, rodesac mogonebis mimniSneblebi ver miuTiTeben efeqturad erT konkretul movlenaze.

xangrZlivi mexsiereba: kodireba da Senaxva

pirovnulad mniSvnelovani movlenebi, magaliTad, wlebis manZilze unaxav megobarTan


Sexvedra, epizoduri mexsierebis kuTvnilebaa. semantikuri mexsierebidan romeli informacia Seedreba am SexvedriT gamowveul
sixaruls?

rodesac gTxoveT, dageswavlaT wyvilovani


asociaciebi, faqtobrivad, es iyo epizoduri
mexsiereba. davuSvaT, axla sxva saxis epizoduri
mexsierebis amoqmedebas gTxovT. kidev erTxel
scadeT daiswavloT sityvaTa es wyvilebi ise,
rom uSecdomod SeZloT samjer maTi ganmeoreba:

289

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

290

tiuli interferencia (proaqtiuli _ Semdgomze


moqmedi~) niSnavs, rom informacia, romelic
warsulSi SeiZineT, aZnelebs axali informaciis
aRbeWdvas. retroaqtiuli interferencia (retroaqtiuri _ winaze moqmedi~) ki imaze miuTiTebs,
rom axali informacia xels uSlis Zveli informaciis aRdgenas. sityvaTa wyvilebi, romlebic
Tqven daiswavleT, orive saxis interferencias
moicavs. aseve, orive saxis interferenciasTan
geqnebaT saqme, Tu xSirad icvliT telefonis
nomers. Tavidan telefonis axali nomris
daxsomeba giWirT _ Zveli amoxteba~ xolme
(proaqtiuli interferencia), magram rodesac
bolos da bolos kargad daimaxsovrebT axal
nomers, SeiZleba aRmoaCinoT, rom aRar gaxsovT
Zveli, Tumca, wlebis manZilze iyenebdiT mas
(retroaqtiuri interferencia).
rogorc mexsierebis bevri movlenis, maT
Soris, interferenciis Seswavlac, pirvelad
ebinghausma daiwyo, romelic TviTon swavlobda
uazro marcvalTa wyvilebs. man aRmoaCina, rom
daswavlilis 65% ar axsovda. 50 wlis Semdegac
aRmoCnda, rom nordvesternis universitetis
studentebs, romlebmac ebinghausis eqsperimentebi gaimeores, igive Sedegebi hqondaT. is
mwkrivebi, romelTac studentebi ufro adre
swavlobdenen da amisTvis mravaljer imeorebdnen, aRdgenisas axlad naswavl mwkrivebSi
ereodaT (interferencia) (Underwood, 1948, 1949).
gavixsenoT, ras vusvamdiT Cven mudam xazs: _
mogonebisTvis gadamwyvetia kodirebasa da
aRdgenas Soris Tanxvedra. am Tavis Semdgomi
ori nawilis gacnobisas naxavT, rogor ukavSirdeba nawilebi erTmaneTs mogonebis gansaxorcieleblad: konteqsti, romelSic cdilobT,
warsuli movlenis aRdgenas, TviTon gamodis,
rogorc mogonebis mimniSneblis wyaro, xolo,
rodesac ar Tanxvdeba kodirebis konteqsti mogonebis konteqsts, aRdgenisas Semotanil
mimniSnebels ar SeuZlia da xelsac ki uSlis
mexsierebaSi saZiebeli movlenis povnas.

romelTac xangrZliv mexsierebaSi informaciis


miReba da aRdgena emyareba. Cven vnaxavT, rom am
SemTxvevaSi saukeTeso Sedegi miiRweva, radgan
kodirebisa da aRdgenis procesebi emTxveva
erTmaneTs.

gadamuSavebis doneebi
daviwyoT iqidan, rom informaciis gadamuSaveba yuradRebis forma, romelsac Tqven
informaciis kodirebis procesSi iyenebT
gavlenas axdens Tqven mier informaciis daxsomebaze. gadamuSavebis doneebis Teoriis mixedviT,
rac ufro Rrma doneze xdeba informaciis
gadamuSaveba, miT ufro ukeT daamaxsovrdeba is
adamians (Craik & Lockhart, 1972; Lockhart & Craik,
1990). Tu gadamuSaveba masalis analizs, Sedarebebs, interpretacias da sxva saxis gadamuSavebebs moicavs, daxsomebis efeqti ukeTesi iqneba.
gadamuSavebis siRrme xSirad ganisazRvreba,
rogorc msjelobis saxeobebi dasaxsomebeli
eqsperimentuli masalis mimarT. ganvixiloT
sityva yurZeni. Cven SegviZlia gTxovoT, fizikur
doneze warmarToT msjeloba: _ ra feris melniT
aris es sityva dawerili? an riTmas miaqcioT
yuradReba _ eriTmeba is sityva berZens? an
mniSvnelobaze gaamaxviloT yuradReba: magaliTad, imaze, rom is xilia. albaT, SeamCnieT, rom
yoveli momdevno SekiTxva am sityvis sul ufro
Rrma gadamuSavebas moiTxovs _ met sityvebTan
dakavSireba gWirdebaT (Lockhart & Craik, 1990).
gadamuSavebis Teoriis nakli isaa, rom mecnierebs yovelTvis ar SeuZliaT daazuston,
Tu ratom vakuTvnebT gadamuSavebis zogierT
process zedapiruls da zogierTs ki _ Rrmas.
am saxis gadamuSavebis SemTxvevaSic ki Sedegebi
miuTiTebs, rom procesebs, romelTac iyenebT
informaciis kodirebisTvis, gavlena aqvT imaze,
SeZlebT Tu ara am informaciis aRdgenas.
axla ki vnaxavT, rom kodirebis da aRdgenis
procesebs Soris damTxveva gansakuTrebiT
mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs implicitur
mexsierebaSi.

kodirebis da aRdgenis
procesebi

gadamuSaveba da implicituri mexsiereba

Cven vnaxeT, rom kodirebis konteqstisa da


aRdgenis konteqstebis urTierTdamTxveva gadamwyvet rols TamaSobs mexsierebisTvis. axla
davazustoT es daskvna im procesebis ganxilviT,

Cven ukve aRvniSneT, rom gansxvaveba eqsplicitur da implicitur mexsierebas Soris kodirebis da aRdgenis gansxvavebaSi mdgomareobs
(Roediger, 1990; Schacter et al., 1993). sxva pirobebTan

fragmentuli sityvis Sevseba. cdis pirs


eZleva fragmentuli sityva rt-rq-, romelic
man TavSi mosuli pirvelive sityviT unda
Seavsos.
sityvis fuZis Sevseba. cdis pirs evaleba
Seavsos sityvis fuZe, magaliTad, mar______,
TavSi mosuli pirveli sityviT.
sityvis identifikacia. cdis pirebs monitorze eZlevaT sityvaTa rigi iseTi siswrafiT,
rom naTlad TiToeulis aRqma ver SeZlon, magram
unda gamoicnon es sityvebi. am SemTxvevaSi erTerTi sityva iqneba martorqa.
anagrama. cdis pirebs eZlevaT igive sityva,
magram areuli asoebiT, magaliTad, qatorarma
da maT unda daasaxelon pirveli azriani sityva,
romelic TavSi mouvaT.

zustad iseve, rogorc martorqis SemTxvevaSi,


swor pasuxs TiToeul amocanaze gansazRvravs
adre miwodebuli mwkrivis sityvebi. amave dros,
yvelaze sayuradRebo isaa, rom eqsperimentatori
cdis piris yuradRebas specialurad ar warmarTavs Sesabamisobaze adre mwkrivSi arsebul
sityvebsa da axali amocanis pasuxebs Soris
swored amitom aris mexsiereba implicituri.
implicituri mexsierebis Sesafaseblad
mkvlevrebi im cdis pirTa Sedegebs, romlebmac
gaiares eqsperimentis pirveli stadia da
Seafases sityvebi sasiamovno-usiamovno mniSvnelobis mixedviT (magaliTad, martorqa) udarebdnen imaT monacemebs, visac es pirveli stadia
ar gauvlia. suraTi 8.9 gviCvenebs, Tu ra gavlenas
axdens implicituri mexsiereba sityvebze:
procenti gviCvenebs, Tu ramdeni sityva aRadgines
sworad cdis pirebma im sityvebidan, romlebic
pirvelad miwodebul mwkrivebSi iyo, imasTan
SedarebiT, romelic am mwkrivebSi ar iyo.
sxvadasxva cdis pirebs sityvaTa sxvadasxva
mwkrivebi miewodeboda. yoveli davalebis
SemTxvevaSi xedavT, rom upiratesoba adre nanax
sityvebs eniWebaT, maSinac ki, rodesac cdis
pirebs mxolod sasiamovno-usiamovno mniSvnelobis mixedviT moeTxovebaT maTi Sefaseba. am
upiratesobas praimings (Priming) uwodeben, radgan
winaswar sityvis aRqma TiTqos amzadebs da
xels uwyobs Semdgomi gamocdilebis miRebas.
mexsierebis zogierTi amocanis SemTxvevaSi
praimingis efeqti kviraze metxans grZeldeba
(Sloman et al., 1988).
axla davubrundeT kodirebasa da aRdgenas
Soris Tanxvdenis sakiTxs. implicituri mexsierebis oTxive testi masSi mocemuli informaciis
fizikuri maxasiaTeblebis Tanxvedras gulisxmobs. sxva sityvebiT, ra procesebic moqmedebs
gadamuSavebis doneebis Teoria
(Levels-of-processing theory) _ am Teoriis mixedviT, rac ufro
Rrma doneze xdeba informaciis gadamuSaveba,
miT ufro ukeT daamaxsovrdeba igi adamians.
gadatanis Sesabamisi gadamuSaveba (Transfer-approptiate processing) _ Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac mogoneba saukeTesoa, rodesac implicituri kodirebis da implicituri aRdgenis
procesebis damTxveva xdeba.
praimingi (Priming) _ implicituri mexsierebis
Sefasebisas upiratesoba, romelic adre gagonil
sityvas, an nanax situacias eniWeba.

xangrZlivi mexsiereba: kodireba da Senaxva

erTad, erT-erTi pirobaa, magaliTad, rom Tqven


impliciturad SegiZliaT aRadginoT masala,
romelic Tavidan eqspliciturad gqondaT
aRbeWdili. ase xdeba, rodesac saxeliT mimarTavT Tqvens saukeTeso megobars da saxelis
gasaxseneblad araviTari Zalisxmeva ar gWirdebaT. zustad aseve implicituri mexsierebis
yvelaze aSkara gamovlenasTan gvaqvs saqme,
rodesac implicituri kodirebis da implicituri aRdgenis procesebis damTxveva xdeba. amas
gadatanis Sesabamisi gadamuSaveba (Transfer-appropriate pocessing) ewodeba: daxsomebis efeqti
yvelaze maRalia, rodesac kodirebis procesSi
warmoebuli gadamuSaveba gadadis da gamoiyeneba
aRdgenis procesebSi (Roediger, 1989). Tu ramdenad
efeqturia es saSualeba, amas ramdenime meTodis
aRweris safuZvelze vnaxavT, romelic implicitur mexsierebaSi gamoiyeneba; Semdeg ki
giCvenebT, Tu rogor xdeba kodirebisa da
aRdgenis procesebis urTierTSeTanxmeba.
axla ganvixiloT implicituri mexsierebis
Semowmebis tipuri eqsperimenti: _ mkvlevrebi
studentebs sityvaTa mwkrivs aZlevdnen da
sTxovdnen 1-dan (yvelaze naklebad sasiamovno)
5-mde (yvelaze metad sasiamovno) quliT skalaze
SeefasebinaT, Tu ramdenad sasiamovno mniSvneloba hqonda TiToeul maTgans (Rajaram &
Roediger, 1993). eqsperimentis am pirveli fazis
Semdeg cdis pirTa mexsiereba Semdegi oTxidan
erT-erTi implicituri mexsierebis amocaniT
mowmdeboda (davuSvaT, erT-erT mwkrivSi aris
sityva martorqa):

291

suraTi

8.9

impicituri mexsierebis
testze praimingi
praimingi gviCvenebs sxvadasxva amocanebiT manipulirebas sakontrolo sityvebze. gavlenis zogierTi implicituri testiT SesaZlebelia praimingis
gamovlena kviraze meti xnis Semdeg.

martorqis kodirebis procesSi, igive procesebi


ganapirobeben sityvis fuZis mar______s
Sevsebas, magram arsebobs sxva _ kategoriuli
asociaciis testi, romelic mniSvnelobas, cnebas
efuZneba da ara _ fizikuri maxasiaTeblebis
Tanxvedras. davuSvaT, gaZlevT miTologiuri
qmnilebebis~ gvarovnul cnebas da gTxovT,
daasaxeloT am kategoriis imdeni Semadgeneli,
ramdensac SeZlebT mokle drois ganmavlobaSi,
magram Tu Tqven mogindebaT TqvaT martorqa~
imis gamo, rom is adre mowodebul sityvaTa
mwkrivSi (Tumca, gansxvavebul konteqstSi) amoikiTxeT, saqme implicitur mexsierebasTan gveqneba.
Tu fizikuri maxasiaTeblebis da mniSvnelobis praimingze damyarebul implicituri mexsierebis or gansxvavebul tests gamoviyenebT,
vnaxavT kavSirs kodirebasa da aRdgenas Soris.

saidan
viciT

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

praimings adgili aqvs, rodesac


gadamuSavebis formaTa Tanxvdena xdeba

292

mexsierebis mkvlevrebma Caatares eqsperimenti, raTa eCvenebinaT, rom implicituri


mexsierebis gansxvavebul formaSi gansxvavebuli tipis gadamuSavebas aqvs adgili.
cdis pirebs eZleodaT sityvaTa rigi
instruqciiT, rom an mniSvnelobis mixedviT (sasiamovno Sinaarsisaa sityva Tu
usiamovno), an fizikuri maxasiaTeblebis
mixedviT (ramden Tanxmovans Seicavs sityva)
daemuSavebinaT masala. gaixseneT, rom

kategoriis asociaciis testi mniSvnelobas efuZneba. Sesabamisad, mkvlevarTa


hipoTeza is iyo, rom kategoriis asociaciis testSi praimings eqneboda adgili,
Tu Sedegebma hipoTeza daadastura. aseve,
fizikuri maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT masalis damuSavebas praimingi mosdevs mxolod
im testebSi, romelic masalis fizikuri
maxasiaTeblebiT damuSavebas gulisxmobs
(Srinivas & Roediger, 1990).

am tipis kvlevebi asabuTeben gadatanis


Sesabamisi gadamuSavebis Sesaxeb Tvalsazriss:
Tu Tqven informaciis kodirebisTvis gadamuSavebis garkveul tips, magaliTad, fizikur an
mniSvnelobis mixedviT analizs iyenebT, maSin
am informaciis aRdgena yvelaze efeqturi iqneba,
Tu am dros analizis igive tips gamoiyenebT
(Park & Gabrieli 1995; Rajaram et al., 1998; Weldon et al.,
1995). adre Cven aseTi azri gamovTqviT: mogoneba
yvelaze efeqturia maSin, rodesac pirobebi,
romelSic moxda informaciis kodireba, emTxveva
pirobebs, romelSic unda moxdes aRdgena. am
TavSi am azris dasasabuTebeli faqtebi warmogidgineT. axla vnaxoT, rogor SeiZleba kodirebisa da aRdgenis Teoriis Semdgomi gamoyeneba.

arastruqturuli informaciis
daxsomebis gaumjobeseba
am nawilis wakiTxvis Semdeg Tqven ukve unda
gagaCndeT garkveuli azri imis Sesaxeb, Tu
rogor unda gaiumjobesoT yoveldRiuri mex-

gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba
aRbeWdvis gansamtkiceblad gamoyenebul
ZiriTad strategias gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba
ewodeba. am teqnikis ZiriTadi idea isaa, rom,
rodesac informaciis aRbeWdvisas masalas
imeorebT, amiT misi gadamuSavebis SesaZleblobac izrdeba. gadamuSavebis erT-erTi gzaa
araSemTxveviTi, azriani asociaciebis damyareba
sityvebs Soris. magaliTad, Tu gindaT, daimaxsovroT sityvaTa wyvili Tagvi xe, unda
warmoidginoT xeze amZvrali Tagvi, romelic
eZebs yvels. mogoneba ukeTesi iqneba, Tu informaciis calkeul nawilebs patara moTxrobis
saxes miscemT (Bower, 1972). SegiZliaT, maRaziis
SemTxvevaSi swrafad moifiqroT moTxroba, sadac
TiToeul myidvels Tavisi moTxovnebiT adgils
miuCendiT (amas patara praqtika sWirdeba). Tqven,
albaT, mixvdiT kidec, rom, aseve, Zalian kargi

saSualebaa Tqveni moTxrobis mxedvelobiTi


warmodgenebiT gamdidreba. mxedvelobiTi
warmodgenebi Zalian efeqturia mogonebisTvis,
radgan erTdroulad ormagi kodirebis _
verbaluris da mxedvelobiTis _ SesaZleblobas
iZleva (Paivio, 1972).
gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba, aseve, SesaZleblobas iZleva, dagicvaT mwkrivis Semdgomi
efeqtisagan. magaliTad, rodesac pasuxis gacemis
rigi an dro dgeba, xSirad adamians ar axsovs,
ra Tqva uSualod misma winamorbedma. Tu odesme
gqoniaT situacia, sadac wreSi myofs erTdroulad ramdenime adamians gacnoben, advilad
gasagebi iqneba ra igulisxmeba am efeqtSi. ra
erqva Tqven pirdapir mdgom qals? am efeqtis
mizezi sakuTari saxelis, an sakuTari SeniSvnis
Tqmaze yuradRebis gadatanaa (Bond et al., 1991).
amis Tavidan asacileblad saWiroa gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba. gadaitaneT yuradReba
mopirdapire qalis saxelze da roca gaigonebT
liza~, TqviT _ icinis, rogorc mona liza~.

mnemonika
mexsierebis gaumjobesebis Semdegi saSualebaa
specialuri strategiebis Seqmna, romelTac
mnemonikuri xerxi ewodeba (berZnuli sityvidan
moigone~). mnemonika moicavs rCevebs, romlebic
xels uwyoben faqtebis grZeli mwkrivis aRbeWdvas nacnob da adre aRbeWdil informaciasTan
dakavSirebis gziT. bevri mnemonikuri xerxi mza
mimniSneblebs iZleva, romelTac wesrigSi mohyavT SemTxveviTi informacia.
ganvixiloT lokusis meTodi, romelic pirvelad berZenma oratorma gamoiyena. lokusi
niSnavs adgils~. lokusis meTodi niSnavs
sityvis Tu movlenis adgilis mixedviT daxsomebas da aRdgenas, xolo oratorisTvis _
xangrZlivi moxsenebis calkeuli nawilebis
nacnob adgilebTan dakavSirebas. imisaTvis, rom
gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba (Elaborative rehearsal)
_ mexsierebis gazrdis meTodi, romliTac xdeba
dasamaxsovrebeli informaciis gamdidreba.
mnemonikuri xerxebi (Mnemonics) _ strategiebi
an saSualebebi, romlebic xels uwyoben
faqtebis grZeli mwkrivis aRbeWdvas nacnob
da adre aRbeWdil informaciasTan dakavSirebis
gziT.

xangrZlivi mexsiereba: kodireba da Senaxva

siereba meti daimaxsovroT da naklebi


daiviwyoT. qveTavi fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi~ dagexmarebaT, Tu rogor gamoiyenoT es
codna swavlasTan mimarTebaSi. Tqven ukve iciT,
rom informaciis aRdgena yvelaze ukeT xdeba,
Tu mas igive konteqstSi igonebT, an gadamuSavebis igive tips iyenebT, romelic masalis
Tavdapirvelad aRbeWdvis dros gamoiyeneT, magram
aq garkveulwilad gansxvavebul viTarebasTan
gvaqvs saqme da amis gagebaSi Cven dagexmarebiT.
saqme exeba arastruqturirebul an SemTxveviT
informacias.
warmoidgineT, rom maRaziaSi muSaobT gamyidvelad. Tqven unda daimaxsovroT uamravi ram,
rasac myidveli Tqvengan moiTxovs: mwvane
maisurian qals baRSi samuSao Sarvali da
fexsacmlebi unda; cisferSarvlian mamakacs _ 2
cali brtyeltuCa, 6 cali 0,25 zomis xraxni da
saRebavis safxeki.~ es situacia Zalian hgavs
eqsperimentis situacias, sadac Tqven dawyvilebuli asociaciebi unda dagemaxsovrebinaT.
rogor daixsomeT sityvaTa wyvilebi, romlebic
wina TavSi iyo warmodgenili? amocana, albaT,
cota geZnelaT, radgan wyvilebi TqvenTvis
gansakuTrebul azrs moklebuli iyo. mniSvnelobas moklebuli informaciis daxsomeba Znelia.
imisaTvis, rom ar SegeSaloT, romel myidvels
ra misceT, saWiroa iseTi asociaciebis damyareba,
rom SemTxveviToba maqsimalurad gamoiricxos.

293

suraTi

4.2

lokusis meTodi

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

lokusis meTodSi Tqven akavSirebT


dasamaxsovrebel sityvas (magaliTad,
sayidlebiis siidan) nacnob adgilebTan (magaliTad, institutidan
saxlisken mimaval gzaze).

294

daimaxsovroT, ra gaqvT wamosaRebi supermarketidan, gonebaSi isini saTiTaod unda ganalagoT im gzaze, romliTac institutSi midixarT. Semdeg, mogonebisas CamouvliT~ maT da
gaixsenebT (ix. sur. 8.10).
mimniSnebeli sityvis meTodi hgavs lokusis
meTods, Tumca gansxvaveba isaa, rom mwkrivis
wevrebs mimniSneblebs ukavSirebT da ara
adgilebs. am meTodisTvis tipuri mimniSneblebi
gariTmuli strofebia, sadac sityvebi cifrebs
eriTmeba. magaliTad: erTi-skveri; ori-lori,
sami-skami da sxv. SemTxveviTi informaciis
daxsomebis gasaRebi informaciis iseTi saxiT
dalagebaa, rom mimniSneblebma gagiadvilon
aRdgena.
metamexsiereba (Metamemory) _ implicituri an
eqsplicituri codna mexsierebis unarebis da
mexsierebis efeqturi strategiebis Sesaxeb;
mexsierebis Semecneba.

metamexsiereba
davuSvaT, iseT situaciaSi xarT, rom raRacis
mogoneba gWirdebaT. Tqven akeTebT yvelafers,
rom gamoiyenoT mimniSneblebi, romlebic
kodirebis situacias asaxaven, magram mainc
verafers igonebT. nawilobriv, imis mizezi, rom
aseT Zalisxmevas axmarT mogonebas, Tqveni darwmunebulobaa, rom Tqven flobT am informacias,
magram, gacnobierebuli Tu gaqvT, ras warmoadgens Tqveni mexsiereba? iciT, Tu rogor muSaobs
Tqveni mexsiereba? an saidan iciT, rom am
informacias flobT? es metamexsierebis kiTxvebia. metamexsierebis mTavari kiTxvaa: _ rodis da
ratom inaxeba mexsierebaSi gancda imisa, rom
vici.
pirveli, vinc Seiswavla es gancda, iyo
j.T. harti (J. T. Hart, 1965), romelmac kvleva daiwyo
imiT, rom studentebs usvamda kiTxvebs zogadi

fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi

rogor SeiZleba mexsierebis gamokvlevebi


dagexmaroT gamocdebisTvis mzadebaSi

kodirebis specifikuroba.
rogorc gaxsovT, kodirebis
specifikurobis principi gulisxmobs, rom mogonebis
konteqsti, anu pirobebi, romelSic mogoneba xdeba, daemTxves kodirebis konteqsts.
swavlis procesSi konteqsti
xSirad informaciis gansxvavebul konteqstsac~ niSnavs. Tu Tqven yovelTvis
erTsa da imave konteqstSi
swavlobT, gagiWirdebaT sxva
konteqstSi misi aRdgena. ase
magaliTad, Tu profesori
odnav sxvagvarad dagisvamT
kiTxvas, SeiZleba daibneT
da ver upasuxoT, amitom
Tqven swavlis procesSi
konteqstebi unda cvaloT.
gadaawyveT masala, dausviT
Tqvens Tavs sxvadasxva kiTxvebi, scadeT masalaSi axali kombinaciebis Seqmna, magram Tu mainc SeferxdebiT
gamocdaze, scadeT gamoiyenoT rac SeiZleba meti
mimniSnebeli, raTa pirveladi konteqsti aRadginoT:
_ es xom igivea, rac xanmokle mexsierebis leqciaze
movismine~;

mwkrivSi adgilmdebareobis
efeqti. adgilmdebareobis
efeqtis mruds Tu gavixsenebT,
vnaxavT, rom masalis SuaSi
ganlagebuli informacia yvelaze cudad gvamaxsovrdeba.
faqtobrivad, studentebs ufro
kargad axsovT leqciis dasawyisi da bolo, vidre Sua nawili
(Holen & Oaster, 1976; Jensen, 1962).
rodesac leqciaze xarT, ecadeT, swored leqciis Sua nawils miaqcioT gansakuTrebuli yuradReba. swavlis dros
Tqven ganskuTrebuli Zalisxmeva unda gamoiyenoT masalis
daswavlisaTvis, magram ecadeT,
rom masala yovelTvis erTi
da imave TanmimdevrobiT ar
iswavloT. imasac miaqcieT yuradReba, rom es Tavi mexsierebis Sesaxeb wignis SuaSia
ganlagebuli. Tu Tqven mTeli
wigni gaqvT Casabarebeli, maSin
mis swavlas meti Zalisxmeva
unda moaxmaroT, vidre dasawyis, an bolo Tavebs;
gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba
da mnemonikuri xerxebi. zogjer, gamocdisTvis mzadebis
procesSi iseTi gancda giCndebaT, TiTqos daulagebel,
arastruqturirebul masalas
swavlobT. vTqvaT, Tqven swavlobT tvinis gansxvavebuli
nawilebis funqciebs. am SemTxvevaSi Tqven TviTon unda
ipovoT masalis gadamuSavebis
efeqturi gza _ an mxedvelobiTi warmodgenebi daixmareT, an winadadebebSi CarTeT, an TiToeul cnebas patara istoria daukavSireT. am
wignis erT-erT avtors dRemde

axsovs Tavisi mnemonikuri


xerxi, romelic gamoiyena
fsiqologiis SesavalSi ventramedialuri hipoTalamusis, romlis abreviaturac
laTinurad aris VMH, dasamaxsovreblad. es iyo Very
Much Hungry, magram rogorc
me-12 TavSi naxavT, es mnemonikuri xerxi mas Semdeg ukve
aRar aris iseTi zusti.
gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba
ki xels SegiwyobT naswavli
kidev ufro ganamtkicoT;
metamexsiereba. am sferoSi
warmoebulma gamokvlevebma
gviCvena, rom adamianebi kargad grZnoben, Tu ra ician
da ra _ ara. rodesac Tqven
gamocdaze xarT, sadac dro
SezRudulia, Tqven unda
miuSvaT Tqveni intuicia da
andoT mas drois ganawileba. magaliTad, SegiZliaT
bileTis mTeli kiTxvebi
uceb gadaikiTxoT da naxoT,
rogor grZnobT, romeli
sakiTxi iciT ukeT. aris
iseTi gamocdebic, sadac
yvela kiTxvaze pasuxi savaldebulo ki ara, SerCeviTia,
magram pasuxi siswrafes
moiTxovs. aqac Tqvens intuicias unda endoT da im
kiTxvebs unda upasuxoT,
romelTa pasuxis sisworeSic darwmunebuli xarT.
imedi gvaqvs, rom axla metnaklebad gasagebia, Tu rogor SeiZleba mexsierebaSi
Catarebuli gamokvlevebi
gamocdebisTvis warmatebiT
momzadebaSi dagexmaroT.

xangrZlivi mexsiereba: kodireba da Senaxva

yvelaze xSirad studentebi


mexsierebis Sesaxeb gamokvlevebis wakiTxvis Semdeg svamen
kiTxvas: _ rogor gamoviyeno
miRebuli informacia swrafad?~
rogor momexmareba es gamokvlevebi momavali gamocdebisTvis mzadebaSi?~ vnaxoT, ra
tipis rCevebi SeiZleba gamoviyvanoT am gamokvlevebidan:

295

ganaTlebidan. magaliTad, gekiTxebiT: _ mzis


sistemaSi romeli planetaa yvelaze didi?~ iciT
am kiTxvaze pasuxi? Tu ar iciT, rogor moiqceodiT, romel pasuxs airCevdiT am situaciaSi:
miuxedavad imisa, rom axla ar maxsovs pasuxi,
vici, rom ramdenimeAaraswor pasuxs Soris
avirCevdi swors~. msgavs kiTxvebs usvamda harti
Tavis cdis pirebs. pasuxebSi darwmunebuloba
maT 1-dan, (sakmaod darwmunebuli var, rom ver
avirCev sworad mravlobiTi arCevanidan~), 6-de
qulebiT unda SeefasebinaT (savsebiT darwmunebuli var, rom sworad avirCev~). Tqven rogor
gaanawilebdiT qulebs? ai, es alternativebi:
a. plutoni
b. venera
g. dedamiwa
d. iupiteri

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

Tu Tqven yuradRebiT daakvirdebiT darwmunebulobis vgrZnob, rom vici~ gancdas, maSin


swor pasuxs im SemTxvevaSi daasaxelebT (d~s), Tu Sefaseba iqneba 6, xolo mis aRniSnvas
naklebi albaToba eqneba, Tu Sefaseba 1 iqneba
(sando pasuxi rom miviRoT, ra Tqma unda,
kiTxvaTa didi raodenobaa saWiro). hartis mixedviT, visac 1 quliT aqvs Tavisi darwmunebuloba
Sefasebuli, 30%-iT nakleb swor pasuxebs iZleva
maSin, rodesac 6 qula 75%-ian warmatebas
uzrunvelyofs. es faqtebi miuTiTebs imaze, rom
vgrZnob, rom vici~ gancda SeiZleba zusti
indikatori iyos.
metamexsierebis Sesaxeb gamokvlevebi mimarTulia rogorc im procesebze, romlebic
vgrZnob, rom vici~ gancdas iwveven, aseve imaze,
Tu rogor miiRweva Sefasebis sizuste (Koriat &
Levy-Sadot, 1999; Metcalfe, 2000).
mimniSneblis nacnobobis hipoTezis mixedviT, adamianebi Tavisi vgrZnob, rom vici~
gancdis dros mimniSneblis nacnobobas emyarebian. magaliTad, rodesac gekiTxebian: _ ra
erqva beThovens?~, Tu Tqven adre gagigiaT mis
Sesaxeb, SeiZleba gagiCndeT azri, rom ramdenime
alternatividan amoicnobT mis saxels anu swor
pasuxs (Metcalfe et. al., 1993; Reder & Ritter, 1992; Schwartz
& Metcalfe, 1992).
misawvdomobis hipoTezis mixedviT, adamiani
cdilobs arasruli informaciidan swori pasu-

296

xis wvdomas. amrigad, Tu kiTxva: _ ra erqva


beThovens?~, TqvenSi advilad aRZravs informacias, romelic, Tqveni azriT, am kiTxvaze
swor pasuxTan aris dakavSirebuli, Tqven
gagiCndebaT gancda, rom swor pasuxs advilad
gamoicnobT (Koriat, 1993, 1995).
orive Teorias gaaCnia empiriuli dasabuTeba
da oriveSi igulisxmeba, rom Tqven SegiZliaT
endoT Tqvens grZnobas, rodesac darwmunebuli
xarT, rom iciT raRac (mogvianebiT Cven
SevexebiT mowmis Cvenebebze Catarebul gamokvlevebs, romelic am zogadi wesidan gamonaklisebze miuTiTebs).
Tqven ukve garkveuli codna gaqvT imis
Sesaxeb, Tu rogor aRibeWdeba da rogor aRdgeba
informacia Tqvens mexsierebaSi. Tqven iciT,
Tu ras niSnavs aRbeWdvisa da aRdgenis situaciebis kargi Tanxvedra~. Semdeg qveTavSi mexsierebis procesebidan gadavinacvlebT mexsierebis Sinaarsebze, anu imaze, Tu ra xdeba
mexsierebaSi.

Sejameba
xangrZlivi mexsierebis Teoriebma unda axsnan,
Tu rogor xdeba codnis SeZena da Senaxva
mexsierebaSi mTeli cxovrebis manZilze. kodirebis specifikurobis principis mixedviT, informaciis yvelaze kargad aRdgena xdeba maSin,
rodesac konteqsti, romelSic xdeba kodireba,
emTxveva aRdgenis pirobebs. mwkrivSi adgilmdebareobis efeqts iwvevs TiToeuli STabeWdilebis (sityva, movlena da a.S) mogonebis
konteqstebs Soris gansxvaveba.
Tqven daxsomebuls mimniSneblebiT eZebT.
cnoba xSirad ufro advilia, vidre mogoneba,
radgan am SemTxvevaSi mimniSneblebi met
informacias Seicaven. epizodur mexsierebaSi
daxsomeba aRbeWdvis konteqstTan mimarTebaSi
xdeba. semantikur mexsierebaSi ki informaciis
aRbeWdvis garkveul epizodTan mimarTeba dakargulia. interferencia SeiZleba iyos proaqtiuri, rodesac Zveli informacia ereva da xels
uSlis axlis aRbeWdvas, an retroaqtiuri,
rodesac axali informacia ereva Zvels.
informaciis gadamuSavebis Teoriis mixedviT,
informaciis ufro Rrma gadamuSaveba mis ukeTes

daxsomebas iwvevs. implicitur mexsierebaze


Catarebuli kvlevebis mixedviT, aRbeWdvis da
mogonebis procesebis damTxveva iwvevs praimings.
Tqven SegiZliaT gaiumjobesoT mexsiereba
gadamamuSavebeli ganmeorebis da mnemonikuri
xerxebis daxmarebiT. metamexsierebisTvis specifikuri msjelobebi Tqveni mexsierebis Sesaxeb
tipuri da zustia.

wuTs, nebismieri sagnis aRqmisas Tu moqmedebisas,


ambobdeT: _ es is aris, rac samzareulos nivTebs
miekuTvneba.~ garemosTan urTierTobis Cveulebrivi gamocdilebiT Tqveni mexsierebis struqturaSi garemos struqturebi aisaxeba. ganvixiloT
mexsierebis struqturaTa formebi, romelic
Camoyalibda Tqveni garemosTan yoveldRiuri
urTierTobis procesSi.

xangrZlivi mexsierebis
struqturebi
aqamde Cven mier motanil yvela magaliTSi
gTxovdiT, rom dagemaxsovrebinaT an aRgedginaT
izolirebuli an erTmaneTTan daukavSirebeli
informaciis erTeulebi. is, rasac Tqven umravles SemTxvevaSi aRadgendiT, organizebuli
codnis nawilebi iyo. gaixseneT, magaliTad,
rodesac gTxoveT gemsjelaT, iyo Tu ara yurZeni
xili, Tqven daufiqreblad gaeciT dadebiTi
pasuxi, magram ras ityviT avokadoze an tyemalze?
am TavSi Cven SeviswavliT, Tu rogoraa dakavSirebuli am tipis pasuxis siZneleebi mexsierebaSi informaciis struqturirebis xasiaTTan
da gzebTan; vimsjelebT, agreTve, imis Sesaxeb,
Tu rogor gexmarebaT mexsierebaSi organizebuli
codna ama Tu im informaciis swrafad gaxsenebaSi.

mexsierebis struqturebi
mexsierebis ZiriTadi funqcia msgavsi STabeWdilebebis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebaa, raTa
garemosTan urTierTobis procesSi SeZloT misi
gamoyeneba (gaixseneT martivi gansazRvreba me-5
TavSi aRqmis funqciis Sesaxeb). Tqven cxovrobT
samyaroSi, romelic savsea uTvalavi individualuri STabeWdilebebiT da movlenebiT,
romelTa mudmivi gacxrilva da maTi informaciis
iseT mcire, martiv erTobliobad dayvana
gWirdebaT, romlis marTvasac SeZlebT. amave
dros, Tqven ar gWirdebaT samyaroSi garkveuli
struqturis mosaZebnad yovel jerze cnobierebis CarTva. rogorc implicituri mexsierebis
ganxilvisas vnaxeT, warmoudgenelia, rom yovel

daviwyoT me-11 TavSi ganxiluli movleniT


im gonebrivi ZalisxmeviT, romelic saWiroa,
raTa bavSvma daimaxsovros, magaliTad, sityva
ZaRlis mniSvneloba. imisaTvis, rom es sityva
mniSvnelobis matarebeli iyos bavSvisTvis, mas
unda hqondes unari, daimaxsovros yvela is
situacia, romelSic es sityva gamoiyeneba da,
agreTve, informacia konteqstis Sesaxeb. am gziT
bavSvi aRmoaCens, ra aris ZiriTadi arsi: _
bewviani arseba, romelsac oTxi fexi aqvs, niSnavs
ZaRls. bavSvma unda Seimecnos, rom ZaRli
ewodeba ara erT konkretul cxovels, aramed
amgvar cocxal arsebaTa mTel kategorias.
individualuri gamocdilebis kategorizaciis
unari erTi da igive qcevis ganxorcieleba
mis mimarT, an erTi da igive saxelis darqmeva
_ moazrovne organizmis erT-erTi yvelaze bazisuri da mniSvnelovani unaria (Mervis & Rosch,
1981).
Tqven mier gamoyofili kategoriebis gonebaSi
reprezentacias cnebebi ewodeba. cneba ZaRli,
magaliTad, ewodeba bavSvis mier ZaRlTan
dakavSirebuli cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis
mexsierebaSi SekavSirebas da Senaxvas (rogorc
me-11 TavSi vnaxavT, Tu bavSvs jer kidev ar aqvs
dazustebuli ZaRlis mniSvneloba, es cneba
SeiZleba iseT niSnebsac moicavdes, romelic
mozrdilebma SeiZleba am cnebisTvis Seusabamod
CaTvalon.). Tqven SeZenili gaqvT uamravi cneba.
gaqvT sagnebis da qcevebis kategoriebi, magaliTad, sakuWnao da fexburTi. cnebebi SeiZleba
asaxavdes Tvisebebs, magaliTad, wiTeli an didi;
abstraqtul ideebs, magaliTad, WeSmariteba an
siyvaruli; mimarTebebs, magaliTad, ufro Wkviani,
vidre. TiToeuli cneba Tqven mier samyarosTan
urTierTobiT SeZenili mTlianobebad Camoyalibebuli gamocdilebis reprezentaciaa.

xangrZlivi mexsierebis struqturebi

kategorizacia da cnebebi

297

Ti adrec iyo miwodebuli, zogierTi axali


iyo da gansxvavdeboda prototipisgan. iyo,
agreTve, prototipis suraTi, romelic
gansxvavdeboda pirvelad miwodebuli prototipisgan. cdis pirebs evalebodaT gamoecnoT, Tu romeli suraTi hqondaT maT
adre miwodebisas nanaxi.
kargad gamoikveTa sami Sedegi, romelic
mocemulia suraTze 8.1. cdis pirebi cnobdnen yvela im suraTs, romelic adre
hqondaT nanaxi, maSinac ki, rodesac maTgan
prototipTan mxolod 25%-s hqonda
msgavseba. axal suraTebze miuTiTebdnen,
rom axali iyo da cnobis xarisxi prototipTan mimarTebiT ganisazRvreboda. cdis
pirebi dabolos, yvelaze darwmunebulni
iyvnen axali prototipis ucnobobaSi (Solso
& McCarthy, 1981).

prototipebi
im ZaRlebs Soris, romlebic Tqven ginaxavT,
romels warmoidgenT, rodesac waikiTxavT
winadadebas: _ ZaRli xravs Zvals~. SegiZliaT
konkretuli ZaRli daasaxeloT? Tu romelime
tipuri ZaRli warmogidgebaT, romelic yvela
nanaxi ZaRlebis saSualos prototips warmoadgens? ganvixiloT eqsperimenti, romelic
dagvexmareba am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemaSi.

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

saidan

298

viciT
prototipebis Camoyalibeba
cdis pirebs uCvenebdnen calkeuli
adamianis saxeebis suraTebs, romlebic
sxvadasxva xarisxiT gansxvavdebodnen prototipisgan (sur. 8.11); Semdeg maT aCvenebdnen saxeebis meore jgufs. zogierTi sura-

am eqsperimentSi cdis pirebi ise moqmedebdnen,


TiTqos gaaerTianes yvela saxe, romelic ki
unaxavT, raTa prototipuli konstruqti SeeqmnaT.
kategoriebis, Tavisi TvisebebiTurT, prototipebi iqmneba mTeli Tqveni gamocdilebidan,
amitom prototipebi yovel wuTs SeiZleba
icvlebodes da mdidrdebodes axali kategoriiT.
aqedan gamomdinare, mecnierebi mividnen im
daskvnamde, rom konkretuli kategoriisTvis
prototipis reprezentacia gonebaSi SeiZleba
ar gqondeT. ufro savaraudoa, rom prototipi
TviTon calkeul egzemplarebSi, rogorc
saSualo raRac moqmedebs (Hintzman, 1986; Nosofsly
et al., 1992). magaliTad, yvela ZaRli, romelic ki
am momentisTvis ginaxavT, ayalibebs prototipuli ZaRlis Tqveneul cnebas. ufro metic, Tu
Tqven saRamos gaxvediT quCaSi da dainaxeT erTi,
an ori ZaRli, Tqveni prototipi SeiZleba odnav
Seicvalos kidec.
is, rom Tqven gaqvT unari, iseT kategorias,
rogorc, vTqvaT, ZaRlia, prototipi mounaxoT,
gaZlevT SesaZleblobas icnoT kategoriis metnaklebad tipuri warmomadgenlebi _ rac ufro
meti Tviseba aqvs saerTo kategoriis calkeul
cnebebi (concepts) _ sagnebis, an ideebis saxeobebis, an kategoriebis mentaluri reprezentaciebi.
prototipi (Prototype) _ kategoriis yvelaze reprezentaciuli magaliTi.

suraTi

8.11

A prototipuli saxe da calkeuli saxeebi


B prototipebis, Zveli da axali saxeebis prototipuli Sefaseba

wevrebs erTmaneTTan, miT ufro tipurni arian


isini. es kargad Cans, magaliTad, frinvelis
kategoriis ganxilvisas. ris gamo iTvleba yvavi
tipur frinvelad, xolo siraqlema, an pingvini
atipurad? pasuxi ganisazRvreba im xarisxiT,
riTac es qmnilebebi hgvanan im kategoriis
warmomadgenlebs, romelTac Tqvens mexsierebaSi
frinvelis kategoriaSi aerTianebT. kategoriis
wevrTa tipuroba ki, Tu rogor Seesabameba raRac
Tqvens prototips, yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan
momdinareobs. gamokvlevebma gamoavlines, rom
xalxi ufro swrafad reagirebs kategoriis tipur
warmomadgenlebze, vidre uCveuloze. Tqveni
reaqciis dro kiTxvaze, aris Tu ara yvavi
frinveli, ufro swrafi iqneba, vidre is, rom
siraqlema frinvelia (Rosch, 1976). kidev erTxel
vimeorebT, rom es efeqti damokidebulia Tqvens
gamocdilebaze frinvelTa kategoriis mimarT.

am SemTxvevaSi ufro advilia yvavisTvis, rogorc


frinvelisTvis, adgilis povna, vidre siraqlemisTvis (Tu, ra Tqma unda, Tqveni cxovrebis
manZilze didxans ar gicxovriT siraqlemebis
garemocvaSi).

ierarqiebi da bazisuri doneebi


cnebebi da maTi prototipebi damoukideblad
ar aRmocendeba. rogorc suraTi 8.12 gviCvenebs,
cnebebi SeiZleba azrian organizaciebad gaerTiandenen. iseT did kategorias, rogoricaa
cxoveli, gaaCnia qvekategoriebi _ frinveli da
Tevzi, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, moicaven saxeobebs:
iadoni, siraqlema, zvigeni da oraguli. Tavis
mxriv, cxovelis kategoriac aris qvekategoria
ufro didi kategoriisa _ cocxali arsebebi.
cnebebi dakavSirebulia sxva saxis informacias-

xangrZlivi mexsierebis struqturebi

(A) saxis 75% emTxveva prototips, 50%-s aqvs gansxvavebuli Tmebi da Tvalebi, 25%-s mxolod Tvalebi aqvs
saerTo, dabolos, 0% aqvs saerTo prototipTan. (B) cdis pirebs sTxoven Seafason, aqvT Tu ara nanaxi adre
es saxe. yvelaze maRali darwmunebulobis xarisxi aris prototipis mimarT, romelic adre arasodes
unaxavT; daaxloebiT Tanabaria darwmunebulobis xarisxi adre nanaxi saxeebis mimarT; axali saxeebis
SemTxvevaSi cdis pirTa darwmunebulobis xarisxi klebulobda prototipisgan misi msgavsebis SemcirebasTan
erTad.

299

fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

adamianis da kompiuteris mexsiereba

300

rodesac kompiuterisa da
adamianis SesaZleblobebs
adareben, xSirad iseTi STabeWdileba rCeba, rom kompiuteri jobnis adamians. kompiuteris mexsierebas bevrad
meti aTasobiT da milionobiT _ biti informaciis
Senaxva SeuZlia, vidre Cvens
mexsierebas, magram adamianis
mexsierebas erTi iseTi Tviseba aqvs, romelic mis mexsierebas ufro maRla ayenebs.
procesebi, romlebic SesaZleblobas gvaZleven, movigonoT specifikuri informacia,
xSirad bevrad ufro efeqturia, vidre kompiuterSi Zebnis
procedura.davuSvaT, Tqvens
megobars Tqveni gamocda unda
am Tavis mixedviT da gekiTxebaT: romelma mkvlevrebma
Semoitanes kodirebis specifikurobis cneba?~ Tqven SegiZliaT gasceT swori pasuxi
(tulvingi da tomsoni), mcdari pasuxi (soerlingi), an
TqvaT, rom ar iciT. albaT,
ar gindaT, gasceT iseTi pasuxi, romelsac araviTari kavSiri ar aqvs kiTxvasTan. rogor ggoniaT, ra xdeba, rodesac am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemis davalebas manqanas aZlevT?
pirveli veb-gverdi, romelsac
Google.com gvTavazobs, Semdegia: aris Tu ara HIV-is izolacia miRweuli. meore mcdeloba AskJeeves. com-s ukavSir-

deba. is gvTavazobs imis definicias, Tu ra aris cneba. ratom aris kompiuteris mexsierebidan es pasuxebi adamianis
mexsierebisgan gansxvavebuli?
Cven adamianis mexsierebis (mogonebis) or Taviseburebas gamovyofT, romelic kompiuterTan
SedarebiT misi upiratesobis
ilustrirebas axdens.pirveli:
rogorc ukve gaecaniT, adamianis
mexsiereba efeqturad iyenebs
Sinaarsobriv mimniSneblebs,
romlebic saZiebel informaciazea mimarTuli. is uzrunvelyofs imas, rom aRdgenili
informaciis Sinaarsi kiTxvis
Sinaarss Seesabamebodes. kompiuteri ki, piriqiT, ar iTvaliswinebs konteqsts da ufro sityvis viwro mniSvnelobazea
orientirebuli. magaliTad, Tu
Cven kodirebis specifikurobas~ veZebT Google.com-Si an
ASKJeeves-Si, TiToeuli maTgani
maSinve gadmogviSlis gverds,
romelzec iqneba pasuxi pirvel
kiTxvaze. kompiuterSi maZieblisTvis kiTxvis nawilebs, romlebic konteqstis dasazusteblad iqneba mimarTuli (romelma
mkvlevrebma Semoitanes), aSkarad
uaryofiTi gavlena eqneba Ziebis
efeqturobaze. kompiuterSi bevri pasuxis mosaZebnad Zalian
Znelia CarTo konteqsti ise, rom
kompiuterma gaurkveveli mimarTulebiT ar gagagzavnos. meore:

Tanac: Tqvens mexsierebaSi Senaxulia codna imis


Sesaxeb, rom zogierTi frinveli iWmeva, zogi
saSiSia, zogi ki nacionaluri simboloa.
rogorc vxedavT, ierarqiebSi garkveuli
safexuri arsebobs, romelzec adamianebi ukeT
moiazreben obieqtebs da axdenen maT katego-

adamianis mexsierebas cnebebi


marTaven da ara sityvebi. rodesac Tqvens mexsierebaSi kodirebis specifikurobis Sesaxeb eZebT pasuxs, ar aqvs mniSvneloba ras ityviT, mkvlevars~ Tu eqspermentators~,
aRmomCens~ Tu Semqmnels~.
cneba aamoqmedebs TiToeul
sityvas, rogorc mimniSnebels.
kompiuters ki saqme mxolod
sityvebTan aqvs. magaliTad,
rodesac Cven Google.com-s
veubnebiT, Secvalos aRmomCeni~ SemqmneliT~, is gvaZlevs bmuls mexsierebis TeoriaSi garkveuli gverdis miTiTebiT. mkvlevris~ Secvla
eqsperimentatoriT~ gvaZlevs,
rogorc pirveli bmulis SemTxvevaSi, gverds saTauriT:
talRebi, pulsi, neironuli
masis Teoria~. es patara eqsperimenti kargad uCvenebs, Tu
kompiuteri, adamianis mexsierebisgan gansxvavebiT, rogor
ufro metadaa damokidebuli
sityvebze, vidre cnebebze.axla
mainc Tu grZnobT mcireoden
upiratesobas kompiuterTan
SedarebiT? SegiZliaT, ramdenime wuTi dauTmoT imaze
fiqrs, Tu rogor SeiZleba
adamianis mexsierebis es Tvisebebi kompiutersac gadasceT.
veb-gverdebi:
www.google.com
www.AskJeeves.com

rizacias. maT bazisur doneebs uwodeben (Rosch,


1973, 1978). magaliTad, rodesac Tqven bazarSi
yidulobT vaSls, SegiZliaT ifiqroT masze,
rogorc xilis erT-erT saxeobaze, romlis
mniSvnelobac Zalian farToa, an rogorc Safranze, rac specifikuri da viwro mniSvnelobisaa.

suraTi

8.12

cnebaTa ierarqiulad organizebuli struqtura

bazisuri done ki aris vaSli. Tqven rom gaCvenon


am obieqtis suraTi da gkiTxon, ra aris es,
Tqven ufro swrafad upasuxebT, rom es vaSlia
(da ara xilis romelime konkretuli saxeoba).
bazisur dones prototipis gamowvevis meti Zala
aqvs. Tqven vaSlis cnebasTan meti Sexeba da
gamocdileba gaqvT, vidre mis specifikur
jiSebTan. Tqven rom vaSlebis gamomyvani iyoT,
bazisuri done am ierarqiaSi ufro dabali
geqnebodaT.

sqemebi
Cven vnaxeT, rom cnebebi mexsierebis ierarqiaSi agurebis funqcias asruleben. maT es roli
ufro rTul kompleqsebSic aqvT. gaixseneT
suraTi 8.2. saidan xvdebiT instinqturad, rom
baWiis adgili ar aris samzareuloSi? Cven adre
ukve aRvniSneT, rom es procesi implicitur
mexsierebas emyareba, magram Cven ar gviTqvams,
Tu mexsierebis romeli struqtura iyo amisTvis
gamoyenebuli. ufro zustad rom vTqvaT, is,

rac Tqven gWirdebaT, aris iseTi saxis reprezentacia mexsierebaSi, romelic samzareulos
individualur cnebas _ macivris, WurWlis sarecxi niJaris Tu gazquris Sesaxeb codnas _
gaaerTianebs ufro did struqturaSi. sqema aris
cnebiTi CarCo, an codnaTa klasteri sagnebis,
adamianebis da situaciis Sesaxeb. sqemebi aris
codnaTa Sekvrebi~, romlebSic garemos struqturis Sesaxeb rTuli ganzogadebebia aRbeWdili.
Tqven gaqvT samzareulos da sawoli oTaxis
sqema, samarSruto taqsis mZRolis da profesoris, qeifisa da banketis sqemebi. SegiZliaT,
bazisuri done (Basic level) _ kategorizaciis done,
romelic yvelaze swrafad SeiZleba amovitanoT
mexsierebidan da gamoviyenoT yvelaze efeqturad.
sqemebi (Schemas) _ obieqtebis, xalxis, an situaciis Sesaxeb konceptualuri CarCoebi, an codnis klasterebi~, codnis erTeulebi, romlebic
moicaven garemos struqturebis Sesaxeb ganzogadebebs.

xangrZlivi mexsierebis struqturebi

kategoria cxoveli SeiZleba daiyos iseT qvekategoriebad, rogoricaa frinveli da Tevzi,


TiToeuli qvekategoria SeiZleba kidev daiyos. zogierTi informacia (aqvs kani) gaaCnia ierarqiis
yvela dones; sxva informacia (magaliTad, SeuZlia simRera) mxolod dabali donis cnebebs
SeiZleba hqondes (magaliTad, iadons).

301

suraTi

8.13

cnobis iluzia
ixvi Tu kurdReli

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

ramdenime wuTi dauTmoT da dafiqrdeT, Tu ra


da rogor aris am kategoriebSi ganzogadebuli.
erTi ram, rasac SeamCnevdiT, isaa, rom Tqveni
sqema ar moicavs Tqveni cvalebadi gamocdilebis
yvela individualur detals. Tu prototipi
kategoriebis Sesaxeb Tqveni gamocdilebebis
saSualoa, sqemaSi warmodgenilia garemoSi
situaciaTa Sesaxeb Tqveni gamocdielebebis
saSualo. iseve, rogorc prototipebi, Tqveni
sqemebic cvalebadia da cxovrebiseul movlenebTan erTad icvleba (Rumelhart et al., 1986). Tqveni
sqemac mxolod im detalebs moicavs, romelsac
gansakuTrebuli yuradReba dauTmeT. magaliTad,
rodesac ekiTxebiT, ra aris warmodgenili, ra
xatia Tu weria ocTeTrian monetaze, studentebi
arasodes amboben, rom masze iremia gamoxatuli,
Tumca, es gamosaxuleba yvela monetazea (Rubin
& Kontis, 1983). aba, SeamowmeT! amrigad, Tqveni
sqema inaxavs zustad imas, rac SeamCnieT garemoSi.
axla ki ganvixiloT yvela is gza, romelSic
cnebebs da sqemebs iyenebT.

302

mexsierebis struqturebis
gamoyeneba
modiT, vnaxoT, Tu rogor moqmedebs mexsierebis zogierTi struqtura. Tqvenma sqemam
SeasaZlebloba mogcaT, uyoymanoT mimxvdariyaviT, rom baWiis adgili samzareuloSi ar
aris. axla gaixseneT me-5 Tavi, sadac ganvixileT,
Tu ra gavlenas axdens adrindeli codna orazrovani figuris interpretaciaze. gaxsovT es
figura (sur. 8.13)? ras xedavT _ ixvs Tu baWias?

davuSvaT, Cven winaswar mogamzadeT imisTvis,


rom dainaxavdiT ixvs, anu Tu Tqven SeusabamebT
naxatis niSnebs Tqvens sqematur molodinebs
am niSnebis mimarT, dainaxavT ixvs. igive moxdeba
baWiis mimarTac, Tu geqnebaT baWiis molodini.
Cven viyenebT mexsierebaSi arsebul informacias,
raTa gavamarTloT molodini.
Tqven gaqvT, agreTve, mexsierebis struqturebi,
romlebic gavlenas axdenen Tqvens aRqmasa da
mogonebaze (Cantor & Mischel, 1979; Levy et al., 1999).
magaliTad, Tqven, albaT, ukve geqnebaT kbilis
eqimis, sakulto beladebis, ekologistebis da
maSvelebis cnebebi. Tu TqvenTvis ucnob pirovnebaze getyvian, rom is erT-erTi am profesiis
warmomadgenelia, Tqveni stereotipuli warmodgena miawers mas konkretul pirovnul maxasiaTeblebs an Sesabamis qcevebs. socialuri fsiqologebis mier dadgenil iqna, rom enas da
sityvebsac SeuZliaT, garkveuli gavlena moaxdinon am cnebaTa interpersonalur gamoyenebaze.
es gamokvleva gviCvenebs, rom mexsierebis struqturebs SeuZliaT, gavlena moaxdinon samyaros
Sesaxeb Tqvens azrTa msvlelobaze: _ Tqveni awmyo
gamocdileba warsuli gamocdilebiT aris
Seferili da es ukanaskneli cvlis Tqvens molodinebs momavlis mimarT. male, aseve, naxavT,
rom xSirad erTi da igive mizeziT, cnebebi da
sqemebi SeiZleba xels uSlides zust mogonebas.

mogoneba, rogorc
rekonstruqiuli procesi
axla ganvixiloT sxva mniSvnelovani saSualeba, romelSic gamoiyeneba mexsierebis struqtura. bevr SemTxvevaSi, rodesac gTxoven, moigonoT garkveuli informacia, Tqven ver axerxebT
amas. amis nacvlad, Tqven rekonstruqcias ukeTebT
informacias ufro zogadi saxiT Senaxuli codnidan. rekonstruqciuli mexsierebis naTelsayofad ganvixiloT Semdegi sami kiTxva:
me-3 TavSi aris Tu ar sityva da~?
1991 weli Seicavs Tu ara 7 ivlisis dRes?
sunTqavdiT guSin @2.05 sa da 2.10 wuTs
Soris?
Tqven, albaT, samive kiTxvas dadebiT pasuxs
gascemT yovelgvari meryeobis gareSe, magram,
ra Tqma unda, am movlenebis konkretuli epi-

zoduri mexsiereba ar geqnebaT (im SemTxvevebis


gamoklebiT, Tu, magaliTad, vinme 7 ivliss ar
aris dabadebuli da misTvis es gansakuTrebuli
dRea). am kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad Tqven
unda gamoiyenoT zogadi codna, raTa rekonstruqcia gaukeToT mas da ivaraudoT, ra SeiZleba momxdariyo. rekonstruqciis es procesi
ufro detalurad gavarCioT.

rekonstruqciuli mexsierebis sizuste

donis daweva (leveling) _ moTxrobis gamartiveba;


gamokveTa _ garkveuli detalebis gansakuTrebuli gaSuqeba;
asimilacia _ detalebis Secvla ise, rom
isini ukeTes SesabamisobaSi mosuliyvnen sakuTar
codnasTan.
amrigad, cdis pirebi ixsenebdnen moTxrobas
da maTTvis ucnob sityvebs Tavisi kulturisTvis
Cveuli sityvebiT cvlidnen: _ navi kanoes nacvlad, Tevzaoba _ selapebze nadirobis magivrad.
bartletis cdis pirebi, aseve, xSirad cvlidnen
moTxrobis Sinaarssac, raTa SeemcirebinaT
zebunebrivi Zalebis Sesaxeb frazebi, romelic
maTi kulturisTvis ar iyo damaxasiaTebeli.

miyvnen ra bartletis kvals, Tanamedrove


mkvlevrebma Seiswavles mexsierebis darRvevebis
mravalferovneba, romelTac adgili aqvT
mogonebis konstruqciuli procesebis gamoyenebis dros (Bergman & Roediger, 1999). magaliTad,
mkvlevarTa erTma jgufma gamoavlina kanonzomiereba, romelsac sapnis operis~ efeqti uwoda
(Owens et al., 1979). erTi epizodi am gamokvlevis
masalidan:
nensi mivida koqteilis wveulebaze. man
mimoixeda oTaxSi, raTa iq myofni SeeTvalierebina. igi sasaubrod miuaxlovda Tavis
profesors. man icoda, rac unda eTqva
misTvis, magram nerviulobda amaze. stumarTa erTma jgufma Saradebis TamaSi daiwyo.
nensi zeviT avida cota mosamagreblad.
koniaki ki kargi iyo, magram mas ar ainteresebda, Tu raze saubrobda iq stumrebis
nawili. cota xnis Semdeg, sakmarisiao,
gadawyvita man da datova wveuleba.
axla warmoidgineT rogor gansxvavebulad
aRiqvamT am nawyvets, Tu Tqven cdis pirTa

rekonstruqciuli mexsiereba (Reconstructive


memory) _ mexsierebis konkretuli reprezentaciebis ararsebobis pirobebSi Senaxuli
codnis zogad tipebze dayrdnobiT informaciis
erTad ganlagebis procesi.

xangrZlivi mexsierebis struqturebi

Tu adamianebi zogjer codnis zogierTi


aspeqtis rekonstruqcias axdenen zusti monacemebis aRdgenis nacvlad, maSin mosalodnelia,
aRmovaCinoT SemTxvevebi, rodesac rekonstruirebuli mogonebis faqtebi gansxvavebul iqneba
realuri suraTisgan, anu mexsierebis Secdomebs
eqneba adgili. mexsierebis Secdomis erT-erTi
yvelaze STambeWdavi demonstracia sakmaod
Zvelia. klasikur naSromSi _ mogoneba: eqsperimentuli da socialuri fsiqologiis gamokvlevebi~ (1932) _ ser frederik bartleti ikvlevda
sakiTxs, Tu rogor moqmedebs warsuli gamocdileba axlad SeZenili informaciis mogonebaze.
bartleti studentebs sTxovda, daemaxsovrebinaT
gansxvavebuli kulturis Tqmulebebi da legendebi. yvelaze cnobilia misi masala sulebis
brZola~.
bartletma aRmoaCina, rom misi studentebis
mier gaxsenebuli Sinaarsi gansxvavdeboda originalisgan, anu imisgan, rasac awvdidnen dasamaxsovreblad. Sinaarsis damaxinjeba sami saxis
rekonstruqciul process moicavda:

303

meore jgufSi aRmoCndebiT, romelTac winaswar


es Sesavali waakiTxes:

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

nensim gaRviZebisas isev sisuste igrZno


da gaukvirda, marTla fexmZimed iyo Tu
ara. rogor unda uTxras profesors, rac
dainaxa?

304

axla xelaxla miubrundiT pirvel nawyvets


da xelaxla waikiTxeT. cdis pirebisaTvis am
winasityvaobis arsebobas Tu ararsebobas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs maTi mexsierebisaTvis.
rodesac sTxovT, moigonon Sinaarsi, an icnon
nawyvetebi, isini, romelTac wakiTxuli aqvT
Sesavalic da, aqedan gamomdinare, TavSi mosdiT
arasasurveli fexmZimobis~ sqema, ufro metad
imas aRadgenen an icnoben, romelic nensis
fexmZimobas ukavSirdeba. cdis pirTa mier sqemis
gamoyeneba iwvevs Sinaarsis Sesabamis da mosalodnel damaxinjebas.
magram unda gvaxsovdes da mniSvnelovanicaa,
rom rogorc me-5 TavSi, rodesac aRqmis iluziebze vsaubrobdiT, fsiqologebs procesebis
normaluri operaciebis saCveneblad xSirad
iseTi pirobebi da situaciebi mohyavT, romlebic
Secdomebs iwveven. iseve, rogorc aRqmis iluziebi ar gaiZuleben realurad kedelSi gasvlas,
mexsierebis iluziebic~ Zalian iSviaTad Tu
SegiSliT xels yoveldRiur cxovrebasa da
saqmianobaSi.
mexsierebis es damaxinjebebi SegiZliaT ganixiloT, rogorc Cveulebriv, Zalian kargad
momuSave procesTa Tanmdevi movlena. faqtobrivad, Tqven umravles SemTxvevaSi garkveuli
epizodis detalebis aRdgena arc ki gWirdebaT,
movlenaTa arsis aRdgena rekonstruqciiTac
mSvenivrad xerxdeba.
cota vrclad SevexoT im Tvalsazriss, romlis mixedviTac, detalebis aRdgena yovelTvis
ver xerxdeba. imisaTvis, rom vnaxoT, rogor
SeuZlia rekonstruqcia ganicados mexsierebam,
raTa moergos mogonebis sagans Tu mizans,
gamoviyenoT citatebis SemTxveva. arcTu
iSviaTia SemTxveva, rodesac gindaT Tqveni
sityva Tu moxseneba gaamdidroT sxvisi gamonaTqvamiT, magaliTad, SeiZleba TqvaT: gaixseneT,
Cveni fsiqologiis profesori rom gveubneboda
_ korelacia mizezobriobas ar niSnavso~.
rodesac vinmes sityvidan citatas iyenebT, Tqven
arCevT aspeqtebs, romlebsac Tqveni mexsiereba

rekonstruqcias ukeTebs (Clark & Gerrig, 1990) da


SegiZliaT sityvasityviT moitanoT is, an misi
dedaazri gadmosceT. am gadawyvetilebas Tqven
Tqveni sityvidan gamomdinare iRebT. mkvlevrebma
gviCvenes, rom mexsierebis gamoyeneba am miznebis
cvlasTan erTad icvleba.

saidan
viciT
miznebi gavlenas axdenen mexsierebaze
cdis pirebs aCvenebdnen wuTnaxevari
xangrZliobis scenas videofilmidan da
sTxovdnen daemaxsovrebinaT dialogi am
nawyvetidan. maT 45 wuTi eZleodaT, rac
sakmarisi iyo imisaTvis, rom TiToeul
maTgans sakmaod zustad aRedgina dialogis teqsti. cdis pirebi or jgufad gayves.
TiToeul students dialogis Sinaarsi
sxva studentisTvis unda gadaeca, magram
erT jgufs sTxovdnen es moTxroba
maqsimalurad zusti yofiliyo (teqstTan
axlos), xolo, meore jgufs ki sTxovdnen,
rac SeiZleba saintereso yofiliyo maTi
monaTxrobi. is cdispirebi, romlebsac
maqsimaluri sizustiT aRdgenis instruqcia hqondaT, 99%-iT, sityvasityviT aRadgendnen dialogs maSin, rodesac meore
jgufis cdis pirebma dialogis mxolod
62% aRadgines. miuxedavad imisa, rom orive
jgufis wevrebma dialogis teqsti Zalian
kargad daimaxsovres, meore jgufma, ubralod, arCia, rom ufro saintereso iqneboda, Tu yvelafers ar uambobda sxvas
(Wadi, Klark, 1993).

es Sedegi gviCvenebs, rom Cveni informaciis


zustad aRdgenaze daxarjuli Zalisxmeva garemoebebzea damokidebuli. Tu Tqven TvliT, rom
valdebuli xarT, zustad moigonoT ra moxda,
Tqven amas gaakeTebT _ obieqtur monacems
waradgenT, an aRiarebT da ityviT, rom ar gaxsovT.
zogierT cxovrebiseul situaciaSi, marTlac,
sakmarisia imis ubralo rekonstruqcia, rac
moxda anu met-naklebad zusti aRdgena. es Tqveni
gadasawyvetia. magram arsebobs erTi sfero, sadac
Tqven udao pasuxismgebloba gekisrebaT imis

mowmis mexsiereba
mowme sasamarTloze debs fics _ Tqvas
simarTle da mxolod simarTle~. am TavSi Cven
vnaxavT, rom mexsiereba zusti iqneba Tu mcdari,
damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor aris informacia
aRbeWdili da emTxveva Tu ara aRdgenis pirobebi
aRbeWdvis pirobebs. vinaidan fsiqologebma
ician, rom adamianebma SeiZleba ver Tqvan
simarTle~ maSinac ki, rodesac es Zalian surT,
maT yuradReba mowmis mexsierebaze gaamaxviles
da misi Seswavla daiwyes. maTi mizani gamoZiebisTvis xelSewyoba da iseTi meTodis moZebnaa,
romelic mowmis Cvenebis sizustes uzrunvelyofs.
am mimarTulebiT mniSvnelovani gamokvlevebi
iqna Catarebuli elizabet loftusis da misi
kolegebis mier (Elizabeth Loftus et al., 1979, 1992).
maTi gamokvlevis ZiriTadi daskvna is iyo, rom
mowmis mexsiereba (Cveneba) Zalian advilad
icvleboda Semdgomi informaciebis gavleniT.
magaliTad, cdis pirebs uCvenebdnen films, sadac
avtokatastrofa xdeboda - ori manqana erTmaneTs
ejaxeboda da sTxovdnen, ganesazRvraT manqanebis
siCqare (Loftus & Palmer, 1974). maT erT nawils
kiTxvas Semdegnairad usvamdnen: ramdenad
swrafad moZraobdnen manqanebi Sejaxebisas?~
xolo meore nawils ki ekiTxebodnen: ra siCqariT moZraobdnen manqanebi, rodesac isini erTmaneTs Seejaxnen?~ pirvel SekiTxvaze cdis
pirebis pasuxi saSualod 100km/sT iyo, meore
kiTxvaze ki _ 80km/sT. erTi kviris Semdeg maT
ekiTxebodnen: dainaxeT Camsxvreuli minebi?~

Sejameba
mexsierebis ZiriTadi funqciaa msgavsi gamocdilebis erTmaneTTan dakavSireba, raTa garemoSi
ukeT gaverkveT. cnebebi mentalur kategoriebs
warmoadgenen. prototipebi iqmneba mTel Cvens
gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT kategoriis wevrebis
CaTvliT da, amdenad, yoveli axali wevris
aRqmasTan erTad TviTonac icvleba. iqmneba
erTgvari bazisuri done, romlis daxmarebiTac
adamianebi ukeT axdenen kategorizacias da ukeT
gaiazreben movlenebs. sqemebsa da konceptualur
CarCoebSi gamocdilebis mozrdili monakveTebis
kanonzomierebebi ukeT Cans, vidre cnebebi.
rodesac informaciis zusti aRdgena ver
xerxdeba, misi rekonstruqcia xdeba. rekonstruq-

xangrZlivi mexsierebis struqturebi

aRdgenis sizusteze, Tu ra moxda. ganvixiloT


mowmis mexsiereba.

sinamdvileSi Camsxvreuli minebi filmSi ar


iyo. miuxedavad amisa, pirveli jgufis cdis
pirTa mesamedma aRniSna, rom dainaxa SuSis
namsxvrevebi, xolo meore jgufidan ki mxolod
14%-ma daasastura es. amrigad, movlenis Semdgom
informacias arsebiTi gavlena aqvs mowmis
Cvenebaze.
movlenis Semdgomma informaciam SeiZleba
daamaxinjos mowmis mexsiereba maSinac ki, rodesac cdis pirs gacnobierebuli aqvs, rom
eqsperimentatori SeiZleba ecados mis SecdomaSi
Seyvanas. is ver axerxebs Tavisi mexsierebis
namdvili wyaros garCevas; veRar xedavs gansxvavebas movlenasa da mis Semdgom informacias
Soris (Johnson et al., 1993; Weingardt et al., 1995).
rogorc mosalodneli iyo, rodesac adamians
ramdenjerme warudgenen mcdar informacias, igi
swored mas miiCnevs ufro namdvilad (Mitchell
& Zaragoza, 1996), Tumca, garkveuli winaaRmdegoba
arsebobs am movlenis axsniTi meqanizmebis
dadgenaSi (Lindsay, 1993; Loftus, 1992; Schreiber &
Sergent, 1998). Semdgomi informaciis gavleniT
mowmis Cvenebis Secvlis tendencia dadgenilad
iTvleba. es gamokvlevebi adastureben im azrs,
rom Tqveni mexsiereba icvleba _ rekonstruqcias
ganicdis warsuli gamocdilebis sxvadasxva
elementebis gavleniT.
Cven ganvixileT aRbeWdvis, Senaxvisa da
aRdgenis bevri mniSvnelovani Tavisebureba.
dasasrul, mexsierebis am funqciebis biologiur
safuZvlebs ganvixilavT.

305

ciaze sqema axdens gavlenas. mecnierebma gviCvenes, rom mexsierebis gamoyeneba komunikaciis
miznis cvlilebasTan erTad icvleba. mowmis
Cveneba aucileblad moiTxovs zust mexsierebas,
magram gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom is mowyvladia
damaxinjebebisadmi movlenis Semdgomi informaciis gavleniT.

mexsierebis biologiuri
aspeqtebi
droa, gTxovoT, gaixsenoT ricxvi, romelic
Tqven mexsierebis Sesaxeb Tavis dawyebisas unda
dagemaxsovrebinaT. SegiZliaT moigonoT? ratom,
ra mizniT CagitareT aseTi savarjiSo? ifiqreT
im unaris biologiur safuZvlebze, romelic
SesaZleblobas gaZlevT, nebismieri informacia
monaxoT da moigonoT. rogor akeTebT amas?
aRbeWdva mexsierebaSi Tqvens tvinSi garkveul
cvlilebebs gulisxmobs. Tu Tqven gindaT, rom
es informacia, sul mcire, am Tavis bolomde
dagamaxsovrdeT, am cvlilebas permanentuli
xasiaTi unda hqondes. rodesme dagisvamT kiTxva
Tqveni TavisTvis, Tu rogor aris es SesaZlebeli? Cveni Txovnis mizezi, dagemaxsovrebinaT
nebismieri ricxvi, swored es iyo, anu is, rom
gagegoT, Tu raoden didi mniSvneloba aqvs
biologias mexsierebisTvis. axla cota ufro
Rrmad ganvixiloT es sakiTxi.

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

engramis ZiebaSi

306

modiT, gavixsenoT wignis dasawyisSi TqvenTvis mowodebuli testi, ufro zustad, SevamowmoT Tqveni mexsiereba. 37 xom is ricxvia,
romlis damaxsovrebac gTxoveT. rogor unda
ganvsazRvroT, Tqvens tvinSi sad aRibeWda is?
karl leSlim (Karl Lashly, 1929, 1950), romelmac
Seqmna pirveli wigni mexsierebis anatomiis
Sesaxeb, es sakiTxi engramis _ tvinSi mexsierebis
fizikuri warmomadgenlis _ Ziebas daukavSira.
leSli virTagvebs labirinTSi gavlas aswavlida, Semdeg maT tvinis calkeul nawilebs
engrama (Engram) _ mexsierebis fizikuri kvali
tvinSi.

amokveTda xolme da amowmebda labirinTSi naswavl qcevas. man daadgina, rom tvinis dazianebiT
gamowveuli mexsierebis darRveva amokveTili
qsovilis zomis proporciuli iyo. darRveva
miT ufro Zlieri iyo, tvinis rac ufro didi
nawili iyo dazianebuli. amave dros, mexsierebaze gavlenas ar axdenda is, Tu tvinis ra
nawili iqneboda dazianebuli. leSlis mixedviT,
engrama tvinis erT konkretul ubanSi ki ar
Tavsdeba, aramed mTel tvinze vrceldeba.
leSlim imitom ver SeZlo engramis lokalizacia, rom martiv situaciaSi mexsierebis
sxvadasxva forma erTdroulad monawileobs.
labirinTis swavla moicavs sivrciT, mxedvelobiT da ynosviT gamRizianeblebs. neiromecnierebis mtkicebiT, rTuli, kompleqsuri
informaciis daxsomeba mraval neironul sistemaSia ganawilebuli maSin, rodesac diskretuli codna calke gadamuSavdeba _ tvinis mxolod SezRudul ubnebSi lokalizdeba (Markowitsch, 2000; Rolls, 2000).
mexsiereba moicavs oTx ZiriTad nervul
struqturas:
naTxemi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs
proceduruli mexsierebisTvis, romelic ganmeorebas saWiroebs da klasikuri ganpirobebisTvis;
zoliani sxeuli wina tvinis kompleqsuri
struqtura. Cvevis Camoyalibebisa da stimulireaqcia~ kavSirebis savaraudo safuZvelia;
didi tvinis qerqi _ pasuxismgebelia sensoruli mexsierebas da SegrZnebebs Soris
asociaciebize;
nuSisebri kompleqsi _ pasuxismgebelia
faqtebis, TariRebis, saxelebis deklaraciul
mexsierebaze, agreTve, emociuri STabeWdilebebis
daxsomebaze.
tvinis sxva nawilebs, rogoricaa: Talamusi,
bazaluri winatvini da prefrontaluri korteqsi, agreTve, gaaCniaT saSualebebi mexsierebis
sxvadasxva tipis formirebisTvis.
me-3 TavSi tvinis anatomia ganvixileT. axla
ganvixiloT is neirofsiqologiuri meTodebi,
romelic SesaZleblobas gvaZleven gamovitanoT
daskvnebi im rolis Sesaxeb, romelsac tvinis
specifikuri struqturebi asruleben mexsierebis
muSaobaSi. Cven ori tipis gamokvlevebs SevexebiT.
pirvel rigSi, visaubrebT bunebriv eqsperimentze~, romelsac tvinis bunebrivi daziane-

suraTi

4.16

tvinis struqtura ........

bisas vxvdebiT, Semdeg ki im axal teqnikur


saSualebebs aRvwerT, romelTac mkvlevrebi
tvinSi mimdinare mexsierebis procesebis Sesaxeb
codnis gasaRrmaveblad iyeneben.

amnezia
1960 wels, sahaero Zalebis radarebis axalgazrda teqnikosi niki a. saSineli dazianebis
msxverpli gaxda, ramac Zireulad Secvala misi
cxovreba.
niki magidasTan ijda, misi mezobeli ki
miniaturuli safarikao daSniT TamaSobda.
moulodnelad niki wamodga da Semotrialda
swored im dros, rodesac misma amxanagma moiqnia
daSna. daSna nikis marjvena nestos moxvda da
moZraoba marcxena tvinis mimarTulebiT ganagrZo. am SemTxvevam igi seriozulad daaziana.
yvelaze mZime problema amnezia, xangrZlivi
droiT mexsierebis dakargva iyo. amneziis gamo
niks yvelaferi aRqmisTanave aviwydeba; wignSi
ramdenime abzacis wakiTxvis Semdeg pirveli

winadadebebi aRar axsovs; satelevizio gadacemidan azri ver gamoaqvs, sanam reklamis
ganmavlobaSi aqtiurad ar moigonebs da gaimeorebs oriode wuTis win nanaxs.
mecnierebi sargebloben nikis msgavsi pacientebiT, radgan bunebriv eqsperimentad~ Tvlian
aseT SemTxvevebs. nikis msgavsi tvinis dazianebis
adgilis dakavSirebam qcevis deficitTan saSualeba misca mkvlevrebs daedginaT mexsierebis
sxvadasxva formebis mimarTeba tvinis garkveul
ubnebTan. Tavis mxriv, niks jer kidev axsovs
moqmedebebi, anu ara aqvs darRveuli proceduruli mexsiereba, Tumca, deklaraciuli mexsiereba aRar funqcionirebs. ase magaliTad, mas
axsovs, rogor unda aurios sxvadasxva masala,
magram ar axsovs ra komponentebia am narevSi.
eqsplicituri mexsierebis darRvevis es faqtebi
naTlad miuTiTeben imaze, rom eqsplicitur da
implicitur mexsierebaSi tvinis gansxvavebuli
ubnebia CarTuli.

mexsierebis biologiuri aspeqtebi

ii

amnezia (Amnesia) _ mexsierebis dakargva .........

307

axla ganvixiloT mexsierebis sxva dayofa,


romelic SeiZleba gansxvavebul anatomiur
struqturas davukavSiroT. gamokvlevebis Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom hipokampis dazianebis dros
eqsplicituri mexsiereba irRveva da ara _
implicituri (Squire, 1992).

saidan
viciT
amneziis dros implicituri mexsiereba
daculia

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

gamokvlevaTaHerT seriaSi monawileobdnen cdis pirebi, romelTac korsakovis


sindromis (qronikuli alkoholizmi)
Sedegad dazianebuli hqondaT hipokampi.
rogorc amneziis mqone pacientebis, ise
janmrTelebis jgufs awvdidnen sityvaTa
mwkrivs da sTxovdnen, SeefasebinaT emociuri TavalsazrisiT, romeli sityva moswondaT da romeli ara. maTi mexsierebis Sesamowmeblad iyenebdnen or tests.
erT SemTxvevaSi cdis pirebs eZleodaT
sityvis dasawyisi marcvali, romelic
unda SeevsoT TavSi mosuli pirvelive
sityviT (Sevsebis testi), meore testSi
ki marcvali mimniSneblis rols TamaSobda, radgan cdis pirs masze dayrdnobiT
unda moegonebina Sesabamisi sityva wakiTxuli mwkrividan (mimniSnebliT mogonebis testi). mimniSnebel testSi amneziis
mqone pacientebi naklebs igonebdnen, vidre
janmrTelebi, magram sityvis Sevsebis
testSi pacientebis da janmrTelebis
mexsierebis moculoba Tanabari iyo (Graf
et al., 1984).

308

es Sedegi imaze miuTiTebs, rom korsakovis


sindromiT gamowveuli tvinis dazianeba gavlenas axdens eqsplicitur mexsierebaze, xolo
implicitur mexsierebas ucvlelad tovebs.
mecnierebma daadgines, rom es gavlena SeiZleba
sakmaod xangrZlivi iyos (Cave & Squire, 1992).
gamokvlevebiT implicituri mexsiereba 7 dRis
Semdeg gamovlinda. hipokampis mniSvnelovani
dazianebis SemTxvevaSic implicituri mexsiereba
ar irRveva.

is faqtebi, rom tvinis dazianebis zogierTi


forma azianebs eqsplicitur da ara implicitur
mexsierebas, SesaZleblobas aZlevs fsiqologebs,
amtkicon, rom mexsierebis es ori forma gansxvavebul kanonzomierebebs avlens kodirebisa
da aRdgenis procesebSi. ganvixiloT, magaliTad,
is gzebi, riTac adamianebi amyareben asociaciebs
iseT winadadebasTan, rogoricaa _ medicina
arCens enabluobas~. Cven ukve viciT zemoT
moyvanili gamokvlevidan, rom amneziis mqone
individebi iZenen codnas eqsplicituri cnobierebis gareSe, magram ramdenad SeuZliaT codnis
SeZena sityvebs Soris asociaciuri kavSirebis
Sesaxeb? erTi pasuxi, romelic im individis
monacemebs ukavSirdeba (Rajaram, Coslett, 2000),
romlis inicialebicaa C.V. da romlis amneziac
gamowveulia Sublis wilis nawilis, kerZod,
medialuri temporaluri lobis dazianebiT,
aris ara~. miuxedavad imisa, rom C.V. perceptul implicitur mexsierebas avlenda, mas ar
hqonda konceptualuri implicituri mexsiereba.
es Sedegi miuTiTebs imaze, rom eqsplicituri
mexsierebis gareSe garkveuli tipis asociaciebis
SeZena SeuZlebelia. am tipis gamokvlevebi
SesaZleblobas aZleven mecnierebs, ukeT
Cawvdnen mexsierebis biologiur safuZvlebs
da mexsierebis procesebis organizacias.

tvinis suraTi (skanireba)


fsiqologebma didi codna daagroves
anatomiasa da mexsierebas Soris kavSiris Sesaxeb
amneziis mqone individebze dakvirvebis gziT,
magram tvinis gadaRebis teqnikam SesaZlebeli
gaxada janmrTeli cdis pirebis mexsierebis
procesebis Seswavla (Niberg, Cabeza, 2000) (SegiZliaT gadaxedoT me-3 Tavs, sadac saubaria
gadaRebis teqnikis Sesaxeb). magaliTad, PETskanis saSualebiT endel tulvingma da misma
kolegebma (Nyberg et al., 1996; Tulving et al., 1994)
daadgines, rom epizoduri informaciis kodirebisa da aRdgenis dros tvinis ori naxevarsfero gansxvavebuli aqtivobiT xasiaTdeba. es
gamokvlevebi iseTivea, rogorc mexsierebis standartuli gamokvlevebi, im gansxvavebiT, rom
kodirebisa da aRdgenis procesSi cdis pirTa
sisxlis mimoqcevis skanireba xdeba PET-iT. am
gamokvlevebSi gamovlinda tvinis Zlieri
aqtivoba marcxena prefrontalur korteqsSi

saidan
viciT
tvini da kodirebis operaciebi
magnituri rezonansiT gamokvlevis
dros cdis pirebs mexsierebis eqsperimentebi utardebodaT. maT proeqtoriT
ekranze miewodebodaT sityvebi, romlebsac
xedavdnen Tavs zemoT sarkeSi da evalebodaT, TiToeuli sityvis Sesaxeb ori
tipis msjeloba ewarmoebinaT: _ semantikuri: _ es sityva, (magaliTad, skami~,
an siyvaruli~) abstaraqtulia, Tu konkretuli?~ an perceptuli _ es sityva,
(magaliTad, ndoba~ an wigni~) fanqriT
aris dawerili, Tu melniT?~ funqcionaluri magnituri rezonansiT gamokvlevam
gviCvena, rom marcxena prefrontaluri
qerqis midamoSi (frontaluri qerqis
aramotoruli ubani) semantikuri kodirebis ufro maRal aqtivacias aqvs adgili,
vidre perceptuli kodirebis SemTxvevaSi
(Gabrieli et al., 1996).
mecnierebi varaudoben, rom qerqis am ubnis
aqtivacias semantikuri kodireba iwvevs marcxena
naxevarsferos metyvelebasTan kavSiris gamo (ix.
Tavi 3).
ramdenime axali gamokvleva tvinis specifikuri regionebis Seswavlas mieZRvna, romelTa
aqtivacia axali mexsierebis Camoyalibebis dros

xdeba (Brewe et al., 1998; Wagner et al.,1998). am


gamokvlevebSi cdis pirebs martivad unda
SeefasebinaT sityvebi an siuJetebi (scenebi).
(magaliTad, abstraqtulia Tu konkretulia esa
Tu is sityva). am amocanis Sesrulebis dros
cdis pirebs skanirebas ukeTebdnen magnituri
rezonansiT, raTa gamoevlinaT tvinis aqtivobis
ubnebi. skanirebam gasaocari ram uCvena: prefrontaluri qerqis da parahipokampuli
(hipokampTan axlos mdebare) qerqis is ubnebi
iyo ukeT ganaTebuli, romelTa Sesabamisi
sityvebis Tu siuJetebis Sefasebac ukeT SeZles.
am axal gamokvlevebSi gamoCnda mexsierebis
SemuSavebis pirveli periodis biologiuri
safuZvlebi.
skanirebis Sedegebi gviCvenebs, rom sxvadasxva
disciplinis mecnierebma erTad unda imuSaon,
raTa srulad Cawvdnen mexsierebis procesebis
kanonzomierebebs. fsiqologebi adamianis
mexsierebis Sesaxeb monacemebs moipoveben, rac
Semdgom neirofsiqologebisTvis masalaa tvinis
Sesabamisi struqturebis aRmosaCenad. amave dros,
fiziologebis monacemebi koreqcias ukeTeben
fsiqologiur Teoriebs informaciis kodirebis,
Senaxvisa da aRdgenis Sesaxeb. am sferoSi
momuSave mecnierebi saerTo ZalisxmeviT did
warmatebebs uzrunvelyofen mexsierebis procesebis kvlevaSi.

Sejameba
karl leSlim, romelic pirveli iyo, vinc
engramebis Zieba daiwyo, aRmoaCina, rom mexsiereba
mTel tvins moicavs. tvinis mravali struqturaa
CarTuli swavlisa da mexsierebis procesebSi.
amneziis mqone pacientebze gamokvlevebma
daamtkica, rom implicituri da eqsplicituri
procesebis ganxorcielebaSi gansxvavebuli
struqturebi monawileoben. tvinis skanirebis
teqnika SesaZleblobas iZleva ganisazRvros
janmrTel adamianTan mexsierebis procesTa
biologiuri safuZvlebi.

mexsierebis biologiuri aspeqtebi

epizoduri informaciis kodirebis dros, xolo


marjvena prefrontalur korteqsSi tvinis gaZlierebul aqtivobas adgili hqonda epizoduri
informaciis aRdgenis dros. amrigad, anatomiuri
sxvaobac gamovlinda im konceptualuri sxvaobebis garda, romelic kogniturma fsiqologebma
aRmoaCines.
funqcionaluri magnituri rezonansiT (fMRI)
warmoebulma gamokvlevebmac gamoavlina mexsierebis operaciebis tvinSi ganawilebis mniSvnelovani detalebi (Gabrieli, 1996, 1997).

309

sakvanZo
sakiTxebi
ra aris mexsiereba


kognituri fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebi


ganixilaven mexsierebas,
rogorc informaciis
gadamuSavebis process.
 mexsiereba, romelic moiTxovs cnobier Zalisxmevas, aris eqsplicituri.
aracnobieri mexsiereba
implicituria.
 deklaraciuli mexsiereba uzrunvelyofs faqtebis daxsomebas. proceduruli mexsiereba ki
unarebis SemuSavebas.
 mexsierebas xSirad ganixilaven, rogorc kodirebis, Senaxvis da aRdgenis samsafexurian process.

sensoruli mexsiereba
 sensoruli mexsierebis
sistema didi moculobis,
magram Zalian mcire xangrZlivobisaa.
 xatiseburi mexsiereba
mxedvelobiT vels wamebis ganmavlobaSi aCerebs.
 eqo-mexsiereba smeniT gamRizianeblebs inaxavs.

Tavi 8 / mexsiereba

xanmokle mexsiereba
da muSa mexsiereba

310
310

 xanmokle mexsierebas SezRuduli moculoba aqvs


da swrafad qreba ganmeorebis SesaZleblobis
ararsebobis pirobebSi.
 ganmeoreba masalas xanmokle mexsierebaSi aCerebs.

 xanmokle mexsierebis moculoba SeiZleba gaizardos


dasaxsomebeli wevrebis
azrian jgufebad dalagebis
Sedegad.
 aRdgenis procesi xanmokle
mexsierebidan efeqturad
xorcieldeba.
 muSa mexsierebis farTo gageba
xanmokle mexsierebas moicavs.
 muSa mexsierebis sami komponenti xels uwyobs gare samyarodan gamocdilebis yovelwuTier asaxvas.

xangrZlivi mexsiereba.
kodireba da aRdgena
 xangrZlivi mexsiereba moicavs Tqvens srul codnas
samyarosa da Tqveni Tavis
Sesaxeb; is TiTqmis ganusazRvreli moculobisaa.
 Tqveni gaxsenebis unaris
pirobaa kodirebisa da aRdgenis pirobebis damTxveva.
 swavlisa da aRdgenis konteqstebs Soris damTxveva
ganapirobebs aRdgenas.
 adgilmdebareobis mrudis
Tavisebureba aixsneba konteqstebs Soris gansxvavebiT.
 mogonebis mimniSneblebi
xels uwyoben xangrZliv mexsierebaSi informaciis moZebnas.
 epizodur mexsierebas iseTi
movlenebis daxsomebasTan
aqvs saqme, romlebic pirovnebis subieqtur gamocdilebaSi monawileobdnen.
semantikuri mexsiereba sityvebisa da cnebebis arsebiTi mniSvnelobebis Sesaxeb mexsierebaa.
 interferencias maSin aqvs
adgili, rodesac mimniSneb-

lebs mxolod Sesabamis


informaciasTan (mexsierebasTan) ar mivyavarT.
 rac ufro Rrmad aris gadamuSavebuli informacia, miT
ukeTesia daxsomeba.
implicituri mexsierebisTvis mniSvneloba aqvs, rom
kodirebis da aRdgenis procesebi msgavsi iyos.
 mexsiereba SeiZleba gaviumjobesoT gadamamuSavebeli
ganmeorebiT da mnemonikuri
xerxebiT.
 Cveulebriv, darwmunebulobis gancdas zustad SeuZlia mexsierebaSi informaciis arsebobis winaswarmetyveleba.

xangrZlivi mexsierebis struqturebi


 cnebebi aris azrovnebisTvis mexsierebis saSeni
agurebi. maTi Camoyalibeba
xdeba, rodesac mexsierebaSi Camoyalibdeba saerTo
niSnebis mqone obieqtebis,
an azrTa jgufebi.
 prototipi warmoadgens
cnebis saSualo egzemplars.
 cnebebi xSirad ierarqiulad arian dalagebulni
zogadidan kerZosaken.
 sqema ufro zogadi kognituri klasteria.
 mexsierebis yvela es zogadi
struqtura gamoiyeneba axali informaciis molodinebisa da interpretaciis
konteqstisTvis.
 mogoneba mxolod angariSi
ar aris, is rekonstruqciuli da seleqciuri procesia.

mexsierebis biologiuri aspeqtebi


 tvinis gansxvavebuli
struqturebi (hipokampis,
amigdalas, cerebelumis
da cerebruli korteqsis CarTviT) monawileoben sxvadasva tipis
mexsierebaSi.
 eqsperimentebi amneziis
mqone pacientebze daexmara mkvlevrebs imis
garkvevaSi, Tu rogor
xdeba gansxvavebuli tipis mexsierebis Camoyalibeba da tvinSi maTi
ganawileba.

 tvinis skanirebis teqnikam


udidesi roli Seasrula
mexsierebis kodirebis da
aRdgenis procesebSi tvinis monawileobis Sesaxeb
codnis mopovebaSi.

ZiriTadi sakiTxebi
amnezia
bazisuri done
dajgufeba
cnebebi
konteqstis mixedviT
gansxvaveba
deklaraciuli mexsiereba
eqo-mexsiereba
gadamamuSavebeli
ganmeoreba
kodireba
kodirebis specifikuroba
engrama
epizoduri mexsiereba
mexsierebis eqsplicituri
gamoyeneba
xatiseburi mexsiereba
mexsierebis implicituri
gamoyeneba
interferencia

gadamuSavebis doneebis
Teoria
xangrZlivi mexsiereba
mexsiereba
metamexsiereba
mnemonika
dasawyisis efeqti
praimingi
proceduruli mexsiereba
prototipi
mogoneba
mwkrivis daboloebis
efeqti
cnoba
rekonstruqciuli
mexsiereba
aRdgena
mimniSneblebi
sqemebi
semantikuri mexsiereba
sensoruli mexsiereba
adgilmdebareobis efeqti
xanmokle mexsiereba
sacavi
gadatanis Sesabamisi
gadamuSaveba
muSa mexsiereba

sakvanZo sakiTxebi

 wina gamocdileba da
miznebi gavlenas axdens
mogonebaze.
 axalma informaciam SeiZleba Secvalos mogoneba
da amiT mowmis Cveneba
arasando gaxados, Tu mas
axali movlenis Semdgomi informacia Seereva.

311
311

kognituri procesebi

9
kognituri procesebis
Seswavla

fsiqikuri procesebis
aRmoCena
fsiqikuri procesebi da
resursebii
metyveleba

eqspresiuli metyveleba
impresiuli metyveleba
metyveleba, azrovneba
da kultura
fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: SeuZliaT Tu ara
cxovelebs enis Seswavla
vizualuri Semecneba

vizualuri
reprezentaciebis
gamoyeneba
verbaluri da
vizualuri
reprezentaciebis
kombinireba
problemis gadaWra da
azrovneba

problemis gadawyveta
deduqciuri azrovneba
induqciuri azrovneba
fsiqologiaXXI saukuneSi:
eqspert-sistemebi da medicina
msjeloba da gadawyvetilebis
miReba

evristika da msjeloba
gadawyvetilebis miRebis
fsiqologia
sakvanZo sakiTxebi

ZiriTadi cnebebi

312

Cemma maswavlebelma xeli wylis nakadSi Camayofina. roca erT xelze civi wylis nakadi
Semexo, man meore xelis gulze damawera sityva
`wyali~ jer nela, Semdeg ufro swrafad. me
wynarad vijeqi da mTeli gulisyuriT SevigrZnobdi misis salivanis TiTebis moZraobas.
uecrad dameufla bundovani amaRelvebeli
gancda, TiTqos raRac daviwyebuli brundeboda;
da rogorRac enis saidumlos farda aexada. maSin
mivxvdi, rom `w-y-a-l-i~ aris is mSvenieri grili
raRac, xelebze rom mexeboda. am cocxalma sityvam gamoafxizla Cemi suli, mianiWa mas sinaTle,
imedi, sixaruli da Tavisufleba. Tumca, siZneleebi amiT ar dasrulebula, magram es siZneleebi
ukve advilad gvardeboda.
es saxli swavlis dauokebeli surviliT
davtove. ukve yvelafers hqonda Tavisi saxeli
da TiToeuli axal azrs badebda. saxlSi dabrunebisas yvela sagani, romelsac ki vexebodi,
sicocxliT iyo gamsWvaluli (Keller, 1902/1990,
gv.15-16).

elen keleris avtobiografiis _ `Cemi cxovrebis ambavi~ _ am nawyvetSi avtori aRwers


enisa da azris gamoRviZebis mniSvnelovan detalebs. erTi wlis asakSi elenma gadaitana gaurkveveli daavadeba, romlis Sedegadac man dakarga
mxedveloba da smena. sami TviT adre, sanam mas
Svidi weli Seusruldeboda, mis cxovrebaSi
gaCnda ana salivani _ misi maswavlebeli.
salivanma SeZlo SeWriliyo keleris wyvdiadSi
da, rogorc avtori aRniSnavs, saSualeba misca
gamoecada `azris dabrunebasTan dakavSirebuli
mRelvareba.~
Tqven, albaT, arasdros dagWirvebiaT ase cxadad aRgeqvaT sakuTari kognituri procesebi. es
procesebi, rogorc wesi, cnobier mdgomareobaSi

ganuwyvetliv mimdinareobs, magram adamianisaTvis SeumCneveli rCeba. miuxedavad amisa,


metyvelebisa da abstraqtuli azrovnebis unars
xSirad ganixilaven, rogorc adamianuri yofis
arsebiT niSans. Tumca, roca kargad Camoyalibebuli moxseneba ipyrobs Tqvens guls, an
rodesac deteqtiur istoriaSi gamomZiebeli
ramdenime samxilze awyobs danaSaulis gaxsnis
virtuozul logikas, Cven vacnobierebT SemecnebiTi aqtiobis inteleqtualur triumfs.
termini Semecneba SemecnebiTi procesebis
yvela formas aerTianebs. rogorc 9.1 suraTzea
naCvenebi, kognituri procesebis Seswavla
adamianis fsiqikuri cxovrebis Seswavlas gulisxmobs (me-5 TavSi ganxilulia 9.1 suraTze

kognituri procesebis Seswavla

odesac TojiniT vTamaSobdi, misis salivanma [elen keleris


maswavlebeli] xelze damawera
sityva `T-o-j-i-n-a~ (doll). me damainteresa TiTebis
am TamaSma da Sevecade gamemeorebina... ar vicodi,
rom vambobdi sityvas; saerTod ar vicodi, rom
sityva arsebobs, me ubralod TiTebiT vTamaSobdi.
erTxel, rodesac axali TojiniT vTamaSobdi,
misis salivanma aiRo Cemi Zveli Tojina, Camisva
kalTaSi da aso-aso miTxra `T-o-j-i-n-a~ da Seecada mivexvedrebine, rom orive `T-o-j-i-n-a~ iyo.
manamde, cota xniT adre, veWidavebodiT sityvebs
`t-a-l-a-x-i~ da `w-y-a-l-i~. misis salivani cdilobda, mivexvedrebine, rom `t-a-l-a-x-i~ aris
talaxi da `w-y-a-l-i~ aris wyali, magram me
kvlav mereoda es ori...
Cven saxlis garSemo biliks mivuyvebodiT da
mcenaris surneliT vtkbebodiT, romelic saxlis
kedlebs faravda. viRac wyals avsebda.

313

kognituri
fsiqologia

grZnoba

suraTi

ena

inteleqti

yuradReba

mexsiereba

fiqri da
problemebis
gadaWra

9.1

kognituri fsiqologiis sfero


kognituri fsiqologebi Seiswavlian umaRlesi fsiqikuri funqciebis Semdeg sakiTxebs: _ rogor xdeba
adamianis mier codnis SeZena da am codnis gamoyeneba garemos gagebisa da gardaqmnis mizniT.

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

aRwerili zogierTi sakiTxi). kognicia (Semecneba) aerTianebs rogorc Sinaarsebs, ise procesebs. SinaarsebSi moiazreba is, rac Tqven
iciT _ cnebebi, faqtebi, wesebi, mogonebebi:
`ZaRli ZuZumwovaria~; wiTeli sinaTle niSnavs
`sdeq~; `saxlidan wavedi 18 wlis asakSi~. kognituri procesebis saSualebiT Tqven manipulirebT im fsiqikuri SinaarsebiT, romlebic
gare samyaros interpretaciisa da cxovrebiseuli dilemebis dros racionaluri gadawyvetilebis miRebis saSualebas gaZlevT.
fsiqologiaSi Semecnebas kognituri fsiqologiis specialistebi Seiswavlian. bolo sami
aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi kognitur fsiqologiasTan erTad am sakiTxebze muSaobdnen ukve
axali interdisciplinaruli sferos _ kognituri mecnierebis warmomadgenlebic (ix. sur. 9.2).
kognituri mecniereba fokusirebulia sxvadasxva

314

momijnave sferoebSi erTi da imave sakiTxis


irgvliv arsebul codnaze. TiToeuli am sferos
warmomadgenlebs SesaZlebloba aqvT, erTmaneTs
monacemebi da aRmoCenebi gauziaron. me-8 TavSi
Tqven naxeT, Tu rogoraa SesaZlebeli, mexsierebis biologiuri safuZvlebis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva kvlevebis gamoyenebiT, mexsierebis Teoriebis daxvewa: kognituri mecnierebis arsi kargad
gamoCnda muSaobis procesSi. Teoriebis umrav-

kognituri procesebi (Cognitive processes) iseTi


umaRlesi fsiqikuri procesebi, rogoricaa: aRqma, mexsiereba, metyveleba, problemis gadawyveta
da abstraqtuli azrovneba.
Semecneba (Cognition) codnis SeZenis procesi,
romelic moicavs yuradRebis miqcevas, gaxsenebas, azrovnebas; aseve, gulisxmobs procesebis
Sinaarss: cnebebs da STabeWdilebebs.
kognituri fsiqologia (Cognitive Psychology)
mecniereba, romelic Seiswavlis umaRles fsiqikur procesebs yuradRebas, enis gamoyenebas,
aRqmas, problemis gadaWras da azrovnebas.
kognituri mecniereba (Cognitive science) informaciis gadamuSavebis procesebisa da sistemebis kvlevis interdisciplinaruli sfero.

suraTi

9.2

kognituri mecnierebis sfero


kognituri mecniereba warmoadgens filosofiis,
neiromecnierebis, lingvistikis, kognituri
fsiqologiis da kompiuteruli mecnierebis
(xelovnuri inteleqtis) rTul kombinacias.

kognituri procesebis
Seswavla
rogor SeiZleba Semecnebis Seswavla? pirveli, rac TavSi mogivaT, isaa, rom kognituri
procesebi Tavis tvinTanaa dakavSirebuli. Tqven
SegiZliaT dainaxoT masSi Sesuli informacia,
magaliTad, fraza `damireke~ da daakvirdeT Sedegs
_ darekes; magram rogor SegiZliaT moaxdinoT
im moqmedebebis identifikacia, romlebic frazas
Tqvens reaqciasTan akavSirebs? rogor SegiZliaT
gaigoT, ra moxda am SualedSi _ romeli
kognituri procesebisa da fsiqikuri reprezentaciebis aqtivacias efuZneba Tqveni reaqcia? am
TavSi aRwerilia logikuri analizis is tipebi,
romelTa safuZvelzec SesaZlebeli gaxda
kognituri fsiqologiis mecnieruli Seswavla.

fsiqikuri procesebis aRmoCena


fsiqikuri procesebis Seswavlis erT-erTi
ZiriTadi meTodologia Seiqmna 1868 wels holandieli fsiqologis f. dondersis (F.C. Donders)
mier. `fsiqikuri procesebis siswrafis~ Seswavlis mizniT dondersma Seqmna eqsperimentuli
davalebebi, romelTa warmatebiT Sesrulebis
dros SesaZlebeli gaxdeboda gonebrivi safexurebis gamoyofa (Lachman et al., 1979). cxrilSi
9.1 mocemulia eqsperimenti, romelSic daculia
dondersis logika. sanam kiTxvas gaagrZelebdeT,
gTxovT, SeasruloT TiToeuli davaleba.
ramdeni xani dagWirdaTEpirveli davalebis
Sesasruleblad? warmoidgineT, rom Tqven unda

cxrili

9.1

dondersis fsikuri procesebis analizi


(qarTuli varianti)
CainiSneT TiToeul davalebaze daxarjuli
dro (wamebSi). davalebebi SeasruleT mocemuli
TanmimdevrobiT. imuSaveT SeZlebisdagvarad
swrafad.
davaleba 1: yvela didad daweril asos
daawereT Tavze s~
iyo arabeTs rostevan,
mefe RmrTisagan sviani,
maRali, uxvi, mdabali,
laSqar-mravali ymiani
dro: __________
davaleba 2: didad daweril xmovnebs
daawereT Tavze v~, xolo didad daweril
Tanxmovnebs s~
iyo arabeTs rostevan,
mefe RmrTisagan sviani,
maRali, uxvi, mdabali,
laSqar-mravali ymiani
dro: ___________
davaleba 3: yvela didad daweril asos
daawereT Tavze v~
iyo arabeTs rostevan,
mefe RmrTisagan sviani,
maRali, uxvi, mdabali,
laSqar-mravali ymiani
dro:__________

CamoTvaloT safexurebi, romlebic gaiareT


davalebis Sesasruleblad. CamonaTvali daaxloebiT aseTi iqneba:
a.
b.

gansazRvreT, niSani didia Tu patara;


Tu didia, daawereT Tavze s~.

ramdeni xani dagWirdaT meore davalebis


Sesasruleblad? am savarjiSos Sesasruleblad
studentebis umravlesobas naxevari wuTiT meti
an kidev ufro meti dro sWirdebaT. es gasagebi
gaxdeba, rogorc ki aucilebel safexurebs
CamovTvliT:
a.
gansazRvreT niSani didia Tu patara;
b. gansazRvreT didi aso xmovania Tu
Tanxmovani;

kognituri procesebis Seswavla

lesoba, romelsac winamdebare TavSi ganvixilavT, sxvadasxva momijnave specialistebis


urTierTTanamSromlobis Sedegadaa Seqmnili.
Semecnebis Seswavlas kognituri procesebis
kvlevis mokle aRweriT daviwyebT _ rogor cdiloben mkvlevrebi kognituri funqcionirebis
Sinagani procesebis gazomvas; Semdeg ganvixilavT kognituri fsiqologiis kvlevis ZiriTad
sakiTxebs, romlebsac praqtikuli gamoyeneba
aqvT: metyveleba, vizualuri Semecneba, problemis gadaWra, azrovneba, msjeloba da gadawyvetilebis miReba.

315

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

g. Tu Tanxmovania, daawereT Tavze s~, Tu


xmovania, daawereT v~.

316

amgvarad, pirveli davalebidan meoreze


gadasvlisas Cven davamateT ori gonebrivi
safexuri, romlebic SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT,
rogorc stimulTa kategorizacia (xmovani Tu
Tanxmovani) da pasuxis arCeva (v-s Tu s-s dawera).
pirveli davaleba stimulTa kategorizaciis
erT safexurs moiTxovs, meore davaleba ki _
aseTi kategorizaciis or safexurs da, agreTve,
or pasuxs Soris arCevanis gakeTebas. vinaidan
meore davalebaSi yvelafris gakeTeba giwevT,
rac pirvel davalebaSi gaakeTeT da kidev metis,
amitomac meore davalebis SesrulebisTvis meti
droa saWiro. es iyo dondersis mosazrebis
ZiriTadi arsi: damatebiTi gonebrivi safexuri
(operacia) yovelTvis met dros saWiroebs
SesrulebisTvis. albaT, gainteresebT, ratom
SemovitaneT mesame davaleba. es eqsperimentis
Catarebis aucilebeli proceduraa. Cven unda
davrwmundeT, rom pirveli da meore davalebis
Sesrulebaze daxarjul droebs Soris sxvaoba
ar aris ganpirobebuli imiT, rom vs daweras
sWirdeba meti dro, vidre ss daweras. mesame
davalebas ufro naklebi dro unda sWirdebodes,
vidre meores (Tqvens SemTxvevaSic ase iyo, ara?)
Tavdapirvelad donderss imedi hqonda, rom
Tavis proceduras sxvadasxva fsiqikuri procesebis xangrZlivobis zusti SefasebisaTvis gamoiyenebda. misi meTodis gamoyenebiT Tqven SegeZloT, gamogekloT pirveli davalebis SesrulebisaTvis daxarjuli dro meore davalebaze
daxarjuli droisaTvis da gangesazRvraT
stumulis kategorizaciisa da pasuxis arCevisTvis saWiro dro. Tu Tqven SeqmniT davalebas,
romelic mxolod stimulis kategorizacias
saWiroebs (xolo pasuxis arCeva ar iqneba saWiro,
rogorc es dondersma gaakeTa), maSin Tqven
SegiZliaT mianiWoT ricxvebi _ garkveuli dro
_ calkeul process. amgvarad, SesaZloa, stimulis kategorizacias sWirdebodes 100 miliwami
(wamis measedi), xolo pasuxis arCevas _ 150
miliwami.
kognitur fsiqologiaSi momuSave specialistebi aRar iyeneben gamoklebis meTods, radganac
nebismieri procesisaTvis saWiro dro damokidebulia davalebis detalebze. Tumca, mkvlevrebi
mihyvebian dondersis ZiriTad logikas. isini

xSirad iyeneben reaqciis dros _ drois xangrZlivobas, romelic cdis pirs sWirdeba konkretuli davalebis Sesasruleblad. dondersis
ZiriTadi debuleba, rom damatebiTi fsiqikuri
procesi saWiroebs damatebiT dros, kvlav
fundamentur wanamZRvars warmoadgens kognitur
fsiqologiaSi Catarebul kvlevaTa umetesobaSi.
vnaxoT, rogor ganviTarda es mosazreba ukanaskneli 130 wlis ganmavlobaSi.

fsiqikuri procesebi da
resursebi
kognitur fsiqologiaSi momuSave specialistebis mier iseTi umaRlesi kognituri procesebis Semadgenel komponentebad (calkeul
procesebad) daSla, rogoricaa metyveleba da
problemis gadaWra, kubebiT TamaSs waagavs.
TiToeuli kubi warmoadgens gansxvavebul
komponents (process, romlis ganxorcielebac
unda moxdes). aqtivobis mizania gansazRvros
TiToeuli kubis forma da zoma da kubebi ise
moargos erTmaneTs, rom mTliani procesi
ganxorcieldes. dondersis davalebebSi Tqven
naxavT, rom kubebi SeiZleba daewyos mwkrivSi
(ix. sur. 9.3., nawili A). erT safexurs pirdapir
mohyveba meore. kubebis metaforuli gamoyeneba
saSualebas gvaZlevs, davinaxoT, rom SesaZlebelia ramdenime procesis erTdrouli mimdinareoba (nawili B). es ori suraTi warmoadgens
me-5 TavSi aRweril seriul da paralelur
procesebs Soris gansxvavebis ilustracias.
Tqven xedavT, rom vizualuri Zieba zogierT
SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba warimarTos paralelurad
_ rigSi mocemuli yvela elementis Semowmeba
SesaZlebelia erTdroulad, xolo sxva tipis
Zieba moiTxovs TiToeuli elementis seriul
gadamuSavebas. Semowmeba unda moxdes cal-calke,
erTimeoris miyolebiT.
procesebis paraleluri Tu seriuli mimdinareobis identifikaciis mizniT fsiqologebi
xSirad iyeneben reaqciis dros, Tumca, 9.3
suraTis me-3 nawilSi mocemuli magaliTi
dagarwmunebT, rom es meTodi yovelTvis ar
amarTlebs. warmoidgineT, rom gvaqvs davaleba,
romelic, savaraudod, or process moicavs. Tu
Cven gvecodineba mxolod am procesebis
mimdinareobis dro, verasodes ganvsazRvravT

suraTi

9.3

umaRlesi kognituri
procesebis analizi

maTi mimdinareobis specifikas zustad, anu ar


viqnebiT darwmunebulni, Tanmimdevrulad
mimdinareobs es ori procesi TuU erTdroulad.
kognituri fsiqologiis kvlevis erT-erT mniSvnelovan problemas warmoadgens davalebis
iseTi pirobebis Seqmna, romlebic saSualebas
miscems eqsperimentators, gansazRvros uamravi
SesaZlo konfiguraciidan blokebis swori
varianti. savarjiSos meore davalebaSi (romelic Tqven axlaxan gaakeTeT) Cven SegviZlia
darwmunebulebi viyoT, rom procesebi seriulia,
radgan erTi aqtivoba Tanmimdevrulad moiTxovs
Semdeg aqtivobas. magaliTad, Tqven ar SegiZliaT
moaxdinoT reagireba (moemzadoT s-s an v-s
dasawerad), sanam ar gansazRvravT, Tu rogori
unda iyos pasuxi.
Teoretikosebi procesebis seriuli da paraleluri mimdinareobis gansazRvras xSirad
aqtivobaSi CarTul fsiqikur resursebze moTxovnis xarisxis SefasebiT cdiloben. warmoidgineT,

rom megobarTan erTad midixarT saswavlebelSi.


Cveulebriv, TqvenTvis advilia, iaroT pirdapir
da Tan isaubroT _ am dros gadaadgilebisa da
metyvelebis procesi paralelurad mimdinareobs;
magram ra moxdeba, Tu moulodnelad trotuarze
gubeebs dainaxavT? gubeebs Soris gzis gasakvlevad, SesaZlebelia, Tqven SewyvitoT saubari.
axla gadaadgilebis procesi moiTxovs damatebiT resursebs gegmis SesamuSaveblad; metyvelebis procesi ki momentalurad ferxdeba.
am magaliTSi ZiriTadi daSveba isaa, rom
adamianebs gadamuSavebis SezRuduli resursebi
aqvT, romelTa gadanawilebac unda moxdes
sxvadasxva davalebaze (Kahneman, 1973; Navon &
seriuli procesebi (Serial processes) _ ori an
meti fsiqikuri procesi, romelic Tanmimdevrulad, erTmaneTis Semdeg mimdinareobs.
paraleluri procesebi (Parallel processes) _ ori
an meti fsiqikuri procesi, romelic erTdroulad mimdinareobs.

kognituri procesebis Seswavla

kognituri fsiqologebi cdiloben, gansazRvron im fsiqikuri procesebis identuroba da organizacia, romlebic umaRlesi kognituri procesebis (maRali donis
kognituri aqtivobebis) saSen masalas
warmoadgenen;
(A) dondersis davalebis avtoriseuli
versia moiTxovs, rom, sul cota, 3 procesi
Tanmimdevrulad ganxorcieldes;
(B) zogierTi procesi mimdinareobs seriulad, anu Tanmimdevrulad; zogierTi
ki erTdroulad, erTmaneTis paralelurad;
(C) davalebis Sesrulebaze daxarjuli
dro yovelTvis ar aZlevs mkvlevrebs
saSualebas, gansazRvron procesebis paraleluri Tu seriuli mimdinareoba.

317

9.2

cxrili

ricxvebis gadamuSaveba
dasviT raime niSani fizikurad gansxvavebuli
wyvilebis Tavze, iqneba es ricxvebis Tu sityvebis
wyvilebi (e.i. unda aRniSnoT 4-6 da oTxi-eqvsi).
SeecadeT, gansazRvroT, romeli sia ufro rTulia.
sia A.
8-8

cxra-rva

1-2

rva-rva

2-1

8-9

9-9

2-2

ori-ori
erTi-erTi

erTi-ori

cxra-cxra

rva-cxra

1-1

ori-erTi

9-8

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

sia B.

318

Gopher, 1979). am resursebis gadanawilebaze Tqveni


yuradRebaa pasuxismgebeli. me-5 TavSi yuradReba
ganxilulia, rogorc procesebis erToblioba,
romelic saSualebas gvaZlevs konkretul situaciaSi amovarCioT CvenTvis saWiro perceptuli
informacia. am SemTxvevaSi termini yuradReba
gulisxmobs seleqcias. Tumca, gasarkvevia,
romeli fsiqikuri procesi unda iqnes amorCeuli, rogorc gadamuSavebis resursis mimRebi.
aqve unda aRiniSnos kidev erTi sirTule
yvela procesi ar saWiroebs erTnair resurss.
faqtobrivad, Cven SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT,
avtomaturia procesi Tu saWiroebs kontrols
(Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977). kontrolirebadi procesebi saWiroebs yuradRebas, avtomaturi procesebi ki, rogorc wesi _ ara. erTdroulad
erTze meti kontrolirebadi procesis ganxorcieleba Zalian rTulia, radganac isini ufro
met resurss moiTxoven; avtomaturi procesebis
Sesruleba ki SesaZlebelia sxva davalebis

kontrolirebadi procesebi (Controlled processes)


_ procesebi, romlebic moiTxoven yuradRebas;
xSirad rTulia erTdroulad erTze meti
kontrolirebadi procesis erTd ganxorcieleba.
avtomaturi procesebi (Automatic processes) _
procesebi, romlebic ar moiTxoven yuradRebas,
maTi ganxorcieleba SesaZlebelia sxva moqmedebis paralelurad.

1-1

cxra-ori

erTi-erTi

cxra-cxra

2-9

rva-ori

9-9

1-9

cxra-erTi
2-2

8-8
1-8

rva-rva

cxra-erTi
ori-ori

2-8

paralelurad, masSi cnobieri CarTulobis


gareSe.
qvemoT moyvanilia avtomaturi procesebis
magaliTi. dasawyisisTvis gTxovT, SeasruloT
9.2 cxrilSi mocemuli davaleba. rTuli iyo
Tu ara A sia, B siasTan SedarebiT?

saidan
viciT
Tqven ar SegiZliaT uaryoT ricxvebis
`mniSvneloba~
cdis pirebs sTxoves, SeefasebinaT 9.2
cxrilSi ricxvebs Soris gansxvaveba. miRebuli Sedegebis mixedviT, cdis pirebs
bevrad ufro uWirT, roca ricxvebi axlos
mdgomni arian (magaliTad, 1-2) vidre maSin,
roca maT Soris didi intervalia (magaliTad, rva-erTi), ganurCevlad imisa, Tu ra
formiTaa cifrebi mocemuli _ arabuliT
Tu sityvebiT. miaqcieT yuradReba, rom
pirvel siaSi mocemulia gansxvavebuli
wyvilebi, romelTa Sorisac mcire intervalebia, xolo meore siaSi mocemul wyvilebs Soris intervali didia, amitom
pirveli sia ufro Zneli unda yofiliyo.

bavSvobidan, albaT, gaxsovT, rogor euflebodiT raodenobas da ricxvis cnebebs. axla


kavSiri ricxvsa da raodenobas Soris imdenad
avtomaturi gaxda, rom misgan Tavis daRweva
TiTqmis SeuZlebelia. zemoT moyvanili
davalebidan Cans, rom avtomaturi procesebi
mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli mexsierebis
efeqtur gamoyenebaze (Logan, 1988,1992). iqneba
obieqti 2~ Tu ori~ aRqmulis mexsierebaSi
gadamuSaveba uzrunvelyofs informacias raodenobis Sesaxeb.
axla es informacia kontrolirebadi da
avtomaturi procesebis Sesaxeb, gamoviyenoT
erTdrouli siarulisa da saubris situaciis
gansaxilvelad. swor gzaze siarulis dros
ori moqmedeba xels ar uSlis erTmaneTs, rac
imaze miuTiTebs, rom swor gzaze siaruli da
laparaki SedarebiT avtomaturi aqtivobebia;
Tumca, gubeebis gamoCenisTanave situacia icvleba, rac gaiZulebT gzis mravali variantidan airCioT erT-erTi _ unda gadawyvitoT,
saiT waxvideT da ra TqvaT.
radganac Tqven ar SegiZliaT orive moqmedebis erTdroulad Sesruleba, Tqveni yuradReba CixSi eqceva~ (Pashler, 1992,4).
es magaliTi cxadyofs, ratom xdeba kontrolirebadi da avtomaturi procesebis xarisxis
da ara zusti kategoriebis mixedviT gansazRvra.
pirobebis garTulebis SemTxvevaSi is, rac
avtomaturi iyo, ukve yuradRebis kontrols
saWiroebs. amgvarad, konteqstidan gamomdinare,
esa Tu is procesi SeiZleba met-nakleb yuradRebas iTxovdes.

axla Tqven xvdebiT fsiqikuri procesebis


logikas. rTuli saazrovno amocanebis gadaWris
mimdinareobis axsnis mizniT, Teoretikosebi
gvTavazoben modelebs, romlebSic kombinirebulia rogorc seriuli da paraleluri, ise
kontrolirebadi da avtomaturi procesebi.
kognitur-fsiqologiur kvlevaTa umravlesobis
mizania iseTi eqsperimentuli situaciis Seqmna,
romelic daadasturebs aseTi modelebis TiToeuli komponentis arsebobas. axla, rodesac
ukve naTelia kognitur-fsiqologiuri kvlevis
logika fsiqikuri procesebis Seswavlisas, droa
gadavideT ufro konkretul sakiTxebze. Cven
saSualeba gveqneba, ganvixiloT konkretuli
kognituri procesebi muSaobis procesSi. daviwyebT metyvelebis gamoyenebiT.

Sejameba
kognitur fsiqologiaSi da kognitur mecnierebaSi momuSave specialistebi Seiswavlian
fsiqikur procesebsa da struqturebs, romlebic
saSualebas aZlevs adamians, gamoiyenos ena,
gadaWras problema da miiRos gadawyvetileba.
dondersma pirvelma Seqmna kognituri davalebis
calkeul Semadgenel procesebad gaanalizebis
meTodi. Tanamedrove mkvlevrebi fsiqikuri
aqtivobis komponentebis gansazRvris mizniT
Seiswavlian seriuli da paraleluri procesebis
komponentebs, sxvadasxva donis avtomatur da
kontrolirebad procesebs.

metyveleba
SuaRamea da karze viRac akakunebs. kars aRebT
da iq aravin aris; ucbad SeamCnieT, rom Zirs
konverti devs, konvertSi ki furcelia, romelzec weria: kata xaliCazea~. ras geubnebaT es
Setyobineba? ra SegviZlia SevcvaloT, rom es
Setyobineba gasagebi gaxdes TqvenTvis? am
SemTxvevaSi yvelaze advilia, mogawodoT Sesabamisi konteqsti. warmoidgineT, rom Tqven saidumlo agenti xarT da instruqciebs yovelTvis aseTi ucnauri saxiT iRebT. maSin Tqven
gecodinebaT, rom kata~ aris Tqveni kontaqti,

metyveleba

magram, ratom unda moexdina ricxvebis


siaxloves gavlena maTi fizikuri msgavsebis gansazRvraze? erTi-ori da erTicxra fizikuri gansxvavebulobis xarisxis
mixedviT TiTqmis identuria. mkvlevrebi
varaudoben, rom, rodesac xedavT 2-1 an
ori, Zalauneburad fiqrobT Sesabamis
raodenobaze, maSinac ki, rodesac es xels
uSlis davalebis Sesrulebas. am dros
xdeba ricxvis mniSvnelobis avtomaturi
Sefaseba, miuxedavad imisa, rom, es ar
gvWirdeba an ar gvinda (Dohaene & Akhavein,
1995).

319

xolo xaliCaze yofna~ sabrZolo adgils


niSnavs, e.i. Tqven unda waxvideT.
magram imisaTvis, rom fraza _ kata xaliCazea~ _ gasagebi iyos, sulac ar aris aucilebeli, saidumlo agenti iyoT. mas SeiZleba
sxvadasxva mniSvneloba hqondes.
warmoidgineT, rom Tqveni kata xaliCaze
karis win mxolod maSin wveba da gelodebaT,
roca gareT gasvla surs. rodesac Tqven Tqveni
ojaxis romelime wevrs eubnebiT kata xaliCazea~, Tqven gulisxmobT: _ SegiZlia, kata
gareT gauSva?~

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

warmoidgineT, rom Tqvens megobars surs


manqanis gamoyvana farexidan da SiSobs, radgan
ar icis, sad aris kata. am dros Tqven eubnebiT:
kata xaliCazea~ da am sityvebSi gulisxmobT,
rom katas safrTxe ar emuqreba da mas SeuZlia
manqanis gamoyvana.

320

suraTi

9.4

eqspresiuli metyveleba
SegiZliaT aRuweroT suraTi Tqvens megobars?
ras SecvlidiT, Tqveni megobari rom brma
iyos?

warmoidgineT, rom gsurT SeajibroT


Tqveni kata da Tqveni megobris ZaRli. am dros
Tqven ambobT: kata xaliCazea~, riTac miuTiTebT,
rom kata isvenebs da ar surs sirbili~.

metyveleba), ise mosaubris mier nagulisxmevi


azris gagebaze (impresiuli metyveleba):

aRweril magaliTebSi mocemulia gansxvaveba


winadadebis azrsa da mosaubris mier nagulisxmev azrs, sazriss Soris (Grice, 1968). metyvelebis
gamoyenebis Seswavlisas fsiqologebi aqcents
akeTeben rogorc produqciaze (eqspresiuli

rogor igebs msmeneli mosaubris mier


nagulisxmev azrs.

nagulisxmevi azris gamosaTqmelad rogor iyenebs mosaubre swor sityvebs;

eqspresiuli metyveleba
eqspresiuli metyveleba (Lenguage production)
is, rasac adamianebi amboben, aniSneben an weren;
am Sinaarsebis gadmocemis procesi.
msmenelis gaTvaliswineba (Audience design) _
konkretul auditoriaze gaTvlili Sinaarsis
formirebis procesi.

SexedeT 9.4 suraTs da SeecadeT, ramodenime


sityviT aRweroT is. ris Tqmas apirebT? axla
warmoidgineT, rom igigve suraTi unda aRuweroT
brma adamians. ras SecvlidiT? gWirdebaT Tu
ara meore SemTxvevaSi gonebis ufro meti daZabva?
eqspresiuli metyvelebis Seswavlisas aqcenti

cxrili

9.3
graisis aqsiomebi eqspresiuli metyvelebis Sesaxeb

1. raodenoba: Setyobineba unda iyos imdenad informaciuli, ramdenis moTxovnac aris. nu miawodebT imaze met
informacias, vidre mogeTxovebaT.
rCeva mosaubrisaTvis: Tqven unda ecadoT, gansazRvroT, realurad ra raodenobis informacia esaWiroeba Tqvens
msmenels. amisaTvis SeiZleba saWiro gaxdes winaswar imis gansazRvra, Tu ra icis msmenelma.
2. xarisxi: SeecadeT, ilaparakoT simarTle. ar TqvaT iseTi ram, rac mcdari ggoniaT da risi damadasturebeli
faqtebic ar gaqvT.
rCeva mosaubrisaTvis: rodesac Tqven laparakobT, msmeneli elodeba Tqven mier miwodebuli informaciis
dadasturebas. TiToeuli gamonaTqvamis dagegmvis dros mofiqrebuli unda gqondeT misi damadasturebeli
faqtebi.
3. mimarTeba: Tanmimdevruloba.
rCeva mosaubrisaTvis: rodesac raimes ambobT, darwmunebuli unda iyoT, rom msmenelisaTvis gasagebia kavSiri
Tqven mier miwodebul Setyobinebasa da manamde miwodebul informacias Soris. Tu cvliT saubris Tema anu
Tqven mier Camoyalibebuli azri pirdapir kavSirSi ar aris wina informaciasTan, Tqven unda auxsnaT, ris
Sesaxeb saubrobT.
4. stili: ilaparakeT zustad da garkveviT; moerideT orazrovani frazebis gamoyenebas. teqsti agebul unda iqnes
mokle da gamarTuli winadadebebiT.
rCeva mosaubrisaTvis: Tqven valdebuli xarT ilaparakoT SeZlebisdagvarad garkveviT, Tumca, ara xarT dazRveuli
Secdomebisagan. rogorc yuradRebiani da gulisxmieri mosaubre, unda darwmundeT, rom msmenelebma sworad
gaiges, risi Tqmac gsurdaT.
5. Cans Tu ara qvemoT mocemul dialogSi, ramdenad iyenebs daTo graisis aqsiomebs?

ra SeiZleba ifiqros daTom?

giorgi: yofilxar niu-iorkSi?


daTo: erTxel, 1992 wels.

ar vici ratom mekiTxeba, amitom, albaT, ufro meti


unda vuTxra, vidre, ubralod `ho~.

giorgi: wasvlas vapireb, magram meSinia ar


gamZarcvon.
daTo: Cemi azriT, iq bevri usafrTxo adgilia.

ver vetyvi, rom sanerviulo araferi aqvs, mainc ar


damijerebs. ra SeiZleba vuTxra iseTi, rac
simarTles hgavs da Tanac daamSvidebs?

giorgi: sastumro rogori iyo?


daTo: RamiT ar davrCenilvarT.

giorgi: ar ginda, erTad wavideT?


daTo: ar vici, unda vnaxo, ramdenad SevZleb
wamosvlas.
giorgi: aa . . .
daTo: hm

keTdeba rogorc metyvelebis produqciaze (ras


irCeven adamianebi mocemul momentSi saTqmelad),
ise, im procesebze, romlebic Setyobinebebs,
gamonaTqvamebs udevs safuZvlad. metyveleba ar
gulisxmobs mxolod zepir metyvelebas; metyvelebaa, agreTve, wera da JestebiT saubari. advilad gasagebad saxelmZRvaneloSi gamoyenebulia
sityvebi: mosaubre is, vinc metyvelebs anu
wers an laparakobs (igulisxmeba JestebiT
laparakic) da msmeneli is, vinc ismens (igebs).

Tu vetyvi, rom sastumroSi ar gavCerebulvar,


SeiZleba ifiqros, rom sxvagan gavaTie Rame. iseTi
ram unda vuTxra, rac gasagebs gaxdis, ratom ar
SemiZlia kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema.
wasvla ar minda, magram ar minda uaris Tqma uxeSad
gamomivides. mixvdeba giorgi, rom Tavs varideb?
(Tavis daZvrenas vcdilob)

gaeba maxeSi.

msmenelis gaTvaliswineba
Cven SemogTavazeT, aRgeweraT 9.4 suraTi
normaluri mxedvelobis mqone da brma adamianisTvis im mizniT, rom gamonaTqvami konkretuli msmenelis gaTvaliswinebiT dagegegmaT.
nebismier SemTxvevaSi saubrisas unda gaiTvaliswinoT, vin aris Tqveni msmeneli da is informacia, romelic unda miawodoT auditoriis
wevrebs (Clark, 1992, 1996). magaliTad, Tqven, albaT,

metyveleba

ras amboben?

321

TavSi azrad ar mogivaT vinmes uTxraT, rom


`kata xaliCazea~, Tu man ar icis, rom kata
xaliCaze mxolod maSin wveba, rodesac gareT
gasvla surs. msmenelis gaTvaliswinebis wesi,
romelic TanamSromlobis princips emyareba,
pirvelad filosofosma h. pol graisma (H. Paul
Grice) Semoitana. graisi TanamSromlobis princips ganixilavs, rogorc mosaubris instruqcias,
gamonaTqvami aagos mimdinare saubris pirobebisa
da mniSvnelobis mixedviT.
am instruqciis arsis gasagebad graisma Camoayaliba oTxi aqsioma, romelsac gulisxmieri
da yuradRebiani mosaubreebi iyeneben. 9.3. cxrilSi warmodgenilia TiToeuli aqsioma da SeTxzuli dialogi, sadac naCvenebia metyvelebis
dros aRwerili aqsiomebis gavlena pasuxebis
SerCevaze. rogorc 9.3 cxrilidan Cans, karg
mosaubres unda SeeZlos, gaTvalos, Tu ra
SeiZleba icodes da gaigos misma msmenelma.
amgvarad, Tqven ar etyviT Tqvens megobars: dRes
aleqsisTan erTad vsadilob~, Tu darwmunebuli
ara xarT, rom man icis, vin aris aleqsi. garda
amisa, TqvenTvis da Tqveni megobrisTvis nacnob
yvela aleqss Soris mxolod erTs axsenebT am
konteqstSi (sadilad sxvasTan erTad ar
waxvalT); anu saerTo codnaSi~ arsebobs vinme
aleqsi, romelic cnobilia rogorc TqvenTvis,
ise _ Tqveni megobrisaTvis. herbert klarks da
qeTrin marSals (Herbert Klark, Kethrine Marshal, 1981)
miaCniaT, rom saerTo codna~ informaciis sam
wyaros eyrdnoba:

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

jgufis wevroba sxvadasxva sididis jgufis wevrebi Semoklebul msjelobebs iyeneben,


roca azri eyrdnoba jgufis wevrebis saerTo
gamocdilebas da gasagebia misi wevrebisTvis;

322

lingvisturi Tanaarseboba saubrisas


adamianebi ukve ganxilul informacias (wina
saubrebis dros) miiCneven saerTo codnis~
nawilad;
fizikuri Tanaarseboba roca mosaubre
da msmeneli fizikurad erT situaciaSi imyofebian da Sexeba aqvT erTsa da imave obieqtebTan.
es gulisxmobs rogorc saubris garemos (sivrces,
romelSic saubari mimdinareobs), ise _ maT
garSemomyof adamianebs.
amrigad, rodesac Tqven axsenebT aleqsis:
me dRes aleqsisTan erTad vsadilob~, SesaZloa,

gasagebi iyos imitom, rom Tqven da Tqveni


megobari mcire jgufis wevrebi xarT, romelsac
aleqsic miekuTvneba (jgufis wevroba), an,
SesaZloa imitom, rom adre Tqven ukve aRniSneT
aleqsis arseboba (lingvisturi Tanaarseboba),
an, sulac, imitom, rom aleqsi iqve dgas oTaxSi
(fizikuri Tanaarseboba).

saidan
viciT
eqspresiul metyvelebaze gavlenas axdens
jgufis wevroba
eqsperimentulLpirobebSi mkvlevrebi
studentebs sTxovdnen, SeesrulebinaT
Sedarebis davaleba ise, rom winaswar arafers eubnebodnen. eqsperimentators win
ewyo gansazRvruli TanmimdevrobiT 16 Ria
baraTi (4X4) niu-iorkis xedebiT da mas
ise unda aRewera suraTebi, rom cdis pirebs
swori TanmimdevrobiT daelagebinaT isini.
eqsperimentatori da cdis piri erTmaneTs
ver xedavdnen, Tumca, maT hqondaT saubris
SesaZlebloba. eqsperimentators swrafad
SeeZlo ganesazRvra, icnobda Tu ara c.p.
niu-iorks. rodesac isini niu-iorkis mcxovreblebs esaubrebodnen baraTebis aRsawerad, isini ufro metad iyenebdnen sakuTar saxelebs: es aris sitikorpis Senoba~,
vidre zogad maxasiaTeblebs: es aris
maRali Senoba samkuTxa saxuraviT~ (Clark,
1987).

ufro dawvrilebiT ganvixiloT jgufis


wevroba. warmoidgineT, rom vinmes pirvelad
xvdebiT. Tu Tqven gsurT, rom yuradRebiani da
gulisxmieri mosaubre iyoT, pirvel rigSi unda
gaarkvioT ra sazogadoebas (jgufs) ekuTvnis
igi. amgvarad, mosaubre laparakis dros iTvaliswinebs Tavis molodins msmenelis Sesaxeb (Tu
ra iqneba misTvis gasagebi). adamianebs SeuZliaT
TiTqmis zustad gansazRvron, ra SeiZleba
icodnen sakuTari jgufis wevrebma, Tumca,
tendencia aqvT dauSvan, rom sxvebisTvisac
cnobilia is, rac TviTon ician (Fussel & Kraus,
1992). msmenelis codnis zusti gansazRvra SesaZlebels xdis eqspresiuli metyvelebis adekvatur regulacias.Y

cxrili

Secdomebi gamonaTqvamis dagegmvaSi


dagegmvis doneebi:

mosaubrem unda airCios sityvebi, romlebic


saukeTesod gamoxataven mis azrs.
Tu mosaubres enaze ori sityva adgas, magaliTad,
`movifiqre~ da `movigone~, SeiZleba Tqvas _
`movifone~.

 mosaubrem arCeuli sityvebi sworad unda daalagos


da gaaerTianos winadadebaSi.
radgan adamiani gegmavs gamonaTqvams, rogorc mTlian
erTeuls, SesaZloa, moxdes sityvebis gadanacvleba.
cxviridan sisxli wamskda sisxlidan cxviri
wamskda.
lamazi gogos kaba gogos lamazi kaba.

metyveleba da Secdomebi
gindaT saxeli gaiTqvaT? gavixsenoT v.a.
spuneri (Reverend W.A. Spooner) oqsfordis
universitetidan, romlis saxelis mixedviTac,
ori an meti sityvis pirveli marcvlebis gadanacvlebas spunerizmi ewoda. riverend spunerma
es saxeli samarTlianad daimsaxura. zarmac
students semestris gacdenis SemTxvevaSi frazis
You have wasted the whole term~ (Sen mTeli semestri gaacdine~) nacvlad eubneboda: _ You have
tasted the whole worm~ _ (Sen mTeli matli SeWame~)
(waste gacdena; taste _ gemos gasinjva, term _
semestri). spunerizmi metyvelebis Secdomebis
erT-erTi saxeobaa, romelsac saubris dros
vuSvebT. es Secdomebi gasagebs xdis azris gamoTqmis dagegmvis process. rogorc 9.4 cxrilidan
Cans, gamonaTqvamis dagegmva ramodenime erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebul doneze xdeba, romelTagan
TiToeulze SeiZleba gamovlindes metyvelebis
Secdomebi (Bock&levet, 1994; Rapp&Goldrick, 2000).
gasaocaria, magram aRwerili Secdomebi, rogorc
Cans, ar unda iyos SemTxveviTi isini gasagebi
xdeba, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT sasaubro enis
struqturas. mosaubrem SeiZleba gadaanacvlos
styvebis pirveli asoebi tips of the slung~
nacvlad slips of the sung~-isa, magram arasodes
ityvis tlips of the sung~, radganac am SemTxvevaSi
irRveva inglisuri enis marTlweris wesi,
romlis mixedviTac sityvis TavSi arasodes
gvxvdeba tl~(Fromkin, 1980).
metyvelebis Teoriuli modelebis agebisas
didi mniSvneloba eniWeba metyvelebis Secdomebs,
amitom mkvlevrebi ar Semoifarglebian aRniSnu-

9.4

mosaubrem bgerebi unda gaaerTianos sityvebSi,


romelTa Tqmasac apirebs.
radganac adamianebi gamonaTqvams winaswar gegmaven,
SeiZleba moxdes bgeraTa gadanacvleba.
cali xeli xali celi.

li Secdomebis mxolod bunebriv pirobebSi


dakvirvebiT da maTi aRnusxviT. maT Seiswavles
eqsperimentul pirobebSi metyvelebis Secdomebis xelovnurad gamowvevis sxvadasxva xerxebi
(Bock, 1996).
am teqnikis gamoyenebiT SesaZlebeli gaxda
moqnili eqspresiuli metyvelebis safuZvlad
mdebare rogorc procesebis, ise reprezentaciebis met-naklebi gageba.
procesebi. gaixseneT me-6 TavSi ganxiluli xelovnurad Seqmnili predispoziciuli
spunerizmi. es teqnika cdis pirebs ubiZgebs,
laparakis dros dauSvan spunerizmiseuli Secdomebi (baars, 1992). cdis pirebs sTxoven, waikiTxon dawyvilebul sityvaTa sia, romlebsac
msgavsi fonematuri struqtura aqvT:L
buzi-fuli
baRi-fari
boli-foni
bedi-fexi
Semdeg ki sTxoven, xmamaRla Tqvan feriberi~. rig SemTxvevebSi zogierTi cdis piri
manamde wakiTxuli sityvebis gavleniT ambobs
beri-feri~.

metyveleba

daakvirdiT, Tu ramdenad detaluri informacia unda miawodoT quCaSi adamians, romelic


gzis miswavlebas gTxovT. aZlevT Tu ara
konkretul kiTxvebs (magaliTad, iciT, sad aris
meria?), cdilobT Tu ara misi Cacmulobidan
da metyvelebidan gamomdinare, gansazRvroT,
saidan aris igi da ramdenad dawvrilebiT unda
aRuweroT gza.
Cven ganvixileT eqspresiuli metyveleba
Setyobinebis doneze. rogorc vnaxeT, gamonaTqvamis formireba damokidebulia msmenelze,
romelsac esaubrebiT. axla ganvixiloT fsiqikuri procesebi, romlebic saSualebas gaZlevT,
gamoTqvaT azri.

323

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

am teqnikebis gamoyenebiT mkvlevrebs saSualeba eZlevaT, Seiswavlon mosaubris mier Secdomebis daSvebis albaTobaze moqmedi faqtorebi.
magaliTad, spunerizmis msgavsi Secdomebis
albaToba izrdeba, rodesac bgerebis gadaadgileba realur sityvebs gvaZlevs (Baars et al.,
1975; Stemberger, 1992); amgvarad, feri-beri~-s magivrad beri-feri~-s Tqmis albaToba ufro metia,
vidre, magaliTad, coli-qmari~-s magivrad
qmoli-cari~-s Tqmis albaToba. msgavsi Sedegebi
savaraudos xdis, rom metyvelebaSi CarTuli
zogierTi kognituri procesi uzrunvelyofs
kognituri Secdomis gamovlenas da gasworebas.
es procesebi ar gvaZleven iseTi Secdomebis
daSvebis uflebas, romlebic konkretuli
enisaTvis miuRebeli da ararealuri sityvebis
gamoTqmas gulisxmobs.

324

reprezentaciebi. erT-erTi eqsperimentis


dros cdis pirebs sTxovdnen wyvil-wyvilad
waekiTxaT idiomaturi gamoTqmebi, magaliTad,
shoot the breeze raise the roof (bevri laparaki
aurzauris atexva); ori wamis Semdeg ki sTxovdnen, rac SeiZleba swrafad gaexsenebinaT erTerTi. droSi SezRudvis pirobebSi cdis pirebi
zogierT SemTxvevaSi urevdnen ori frazis
sityvebs da iZaxdnen shoot the roof. Secdomis
daSvebis albaToba am SemTxvevaSi ufro didia,
vidre zemoT aRweril SemTxvevaSi, radgan bolo
or gamonaTqvams erTnairi mniSvneloba aqvs. es
Sedegebi miuTiTebs, rom erTnairi mniSvnelobis
mqone idiomebiT reprezentaciebi erTmaneTTan
aris mexsierebaSi dakavSirebuli: rodesac
adamiani apirebs Tqvas erTi idioma, msgavsi
mniSvnelobis mqone idiomis reprezentaciulma
kavSirma SeiZleba ganapirobos kombinirebuli
Secdomis aRmoceneba (Cutling & Bock, 1977).
Cven ganvixileT zogierTi faqtori, romelic
ganapirobebs ama Tu im gamonaTqvamis warmoTqmas
da zogierTi procesi, romelic xels uwyobs
maT aqtivizacias. axla ki SevexoT msmenelebs,
romlebic mosaubris mier nagulisxmev azrs
igeben.

impresiuli metyveleba
warmoidgineT, rom mosaubre ambobs: `kata
xaliCazea.~ Tqven ukve iciT, rom, konteqstidan
gamomdinare, am gamonaTqvamis gamoyeneba

SeiZleba erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuli azris


gamosaxatad. Tqven, rogorc msmeneli, rogor
airCevT mxolod erT azrs? metyvelebis gagebaze
saubars orazrovani mniSvnelobis problemis
ufro detaluri ganxilviT daviwyebT.

orazrovnebis daZleva
ras niSnavs sityva bari? TavSi, albaT, misi
ori mniSvneloba mainc mogividaT: erTi,
romelic dakavSirebulia miwaTmoqmedebasTan
(sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobasTan) da meore,
romelic dakavSirebulia kafesTan. warmoidgineT, rom vinme geubnebaT: `mas aqvs bari~,
rogor xvdebiT, ra igulisxmeba am konkretul
SemTxvevaSi? Tqven unda SeZloT am or mniSvnelobas Soris arsebuli leqsikuri orazrovnebis
daZleva. Tu dafiqrdebiT, aRmoaCenT, rom zogierTi kognituri procesis gamoyenebiT, konteqstidan gamomdinare cdilobT sityvis orazrovnebis daZlevas. ris Sesaxeb saubrobdiT manamde
_ samuSao iaraRebze Tu gasarTob adgilebze.
es farTo konteqsti unda dagexmaroT sityvis
ori mniSvnelobidan erT-erTis arCevaSi, magram
rogor?
sanam am kiTxvaze pasuxs gavcemdeT, gagacnobT
orazrovnebis kidev erT tips. ras niSnavs es
winadadeba: `ninos da giorgis dedas gadasces
daxmareba.~ Tqven SeiZleba gaigoT misi mxolod
erTi mniSvneloba, magram am SemTxvevaSi saqme
gvaqvs struqturul orazrovnebasTan. (Akmajian
et al., 1990) (ix. suraTi 9.5). lingvistebi winadadebis struqturis sailustraciod xSirad iyeneben
diagramebs. I nawilSi warmodgenilia winadadebis _ `kata xaliCazea~ _ analizi. am winadadebis struqtura Zalian martivia. II da III
nawilSi ki warmodgenilia winadadebis _ `ninos
da giorgis dedas gadasces daxmareba~ _ ori
gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobis SedarebiT rTuli
struqtura. II nawilSi gakeTebuli analizis
mixedviT, fraza `ninos da giorgis~ exeba dedas,
erT adamians _ ori bavSvis dedas gadasces
daxmareba. III nawilSi warmodgenili analizis
mixedviT, winadadebaSi gamoyofilia ori qvemdebare _ `ninos~ da `giorgis dedas~, e.i. or
adamians gadasces daxmareba. romeli mniSvnelobiT igebT winadadebas, rodesac mas pirvelad
kiTxulobT? rogorc xedavT, am SemTxvevaSic
winadadebas ori mniSvneloba aqvs da Cven vub-

suraTi

9.5

winadadebis
struqtura
winadadebis gramatikuli
struqturis TvalsaCino
ilustraciis mizniT, lingvistebi xSirad iyeneben
diagramebs. I struqtura
warmoadgens winadadebis _
`kata xaliCazea~ _ struqturul analizs; II da III struqtura ki gviCvenebs, rom
winadadeba _ `ninos da giorgis dedas gadasces daxmareba~ _ ori erTmaneTisagan
gansxvavebuli struqturuli
analiziT SeiZleba iyos warmodgenili. vis gadasces
daxmareba? or adamians Tu
erTs?

nebuli yvavili, iseve, rogorc meore winadadebaSi. mesame winadadebis pirvel nawilSi aRwerilia situacia, romelic qmnis konteqsts meore
winadadebisTvis _ `yvavili aqvs~. es magaliTebi
gviCvenebs, rom Tqven iTvaliswinebT miniSnebis
sxvadasxva tips. konteqstis mixedviT msmeneli
momentalurad gansazRvravs orazrovani sityvis
mniSvnelobas (Binder & Morris, 1995; Sereno, 1995).
struqturuli orazrovnebis daZleva konteqstis
mixedviT xdeba (MacDonald, 1993; Shapiro et al., 1993;
Trueswell, 1996). erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebul aseT
gramatikul struqturebs Soris swrafi arCevis
SesaZleblobas konteqsti iZleva.
modiT, Cvens magaliTs davubrundeT, romelic
pirvelad ganvixileT da romelic sakmaod

metyveleba

rundebiT igive kiTxvas, romelic leqsikuri


orazrovnebis dros gaCnda: rogor gansazRvravs
konteqsti erTi mniSvnelobis amorCevas ori an
meti SesaZlo variantidan?
davubrundeT leqsikur orazrovnebas (sityvis
orazrovnebas), ganvixiloT Semdegi winadadeba:
anas yvavili aqvs~.
ra aris am SemTxvevaSi yvavili? warmoidgineT,
rom TavSi leqsikoni gaqvT. yvavilis mniSvneloba, albaT, aseTi iqneba:
gansazRvreba 1: mcenare.
gansazRvreba 2: infeqciuri daavadeba.
am winadadebiT gadmocemuli informacia ar
gvaZlevs saSualebas, SesaZlo ori mniSvnelobidan avirCioT erT-erTi. rogorc kvlevis
Sedegebi adasturebs, aseTi tipis winadadebis
wakiTxvis Semdeg mexsierebisTvis misawvdomi
xdeba sityvis orive mniSvneloba (Vu et al., 1998).
konkretul situaciaSi sityvis mniSvnelobis
gansazRvrisaTvis saWiroa konteqstis gaTvaliswineba, magram rogor gvexmareba is mniSvnelobis
arCevaSi? kvlevebis mixedviT aRmoCnda, rom
konteqsti uzrunvelyofs azris gagebis ramdenime
(tipis) saSualebas (Vu et al., 1998, 2000). ganvixiloT
Semdegi magaliTebi:
1.
ana avadaa yvaviliT;
2.
ana krefda yvavilebs;
3.
ana ver mova. mas yvavili aqvs.
pirvel winadadebaSi zmnis mixedviT, SesaZloa ganvsazRvroT, ra mniSvnelobiTaa gamoye-

325

cxrili

9.5

orazrovani gamonaTqvamis pirdapiri


da sarkastuli interpretacia
pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT naxmari gamonaTqvami
marta dis saxlSi mivida stumrad. gareT yinavda da
marta Zalian bednieri iyo, rom saxlamde miaRwia. man
uTxra das: Seni saxli Zalian myudroa, ra mSvenieria
aq da rogor Tbila~.

sarkastuli moTxovna

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

tonis amxanagi, romelTanac cxovrobs igi, yovelTvis


Rias tovebs misaRebi oTxis fanjaras, maSinac ki,
rodesac gareT yinavs. tonis mravaljeradi Txovna
daeketa fanjara uSedego iyo; erTxel fanjara Ria
iyo, tonis ar sjeroda, rom mis amxanags ar scioda da
uTxra amxanags: ra mSvenieria aq da rogor Tbila~.

326

orazrovania: `kata xaliCazea~. am SemTxvevaSi


orazrovneba ganpirobebulia Tavad SinaarsiT
da ara calkeuli sityvebiT an winadadebis
struqturiT. mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines, rom konteqstis mixedviT gadawyobis kanoni am SemTxvevaSic moqmedebs (Gibbs, 1994).
SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom metyvelebis
procesSi adamiani orazrovnebis dasaZlevad
efeqturad iyenebs konteqsts. am dros sruli
SeTanxmebulobaa naTqvamsa da msmenelis mier
gagebul azrs Soris. metyvelebis procesis
ganxilvisas Cven gamovyaviT e.w. msmenelis
gaTvaliswineba~ _ procesebi, romelTa saSualebiTac mosaubre mimdinare situaciis Sesatyvis
gamonaTqvams irCevs. impresiuli metyvelebis
analizis safuZvelze dadginda, rom msmenels
aqvs molodini, rom mosaubre sworad metyvelebs.
amrigad, msmenelisaTvis mizanSewonilia, naTqvami fraza gaiazros konteqstidan gamomdinare.

saidan
viciT
konteqsti gvexmareba arapirdapiri
mniSvnelobis gagebaSi
ganvixiloT gamonaTqvami: aq mSvenieria
da Tbila~. ras niSnavs es? rogorc 9.5
cxrilidan Cans, SesaZlebelia, am tipis
martiv gamonaTqvamebs sxvadasxva istoriis
SeTxzviT sxvadasxva azri mivaniWoT. Cven

vnaxeT, rom sityvasityviT versia axlo


kavSirSia sityvebis pirdapir mniSvnelobasTan. igive gamonaTqvamis arapirdapiri versia mas sarkastul mniSvnelobas
aniWebs. axla gamoviyenoT zemoT aRniSnuli modelebi leqsikuri orazrovnebis
ilustraciis mizniT. Tu mkiTxveli informacias sityvasityviT amuSavebs konstanturi rigis (Tanmimdevrobis) mixedviT,
maSin mosalodnelia, rom Tavdapirvelad
igi Seecdeba gamonaTqvamis pirdapiri mniSvnelobis gagebas. Tu es gza warumatebeli
aRmoCndeba, mkiTxveli gamonaTqvamis sxva
mniSvnelobas ganixilavs (Crice 1975; 1978;
Searle, 1979a). am modelis mixedviT, moTxovnis
da sarkastuli gamonaTqvamis gagebas ufro
meti dro sWirdeba, vidre pirdapiri gamonaTqvamis. mkiTxvelisTvis ki ufro advilia
sarkastuli gamonaTqvamis gageba, vidre
pirdapiris. kvlevebis safuZvelze dadginda, rom mkiTxvelebi ufro swrafad
igeben sarkastul moTxovnas, vidre igive
gamonaTqvamis pirdapir mniSvnelobas (Gibbs,
1986).

ra gvesmis
orazrovnebis daZlevis Sesaxeb saubrisas
aqcenti gavakeTeT imaze, Tu ras vigebT. axla
yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT naTqvamis gagebaze,
Sesabamisad, kiTxvas ase davsvamT: rodis Cndeba
mexsierebaSi reprezentaciebi _ frazis Tu
mTliani teqstis gagebis dros? magaliTad, ra
inaxeba mexsierebaSi, rodesac Tqven gaigebT
ukve nacnob frazas: `kata xaliCazea~. kvlevebis
safuZvelze dadginda, rom mniSvnelobis mqone
reprezentaciebi warmodgenilia bazisuri
erTeulebiT, romlebsac propoziciebs uwodeben
(Clark & Clark, 1877; Kintsh, 1974). propozicia
gamonaTqvamis ZiriTadi azria. winadadebis _
`kata xaliCazea~ _ ZiriTadi azri isaa, rom
raRac wevs raRacaze. am frazis wakiTxvisas
Tqven gamoyofT propozicias ze da cdilobT,
gaigoT katasa da xaliCas Soris arsebuli
mimarTeba, romelic gamoxatulia am propoziciiT.
propoziciebis Cawera xSirad ase xdeba: ze
(kata, xaliCa). mravali gamonaTqvami erTze met
propozicias Seicavs. ganvixiloT Semdegi

winadadeba: `kata uyurebda Tagvs, romelic SeZvra


taxtis qveS~. aq pirveli Semadgeneli propoziciaa qveS (Tagvi, taxti). aqedan vawyobT:
SeZvra [(Tagvi, qveS (Tagvi, taxti)]; sabolood
ki miviRebT: uyurebda [kata, SeZvra (Tagvi, qveS
(Tagvi, taxti))].

mocemuli, vidre maSin, rodesac mas sxva


propoziciidan amoRebuli sityva uZRoda
win. es Sedegi cxadyofs, rom cnebebi _
mavzoleumi~ da moedani~ erTad iyo
warmodgenili mexsierebaSi (Ratclif &McKoon,
1978).

SeZvra [Tagvi, qveS (Tagvi, taxti)]


uyurebda [kata, SeZvra (Tagvi, qveS (Tagvi,
taxti))]
rogor SegviZlia SevamowmoT, rom mniSvnelobis fsiqikuri propoziciebi marTlac ase
muSaobs? metyvelebis fsiqologiis sferoSi
Catarebuli zogierTi kvleva miznad isaxavda,
eCvenebina propoziciuli reprezentaciebis
roli metyvelebis gagebaSi (Kintsch, 1974). rogorc
kvlevebis safuZvelze dadginda, Tu frazaSi
ori sityva ekuTvnis erTsa da imave propozicias,
mexsierebaSi maTi warmodgena xdeba erTdroulad, maSinac ki, rodesac isini erTad ar dganan
winadadebaSi.

saidan
viciT
propoziciebi qmnian mexsierebis
struqturas
ganvixiloT winadadeba: mavzoleumi,
sadac mefe ganisvenebda, moedans gadahyurebda~. miuxedavad imisa, rom am winadadebaSi mavzoleumi da moedani erTmaneTisgan daSorebulia, propoziciuli analizi gvafiqrebinebs, rom isini mexsierebaSi erTad unda Seikribos propoziciaSi gadahyurebda (mavzoleumi, moedani).
am analizis Sesamowmeblad mkvlevrebma
cdis pirebs warudgines sityvebis CamonaTvali da sTxoves, ganesazRvraT, iyo Tu
ara TiToeuli sityva winadadebaSi.
zogierT cdis pirs CamonaTvalSi mavzoleumi uSualod moednis Semdeg miewoda,
zogs ki _ sxva propoziciidan amoRebuli
sityvis Semdeg. pasuxi _
diax, iyo
mavzoleumi~ gacilebiT swrafad modioda
im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac CamonaTvalSi
mavzoleumi uSualod moednis Semdeg iyo

rodisme SegimCneviaT, rom Zalian Znelia


vinmes naTqvamis zustad damaxsovreba? SesaZloa,
gicdiaT zustad (sityvasityviT) dagemaxsovrebinaT raime fraza filmidan da saxlSi dabrunebuls aRmogiCeniaT, rom aqedan mxolod
zogadi azri gaxsovT. es magaliTi miuTiTebs,
Tu ratom ar aris srulyofili sityvasityviT
damaxsovreba. imitom, rom erT-erTi ZiriTadi
operacia, romelsac Tqveni metyveleba axorcielebs, propoziciebis gamoyofas gulixmobs,
xolo propoziciebis zusti Tanmimdevroba
swrafad ikargeba Cvens mexsierebaSi (magaliTad,
kata misdevs Tagvs~ _ Tagvi gaurbis katas~).
mexsierebaSi Senaxuli yvela propozicia ar
aRmocendeba zustad miRebuli informaciis
safuZvelze. msmenelebi xarvezebis Sevsebas
daskvniT axerxeben, logikuri daSvevebis gakeTeba
SesaZlebelia mexsierebaSi arsebuli informaciis safuZvelze. ganvixiloT ori winadadeba:
me sakonditroSi mivdivar TeasTan Sesaxvedrad.
igi Sempirda, rom miyidis namcxvars.
imisaTvis, rom es winadadeba gaigoT, saWiroa,
sul cota, ori daskvnis gakeTeba. Tqven unda
gaarkvioT, vin aris `igi~ meore winadadebaSi
da rogor aris maRaziaSi wasvla dakavSirebuli
dapirebasTan, rom giyidian namcxvars. megobari,
vinc es winadadeba giTxraT, vTqvaT, darwmunebulia, rom Tqven SegiZliaT am ori momentis
gaTvaliswineba. Tqven arasodes getyvian: _ `me
mivdivar sakonditroSi TeasTan Sesaxvedrad;
igi _ Teas vgulisxmob _ Sempirda, rom miyidis
namcxvars da sakonditro aris maRazia, sadac
gemrieli namcxvrebi iyideba~. mosaubre yovelTvis Tvlis, rom msmeneli TavisTavad, varaudiT
akeTebs daskvnebs miRebuli informaciidan.
uamravi gamokvleva mieZRvna imis garkvevas,
Tu ra saxis daskvnebs akeTeben msmenelebi regudaskvna (Inference) _ xarveziani informaciis
Sevseba arsebuli mtkicebulebebis an rwmenis
da Teoriis safuZvelze.

metyveleba

qveS (Tagvi, taxti)

327

fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi

SeuZliaT Tu ara cxovelebs enis Seswavla

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

Tqven, ra Tqma unda, ginaxavT filmi, an satelevizio


Sou, sadac cxovelebi Cveulebriv saubroben adamianebTan. gaxsovT mister edi _
molaparake cxeni? SesaZlebelia es realur cxovrebaSi?
am sakiTxis kvleva gasuli
saukunis 20-iani wlebidan
daiwyo; fsiqologebma scades
SimpanzeebisaTvis eswavlebinaT laparaki. radganac Simpanzeebs ar gaaCniaT laparakisaTvis Sesaferisi sametyvelo aparati, mkvlevrebi iZulebulni gaxdnen, komunikaciis damyarebis sxva meTodebi moeZebnaT. magaliTad,
Simpanzes, saxelad vaSos, aswavles amerikuli niSnebis
enis gamartivebuli varianti
(Gardner & Gardner, 1969); Simpanzes, saxelad saras ki daaswavles simboloebiT manipulacia (simboloebi aRniSnavdnen iseT cnebebs, rogoricaa, magaliTad, vaSli, mi-

328

cema) (Premark, 1971). am eqsperimentebis Sedegebma azrTa sxvadasxvaoba warmoSva (Seidenberg &
Pebitto, 1979). kritikosebi dainteresdnen Semdegi sakiTxebiT:
Simpanzeebis mier simboloebis
an Jestebis SemTxveviTi kombinaciebis (magaliTad, vaSo bodiSi, Sen meti daleva) gamoyeneba aris Tu ara metyvelebis

larulad (Gerrig, 1993; Graesser et al., 1994; McKoon &


Ratcliff, 1992). aRmoCnda, rom nebismieri gamonaTqvamis SemTxvevaSi potenciuri daskvnebis
raodenoba SeuzRudavia. magaliTad, vinaidan
Tqven iciT, rom Tea aris adamiani, Tqven SegiZliaT gaifiqroT, rom mas aqvs guli, RviZli,
filtvebi da a.S. magram Tqven, albaT, es TavSi
azrad ar mogivaT maSin, rodesac vinme geubnebaT:
`me sakonditroSi mivdivar TeasTan Sesaxvedrad~.
kvlevebis safuZvelze dadginda, rom msmenelebi
sakmao sifrTxiliT ekidebian daskvnebis gakeTebas. ganvixiloT Semdegi winadadeba: `arqiteqtorma daWra kaci~.
rodesac cdis pirebs ekiTxebodnen, ra iaraRi
igulisxmeboda am winadadebaSi, umravlesobam

azriani gamoyeneba. aseve, mniSvnelobaTa umetesoba, rac miewereba maimunis gamonaTqvams,


xom ar Cndeba adamianis da
ara maimunis TavSi.
ukanaskneli wlebis ganmavlobaSi siu sevij-rumbaum (Sue
Savage-Rumbaugh, 1998) da misma
kolegebma Caatares kvleva,
romlis Sedegadac gamoikveTa

aRniSna, rom es iyo dana. Tumca, kvlevis


Sedegebis mixedviT dadginda, rom am da msgavsi
tipis winadadebebis kiTxvis bunebriv pirobebSi
adamianebs TavSi ar mosdiT cneba `dana~ (Dosher
& Corbett, 1982). kvlevis aseTi Sedegebi adasturebs,
rom sakmaod sando daskvnebis gakeTebac ki ar
xdeba avtomaturad, magaliTad, viRaca daWres
daniT. daskvnebis umetesoba, romlebsac Tqven
akeTebT, daaxloebiT iseTivea, rogorc wina
winadadebis SemTxvevaSi, romelic gulisxmobs
mimarTebis damyarebas `Teasa~ da nacvalsaxel
`igi~-s Soris da `sakonditrosa~ da `namcxvars~
Soris. aseTi daskvnebi saSualebas gaZlevT,
gamoiyenoT im informaciis reprezentacia,
romelsac mosaubre gadmogcemT.

miani enis adreuli aTvisebis


periodSi (ix. Tavi 11). kvlevis
safuZvelze dadginda, rom
Simpanze-panpanzesac ki SeuZlia
zogierTi inglisuri sityvis
mniSvnelobis daufleba, Tumca,
bonobos jiSis maimuns panbaniSas bevrad ufro meti sityvis
daswavlis unari aqvs (Brake &
Savage-Rumbaugh, 1995).
bonobos jiSis maimunebze miRebuli Sedegebi gasaocaria,
Tumca, metyvelebis unarisa da
sityvis ubralod gamoyenebas
Soris didi gansxvavebaa. gavixsenoT e.w. msmenelTa gaTvaliswineba. SeuZliaT cxovelebs informaciis Secvla auditoriaze
morgebis mizniT? mkvlevrebma
gadawyvites, pasuxi gaecaT am
kiTxvaze. doroTi Cenim da robert seifarsTma (Dorothy Cheney,
Robert Seyfarth, 1990) didi kvleva
Caatares. isini vervetis jiSis
maimunebis komunikaciur unarebs
swavlobdnen. sxvadasxva tipis
saSiSroebis, magaliTad, leopardis, arwivis an gvelis moaxloebis dros es maimunebi
gansxvavebul xmebs gamoscemen.
maT auditoriidan gamomdinare

metyvelebis ganxilvam gviCvena, ramdeni ram


esaWiroeba mosaubres, raTa warmoTqvas swori
winadadeba Sesabamis dros da msmenels, raTa
sworad gaigos mosaubris mier nagulisxmevi
azri. Cven, rogorc wesi, amas ar vacnobierebT.
rogor ggoniaT, kargad aris agebuli Tqveni
kognituri procesebis muSaobis meqanizmebi?

metyveleba, azrovneba da
kultura
Tu swavlobT, an iciT ucxo ena? Tu asea,
rogor ggoniaT, or enaze Tqven gansxvavebulad
fiqrobT? axdens Tu ara gavlenas ena azrovnebaze? es is kiTxvaa, romelsac mkvlevrebi

SeuZliaT xmis Secvla _


mdedri maimunebi saSiSroebis
dros ufro maRali sixSiris
xmebs gamoscemen, roca Tavis
STa m o m a v a l m a i m u n e b Ta n
erTad arian, vidre sxvebTan.
vervetis jiSis maimunebs ar
SeuZliaT msmenelis codnis
gaTvaliswineba da, aqedan
gamomdinare, xmis Secvla:
eqsperimentul pirobebSi
Seqmnili saSiSroebis SemTxvevaSi deda vervetebi
erTsa da imave xmebs gamoscemen marto yofnis drosac
da maSinac, roca maTi STamomavali safrTxis momaswavebeli movlenis TviTmxilvelia. mkvlevrebma daadgines,
rom adamiani erTaderTi
cocxali arsebaa, romelsac
SeuZlia sxvisi codnis gaTvaliswineba da, Sesabamisad,
qcevis Secvla (Povinelli &
Prince, 1998).
rogorc naxeT, Simpanzesa
da bonobos jiSis maimunebs
gaaCniaT adamianis msgavsi
metyvelebisaTvis aucilebeli zogierTi, magram ara
yvela unari.

araerTgzis ganixilaven. es kiTxva rom ufro


konkretuli iyos, gagacnobT kros-lingvistur
magaliTs. warmoidgineT, rom bavSvma dainaxa,
rogor isrola mamamisma burTi. Tu bavSvi
inglisurenovania, ityoda: _ Daddy threw the ball
`mamam isrola burTi~, xolo Tu bavSvi Turqulenovania, maSin ityoda Topu babam atti. rogor
fiqrobT, am winadadebebSi erTi da igive azria
mocemuli da mxolod sityvebia gansxvavebuli?
es mTlad ase ar aris: -ti sufiqsi Turquli
winadadebis boloSi miuTuTebs, rom mosaubre
movlenis TviTmxilvelia; roca mosaubre
gagonils hyveba, maSin winadadeba mis sufiqsiT
mTavrdeba, anu iqneboda atmis. inglisur enaze
mosaubre adamianebi samyaros ar yofen im

metyveleba

ufro zusti monacemebi Simpanzeebis metyvelebis unaris Sesaxeb. sevij-rumbau, ZiriTadad,


bonobos jiSis Simpanzeebze
muSaobda, romlebic, evoluciuri TvalsazrisiT, ufro
axlos arian adamianTan, vidre
Cveulebrivi Simpanzeebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom bonobos jiSis
orma maimunma, kinzim da mulikam kvlevis procesSi spontanurad aiTvises plastmasisagan damzadebuli simboloebis mniSvneloba; maT ar
dasWirdaT rTuli treningi.
isini simboloebis mniSvnelobebs avtomaturad daeuflnen adamianebsa da bonobos
jiSis maimunebs Soris komunikaciis procesze dakvirvebisas.
garda amisa, maT esmiT zogierTi inglisuri sityvis mniSvneloba, magaliTad, kanzas
SeuZlia sityvis gagonebaze
dados misi Sesabamisi simbolo an foto. mkvlevrebma
bonobosa da Simpanzes jiSis
ori maimunisaTvis Seqmnes
pirobebi, sadac maimunebi
metyvelebis iseT gamocdilebas iRebdnen, rogorc ada-

329

movlenebis mixedviT, romlebic sakuTari


TvaliT ixiles da romlebic sxva wyaroebidanaa
cnobili (Slobin, 1982; Slobin & Aksu, 1982). SesaZlebelia Tu ara, rom ori enis gansxvavebulma
gramatikulma moTxovnebma gavlena moaxdinos
azrovnebis stilze? Turquli da inglisuri
enis SemTxvevaSi am kiTxvaze pasuxi ucnobia.
xom ar gsurT CaataroT kvleva? es gansxvaveba
gasagebs xdis azrovnebaze enis potenciuri
zegavlenis sakiTxiT dainteresebas.
am sakiTxis mecnieruli Seswavla edvard
sepirma (Edward Sapir) da misma studentma benjamen
lii uorfma (Benjamin Lee Whort) daiwyes. kroslingvisturi kvlevebis safuZvelze miRebul
Sedegebze dayrdnobiT avtorebma daaskvnes, rom
enaSi gansxvavebebi azrSi gansxvavebebs
ganapirobebs. sepiri aRniSnavs:
Cven vxedavT da gansxvavebulad ganvicdiT movlenebs, radganac Cveni sazogadoebis enobrivi Cvevebi interpretaciis
gansazRvruli arCevanisadmi gangvawyobs~
(Sapir, 1941/1964, gv. 69)
sepirma da uorfma es daskvna maT mier Catarebuli kvlevebis Sedegebis safuZvelze gaakeTes.
uorfma Camoayaliba ori hipoTeza, romlebic
sepir-uorfis hipoTezis saxeliTaa cnobili (ix.
Brown, 1976).

 lingvisturi fardobiToba _ enebs Soris


arsebuli struqturuli gansxvavebebi aisaxeba
am enebze molaparake individebis gansxvavebul
aralingvistur kognitur unarebze.

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

 lingvisturi determinizmi enis struq-

330

tura Zlier gavlenas axdens da, SesaZloa,


mTlianadac gansazRvravdes am enaze molaparake
individebis mier samyaros aRqmasa da azrovnebas.
am ori hipoTezidan lingvisturi determinizmi SedarebiT ufro Zlieria, radgan is
amtkicebs, rom ena, faqtobrivad, gansazRvravs
azrovnebas. Tanamedrove mecnierebma fsiqologebma, lingvistebma da anTropologebma
araerTgzis scades kvlevis zusti meTodebis
Seqmna am hipoTezis gadasamowmeblad (Gumperz &
Levinson, 1996).
ganvixiloT azrovnebaze enis gavlenis erTerTi aspeqti. SesaZloa, gagikvirdeT, rom sxvadasxva enaSi ferTa dasaxelebis gansxvavebuli

raodenobaa. lingvisturi analizis safuZvelze


dadginda, rom inglisur enaSi ferTa 11 dasaxelebaa (Savi, TeTri, wiTeli, yviTeli, mwvane,
lurji, yavisferi, mewamuli, vardisferi, stafilosferi, nacrisferi), xolo zogierT enaSi,
magaliTad, papua axal gvineaze mcxovrebTa enaSi,
romelsac dani ewodeba, ferTa ori dasaxeleba
arsebobs _ Savi da TeTri (muqi da Ria) (Berlin &
Kay, 1969). uorfi miiCnevs, rom adamiani `samyaros
mSobliuri enis safuZvelze adiferencirebs~
(1956 gv. 213): mkvlevrebi varaudoben, rom ferTa
dasaxelebis raodenoba (2 an 11), SesaZloa,
gavlenas axdendes sxvadasxva enaze mosaubre
adamianebis mier ferebis klasifikaciis unarebze.
Semdgomi kvlevebis Sedegebis analizis safuZvelze dadginda, rom sxvadaxsva enaze molaparake
adamianebi erTnairad asruleben ferebis klasifikaciis davalebebs. es monacemebi eWvqveS
ayeneben mtkicebas lingvisturi determinizmis
Sesaxeb, Tumca, mkvlevrebi mainc iziareben azrs
SedarebiT susti gavlenis Sesaxeb metyvelebaSi gansxavebebs kognituri gansxvavebebi
sdevs Tan.

saidan
viciT
metyveleba gavlenas axdens ferebis
klasifikaciaze
mkvlevrebma cdis pirebs sTxoves, SeemowmebinaT sami feris wiri. ferebi aRebuli iyo lurjidan mwvanemde speqtrul
diapazonSi. cdis pirebs evalebodaT, ganesazRvraT, sami elferidan yvelaze metad
romeli gansxvavdeboda danarCeni orisagan.
cdis pirTa erTi jgufi warmodgenili
iyo inglisurenovani individebiT (inglisur enaSi arsebobs mwvanisa da lurjis
leqsikurad gansxvavebuli erTeulebi),
xolo meore CrdiloeT meqsikaSi mcxovrebi individebiT, romlebic tarahumaras
enaze laparakoben. am enaSi lurjisa da
mwvane elferis aRsaniSnad arsebobs
mxolod erTi sityva Siyoname. mkvlevrebi
varaudobdnen, rom, Tu sepir-uorfis
hipoTeza marTalia, maSin inglisurenovani
individebi SeZlebdnen lurjisa da mwva-

msoflioSi aTasobiT enaa, romelTa Soris


uamravi saintereso gansxvavebaa, rogorc es
Turquli da inglisuri enebis magaliTze
giCveneT. Sesabamisad, arsebobs uamravi sakiTxi
(hipoTeza), romelic Semdgom kvlevas saWiroebs
(gerrig &Banaji, 1994; Hunt & aGnoli, 1991; Smith, 1996).
savaraudoa, rom azrovnebaze ar aisaxeba enebs
Soris arsebuli bevri iseTi leqsikuri da
gramatikuli gansxvaveba, rogoricaa, gansxvaveba
sityvebsa da struqturebs Soris. miuxedavad
imisa, rom Cven kulturuli gansxvavebebi aRvwereT fsiqologia da cxovrebaSi~, mizanSewonili iqneba, gaviTvaliswinoT lingvisturi
fardobiTobisa da determinizmis sakiTxebi. Tu
gaviTvaliswinebT, rom bevr situaciaSi gansxvavebuli kulturis warmomadgenlebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebul enebze laparakoben,
SegviZlia davsvaT sakiTxi kulturul gansxvavebze metyvelebis gavlenis Sesaxeb.
axla sityvebis saSualebiT azris gadacemis
sakiTxidan gadavideT im pirobebis ganxilvaze,

sadac mniSvneloba vizualur xatzec aris


damokidebuli.

Sejameba
saubrisas adamianebi cdiloben, iyvnen
gulisxmierebi da yuradRebianebi. Sesabamisi
msmenelis arseboba saerTo codnis gaTvaliswinebas moiTxovs. spunerizmi da metyvelebis
sxva Secdomebi SesaZlebels xdis swori
frazebisa da gamonaTqvamebis dagegmvisa da
Sesworebis procesebis met-nakleb gagebas.
orazrovani sityvebis, struqturebisa da gamonaTqvamebis gasagebad, mniSvnelobebis SesaZlo
variantebidan swori arCevanis gasakeTeblad
msmenelebi iyeneben konteqsts. fsiqikuri
reprezentaciebi propoziciebis garSemo yalibdeba. miRebuli informaciisagan ufro metis
gasagebad, msmenelebs uxdebaT daskvnebis
gakeTeba, romlebic ar atareben SemTxveviT
xasiaTs. sepir-uorfis hipoTezis Tanaxmad, enebi,
romlebzec adamianebi laparakoben, gansazRvraven adamianis mier samyaros aRqmasa da gaazrebas. am hipoTezis zogierTi damadasturebeli
faqti ferebze Catarebul eqsperimentebSi
gamovlinda. mkvlevrebis winaSe kvlav dgas enebs
Soris arsebuli uamravi gansxvavebis Seswavlis
sakiTxi, romelic, SesaZloa, gavlenas axdendes
azrovnebaze.

vizualuri Semecneba
9.6 suraTze mocemulia winadadebis _ kata
xaliCazea~ _ reprezentaciis ori nimuSi. romelia TqvenTvis ufro misaRebi? Tu winadadebas
lingvistur propoziciebze dayrdnobiT gaiazrebT, orive sworia orive suraTze kata
xaliaCazea. miuxedavad amisa, TqvenTvis, albaT,
ufro misaRebi A variantia, radgan am winadadebis gagebisas savaraudoa, rom zustad am
suraTis Sesabamisi scena warmogidgebaT (Searle,
1979b). ras fiqrobT meore suraTis Sesaxeb?
cota ucnauria, ara? ase ggoniaT, kata sadacaa
daecema. es SfoTva imitom Cndeba, rom Tqven
SegiZliaT situacia gaiazroT suraTebze day-

vizualuri Semecneba

nis zRvarTan axlomyofi elferis garCevas,


radganac inglisur enaSi arsebobs sityvebi mwvane (green) da lurji (blue); xolo
imis gamo, rom tarahumaras enaSi aseTi
gansxvavebuli erTeulebi ar arsebobs, am
enaze molaparake cdis pirebi ver SeZlebdnen mosazRvre elferebis garCevas (Key
& Kempton, 1984, p.68). miRebuli Sedegebi
adasturebs sepir-uorfis hipoTezas: ferTa
triadis Sesaxeb msjelobis dros inglisurenovani cdis pirebi arCeven sxvadasxva
elferebs, tarahumaras enaze molaparake
individebi ki _ vera.

331

es magaliTebi imisaTvis movitaneT, rom


Tqvenc vizualuri xatebiT azrovneba scadoT,
Tumca, maTiT manipulaciis unars yovelgvari
mcdelobis gareSec regularulad iyenebT.
ganvixiloT klasikuri eqsperimenti, sadac cdis
pirebs sTxovdnen, moexdinaT vizualuri xatebis
warmodgenaSi datrialeba~.

saidan
viciT
gonebaSi rotacia fizikuri rotaciis
msgavsia

suraTi

9.6

vizualuri reprezentaciebi
aris Tu ara orive kata xaliCaze?

rdnobiT da zustad warmoidginoT, ra SeiZleba


moxdes. am nawilSi Cven azrovnebaze vizualuri
xatebisa da procesebis gavlenas ganvixilavT.

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

vizualuri reprezentaciebis
gamoyeneba

332

kacobrioba icnobs warmodgenis safuZvelze


gakeTebul uamrav mniSvnelovan aRmoCenas
(Shepard, 1978). gaixseneT f. a. kekule (Cven igi
ukve vaxseneT me-6 TavSi), romelmac benzolis
qimiuri agebuleba aRmoaCina. muSaobis dros
kekule xSirad cdilobda, warmoedgina mocekvave
atomebi, romlebic molekulaTa erT jaWvSi
erTiandebodnen. benzolis rkali man sizmarSi
aRmoaCina, roca gvelismagvarma molekulaTa
jaWvma sakuTar kuds piri Caavlo da wre Sekra.
maikl faradei, romelmac magnitizmis uamravi
Tviseba aRmoaCina, naklebad erkveoda maTematikaSi, magram cxoveli warmodgenebi hqonda
magnituri Tvisebebis Sesaxeb. rogorc amboben,
albert ainStaini mTlianad vizualuri xatebis
terminebiT azrovnebda da mxolod maTze
dayrdnobiT gakeTebuli aRmoCenebis Semdeg
gadmoscemda maT maTematikuri simboloebisa da
sityvebis saSualebiT.

cdis pirebs miewodebodaT sxvadasxva


kuTxiT daxrili laTinuri aso R~-sa da
misi sarkiseburi aslis (rusuli ~) nimuSebi
(ix. sur 9.7). asos miwodebisTanave cdis pirs
evaleboda, ganesazRvra miwodebuli nimuSi
R~ iyo, Tu misi sarkisebuli asli. aRmoCnda,
rom gadawyvetilebis miRebaze daxarjuli
dro da daxrilobis kuTxis sidide pirdapirproporciul kavSirSia rac ufro metad
aris mobrunebuli grafema, miT ufro meti
dro sWirdeba mis identifikacias. miRebuli
Sedegebi mowmobs, rom, cdis pirebi cdiloben,
warmoidginon figura da moatrialon is vertikalur mdgomareobamde garkveuli fiqsirebuli siCqariT, ris Semdegac iReben gadawyvetilebas. rotaciis siCqaris erTnairi maCveneblebi miuTiTebs, rom gonebaSi rotacia fizikuri rotaciis msgavsi procesia (Shepard&
Cooper, 1982).

adamianebi Zalian xSirad iyeneben gonebaSi


rotaciis unars. rogorc me-5 TavSi naxeT, xSirad
sagnebis aRqma TqvenTvis ucnobi kuTxidan
gixdebaT. gonebaSi rotacia saSualebas gaZlevT,
SecvaloT sagnis aRqmuli xati da moargoT
xats, romelic Tqvens mexsierebaSi inaxeba
(Srinivas, 1995; Tarr, 1994; Tarr&Rinker, 1989). magaliTad,
9.6 suraTze mocemuli figuris aRqmisas Tqven,
albaT, daatrialeT figura, raTa amogecnoT
is, rogorc kata (an iqneb Tavi moatrialeT?).
vizualuri xatebis gamoyeneba SegiZliaT,
agreTve, zogierTi tipis kiTxvebze pasuxis
gacemis mizniT. warmoidgineT, rom gekiTxebian:
golfis saTamaSo burTi ufro didia Tu ping-

suraTi

9.7

sxvadasxva kuTxiT daxrili


`R~, romelic warmodgenis
Sesafaseblad gamoiyenes
cdis pirebs SemTxveviTi TanmimdevrobiT miewodebodaT figurebi da
moeTxovebodaT, rac SeiZleba swrafad
ganesazRvraT, ra iyo miwodebuli _
`R~ Tu misi sarkiseburi asli. rac
ufro metad iyo figura gadaxrili
vertikaluri mdgomareobidan, miT
ufro meti iyo reaqciis dro.

pongis?~ Tu Tqven ar gaxsovT, SegiZliaT


erTdroulad warmoidginoT maTi vizualuri
xatebi. sagnis xatis aseTi gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSic, mas bevri saerTo aqvs realurad aRqmul
saganTan.

saidan
viciT

dnen, warmoedginaT navis kidev erTi detali, magaliTad, saqare mina an Ruza.
aRmoCnda, rom Ruzis dasanaxad~ (warmosadgenad) cdis pirebs ufro meti dro sWiro
axlosaa ZravasTan, vidre Ruza. reaqciis
droebs Soris gansxvaveba adasturebs, rom
adamianebi iseve aTvaliereben vizualur
xatebs, rogorc realur sagnebs (Kosslyn,
1980).

vizualuri xatebis skanireba


ganvixiloT Semdegi problema:
warmoidgineT, rom gaqvT carieli, didi
furceli da gadakeceT is Suaze (miiRebT
or gverds), kidev gadakeceT Suaze (oTxi
gverdi) da ganagrZeT ase, sanam 50-jer ar

suraTi

9.8

warmodgenis vizualuri
skanireba
vizualuri Semecneba

erT-erTi kvlevis dros cdis pirebs


sTxovdnen, daemaxsovrebinaT rTuli figura, kerZod, motoriani navi (ix. sur 9.8).
Semdeg sTxovdnen, warmoedginaT TvalsaCinod da yuradReba SeeCerebinaT erT-erT
detalze, magaliTad, Zravaze; Semdeg sTxov-

333

gadakecavT. rogor ggoniaT, ra sisqis


iqneba Tqveni qaRaldi (Adams, 1986)?
pasuxi aseTia: daaxloebiT 50 milioni mili
(250 x 0.028 diumi qaRaldis sisqe), daaxloebiT
dedamiwidan mzemde manZilis naxevari. Tqven,
albaT, ufro naklebi gegonaT. Tqveni warmodgena
gadaitvirTa warmosadgeni informaciiT.

verbaluri da vizualuri
reprezentaciebis kombinireba

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

Cven, ZiriTadad, yuradReba gavamaxvileT


vizualuri reprezentaciebis im tipebze, romelTa Camoyalibeba xdeba garemoSi arsebuli
vizualuri stimulis mexsierebaSi xatis saxiT
gadataniT, an misi warmodgenis SemTxvevaSi
mexsierebidan amotaniT. vizualur xatebs Tqven
xSirad qmniT verbaluri informaciis safuZvelze. magaliTad, miuxedavad imisa, rom realurad
arasodes ginaxavT, Tqven SegiZliaT warmoidginoT kata, romelsac sami kudi aqvs. verbaluri
informacia saSualebas gaZlevT, SeqmnaT vizualuri reprezentacia. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania verbaluri informaciis xatovani warmodgenis unari mxatvruli literaturis kiTxvis
dros, romelic sivrciT detalebs Seicavs.
ganvixiloT nawyveti moTxrobidan: _ ganzraxvidan mkvlelobamde~:

334

mdelo sididiT CogburTis ori kortis


zomis iyo, sqeli balaxiTa da xavsiT
dafaruli. misi erTi nawili SroSanebiT
iyo mofenili, garSemortymuli xeebis qveS
ki enZelebi mimofantuliyo. mdelos erT
mxares mayvliTa da ayvavebuli vardebis
ekliani buCqnariT dafaruli patara goraki esazRvreboda. bondi gars uvlida
goraks da daJinebiT iyureboda buCqebs
Soris, magram iq araferi Canda, garda
gorakis miwiani zedapirisa (Flemming, 1959
gv. 19-20).
scadeT, warmogedginaT scena da daxmarebodiT bonds safrTxis moZebnaSi? (is mas ipovis).
kiTxvis dros, aRwerili detalebis warmodgenis
mizniT, SegiZliaT sivrciTi fsiqikuri modeli
SeqmnaT (Zwaan & Radvansky,1998). mkvlevrebi
araerTxel dainteresdnen, Tu rogor asaxavs

sivrciTi fsiqikuri modeli realuri sivrciTi


gamocdilebis niSnebs (Rinck et al., 1997).
warmoidgineT, rom kiTxulobT saintereso
nawyvets moTxrobidan:
operaSi megobrebTan erTad sxedxarT.
Tqveni mosvlis mizania, SexvdeT da
esaubroT maRali wris warmomadgenlebs
da saintereso adamianebs. axla dgaxarT
eleganturi aivnis moajirTan, romelic
parters gadahyurebs. zustad Tqven ukan,
Tvalis simaRleze, aivnis kedelze CuqurTmebiani lampa kidia. lampis fexi, romelic kedelzea mimagrebuli, mTlianad
mooqrovilia (Franklin&Tvresky, 1990, gv. 65).
seriul eqsperimentebSi cdis pirebi (mkiTxvelebi) teqstebs swavlobdnen, romlebSic
detalurad iyo aRwerili damkvirveblis garSemo
arsebuli sagnebis ganlageba (Franklin & Tvresky,
1990). mkvlevrebs surdaT eCvenebinaT, rom gonebaSi warmodgenili arsebuli obieqtebis
sivrceSi ganlageba gansazRvravs am sivrcis
Sesaxeb informaciis mexsierebidan amotanis siswrafes. (sur. 9.9.) cdis pirebi ufro swrafad
pasuxoben kiTxvaze: ra aris Tqven win~, vidre
kiTxvaze: ra aris Tqven ukan~, miuxedavad imisa,
rom TiToeuli obieqti erTnairi sizustiT iyo
aRwerili.
am Sedegebis gageba Zalian advilia, Tu
dauSvebT, rom kiTxvis dros aRmocenebuli
reprezentaciebi saSualebas gaZlevT moxvdeT
scenaze~; Tqven SegiZliaT verbaluri gamocdileba gardaqmnaT vizualur sivrciT gamocdilebad.
zogadad, Tqven garSemo arsebul samyaroze
fiqris dros, TiTqmis yovelTvis gixdebaT informaciis vizualuri da verbaluri reprezentaciebis Sejereba. Tu gindaT darwmundeT amaSi,
scadeT msoflio rukis daxatva. rogor apirebT
amis gakeTebas? zogierTi ram TqvenTvis cnobilia vizualuri gamocdilebiT, magaliTad, Tqven
daaxloebiT iciT afrikis kontinentis moxazuloba, radganac is nanaxi gaqvT. Tqveni naxatis
zogierTi detali ki verbalur informacias
eyrdnoba, anu, SeiZleba gaxsovdeT, rom iaponia
ramodenime kunZulisagan Sedgeba, Tumca,
SeiZleba ar icodeT, sad unda daxatoT is.
erT-erTi gamokvlevis dros, romelic 49
qveyanaSi Catarda, 79 qalaqSi macxovrebel 4000

daxatuli rukebi. es rukebi gviCvenebs, Tu ra


xdeba, roca verbaluri perspeqtiva Cemi saxli
unda iyos centrSi gavlenas axdens vizualur
reprezentaciaze.
am nawilSi vnaxeT, rom Cveni vizualuri
procesebi da reprezentaciebi Seavsebs verbalur
unarebs. informaciis miRebis es ori tipi
yoveldRiurad aRmocenebuli moTxovnebisa da
amocanebis gadaWris damatebiT saSualebebs
warmoadgens. axla ki ganvixiloT is sferoebi,
sadac xdeba vizualuri da verbaluri reprezentaciebis gamoyeneba problemuri situaciis
daZlevis dros. es sakiTxebia: problemis gadaWra
da azrovneba.

Sejameba
adamianebs SeuZliaT vizualuri reprezentaciebis gamoyeneba sagnis gonebaSi rotaciisaTvis. adamianebi warmodgenil xatebs aTvaliereben ise, rogorc realur sagnebs. vizualuri
da verbaluri informaciis SejerebiT adamianebs
SeuZliaT srulyofili fsiqikuri reprezentaciebis Seqmna.
suraTi

9.9

students sTxoves, daexataT msoflio ruka


(Saarinen, 1987). kvlevis mizani iyo imis dadgena,
Tu rogoria kulturaTa Soris sxvaoba msoflios
vizualizaciis mixedviT; is mSvidobis xelSewyobasac isaxavda miznad.
kvlevis safuZvelze dadginda, rom umravles
SemTxvevaSi warmosaxuli msoflio fokusirebulia evropaze evropa mocemulia naxatis
centrSi, xolo mis garSemo ganlagebulia
sxvadasxva qveynebi. es SesaZlebelia ganpirobebuli iyos imiT, rom saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi
geografiis saxelmZRvaneloebSi warmodgenil
rukebze evropa rukis centrSia. Tumca, dafiqsirda kulturaze orientirebuli rukebic. 9.10
da 9.11 suraTebze warmodgenilia CikagoSi da
avstraliaSi mcxovrebi studentebis mier

warmoidgineT erTi Cveulebrivi cxovrebiseuli situacia: Tqven SemTxveviT CageketaT Tqveni


saxlis, oTaxis an manqanis kari da gareT darCiT.
rogor moiqceviT am SemTxvevaSi? moifiqreT,
Tu ra ,,gonebriv nabijebs~ gadadgamdiT am
problemis dasaZlevad. es ,,gonebrivi nabijebi~
aucileblad gulisxmobs kognitur procesebs,
romlebic problemis gadwyvetasa da azrovnebas
ganapirobeben. dasaxuli miznis misaRwevad es
problemis gadawyveta (Problem solving) _ azrovnebis procesi, romelic mimarTulia konkretuli problemis gadawyvetaze, romelic sawyisi
momentidan miznis miRwevamde mimdinareobs
mTeli rigi fsiqikuri operaciebis saSualebiT.
msjeloba (Reasoning) _ azrovnebis procesi,
rodesac vaskvniT faqtebis erTobliobaze dayrdnobiT; mocemul mizanze an obieqtze mimarTuli azrovnebis procesi.

problemis gadaWra da azrovneba

problemebis gadaWra da
azrovneba

335

suraTi

9.10

orive aqtioba saWiroebs mocemuli axali


informaciis dakavSirebas mexsierebaSi arsebul
informaciasTan. Cven ganvixilavT problemis
gadawyvetis sxvadasxva aspeqtsa da azrovnebis
or formas _ deduqciursa da induqciurs.

problemis gadawyveta
,,ra arsebaa, romelic diliT oTx fexze
dadis, SuadRisas _ orze, xolo mzis Casvlis
Semdeg _ samze?~ berZnuli miTologiis Tanaxmad,

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

suraTi

336

9.11

yuradReba miaqcieT _ msoflio avstraliaze centrirebulad aris warmodgenili.


axla vin aris qvemoT?

borotma arsebam _ sfinqsma _ Tebes xalxs am


amocanis amoxsna ubrZana, xolo sanam vinme mis
amoxsnas SeZlebda, xalxi misi tiranuli mmarTvelobis qveS icxovrebda. oidiposma gamocanis
elementebSi metaforebi amoicno _ dila, SuadRe
da mwuxri adamianis cxovrebis sxvadasxva
periodebs warmoadgens. bavSvi xoxavs siarulis
dawyebamde, amdenad, igi oTxze dadis; mozrdili
adamiani ki _ or fexze, xolo moxucebulobaSi
adamiani, miuxedavad imisa, rom or fexze dadis,
siarulisas yavarjensac iyenebs, e.i. sam fexze
dadis. oidiposis pasuxi iyo _ ,,adamiani~.

problemuri situacia
rogor gansazRvravT problemas realur
cxovrebiseul pirobebSi? Cveulebriv, Tqven
acnobierebT gansxvavebas Tqvens arsebul mdgo-

problemuri situacia (Problem space) _ elementebi,


romlebic qmnian problemas: sawyisi mdgomareoba
_ arasruli informacia an pirovnebisaTvis
aradamakmayofilebeli pirobebi; mizani _ informacia an mdgomareoba, romelsac eswrafvis
adamiani; operaciebis erToblioba _ pirovnebis
mier sawyisi mdgomareobidan sasurvel miznamde
misaRwevad gavlili safexurebi.

problemis gadaWra da azrovneba

Tumca, Cveni yoveldRiuri problemebi ar


aris oidiposis gamocanasaviT rTuli, magram
problemis gadaWra yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
ZiriTadi nawilia. Tqven gamudmebiT awydebiT
problemebs, romelTa gadawyvetac gixdebaT:
rogor movaxerxoT samuSaosa da movaleobebis
Sesruleba drois gansazRvrul periodSi;
rogor mivaRwioT warmatebas gasaubrebaze;
rogor gavwyvitoT urTierToba arasasurvel
pirovnebasTan da a.S. mravali problema dakavSirebulia realur codnasa da TqvenTvis saWiro
informacias Soris gansvlasTan. rodesac problemas wyvetT, Tqven amcirebT am gansvlas saWiro
informaciis mopovebiT. problemis daZlevis
arsis ukeT gasagebad, SeecadeT gadaWraT 9.12
suraTze mocemuli problemebi. fsiqologiuri
kvlevis Sedegebis gacnoba saSualebas mogcemT,
naTeli warmodgena SeiqmnaT problemis gadawyvetis Taviseburebebis SesaxebAda, SesaZloa,
TqvenTvis saintereso rCevebic miiRoT, romlebic davalebis Sesrulebis gaumjobesebaSi
dagexmarebaT.

mareobasa da sasurvel mizans Soris. magaliTad,


materialur gaWirvebas ganicdiT da fulis Sovna
gsurT; TqvenTvis cnobilia, agreTve, ra SegiZliaT (an gindaT) gaakeToT problemis dasaZlevad. magaliTad, Tqven SeecdebiT SeTavsebiT
raime samsaxuris Sovnas da ar daiwyebT jibis
qurdobas. problemis formaluri gansazRvra
sam elements moicavs (Newell & Simon, 1972).
problema ganisazRvreba:
1.
Tavdapirveli mdgomareobiT _ arasruli
informacia an aradamakmayofilebeli pirobebi;
2.
mizniT _ informacia an pirobebi TqvenTvis sasurveli garemos Sesaxeb;
3.
operaciaTa TanmimdevrobiT _ is savaraudo safexurebi, romlebsac gaivliT mocemuli mdgomareobebidan sasurveli miznis misaRwevad.
am sami elementis erTobliobiT ganisazRvreba problemuri situacia. ilustraciis mizniT
problemis gadawyveta SegviZlia SevadaroT
labirinTSi gzis povnas (problemuri situacia),
romelic sawyisi wertilidan (Tavdapirveli
mdgomareoba) sasurvel wertilamde gadaadgilebas (mizani) gulisxmobs. am dros Tqven
gixdebaT dasaSvebi operaciebis ganxorcieleba.
problemebis gadaWrisas sawyisi siZneleebis
umravlesoba im SemTxvevaSi Cndeba, Tu am sami
elementidan romelime ar aris sakmarisad
gansazRvruli (Simon, 1973). kargad gansazRvruli
problema saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemul problemas
hgavs, romelSic garkveviTaa warmodgenili
sawyisi mdgomareoba, mizani da operaciebi,
romelic miznis misaRwevadaa saWiro. Tqveni
amocanaa, mixvdeT, Tu rogor gamoiyenoT operaciebi pasuxis misaRebad. cudad gansazRvruli
problema ki saxlis dizainis Seqmnas, romanis
daweras an Sidsis mkurnalobis meTodis aRmoCenas hgavs, sadac naTlad ar aris gamoyofili
sawyisi mdgomareoba, mizani da operaciebi. aseT
SemTxvevaSi, pirvel rigSi, saWiroa problemis
arsis zusti gansazRvra _ misi sawyisi mdgo-

337

(A) SegiZliaT daakavSiroT yvela wertili erTmaneTTan oTxi swori xazis


gavlebiT ise, rom kalami furclidan ar aiRoT?
(B) 6 futis simaRlis milSi romelic fizikis laboratoriaSi iatakzea
mimagrebuli, Caagdes 3 cali ping-pongis burTi. rogor amoiRebdiT burTebs
milidan?
(C) Wadrakis dafas ori mopirdapire kuTxidan moaciles TiTo ujra, darCa
62 ujra. Tqven gaqvT 31 cali dominos koWi, TiToeuli or ujras faravs.
scadeT mTlianad dafaroT Wadrakis zedapiri dominos koWebiT?
(D) Werze erTmaneTis daSorebiT ori Tokia Camokidebuli ise, rom, Tu
xels erTi Tokis bolos mokidebT, meores veRar miwvdebiT. Tqven gevalebaT
miwvdeT meore Tokis bolos da gadaabaT isini erTmaneTs?
(E)
Tqven gaqvT sanTeli, Wikartebi da asanTis Rerebi asanTis yuTSi.
daamagreT anTebuli sanTeli karze.
(F) gadasawyveti gaqvT `3 wylis qilis~ problema. SegiZliaT mxolod 3
qilis gamoyenebiT (wylis raodenoba gansazRvruli ar aris) miiRoT yovel
konkretul SemTxvevaSi wylis gansazRvruli raodenoba?

suraTi

9.12

SegiZliaT gadaWraT es problemebi? (nawili I)

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

scadeT amocanebis amoxsna (pasuxebi mocemulia suraTze 9.13. nu naxavT


pasuxebs, sanam TviTon ar ecdebiT am problemebis gadawyvetas.)

338

mareobis, idealuri gadawyvetis da miznis miRwevis SesaZlo saSualebebis dadgena.


rogorc Tqveni gamocdilebidan iciT, maSinac
ki, rodesac sawyisi mdgomareoba da saboloo
mizani kargad aris gansazRvruli, mainc Znelia
swori operaciebis (moqmedebebis) moZebna miznis
misaRwevad. Tu Tqveni gamocdilebidan gaixsenebT maTematikis gakveTils, darwmundebiT,
rom es marTlac asea. magaliTad, maswavlebelma
mogcaT formula x2+x-12=0 da gTxovaT, gansazRvroT x-is mniSvneloba. ras akeTebT amisaTvis?
am algebruli amocanis gadasawyvetad SegiZliaT
gamoiyenoT algoriTmi _ Tanmimdevruli, sa-

fexureobrivi procedura, romelic yovelTvis


gvaZlevs swor pasuxs (konkretuli tipis problemebis gadasaWrelad). Tu algebrul wesebs
sworad gamoiyenebT, aucileblad miiRebT x-is
swor mniSvnelobas (e.i. 3 da -4). algoriTmi
saketis kodis daviwyebis SemTxvevaSic dagexmarebaT. Tu Tqven TanmimdevrobiT cdiT sxvadasxva variantebs (magaliTad, 1, 2, 3; 1, 2, 4),
gasaRebs aucileblad miagnebT, Tumca, amisTvis,
SesaZloa, Zalian didi dro dagWirdeT. algoriTmis gamoyeneba ufro efeqturia kargad
gansazRvruli problemis gadasaWrelad, sadac
naTlad aris gamoyofili sawyisi mdgomareoba

,,...ase carieli adgili rCeba... es moklea,uhhh... vardisferi ufro metia, vidre


Savi;imisaTvis, rom Sevavso, saWiroa
SevaerTo ori vardisferi, magram amas ver
vizam imitom, rom isini diagonalzea... es
ixureba? .... (Kaplan & Simon, 1990 gv. 388).

SeiZleba mixvideT daskvnamde, rom uamravi ram


aris erTdroulad gasaTvaliswinebeli.~ problemis gadawyvetis procesebze dakvirvebas zustad imave daskvnamde mivyavarT. xSirad problemis gadaWras aZnelebs is, rom misi gadawyvetis
gonebrivi moTxovnebi aRemateba gadamuSavebis
arsebul resursebs (Kotovsky et al., 1985; Kotovsky &
Simon, 1990). problemis dasaZlevad saWiroa mTeli
rigi Tanmimdevruli operaciebis dagegmva. Tu
moqmedebaTa es rigi an TviTon gegmaSi mocemuli
TiToeuli moqmedeba metad rTulia, SesaZloa,
verc ki dainaxoT sawyisi mdgomareobidan saboloo miznamde misaRwevi gza. rogor SegiZliaT
am SesaZlo problemis gadaWra?
problemis gadawyvetis gaumjobesebisaTvis
didi mniSvneloba aqvs Tqveni resursebis
Sesabamisi, realurad ganxorcielebadi gegmis
SemuSavebas.
Tu Tqven regularulad gixdebaT erTi tipis
problemebis gadaWra, maSin mizanSewonili iqneba
daeufloT daZlevis procesSi gamoyenebul
komponentebs, rac ganapirobebs procesis avtomatizacias da nakleb Zalisxmevas (Kotovsky et al.,
1985). davuSvaT, taqsis mZRolad muSaobT niuiorkSi da yoveldRiurad gixdebaT manqanebiT
gadaWedil quCebSi pikis saaTis dros moZraoba.
SegiZliaT qalaqis sxvdasxva monakveTSi gansxvavebuli sapasuxo reaqciebi gamoimuSavoT.
ase rom, Tu droTa ganmavlobaSi gadayvetilebis
mza komponentebi geqnebaT, Tqven mTel yuradRebas gzas miapyrobT. magaliTad, mgzavrs misi
ayvanis adgilzeve gadaaxdevinebT mgzavrobis
safasurs, Semdeg ki SeZlebT mTeli Tqveni
yuradReba moZraobaze gadaitanoT.
gagacnobT warsuli gamocdilebis awmyoSi
gamoyenebis erT-erT saukeTeso magaliTs. msofalgoriTmi
xureobrivi
vpoulobT
problemis

(Algorithm) _ Tanmimdevruli, safeprocedura, romlis saSualebiTac


swor pasuxs konkretuli tipis
gadasaWrelad.

cdis piri mixvda, rom mizans ver miaRwevda,


Tu dominoebs sul horizontalurad an vertikalurad daalagebda. xSirad mkvlevrebi cdis
pirTa azrovnebis Canawerebs problemis gadaWris
modelis amosaval wertilad iyeneben (Simon,
1979, 1989).

evristika (Heuristics) _ kognituri strategia an


,,praqtikuli meTodi~ romelic xSirad gamoiyeneba rogorc Semoklebuli gza rTuli amocanis gadasaWrelad.

problemis gadaWris gaumjobeseba

xmamaRali fiqris meTodi (Think-aloud protocols)


_

ra uSlis xels problemis gadawyvetas? Tu


gamoiyenebT Tqvens yoveldRiur gamocdilebas,

problemis gadaWra da azrovneba

da mizani, vidre cudad gansazRvruli problemis


SemTxvevaSi.
rodesac algoriTmis gamoyeneba SeuZlebelia, adamianebi xSirad iyeneben evristikul
meTodebsa da strategiebs, romlebic efuZneba
praqtikul saqmianobasa da gamocdilebas.
warmoidgineT, rom kiTxulobT deteqtivs saidumlo mkvlelobis Sesaxeb da gsurT gaarkvioT, vin mokla mdidari komersanti. Tqven,
SesaZloa, gamoricxoT, rom igi ufrosma msaxurma
mokla, radgan Tqveni gamocdilebiT migaCniaT,
rom avtori ar mimarTavda Sinaarsis aseT
banalur ganviTarebas. rogorc Semdeg vnaxavT,
evristika warmoadgens msjelobisa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis mniSvnelovan aspeqts.
mkvlevrebi dainteresdnen problemur situaciaSi adamianebis mier algoriTmisa da evristikis gamoyenebiT. azrovnebis safexurebis
Sesaswavlad isini xSirad mimarTavdnen xmamaRali fiqris meTods, romelic fiqris verbalizacias gulisxmobs (Ericson & Simon, 1993).
magaliTad, mkvlevrebma gadawyvites, SeeswavlaT
is fsiqikuri procesebi, romelTa saSualebiTac
cdis pirebi wyvetdnen Wadrakis dafis problemas (suraTi 9.10, nawili C) (Kaplan & Simon,
1990). qvemoT mocemulia erT-erTi cdis piris
xmamaRali fiqris oqmis Canaweri, sadac igi
akeTebs mniSvnelovan daskvnas, rom problemis
gadaWra SeuZlebelia, Tu igi koWebs mxolod
vertikalurad an horizontalurad daalagebs
(dafas vardisferi da Savi ujrebi hqonda).

339

suraTi

9.13

SegiZliaT gadaWraT es problemebi? (nawili II)

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

aq mocemulia amocanebis amoxsnis gza. Tqven rogor amoxseniT? radgan


pasuxebi naTelia, SegviZlia visaubroT imaze, Tu ra arTulebs am
amocanebs.

340

lio Cempions, gari kasparovs SeuZlia Wadrakis


figurebis wamgebiani ganlagebis poziciebis
gansazRvra da TiToeul SemTxvevaSi gamocdili
strategiis gamoyeneba, rac mas saSualebas aZlevs
erTdroulad ramdenime oponenti daamarcxos
(Gobet & Simon, 1996).
rig SemTxvevaSi sasargeblo reprezentaciis
povna problemis sruliad axal WrilSi gaazrebis saSualebas iZleva. waikiTxeT 9.6 cxrilSi
mocemuli amocana. rogor apirebT am amocanis
amoxsnas? dafiqrdiT, sanam kiTxvas gaagrZelebdeT. Tu Tqven am problemis mosagvareblad
maTematikuri xerxebis gamoyeneba scadeT, warmatebas ver miaRwevdiT. am SemTxvevaSi ukeTesi
iqneba warmoidginoT ori beri, romelTagan erTi
mTis wveridan Camodis, meore ki - adis (Adams,
1986). isini xom erT wertilSi Sexvdebian erTmaneTs (ix. sur. 9.14)? axla ori beri SecvaleT
erTiT. azrobrivad es erTi da igivea, e.i. amocana
damtkicebulia. amocanis aseT gamartivebas
uzrunvelyofs swori vizualuri da ara verbaluri an maTematikuri reprezentaciis gamoyeneba. Tu 9.12 suraTze mocemul amocanebs
gadaxedavT, kidev erTxel darwmundebiT prob-

lemuri situaciis adekvaturi reprezentaciis


mniSvnelobaSi. Tqven unda mixvdeT, rom milidan
ping-pongis burTebis amosaRebad ar aris saWiro
milSi SeRweva. erTamaneTisagan moSorebiT
Camokidebuli Tokis boloebis SesaerTeblad
cxrili

9.6
gamocana `beri~

erT diliT, zustad mzis amosvlisas budisti


beri iwyebs asvlas maRal mTaze. mTis biliki
viwroa, daaxloebiT erTi Tu ori nabijis siganis.
spiraliviT daklaknili biliki mTis mwvervalisaken miemarTeba. beri xSirad Cerdeba dasasveneblad, Wams gamxmar xils
da taZarSi mzis
Casvlamde cota xniT adre midis. ramdenime dRis
marxvisa da meditaciis Semdeg, isev mzis amosvlisas, beri igive bilikiT mTidan qvemoT eSveba,
isev xSirad Cerdeba Sesasveneblad. qvemoT Camosvlisas misi siarulis saSualo siCqare bevrad
aRemateba qvemodan zemoT asvlis siCqares. daamtkiceT, rom bilikze aris wert-ili, sadac beri
zustad erTsa da imave dros imyofeboda asvlisasac da Camosvlisasac
(pasuxi ix. sur. 9.14-ze).

suraTi

9.14

gamocana `beri~-s
amoxsna
A suraTze naCvenebia ori
beri. erTi moZraobs qvemodan zemoT, meore _
zemodan qvemoT. B suraTze
warmodgenilia maTi Sexvedris adgili dRis erTsa
da imave momentSi. axla
SecvaleT ori beri erTiT;
amocana damtkicebulia.

deduqciuri azrovneba
warmoidgineT, rom midixarT restoranSi da
fulis gadaxdas Tqveni erTaderTi sakredito
baraTiT _ American Express~ _ apirebT. rekavT
restoranSi da ekiTxebiT: SeiZleba Tqvens

restoranSi sakre-dito baraTiT, American Express~, sargebloba?~ restornis mepatrone gpasuxobT: Cven yvela ZiriTad sakredito baraTs
viRebT~. am pasuxis Semdeg SegiZliaT daaskvnaT,
rom isini Tqvens sakredito ba-raTsac miiReben.
ratom? am SemTxvevaSi SegviZlia vixelmZRvaneloT silogizmiT (ori winadadebidan gakeTebuli logikuri daskvniT), romelic berZenma
filosofosma aristotelem 2000 wlis win mogvca:
wanamZRvari 1. restorani iRebs yvela ZiriTad
sakredito baraTs;
wanamZRvari 2. American Express~ aris ZiriTadi
sakredito ba-raTi;
daskvna: restorani miiRebs baraTs American
Express~.
aristotele ikvlevda, Tu ra logikuri mimarTeba arsebobda winadadebebs Soris, romlebic
realur daskvnamde migviyvanda. deduqciuri
azrovneba logikuri wesebis sworad gamoyenebas
gulisxmobs. Cven sakredito baraTis magaliTi
moviyvaneT, raTa gveCvenebina, rom gvaqvs
logikuri daskvnis gakeTebis unari, romelsac
logikuri, deduqciuri mtkicebulebis forma
gaaCnia. miuxedavad amisa, fsiqologebi ikvleven,
funqcionaluri rigidoba (Functional fixedness)
sagnis tradiciuli xedvis Secvlis da axali
funqciis danaxvis da misi efeqturad gamoyenebis
unaris arqona.
deduqciuri azrovneba (Deductive reasoning)
azrovnebis forma, romelic ori an meti
wanamZRvridan logikuri daskvnis gakeTebis
unars gulisxmobs.

problemis gadaWra da azrovneba

ki saWiroa yuradReba miaqcioT Tokis qveS,


iatakze myof erT-erT sagans da gamoiyenoT is,
rogorc simZime. anTebuli sanTlis karze dasamagreblad ki aucilebelia asanTis kolofi
gamoiyenoT, rogorc Sandali, xolo sanTeli
unda gamoiyenoT, erTi mxriv, rogorc iaraRi,
xolo, meore mxriv, sagani, romelic unda
miamagroT karze. bolo ori problema funqcionaluri rigidobis fenomenis ilustraciaa (ix.
sur. 9.13) (Duncker, 1945; Maier, 1931). funqcionaluri
rigidoba xels uSlis sagnis tradiciulad
miRebuli Tvisebebis ugulebelyofas da misi
axali Tvisebebis Tu funqciis danaxvas, riTac
uaryofiT gavlenas axdens problemis gadaWraze.
rodesac problemur situaciaSi aRmoCndebiT,
pirvel rigSi, daukvirdiT, rogor warmoidgenT
mas; xom ar arsebobs misi gaazrebis an daZlevis
gansxvavebuli an ukeTesi gzebi? Tu sityvebi
ar gSveliT, SeecadeT, es problema naxatis
saxiT warmoidginoT. mosinjeT Tqveni variantebi
_ naxeT, Tu romeli funqciis Secvlaa SesaZlebeli axali kombinaciis misaRebad.
rodesac raime problemis gadaWras cdilobT,
rogorc wesi, Tqven fiqrobT, anu azrovnebT.
qvemoT ganvixilavT azrovnebis erT-erT formas,
romelsac deduqciuri azrovneba ewodeba.

341

gvaqvs Tu ara deduqciuri azrovnebis formaluri wesebi (Schaeken et al., 2000). es masStaburi
kvleva gvafiqrebinebs, rom, SesaZloa, marTlac
gagvaCnia zogadi logikuri azrovnebis unari,
magram realur samyaroSi deduqciur azrovnebaze
gavlenas axdens specifikuri codna samyaros
Sesaxeb da konkretul problemasTan dakavSirebuli reprezentaciuli resursebi.
modiT, es msjeloba qvemoT mocemul daskvnaze
ganvavrcoT da vnaxoT, Tu ra gavlenas axdens
codna deduqciur azrovnebaze. ganvixiloT
Semdegi silogizmi:
wanamZRvari 1. yvelafers, rasac aqvs Zrava,
sWirdeba benzini;
wanamZRvari 2. avtomobilebs sWirdebaT benzini;

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

daskvna: avtomobilebs aqvT Zrava.

342

rogor fiqrobT, sworia es daskvna? logikis


wesebis Tanaxmad ara, radgan pirveli
wanamZRvari Riad tovebs im faqts, rom zogierT
sagans, romelsac ara aqvs Zrava, agreTve,
sWirdeba benzini. siZnele isaa, rom is, rac
arasworia logikur problemaSi, ar aris aucilebeli, rom mcdari iyos realur cxovrebaSic.
e.i., Tu Tqven mxolod pirvel da meore
wanamZRvarSi mocemul informacias flobT da
Tqven mas ganixilavT ubralod, rogorc formaluri logikis savarjiSos, maSin es daskvna
mcdaria. miuxedavad amisa, rodesac cdis pirebi
msjeloben, gamomdinareobs Tu ara daskvna
logikurad ori wanamZR-vridan, isini dadebiTi
pasuxisken ufro maSin ixrebian, rodesac daskvna
avtomobils exeba, vidre, rodesac raime uazro
termini gamoiyeneba (Markovitz & Nantel, 1989).
aseTi Sedegi rwmenis efeqtis naTel magaliTs
warmoadgens. rwmenis efeqti gulisxmobs, rom
adamianebi WeSmaritad miiCneven im daskvnebs,
romelTaTvisac SeuZliaT realuri samyaros
misaRebi modelis konstruireba (ageba), xolo
mcdarad Tvlian im daskvnebs, romelTaTvisac
amis gakeTeba uWirT (Evans et al., 1983; Janis & Frick,
1943; Newstead et al., 1992).
rwmenis efeqti (elief-bias effect) situacia,
romelsac pirovnebis codna, ganwyoba, Rirebulebebi amaxinjebs da romelic cvlis azrovnebis process, aiZulebs mas miiRos mcdari
argumentebi.

Tu arsebobs iseTi damajerebeli daskvna,


romelic Seesabameba adamianis gonebaSi problemis reprezentacias, es daskvna WeSmaritad
miiCneva. avtomobilis SemTxvevaSi, codna avtomobilebis Sesaxeb aZnelebs am daskvnis uaryofas. Tumca, roca monawileebs misces zustad
es wanamZRvrebi da sTxoves, gaekeTebinaT daskvna,
daaxloebiT naxevarma SeZlo sworad ganesazRvra,
rom am formulirebiT swor daskvnas ver gamoitanda. amrigad, codnas, SesaZloa, ufro naklebi
gavlena hqondes Tqveni sakuTari azrovnebis
procesebze, vidre Tqven mier sxvisi daskvnebis
Sefasebaze (Rips, 1990).
logikuri azrovnebis iseTi formaluri instruqciebi, romlebic aq aris aRwerili,
amcirebs rwmenis gavlenas daskvnaze (Evans et
al., 1994).
azrovnebis unars gamocdilebac aumjobesebs.
amaSi dasarwmuneblad SeadareT, Tu ro-gor
asrulebT erTsa da imave davalebas abstraqtuli
azrovnebis saSualebiT da samyaros Sesaxeb
realuri codnis gamoyenebiT.
warmoidgineT, rom erT rigSi dalagebulia
4 baraTi, romelTagan TiToeulze weria A~,
D~, 4", 7" ise, rogorc es 9.15 suraTzea warmodgenili. romeli baraTi unda gadmoabrunoT,
rom SeamowmoT wesi: Tu baraTis erT mxares
xmovania, mis meore mxares iqneba luwi ricxvi~

suraTi

9.15

abstraqtuli da sagnobrivi azrovneba

(Jihnson-Laird & Wason, 1977). ras izamdiT? umravlesoba fiqrobs, rom unda gadmoabrunos baraTi
A~ rac sworia da baraTi 4", rac arasworia.
mocemuli wesis mcdarobis dasamtkiceblad
araviTari mniSvneloba ar aqvs baraTs 4", amitom
mis gadmobrunebas azri ar aqvs (xvdebiT, ratom?);
Tqven unda gadmoabrunoT baraTi 7" da Tu
naxavT, rom mis meore mxares mocemulia xmovani,
gamodis, rom wesi ar aris swori.
am davalebas veisonis seleqciis davalebas
(Wason selection task) uwodeben, romelic eWvqveS
ayenebs adamianis efeqturad azrovnebis unars.
es negatiuri azri Semdgom modificirebul iqna
ori mimarTulebiT. pirveli: mkvlevrebma gamoTqves varaudi, rom, SesaZloa, cdis pirebi baraTebis Sesamowmeblad iyeneben aradeduqciur
strategias, ris gamoc isini ufro adastureben,
vidre uaryofen wesSi asaxuli mimarTebis
ganzogadebas. miuxedavad imisa, rom am strategias mcdar deduqciur azrovnebamde mivyavarT,
realur situaciaSi is mizanSewonilia mimarTebebis Sesaswavlad da gadawyvetilebis misaRebad
(Oaksford, Chater, 1994; Oaksford et al., 1997).
meore: deduqciuri azrovnebis gamoyeneba
ufro efeqturia, rodesac cdis pirebs saSualeba
aqvT, rom veisonis davalebis Sesrulebis dros
gamoiyenon samyaros Sesaxeb realuri codna
(Holyoak & Spellman, 1993). warmoi-dgineT, Tqven
gTxoves 9.13 suraTis qveda rigSi mocemul
baraTebze logikuri davalebis Sesruleba. unda
SeamowmoT wesi: Tu momxmarebeli apirebs

alkoholuri sasmelis dalevas, igi 18 wlis


mainc unda iyos~ (CHeng & Holyoak, 1985).
am SemTxvevaSi, albaT, maSinve mixvdiT, romeli
baraTebi unda gadmoabrunoT: 17" da ludis
daleva~. realur cxovrebaSi msgavsi problemis
dros SegiZliaT azrovnebis pragmatuli sqema
gamoiyenoT. rogorc me-8 TavSi aRvwereT, sqemebis
Camoyalibeba xdeba gamocdilebis Sedegad. Tqven
akrZalvebis didi gamocdileba gaqvT. gaixseneT
is dro, rodesac geubnebodnen: televizors
ver uyureb, sanam saSinao davalebas ar Seasruleb~. aseTi tipis interaqciebis procesSi
Tqven imuSavebT gonivrul sqemas. realur
cxovrebiseul situaciaSi, sadac erTmaneTTan
kavSirSia asaki da sma, xdeba am sqemis aqtivacia,
xolo pirobiT situaciaSi, romelic luw ricxvebsa da xmovnebs akavSirebs, sqemis aqtivacia
ar xdeba. amitom aseTi pirobiTi tipis davalebebi ar iZleva deduqciuri azrovnebis unaris
saTanadod Sefasebis saSualebas.
aRsaniSnavia, rom ukanaskneli kvlevebis Sedegad gaCnda akrZalvebis procesSi sqemebis
SeZenis azris alternatiuli idea.
zemoT aRwerili davalebis 3 wlis asakis
bavSvebisaTvis modificirebuli variantis Catarebis dros aRmoCnda, rom maT kargad SeuZliaT
wesis gageba, Tu ra aris nebadarTuli da ra
akrZaluli. es Sedegebi savaraudos xdis, rom
akrZalvis situaciis gaazreba, SesaZloa, Tandayolili iyos (Cummins, 1996). radgan is ar
aris damokidebuli socialur normebze, SesaZ-

problemis gadaWra da azrovneba

Tqven gevalebaT gadmoabrunoT zeda rigSi mocemuli baraTebidan is baraTebi,


romelTa saSualebiTac SeamowmebT wess: `Tu baraTis erT mxares mocemulia
xmovani, mis meore mxares iqneba luwi ricxvi~. qveda rigSi mocemuli
baraTebidan unda gadmoabrunoT is baraTebi, romlebic saSualebas mogcemT,
SeamowmoT Semdegi wesi: `Tu momxmarebeli apirebs alkoholuri sasmelis
dalevas, igi 18 wlis mainc unda iyos~. rogorc wesi, cdis pirebi meore

343

loa, warmoadgendes genetikuri informaciis


nawils, romelic memkvidreobiT gadaecema adamians, rogorc socialur arsebas (Cummins, 1999).
am nawilis dasawyisSi aRvwereT situacia,
saidanac Tqven swor deduqciur daskvnas
akeTebdiT sakredito baraTis gamoyenebis
Sesaxeb. samwuxarod, cxovrebaSi arsebobs uamravi
SemTxveva, rodesac SeuZlebelia swori daskvnis
gakeTeba, sakmaod sando wanamZRvrebidanac ki.
axla, ganvixilavT am magaliTis axal versias,
romelic Tqvengan gansxvavebuli formis azrovnebas moiTxovs.

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

induqciuri azrovneba

344

warmoidgineT aseTi situacia: mixvediT


restoranSi da mxolod maSin gagaxsendaT,
SegemowmebinaT, gaqvT Tu ara sakmarisi naRdi
fuli. aRmoaCineT, rom Tqveni sakredito baraTis
_ American Express~ _ gamoyeneba mogiwevT, magram
restornis gareT ar aris gancxadeba restoranSi
sakredito baraTiT sargeblobis Taobaze.
restornis fanjrebidan moCans kargad Cacmuli
momxmarebeli. meniuSi ki xedavT, rom fasebi
sakmaod maRalia. mxedvelobaSi iRebT ra Tqven
garSemomyofTa maRal materialur mdgomareobas,
mocemul situaciaze dakvirveba gafiqrebinebT,
rom es restorani miiRebs Tqvens sakredito
baraTs. es aris deduqciuri daskvna, radganac
is Tqvens varauds emyareba da ara _ logikur
wanamZRvars. Tqveni daskvna ki induqciuri azrovnebis nimuSia, rodesac azrovneba gulisxmobs
savaraudo (da ara sando) daskvnebs mocemul
situaciaze dayrdnobiT.
Cven ukve SemogTavazeT induqciuri azrovnebis ramdenime nimuSi. me-5 da me-8 TavebSi
vnaxeT, rom adamianebi warsulSi dagrovil informacias iyeneben awmyosa da momavlis gansazRvris mizniT. Tqven induqciur azrovnebas
Semdeg SemTxvevebSi iyenebT: haerSi popkornis
surnelis safuZvelze askvniT, rom viRac
popkorns akeTebs; induqciur azrovnebas iyenebT,
Tu daeTanxmebiT azrs, rom asoebi am furcelze
induqciuri azrovneba (Inductive reasoning)
azrovnebis forma, romelic misawvdom mtkicebulebaze da warsul gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT garkveuli albaTobiT daskvnis gakeTebas
gulisxmobs.

uecrad ar gauCinardeba (an Tu iswavliT, Tqveni


codna ar gauCinardeba testirebis dros).
dabolos, am TavSi ganvixileT daskvnis tipebi, romlebic adamianis saubridan gamomdinareoben. Tqveni varaudi, rom igi namdvilad
maRali wris warmomadgenelia, misi metyvelebis
maneridan gamomdinare, induqciuri azrovnebis
nimuSs warmoadgens.
realur cxovrebaSi problemis gadaWris
unari xSirad induqciur azrovnebazea damokidebuli. davubrundeT isev Cvens magaliTs. Tqven
SemTxveviT CageketaT kari da gareT darCiT.
ras moimoqmedebT am SemTxvevaSi? warsulSi aseT
dros miRebuli gadawyvetilebis gaxseneba
pirveli mizanSewonili nabijia. am process
problemis analogiuri gadawyveta ewodeba. Aam
dros Tqven iwyebT awmyo da warsul situaciebs
Soris saerTos Ziebas (Holyoak & Nisbett, 1988;
Holyoak & Thagard, 1997). `karis Caketvis da gareT
darCenis~ warsuli gamocdilebis safuZvelze
SeiZleba gagaxsendeT zogadi wesi _ `iseTi
adamianebis moZebna, romelTac aqvT gasaRebi~.
am wesiT SeiaraRebuli, Tqven iwyebT am adamianebis gamoyofas da fiqrs, Tu rogor ipovoT
isini (Ross & Kenedy, 1990), risTvisac SeiZleba
dagWirdeT im meTodis gaxseneba, romelic Tqveni
megobrebis mosaZebnad SeimuSaveT. am problemis
gadaWra imitom geadvilebaT, rom Tqven ukve
mieCvieT warsuli gamocdilebis gamoyenebas _
induqciuri azrovneba saSualebas gaZlevT,
gamoiyenoT gamocdili meTodebi da swrafad
gadaWraT axali problemebi.
problemis analogiuri gadawyvetis Sesaxeb
kvlevebs xSirad saganmanaTleblo mniSvneloba
aqvT (Kolodnery, 1977), magaliTad, Tqveni maTematikisa da sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebis maswavleblebi gacnoben ramdenime amocanas Tavisi
amonaxsniT. amocanebi ukve damuSavebuli pasuxebiT mocemulia saxelmZRvaneloebSic. Semdgom
Tqven gixdebaT msgavsi tipis amocanebis amoxsna,
romlebsac, savaraudod, daZlevT. aseTi midgoma
emyareba im mosazrebas, rom Tqven gamoiyenebT
induqciur azrovnebas da SeZlebT Zveli meTodebis gamoyenebas axali problemebis dasaZlevad.
mkvlevrebi Seecadnen, ganesazRvraT is pirobebi,
romlebSic moswavleebi warsuli gamocdilebis
maqsimalurad gamoyenebas SeZlebdnen (Lorett &
Anderson, 1994; Novick & Holyoak, 1991). zogadi
daskvna, romelic maT gamoitanes, gulisxmobs,

saidan
viciT
msgavsebebis mosaZebnad adamianebs
xSirad daxmareba sWirdebaT
daakvirdiT 9.16 suraTis I nawilSi mocemul figuras. warmoidgineT, rom viRacam
milis zeda bolodan Caasxa wyali. ra
mimarTulebiT wava wylis nakadi milis
qveda bolodan gamosvlis Semdeg? SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT meore nawilSi mocemuli
nimuSebi. ganvixiloT odnav Secvlili
varianti. warmoidgineT, rom viRacam milis
TavSi Slangi daamagra. cvlis es rames?
cdis pirebs pirvelad sTxovdnen, daexataT
wylis nakadis mimarTuleba, romliTac,
maTi azriT, wyali wavidoda milidan gamosvlis Semdeg. Semdgom sTxovdnen, amoerCiaT
is suraTi, romelic yvelaze metad hgavda
maT naxats. erT-erT eqsperimentSi, sadac
pirobebSi ar iyo mocemuli Slangi, cdis
pirTa mxolod 30%-ma gasca swori pasuxi
(f varianti), xolo Slangis Semotanis
Semdeg es ricxvi 75%-mde gaizarda. ra

ganapirobebs am gansxvavebas? rogorc Cans,


warsuli gamocdilebis eqsplicituri Sexsenebisas (magaliTad, gaixseneT, rogor
gamodis wylis nakadi sarwyavi milidan),
cdis pirebi iwyeben induqciur azrovnebas,
Tumca, am Sexsenebis gareSe isini fiqroben,
rom miamituri fizikis~ kanonidan gamomdinare, milidan gamosvlis Semdeg wylis
nakadi ganagrZobs cirkularul moZraobas
(Catrambone et al., 1995).

am eqsperimentSi kargad Cans, rom adamianebis


umravlesobas problemis gadaWrisas sWirdeba
Sexseneba (miTiTeba), rom gamoiyenon induqciuri
azrovneba.
Tqven SeiZleba ar mogwonT, rom aseTi Sexseneba xSirad aucilebelia maswavleblebi
da saxelmZRvaneloebi iSviaTad iZlevian aseT
miniSnebebs. ra unda qnaT? SeecadeT, Tqven
TviTon, SeZlebisdagvarad, moZebnoT konkretuli
analogia; SeecadeT, gansazRvroT problemis
struqtura da gamoiyenoT msgavsi struqturis
mqone, TqvenTvis ukve nacnobi problemis
daZlevis meTodi.
rac ufro zustad da sworad gaqvT gagebuli
Zveli problemis komponentebi da struqtura,
miT ufro advilia Zvel da axal problemebs
Soris msgavsebis danaxva da gadawyvetilebis
meTodis morgeba. manamde ki SegiZliaT, endoT
fsiqolog-eqsperimentatorebs da maT mier
miRebuli Sedegebi maswavleblebs da saxelmZRvanelos avtorebs gauziaroT.

suraTi

9.16

ra mimarTulebiT wava
wyali
warmoidgineT, rom suraTis pirvel nawilSi daxatuli mowyobilobidan gamodis wylis nakadi.
rogor ggoniaT, ra mimarTulebiT
wava wyali? daxateT. Semdeg ki,
meore nawilSi warmodgenili
nimuSebidan airCieT erT-erTi,
romelic yvelaze metad hgavs
Tqvens naxats.

problemis gadaWra da azrovneba

rom moswavleebs analogiis mosaZebnad xSirad


daxmareba sWirdebaT. imisaTvis, rom moswavlem
SeZlos axal problemaSi Zveli problemis
mniSvnelobis danaxva, xSirad saWiroa damatebiTi
waxaliseba miniSnebisa da mimarTulebis
micema (Ross & Kennedy, 1990). modiT ganvixiloT
magaliTi.

345

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

346

induqciur azrovnebasTan dakavSirebiT kidev


erTi ram unda aRvniSnoT. xSirad SesaZlebelia
efeqturi gadawyvetilebis ganmeorebiT gamoyeneba, magram rig SemTxvevebSi, roca Zvel da
axal situacias Soris kritikuli gansxvavebaa,
warsulze damokidebulebam SeiZleba xeli
SeuSalos axali problemis daZlevas. 9.12
suraTze aRwerili wylis qilebis amocana amis
klasikur magaliTs warmoadgens. am SemTxvevaSi
warsul gamocdilebaze damokidebulebis gamo
SeiZleba amocana saerTod ver amoxsnaT (Luchins,
1942). pirveli ori amocanis F~ nawilSi Tqven
aRmoaCenT, rom pasuxis misaRebad arsebobs
zogadi formula B-A-2(C). bunebrivia, rom mesame
amocanis amoxsnisas isev SeecdebiT mis gamoyenebas da naxavT, rom am formuliT mesame
amocana ar amoixsneba. am SemTxvevaSi unda
gaavsoT A~ qila da gadmoasxaT imdeni, rom
Seivsos C~ qila, ris Semdegac dagrCebaT wylis
saWiro raodenoba. Tu Tqven ver mixvdiT, es
rogor unda gagekeTebinaT da amocanis amosaxsnelad pirvel formulas iyenebdiT, es imas
niSnavs, rom SegeqmnaT im gamocdili wesis
gamoyenebis fsiqikuri ganwyoba, romelmac warmateba mogitanaT. ganwyoba - es aris fsiqikuri
aqtivobis, azrovnebis Tu Cvevis winmswrebi
mdgomareoba, romelsac garkveuli pirobebis
zemoqmedebiT SeuZlia aRqmisa da problemis
gadaWris xarisxisa da siswrafis gazrda. Tumca,
maSin, rodesac azrovnebisa da moqmedebis Zveli
xerxebi axal situaciaSi ar aris produqtiuli,
maT SeuZliaT fsiqikuri aqtebis Seferxeba da
damaxinjeba. rodesac problemur situaciaze
fiqris dros gaiWedebiT, daixieT ukan da hkiTxeT
sakuTar Tavs _ warsuli warmateba xom ar
ganapirobebs Tqveni xedvis SezRudvas?
problemis gadaWrisas gaiTvaliswineT problemuri situaciebisa da maTi daZlevis rac
SeiZleba farTo speqtri, rac ufro SemoqmedebiTs gaxdis daZlevis process.
am nawilSi Cven problemis gadawyvetisa da
azrovnebis sxvadasxva tipebi da konkretuli
etapebi ganvixileT, romlebic realur pirobebSi
moqmedebis gaumjobesebis mizniT unda gaiaroT.
am Tavis bolo nawilSi Cvenc imave strategias
fsiqikuri ganwyoba (Mental set) _ axali problemis dasaZlevad wina problemis daZlevis
stilis, saSualebis gamoyenebis tendencia.

mivmarTavT. Cven aRvwereT zogierTi mniSvnelovani kvlevis Sedegebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia gansjisa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis
procesebTan; agreTve SemogTavazeT, Tu rogor
unda gamoiyenoT es Sedegebi TqvenTvis mniSvnelovan situaciaSi.

Sejameba
problemuri situacia moicavs Tavdapirvel
mdgomareobas, mizans da mTel rig operaciebs,
romelTa saSualebiTac Tavdapirveli mdgomareobidan individi aRwevs mizans. problemis
daZleva ufro efeqturia, roca adamianebi
gadawyvetilebis komponentebs gamocdian da
sasargeblo reprezentaciebs pouloben. deduqciuri azrovnebis gamoyenebiT sando daskvnebs
viRebT. kvlevis Sedegebis safuZvelze dadginda,
rom adamianebi yovelTvis ar arian Tanmimdevrulni deduqciuri azrovnebis dros. magaliTad,
isini tyuvdebian rwmenis gavleniT, Tumca,
akrZalvebis~ situaciaSi deduqciuri azrovnebis efeqturoba imatebs.
induqciuri azrovneba warsuli gamocdilebis
generalizacias moiTxovs. induqcias didi
gamoyeneba aqvs analogiuri problemis gadaWris
dros, rodesac adamianebi cdiloben, ipovon
misi analogiuri Zveli problema, romlis daZlevis gzebic maTTvis ukve cnobilia.

msjeloba da
gadawyvetilebis miReba
msjelobisa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis
Sesaxeb saubars Tqveni yoveldRiuri gamocdilebis erT-erTi yvelaze didi WeSmaritebiT
daviwyebT: Tqven cxovrobT samyaroSi, romelic
savsea gaurkvevlobiT. gadaixdiT Tu ara 9
dolars im filmis sanaxavad, romelic SeiZleba
an mogewonoT an _ ara? gamocdis win Tqveni
Canawerebis swavlas amjobinebT Tu saxelmZRvanelos xelaxla gadakiTxvas? mzad xarT
Tu ara CaebaT xangrZliv urTierTobebSi? radgan
momavlis Sesaxeb mxolod varaudi SegiZliaT

fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi

Tu odesme gqoniaT seriozuli samedicino konsultacia eqimTan, Tavad yofilxarT im situaciis monawile,
roca individis msjelobasa
da problemis gadaWris unars
udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs.
Tqvens janmrTelobaze pasuxismgebelma pirma unda
moaxdinos Tqven mier CamoTvlili simptomebis erTobliobis (paternis) identifikacia da daadginos daavadebis
gamomwvevi mizezi; miRebuli
daskvnis safuZvelze individma samoqmedo gegma unda
SeimuSavos. am procesSi mocemuli sirTuleebidan gamomdinare, warmoidgineT raoden
Znelia zustad Tqveni daavadebis simptomebis aRwera ise,
rom sxvebisaTvis gasagebi
iyos. swored amitom kognitur
mecnierebaTa mimdevrebi ramdenime welia muSaoben kompiuterul programebze, romlebic mniSvnelovan daxmarebas
uwevs eqimebsa da janmrTelobis dacvis personals
diagnostikasa da mkuranlobis dagegmvaSi.
am programebs ,,eqspertsistemebs~ uwodeben, romlebic profesionalTa mier
problemebis gadaWris simulaciaa, arsebuli codnis
gaTvaliswinebiT. sistema
MYCIN, romelic SemuSavebul
iqna 1970-ian wlebSi, safuZvlad daedo mecnierul kvlevaTa did nawils am sferoSi.
igi Seiqmna, rogorc infeqciur daavadebaTa diagnostikisa da mkurnalobis damxmare saSualeba (Shortliffe,

1976). am programis muSaoba


eyrdnoba ,,Tu maSin~ wesebs,
romelTa saSualebiTac xdeba
wanamZRvrebisa da am sferoSi
momuSave specialistebis evristikul codnaze (magaliTad,
praqtikaze) damyarebuli daskvnebis dakavSireba. realuri
samedicino diagnozis msgavsad,
MYCIN sistemis saSualebiT
SesaZlebelia wanamZRvrebisa
(magaliTad, pacientis sisxlis
analizis pasuxis) da konkretuli daskvnis (magaliTad,
diagnozis an mkurnalobis
rekomendaciebis) dakavSireba.
programas, aseve, SeuZlia gviCvenos (moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi),
Tu rogor mivida igi saboloo
daskvnamde. miuxedavad imisa, rom
es sistema arasodes gamouyenebiaT praqtikaSi, Tanamedrove
mkvlevrebis mier Seqmnili
msgavsi programebi inarCuneben
igive princips rekomendaciebis garda momxmarebels
miawodon informacia azrovnebis procesebis~ Sesaxeb (Chae,
1998; Hudson & Cohen, 2000).
faqtia, rom am programebis
SesaZlebloba daadginos
daavadebis gamomwvevi mizezebi,
mkurnalobis procesis warmatebis mniSvnelovani komponentia. warmoidgineT, magaliTad,
eqimi, romelic iyenebs samedicino eqspert-sistemas. rogorc
eqimma, Tqven SeiZleba ar
aRiaroT, rom romelime kompiuterul programas SeuZlia
Tqvenze ukeTesad gansazRvros
daavadeba da Secvalos Tqveni
codna da mravalwliani gamocdileba, Tumca, mniSvnelovania
imis gaTvaliswineba, rom eq-

spert-sistemebi erTad uyris


Tavs ama Tu im sferoSi dagrovil codnas. aseTi tipis sistemebSi mocemulia ara mxolod faqtebi, aramed maT am
faqtebze dayrdnobiT SeuZliaT azrovneba~. mecnierebi
cdiloben iseTi sistemebis
Seqmnas, romlebic uzrunvelyofen axsnas, Tu ratom unda
daakavSiros momxmarebelma
(janmrTelobis dacvis muSakma) faqtebis garkveuli
erToblioba konkretul daskvnebTan (Chandrasckaran& Mittal,
1999).
axla pacientis TvaliT
SevxedoT am yvelafers. ramdenadac XXI saukuneSi eqspert-sistemebis
mniSvnelovni gaumjobeseba xdeba,
Tqven SeiZleba SexvdeT eqims,
romelic Seitans Tqvens konkretul monacemebs kompiuterSi da sakuTari codnis
garda eqspert-sistemaSi mocemul codnasac gaiTvaliswinebs.
veb-gverdebi:
http://smi.stanford.edu e s
aris stenfordis samedicino
informatikis veb-gverdi, sadac ganTavsebulia informacia mkvlevarTa jgufis
Sesaxeb, romlebmac ganaxorcieles mTeli rigi proeqtebi medicinasa da eqspertul sistemebTan dakavSirebiT.
www.cis.upenn.edu/~traumaid
TraumAID~ aris programa,
romelic Seiqmna kritikul
situaciaSi eqimTa dasaxmareblad. veb-gverdze ganTavsebulia eqspert-sistemebis
sademonstracio versiebi.

msjeloba da gadawyvetilebis miReba

eqspert-sistemebi da medicina

347

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

348

da radgan TiTqmis arasodes gagaCniaT sruli


codna warsulis Sesaxeb, Tqven Zalian iSviaTad
SeiZleba iyoT darwmunebuli, rom sworad
imsjeleT, an swori gadawyvetileba miiReT.
amgvarad, msjelobisa da gadawyvetilebis
miRebis procesebi unda uzrunvelyofdnen
ganusazRvrelobis Semcirebas. kognituri
fsiqoloogiis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli herbert
saimoni (Herbert Simon) wers: ,,im rTul garemosTan
SedarebiT, romelSic adamians uxdeba cxovreba,
misi azrovnebis Zala metad mokrZalebulia~.
is unda dakmayofildes problemebis ,,sakmaod
kargi~ gadawyvetiTa da moqmedebebis ,,sakmaod
kargi~ gegmiT (1979, gv. 3). Aaqedan gamomdinare,
saimoni varaudobs, rom azrovnebis procesebi
imarTeba SezRuduli racionalurobiT. SesaZloa, Tqveni msjeloba da gadawyvetileba ar
iyos yovelTvis maqsimalurad kargi da racionaluri, rac ganpirobebulia SezRuduli
resursebis iseT situaciaSi gamoyenebiT,
romelic swraf moqmedebas moiTxovs.
sanam SezRuduli racionalurobis Sedegebis
ufro detalur analizze gadavidodeT, ganvixiloT gansxvaveba msjelobasa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesebs Soris. msjelobis
procesSi Tqven ayalibebT mosazrebebs, gamogaqvT daskvnebi da axdenT adamianebisa da
movlenebis kritikul Sefasebas; xSirad Tqven
msjelobT spontanurad, motivaciis gareSe.
gadawyvetilebis miReba ki ramdenime alternatividan erT-erTis amorCevas, SesaZlo variantebis seleqciasa da uaryofas gulisxmobs.
msjeloba da gadawyvetilebis miReba or urTierTdakavSirebul process warmoadgens. magaliTad,
SeiZleba viRacas SexvdeT wveulebaze da
xanmokle saubrisa da cekvis Semdeg es adamiani
CaTvaloT saintereso, Wkvian, patiosan da
gulwrfel pirovnebad. Semdeg Tqven SeiZleba
gadawyvitoT, rom danarCeni dro wveulebaze
gaataroT masTan erTad da daTqvaT Sexvedra
msjeloba (Judjment) _ procesi, romlis saSualebiTac adamianebi ayalibeben mosazrebebs,
akeTeben daskvnebs da axdenen adamianebis an
movlenebis kritikul Sefasebas xelmisawvdom
masalaze dayrdnobiT; fsiqikuri aqtivobis Sedegi.
gadawyvetilebis miReba (Decision making) _ alternativebs Soris arCevis procesi, SesaZlo variantebis seleqcia da uaryofa.

momavali kvirisaTvis; gadawyvetilebis miReba


mWidrod ukavSirdeba qceviT moqmedebas. davubrundeT azrovnebis am ori tipis kvlevas.

evristika da msjeloba
romelia msjelobis saukeTeso gza? warmoidgineT, rom Tqven gekiTxebian: mogewonaT Tu
ara filmi? am kiTxvaze sapasuxod Tqven mogiwevT
cxrilis Sevseba, romlis erT mxares aRniSnavT,
Tu ra mogewonaT filmSi, xolo, meore mxares
ra ar mogewonaT da naxavT, romeli sveti
gamogivaT ufro grZeli. imisaTvis, rom Tqveni
Sefaseba ufro zusti iyos, Tqven kargad unda
awon-dawonoT yoveli debulebis wili TiToeul
mxares, maTi mniSvnelobis gaTvaliswinebiT
(magaliTad, TqvenTvis SeiZleba ufro mniSvnelovani iyos ,,msaxiobis Sesruleba~ (plusebis
mxare), vidre _ ,,gaxmovanebis efeqtebi~ (minusebis
mxare). Tu mTel am proceduras gaivliT, Tqven
SegiZliaT darwmunebuli iyoT msjelobaSi,
magram es mxolod savarjiSoa, romelsac
iSviaTad akeTebT. realur cxovrebSi Tqven ufro
xSirad da swrafad giwevT msjeloba. Tqven ar
gaqvT dro, anda sakmarisi informacia amgvari
formaluri procedurisaTvis. ras akeTebT amis
nacvlad? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema pirvelad
amos tverskim da daniel kanemanma scades (Amos
Tversky & Daniel Kahneman). isini amtkicebdnen, rom
msjeloba eyrdnoba analizis ufro evristikul,
vidre formalur meTodebs. rogorc zemoT iyo
aRniSnuli, evristika warmoadgens aramecnierul,
praqtikul meTods, romelic amcirebs msjelobis
(gadawyvetilebis miRebis) sirTules.
ra SemTxvevaSi iyeneben adamianebi am praqtikul, gamocdilebaze damyarebul meTodebs?
rogorc qvemoT naxavT, mkvlevrebi upiratesobas
aniWeben im garemo pirobebis aRweras, sadac
aRniSnuli meTodebis gamoyeneba ganapirobebs
Secdomis daSvebas. am eqsperimentebis logika
aseTia: rogorc aRqmis iluziebis SeswavliT
SeiZleba aRqmis bunebis gageba da mexsierebis
Seswavla mexsierebis darRvevebis SeswavliT,
aseve SesaZlebelia msjelobis procesebis
Seswavla mcdari msjelobebis SeswavliT
(Kahneman, 1991). rogorc mexsierebis, aRqmisa da
sxva fsiqikuri procesebis SemTxvevaSi, am drosac erTmaneTSi ar unda agerioT meTodi da

misawvdomobis evristika
gTxovT, moifiqroT pasuxi Zalian martiv
kiTxvaze (Cveni azriT, naklebad mosalodnelia
swori pasuxi da amitom ar gTavazobT rTul
amocanas, raTa uxerxul mdgomareobaSi ar
CavardeT). warmoidgineT, rom gevalebaT moTxrobis patara monakveTis wakiTxva; rogor
ggoniaT, am nawvyetSi romeli sityva iqneba ufro
meti: sityva, romelic iwyeba aso ,,k~-Ti
(magaliTad, kalaTa), Tu sityva, sadac aso ,,k~
mesame adgilzea? (magaliTad, nakrZali). Tu Tqven
tverskisa da kanemanis cdis pirebis msgavsad
fiqrobT (Amos Tversky & Daniel Kahneman 1973), maSin
Tqven daaskvniT, rom ,,k~ ufro metad gvxvdeba
xelmisawvdomobis evristika (Availability heuristic) _ daskvna, romelic efuZneba mexsierebaSi
Tavisuflad xelmisawvdom informacias.

sityvis dasawyisSi, vidre SuaSi. realurad ki


,,k~ orjer ufro xSirad gvxvdeba sityvis SuaSi
(inglisur enaSi).
ratom hgonia adamianebis umravlesobas, rom
,,k~ aso ufro xSirad gvxvdeba sityvis TavSi?
es pasuxi ganpirobebulia mexsierebaSi arsebuli
xelmisawvdomi informaciiT. gacilebiT advilia
im sityvebis mofiqreba, romlebic ,,k~-Ti iwyeba,
vidre im sityvebisa, romlebSic ,,k~ mesame
adgilzea. am SemTxvevaSi Tqvens daskvnaze,
rogorc Cans, gavlenas axdens misawvdomobis
evristika _ Tqveni daskvna emyareba im informacias, romelic ufro misawvdomia mexsierebisaTvis da umravles SemTxvevaSi swor daskvnamde
mivyavarT, amitom ganixileba, rogorc swori.
Tu, magaliTad, Tqven fiqrobT, rom boulingi
ufro usafrTxoa, vidre paraSutiT xtoma, Tqveni
daskvna emyareba misawvdomobis evristikas.
problemebi warmoiqmneba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi,
roca: (1) mexsierebaSi tendenciuri informaciis
aqtivacia xdeba; (2) mexsierebaSi Senaxuli
informacia ar aris zusti. ganvixiloT am
SesaZlo problemebis magaliTi.
amocana, romelSic cdis pirebs k~ asos
Semcveli sityvebis raodenobis gansazRvra
evalebaT, misawvdomobaze dafuZnebuli araswori
msjelobis (daskvnis) karg magaliTs warmoadgens.
mexsierebaSi sityvebis organizaciidan gamomdinare, bevrad ufro advilia sityvebis gaxseneba,
roca gansazRvrulia maTi pirveli aso. ganvixiloT yoveldRiuri cxovrebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli kidev erTi msjeloba.

saidan
viciT
guneba-ganwyobileba gavlenas axdens
mexsierebis xelmisawvdomobaze
mkvlevrebs surdaT eCvenebinaT, Tu ra
zegavlena SeiZleba moaxdinos gunebaganwyobilebam adamianis msjelobaze. cdis
pirebs evalebodaT, waekiTxaT sasiamovno
da usiamovno informacia, rac ganapirobebda Sesabamisi guneba-ganwyobilebis
Seqmnas. Semdeg ki sTxovdnen dadebiTi da
uaryofiTi movlenebis, magaliTad, sasiamovno saRamos da mtkivneuli Wrilobis

msjeloba da gadawyvetilebis miReba

daskvna. miuxedavad imisa, rom aRqma ar aris


srulyofili da fsiqologebs SeuZliaT dagarwmunon Tqveni aRqmis mcdarobaSi, kedelze ver
ivliT; Sesabamisad, miuxedavad evristikuli
msjelobebis gamo aRmocenebuli Secdomebisa,
Tqven ar ejaxebiT kognituri SezRudvis barierebs.
niSnavs Tu ara es imas, rom Tqven sruliad
komfortulad grZnobT Tavs, roca aseTi tipis
Secdomebs uSvebT? am SemTxvevaSi aRqmasTan
Sedareba garkveulwilad araadekvaturia. aRqmis
iluziebis umravlesoba ar aris codnaze damokidebuli. Tqven yovelTvis mzad xarT, aRiaroT
miuler-laieris iluziis (ix. Tavi 5) xazebis
sigrZeTa sxvadasxvaoba, miuxedavad imisa, rom
iciT, isini erTi sigrZisani arian, xolo, Tu
iciT, rom Tqvens gamocdilebaze damyarebuli
msjeloba zedapirul xasiaTs atarebs, SegiZliaT Tavidan aiciloT zogierTi tipis
Secdoma. inteleqtualuri unarebi ar ganapirobeben Secdomebis Tavidan acilebas (zogierT
SemTxvevebSi Zalian Wkviani adamianebic ki
uSveben Secdomebs), specifikuri treningebis
saSualebiT SesaZlebelia msjelobis gaumjobeseba. am nawilSi Cven swored am unarebis
efeqturobis zrdis ramodenime saSualebas ganvixilavT. davubrundeT evristikis sam tips:
misawvdomobas, reprezentatulobas da Ruzis~
evristikas.

349

gaxsenebas da, aseve, msgavsi movlenebis


ganmeorebis albaTobis gansazRvras uaxloesi eqvsi Tvis ganmavlobaSi. miRebuli
Sedegebis analizis safuZvelze dadginda,
rom warsuli movlenebis gaxsenebaze
gavlenas axdens guneba-ganwyobileba,
xolo am ukanasknelis Sesabamisi mogonebebi gansazRvravs momavlis Sesaxeb
msjelobas. karg guneba-ganwyobilebaze
myofi cdis pirebi ixsenebdnen sasiamovno
movlenebs da fiqrobdnen, rom momavalSi
ufro meti sasiamovno da naklebi usiamovno movlena moxdeboda (MacLeod &
Campbell, 1992).

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

am eqsperimentiT naCvenebia, Tu ra gavlenas


axdens msjelobaze mexsierebisaTvis xelmisawvdomi informaciis tipi. mniSvnelovan samomavlo
sakiTxebze msjelobisas unda gaiTvaliswinoT
guneba-ganwyobilebis gavlena TqvenTvis misawvdom informaciaze da hkiTxoT sakuTar Tavs:
,,aris Tu ara raime specifikuri Cems gunebaganwyobilebaSi, rac gavlenas moaxdens mexsierebidan amotanil informaciaze?~

350

misawvdomobasTan, rogorc msjelobis evristikasTan, dakavSirebuli meore sirTule Tavs


iCens im SemTxvevaSi, roca masze gavlenas axdens
mexsierebaSi arsebuli informacia. erT-erTi
kvlevis dros Seiswavlidnen kavSirs televizoris yurebasa da SeerTebuli Statebis
mosaxleobis saSualo keTildReobis Sefasebas
Soris (OGuinn & Shrum, 1997). adamianebi, romlebic
ufro xSirad uyureben dinastiisa~ da dalasis~
tipis serialebs, fiqroben, rom bevr amerikel
diasaxliss aqvs televizori an hyvas mosamsaxureebi. mkvlevrebis azriT, es korelacia imiT
aixsneba, rom satelevizio programebi qmnis
keTildReobis ararealur warmodgenas, romelic
advilad misawvdomia mudmivi mayureblisaTvis.
ganvixiloT meore magaliTi: adamianis msjeloba
sxvadasxva qveynis mosaxleobis Sesaxeb (Brown
& Siegler, 1992). SegiZliaT Tu ara ganalagoT es
oTxi qveyana mosaxleobis raodenobis mixedviT
mciredan didisken:
a.

SvedeTi

b.

indonezia

c.

israeli

d.

nigeria

kvlevebis safuZvelze dadginda, rom, rac


ufro meti icis adamianma qveynis Sesaxeb, miT
ufro maRalia mis mier populaciis raodenobis
Sefaseba. garda amisa, mniSvnelovani korelaciaa
qveynebis Sesaxeb codnasa da imas Soris, Tu
ramdenjer iyo is naxsenebi ,,niu iork taims~-is
statiebSi mimdinare wels (sxvaTa Soris, swori
pasuxia: israeli, SvedeTi, nigeria, indonezia.
SegiyvanaT Tu ara SecdomaSi misawvdomobam)?
rogorc Cans, Znelia endoT Tqvens kognitur
procesebs, radgan masmedia TqvenTvis xarveziani
monacemebis mowodebas uzrunvelyofs. miuxedavad amisa, mniSvnelovani daskvnis gamotanamde,
informaciis wyaros gadamowmebiT Tqven SegiZliaT Tavi daaRwioT misawvdomobis gavlenas.
darwmunebuli xarT, rom rasac fiqrobT, TqvenTvis namdvilad cnobilia?

reprezentaciuli evristika
rodesac msjeloba reprezentaciul evristikas eyrdnoba, Tqven iTvaliswinebT kategoriis
arsebiT niSnebs. magaliTad, Tu sagani an
movlena am Tu im kategoriisaTvis damaxa-

warmatebul ierusalimel iurists, kolegebis


azriT, axirebuli xasiaTi aqvs, ris gamoc ar
SeuZlia jgufSi muSaoba. warmatebul karieras
isini mis konkurentunarianobasa da energiulobas
ukavSireben. igi gamxdari, saSualo simaRlis adamiania; yuradRebas aqcevs sakuTar garegnobas da
aris amayi. kviraSi ramdenime saaTs uTmobs Tavisi
sayvareli sportis saxeobas. sportis romeli saxeobiTaa igi dakavebuli?
a.
b.
c.
d.

swrafi siaruliT
burTis TamaSiT
CogburTiT
msubuqi aTletizmiT da mindvris TamaSebiT

ganvixiloT, magaliTad, 9.17. suraTze mocemuli warmatebuli iuristis daxasiaTeba. gaiTvaliswineT zemoT aRwerili eqsperimentis Sedegebi Tqvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. nu `gamoekidebiT~ yvelaze tipur reprezentatul arCevans,
sanam ar SeiswavliT yvela danarCeni alternativis struqturas.

saidan
viciT

savaraudod
sworia ufro metis
momcveli kategoria.

suraTi

9.17

reprezentaciuli evristikis
gamoyeneba
reprezentaciuli evristikis gavleniT umravlesoba miiCnevs, rom advokatis sayvareli
sporti CogburTia, Tumca, rogorc suraTzea
naCvenebi, ufro sworia `burTiT TamaSebis~
dasaxeleba, radgan igi CogburTsac moicavs.

siaTebeli niSniT xasiaTdeba, misi am kategoriisadmi mikuTvneba xdeba. evristikis es tipi


nacnobi unda iyos TqvenTvis. is gulisxmobs
warsuli gamocdilebis safuZvelze msjelobis
agebas mocemul, msgavs pirobebSi, rac induqciuri daskvnis arss warmoadgens.
urTierTSeTanxmebuli maxasiaTeblebisa da
kategoriebis Sesaxeb informaciis arsebobis
dros, mizanSewonilia msjelobis ageba msgavsebis mixedviT. amrigad, gadawyvetilebis miRebisas, SeudgeT Tu ara varjiSs sportis iseT
axal saxeobaSi, rogorica paraSutiT xtoma,
mizanSewonili iqneba gansazRvroT, Tu ramdenad
hgavs is sportul saxeobaTa im kategorias,
romelic adre gizidavdaT. Tumca, rogorc
qvemoT naxavT, msgavsebam SeiZleba SecdomaSi
SegiyvanoT, Tu misi gavleniT yuradRebas ar
miaqcevT sxva mniSvnelovan informacias (Kahnemean & Tversky, 1973).

erT-erT eqsperimentSi cdis pirebs miewodebodaT 9.17 suraTze mocemuli pasuxebis CamonaTvali da eZleodaT 45 dolaris mogebis SesaZlebloba. amisaTvis
maT swori pasuxisaTvis unda mieniWebinaT
cifri `1". Tqven romel variants amoirCevdiT? Tu Tqvenc iseve fiqrobT, rogorc
monawileTa umravlesoba, Tqven dakargavT
45 dolars, radgan Tqveni pasuxi iqneba
`CogburTi~ da ara `burTiT TamaSebi~.
9.17 suraTis qveda nawilidan Cans, Tu
ratom ver iqneba CogburTi kargi fsoni.
is Sedis `burTiT TamaSebis~ kategoriaSi.
cdis pirebis azriT, CogburTi ukeTesi
pasuxia, radgan mas aqvs sportuli TamaSis
yvela is Tviseba, romelsac iuristi
iTamaSebda (upiratesobas mianiWebda). reprezentatulobaze dafuZnebuli es msjeloba monawileebs ubiZgebs, ugulebelyon
sxva tipis informacia, kerZod, kategoriis
struqtura. am pasuxis amorCevis SemTxvevaSi mogebuli Tanxa 45 dolaria (Bar-Hille
& Neter, 1993).

ganvixiloT reprezentatulobis meore magaliTi, romelsac, agreTve SeuZlia gavlena moaxdinos Tqven mier dadebul fsonebze. warmoidgineT, SesaZlebloba geZlevaT, monawileoba
miiRoT latareis gaTamaSebaSi. gasamarjveblad
reprezentaciuli evristika -(Representativeness
heuristic) kognituri strategia, romelic
miakuTvnebs obieqts garkveul kategorias, am
kategoriisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ramdenime
niSnis safuZvelze.

msjeloba da gadawyvetilebis miReba

reprezentatuloba gavlenas axdens


msjelobaze

351

Tqven unda SearCioT sam mocemul ricxvSi


cifrTa swori Tanmimdevroba, anu am cifrebidan
romelze Rirs, Tqveni azriT, fsonis dadeba?
859 101

333

574 948

772

Tu Tqven moTamaSeebis umravlesobas hgavxarT,


Tavs aaridebT im ricxvebs, romlebSic cifrebi
meordeba, radgan nakleb savaraudoa, rom es
ricxvebi SemTxveviTi Tanmimdevrobis reprezentatuli iyos. sinamdvileSi samcifriani ricxvebis 27%-s, sadac TiToeuli cifri aRebulia
SemTxveviTad diapazonidan 0-dan 9-is CaTvliT,
eqneba ganmeorebiTi cifrebi. miuxedavad amisa,
gaTamaSebaSi Indiana pick-3" 15 dRis ganmavlobaSi
monawileTa mxolod 12.6%-ma airCia ricxvi
ganmeorebadi cifrebiT (Holtgraves & Skeel, 1992).
imis gamo, rom azartuli TamaSebis situaciebis
umravlesoba winaswar mofiqrebulia, umjobesia,
maT sifrTxiliT moekidoT. umeteswilad, adamianebs imedi aqvT, rom reprezentatulobis mixedviT da ara realur albaTobaze dayrdnobiT
gaakeTeben momgebian arCevans.

Ruza amoRebulia!~
evristikis mesame formis gasacnobad, scadeT
azrovnebis eqsperimentis Catareba. daiwyeT
qvemoT mocemuli magaliTis amoxsna da 5 wamis
Semdeg dawereT miaxloebiTi pasuxi.
1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 x 8 = _____

gamravlebas, rac ukve sakmaod did ricxvs


gaZlevT. Semdegi moqmedebis SesrulebiT Tqven
isev nawilobriv pasuxs miiRebT da ganagrZobT
magaliTis amoxsnas. tverski da kanemani (Amos
Tversky & Daniel Kahneman, 1974) eqsperimentis monawileebs aZlevdnen identuri problemis or
variants. pirveli variantis SemTxvevaSi pasuxebis mediana Seadgenda 512-s, xolo meore variatis SemTxvevaSi _ 2,250-s (swori pasuxia 40320).
rogorc Cans, nawilobrivi Sefaseba (5 wamis
ganmavlobaSi Sesrulebuli moqmedebebis pasuxi)
gavlenas axdens saboloo Sefasebaze: rac ufro
didia nawilobrivi (arasruli) pasuxi, miT ufro
didia saboloo Sefaseba. A
am martivi magaliTis amoxsniT Cven davasabuTeT Ruzis~ efeqtis arseboba. raime movlenis
an Sedegis Sesaxeb msjeloba, romelic emyareba
Ruzis~ evristikas, sakmarisi ar aris. misi
gamoyeneba ganapirobebs Sedegis realuri mniSvnelobis gadafasebas an verSefasebas. Ruzis~
evristikis gamoyeneba mizanSewonili ar aris,
roca Tavdapirveli Sefaseba Seicavs mocemuli
msjelobisaTvis WeSmaritad relevantur informacias. miuxedavad amisa, im SemTxvevaSic
ki, roca mocemuli informacia aSkarad naklebad
mniSvnelovani an saerTod usargebloa, adamianebi Ruzis~ efeqtis Zlier zegavlenas
ganicdian.

saidan
viciT

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

5 wamSi Tqven, albaT, SeZlebT ramdenime


moqmedebis Sesrulebas da miiRebT arasrul
pasuxs, SesaZloa, 24-s, Semdeg ki gamoiyvanT
saboloo pasuxs.
axla scadeT Semdegi magaliTis amoxsna:

352

8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = _____
im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu Tqven SeamCnevT, rom
es sapirispiro mimarTulebiT dalagebuli igive
ricxvebia, naxavT, rom miRebuli Sedegi sakmaod
gansxavebuli iqneba. albaT, magaliTis amoxsnas
daiwyebT Semdegi moqmedebis SesrulebiT - 8 X 7
da miiRebT 56-s; Semdeg, SeecdebiT 56-is 6-ze
Ruzis~ evristika (Anchoring Heuristics) zogierTi movlenis an Sedegis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb
msjelobisas misi sawyisi mniSvnelobis gadafaseba an verSefaseba.

SemTxveviTi `Ruza~ cvlis Sefasebas


erT-erT eqsperimentSi studentebs mianiWes pirobiTi saidentifikacio nomrebi
(1,928-dan 1,935-mde), romlebic instruqciis
mixedviT unda gadaeweraT Tavis kiTxvarebze (sakontrolo jgufis studentebi
ar iRebdnen nomrebs). am ricxvze studentebis yuradRebis gasamaxvileblad sxvadasxva saSualebas (magaliTad, sTxovdnen
aReniSnaT, iyo Tu ara is 1,940-ze meti)
mimarTavdnen, magram saidentifikacio nomeri naTlad iyo gansazRvruli, rogorc
sxva nebismieri pasuxisTvis irelevanturi.
mogvianebiT, studentebs sTxovdnen, SeefasebinaT adgilobriv sainformacio broSu-

es ukanaskneli Sedegebi namdvilad imsaxureben yuradRebas: gafrTxilebac ki ar aRmoCnda


sakmarisi. gamyidvelebi Zalian xSirad iyeneben
Ruzis~ efeqts, roca cdiloben dagarwmunon,
iyidoT produqcia. magaliTad, Tqven apirebT
axali magnotofonis yidvas. gamyidvelma SeiZleba giTxraT: ,,Tqven varaudobT 1 000 an 2 000
dolaris gadaxdas, ara?~ mas Semdeg, rac maRal
fasze ganewyobiT, realuri fasi (magaliTad
599, 99 dolari) ukve mizanSewonilad geCvenebaT.
vfiqrobT, am nawilis wakiTxva dagexmarebaT,
Tavidan aiciloT Ruzis~ uaryofiTi gavlena;
rac mTavaria, Tqven gafrTxilebuli xarT,
rom windaxeduleba gamoiCinoT.
msjelobisas Tqven iyenebT evristikis iseT
saxeebs, rogoricaa: xelmisawvdomoba, reprezentaciuloba da Ruza~, radgan umravles SemTxvevaSi isini efeqturi da misaRebi msjelobis
SesaZleblobas gaZlevT. situaciis gaurkvevlobidan da Tqveni SezRuduli resursebidan
gamomdinare, Tqven, garkveulwilad, maqsimums
akeTebT. Cven giCveneT, rom evristikam SeiZleba
Secdomamde migiyvanoT. mniSvnelovani daskvnis
gakeTebis dros SeecadeT gamoiyenoT es codna
da SeamowmoT sakuTari azrovnebis procesebi.
gansakuTrebiT kritikulad miudeqiT sxvebis
SesaZlo mcdelobas, winaswari ganzraxviT zegavlena moaxdinon Tqvens msjelobaze. axla
ganvixiloT gadawvetilebis miReba, rac xSirad
swored am msjelobis safuZvelze xdeba.

gadawyvetilebis miRebis
fsiqologia
warmogidgenT gadawyvetilebis miRebaze
fsiqologiuri faqtorebis gavlenis TvalsaCino
magaliTs. ganvixiloT problema, romelic
mocemulia 9.7 cxrilis pirvel nawilSi. waikiTxeT instruqcia da airCieT A an B varianti.
axla am problemis meore naSilSi warmodgenil
variants gaecaniT. xom ar SecvlidiT arCevans?
eqsperimentul pirobebSi studentebi kiTxulobdnen am problemis erT-erT versias (Shafir,
1993). roca maT pirvel nawilSi ekiTxebodnen,
Tu romel variants amjobinebdnen, studentebis
67% irCveda B variants, xolo, rodesac studentebs sTxovdnen, gaeuqmebinaT arCevani, es
maCvenebeli 52%-mde ecemoda (48% auqmebs B variants). ratom aris es cvlileba ucnauri? Tu
yuradRebiT gadaxedavT problemis orive versias,
naxavT, rom maT Soris araviTari gansxvaveba ar
aris. erTi SexedviT, Tqven SeiZleba ifiqroT,
rom msgavsma informaciam imave gadawyvetilebamde unda migiyvanoT, magram adamianebi ase
ar iqcevian. rogorc Cans, ,,upiratesobis~
miniWebis SemTxvevaSi adamianTa yuradReba
koncentrirebulia arCevanis pozitiur mxareebze
_ Tqven agrovebT aSkara damamtkicebel sabuTebs
raRacis sasargeblod maSin, roca ,,gauqmebis~
moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi yuradRebis koncentrireba arCevanis negatiur aspeqtebze xdeba _
Tqven agrovebT informacias raRacis winaaRmdeg.
amitom, SesaZloa, Tqveni gadawyvetileba
Seicvalos.
aseTi sworxazovani magaliTi gviCvenebs, rom
gadawyvetilebis miRebaze did gavlenas axdens
kiTxvis formulireba (Solvic, 1995), swored amitom
saWiroa gadawyvetilebis miRebis fsiqologiuri
aspeqtebis codna. Tqven unda SegeZloT Tqveni
gadawyvetilebis Semowmeba, raTa darwmundeT,
eqvemdebareba Tu ara is detalur analizs. am
SemTxvevaSi Tqven SegiZliaT hkiTxoT sakuTar
Tavs: ,,rogor Seicvleboda Cemi arCevani ama Tu
im variantis uaryofis da ara arCevis SemTxvevaSi?~ Tu romelime konkretul arCevans
erT SemTxvevaSi aniWebT upiratesobas, xolo
meore SemTxvevaSi uaryofT, es imas niSnavs,
rom mas aqvs rogorc dadebiTi, ise uaryofiTi

msjeloba da gadawyvetilebis miReba

raSi mocemul eqimTa ricxvi. pasuxebze


aSkara gavlena moaxdina absoluturad
irelevanturma, pirobiTma Ruzam~. studentebi, romlebmac yuradReba gaamaxviles
pirobiT saidentifikacio nomrebze, fiqroben, rom broSuraSi mocemuli eqimebis
raodenoba didia 631, vidre sakontrolo
jgufis studentebis 219. im SemTxvevaSic
ki, roca studentebs specialurad afrTxilebdnen, rom saidentifikacio nomerma
SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos Sefasebaze,
maTi Sefaseba gacilebiT maRali iyo (539),
vidre sakontrolo jgufSi gaerTianebul
studentTa mier micemuli Sefaseba (219)
(Wilson et al., 1996.).

353

cxrili

9.7
fsiqologiuri faqtorebis gavlena gadawyvetilebis miRebaze

nawili 1: upiratesobis miniWeba


1. warmoidgineT, rom sagazafxulo Svebulebis
dros apirebT erTi kviriT sadme Tbil
adgilas wasvlas. Tqven gaqvT ori arCevani,
romelic iafi gijdebaT. turistul broSuraSi am ori adgilis Sesaxeb mocemuli
informacia sakmaod mwiria. mocemul informaciaze dayrdnobiT, romel adgils amoirCevdiT dasasveneblad?

adgili A saSualo amindi


saSualo sanapiro
saSualo donis sastumro
wylis zomieri temperatura
RamiT zomieri garToba

adgili B bevri mzis sxivebi


brwyinvale sanapiroebi da
marjnis rifebi
ultraTanamedrove sastumro
Zalian civi wyali
Zalian Zlieri qari
RamiT aranairi garToba

adgili B bevri mzis sxivebi


brwyinvale sanapiroebi da
marjnis rifebi
ultraTanamedrove sastumro
Zalian civi wyali
Zalian Zlieri qari
RamiT aranairi garToba

arCevanis forma

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

2. warmoidgineT, rom sagazafxulo Svebulebis dros


apirebT erTi kviriT sadme Tbil adgilas wasvlas.
Tqven gaqvT ori arCevani, romelic iafi gijdebaT.
Tqven orive dajavSnuli gaqvT, magram erT-erTi
unda gaauqmoT. turistul broSuraSi am ori adgilis Sesaxeb mocemuli informacia sakmaod mwiria.
mocemul informaciaze dayrdnobiT romeli adgilis javSans gaauqmebdiT?

adgili A saSualo amindi


saSualo sanapiro
saSualo donis sastumro
wylis zomieri temperatura
RamiT zomieri garToba

mxareebi. bolos dasviT kiTxva: `misaRebia Tu


ara es arCevani?~ es Tqveni kritikuli azrovnebis
unarebis ganviTarebis mniSvnelovan safexurs
warmoadgens.

354

nawili 2: uaryofa

gadawyvetilebis miRebis erT-erT yvelaze


bunebriv gzas imis gansazRvra warmoadgens, Tu
romeli arCevani mogvitans udides sargebels,
an umcires danakargs. ase rom, Tu SemogTavazeben
5 an 10 dolars, yovelgvari yoymanis gareSe
mixvdebiT, rom ukeTesia 10 dolaris arCeva.
situacias arTulebs is, rom sargeblis da danakargis aRqma xSirad damokidebulia imaze, Tu
ra formiTaa arCevani mocemuli. forma~ warmoadgens arCevanis detalur aRweras. warmoidgineT,
rom gekiTxebian: `ramdenad gagaxarebdaT xelfasis gazrda 1 000 dolariT?~ Tu Tqven ar
elodebodiT xelfasis momatebas, es didi miRweva
iqneba da Zalian gagabednierebT, magram manamde
Tu ramdenimejer Segpirdnen xelfasis 10 000
forma (Frame) arCevanis gansakuTrebuli aRwera.
gadawyvetilebis miRebaze da arCevanis gakeTebaze gavlenas axdens arCevanis formulireba,
misi ama Tu im kuTxiT warmodgena.

dolariT gazrdas, maSin rogor xasiaTze dadgebiT? uecrad SeiZleba iseTi gancda dageufloT, TiTqos fuli dakargeT, radgan 1 000
dolari gacilebiT naklebia, vidre Tqven elodiT; Tumca, orive SemTxvevaSi 1 000 dolariT
mets miiRebdiT weliwadSi _ obieqturad, Tqven
zustad erTnair mdgomareobaSi iqnebodiT, magram
fsiqologiuri efeqti Zalian gansxvavebulia.
ai, ratom aris mniSvnelovani orientirebi
gadawyvetilebis miRebisas (Kahneman, 1992). ras
ganvixilavT mogebad da ras _ danakargad,
nawilobriv, ganisazRvreba molodinebiT 1 000
dolaris an 10 000 dolaris momateba _ romelzec
orientirebulia adamiani (am SemTxvevaSi gadawyvetileba SeiZleba exebodes samsaxurSi darCenas).
axla ganvixiloT SedarebiT rTuli magaliTi, romelSic `formireba~ ufro mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens gadawyvetilebis miRebaze. 9.8 cxrilSi Tqven filtvis simsivnis
mkurnalobis meTodis arCeva gevalebaT _
operacia an radioTerapia. pirvelad waikiTxeT
`gadarCenis~ formiT warmodgenili problema
da airCieT mkurnalobis strategia; Semdeg ki
`sikvdilianobis~ formiT gadmocemuli igive

saidan
viciT
msjeloba cudi saqmianobis Sesaxeb
warmoidgineT, rom Tqven gTxoven, monawileoba miiRoT disciplinarul komisiaSi, romelmac unda gadawyvitos, Tu ra
TanxiT daajarimos kompania, romelic reklamis saSualebiT mcdar informacias
avrcelebda. moaxdens Tu ara gavlenas
sakiTxis miwodebis forma Tqvens gadawyvetilebaze? eqsperimentSi kompaniis
saqmianoba warmodgenili iyo erT SemTxvevaSi dadebiTi kuTxiT (magaliTad,
,,20%-ia imis Sansi, rom organizaciam ar
icoda reklamaSi mcdari informaciis
Sesaxeb~), xolo, meore SemTxvevaSi - negatiuri kuTxiT (magaliTad, `80%-ia imis
Sansi, rom organizaciam icoda reklamaSi
mcdari informaciis Sesaxeb~). xedavT, rom
orive gancxadeba zustad erTi da igive
informacias gvawodebs? cdis pirebi,
romlebic kiTxulobdnen pozitiuri
kuTxiT miwodebul gancxadebas, iZleodnen
daaxloebiT 40,153 dolaris odenobis
jarimis rekomendacias maSin, roca negatiuri formiT miwodebuli gancxadebis

wakiTxvis Semdeg maTi rekomendacia iyo


daaxloebiT 78,968 dolaris odenobis jarima (Dunegenm 1996). rogorc xedavT,
ramdenime sityvam mniSvnelovani gavlena
iqonia gadayvetilebis miRebaze.

rogor SegviZlia aseTi Sedegebis sakuTar


cxovrebaSi gamoyeneba? realur samyaroSi
gadawyvetilebis miReba gixdebaT, romelic
momavlis Sesaxeb Tqvens sakuTar an sxvebis
mosazrebas (varauds) eyrdnoba. aseT SemTxvevebSi,
scadeT problemis rogorc mogebis, ise wagebis
kuTxiT ganxilva. warmoidgineT, magaliTad, rom

cxrili

9.8

formirebis (gadmocemis) efeqti


gadarCena
operacia. 100 adamianidan postoperaciul periodSi
jer kidev cocxalia 90, erTi wlis Semdeg 68, xolo
xuTi wlis Semdeg _ mxolod 34.
radioTerapia. radioTerapiiT mkurnalobis procesSi
100 adamianidan yvela cocxali rCeba; erTi wlis Semdeg
cocxalia 77 adamiani, xolo xuTi wlis Semdeg 22.
mkurnalobis romel meTods airCevdiT: operacias Tu
radioTerapias?

sikvdilianoba
operacia. 100 adamianidan operaciis dros an mis Semdgom periodSi iRupeba 10 adamiani, operaciidan erTi
wlis ganmavlobaSi 32, xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi ki
66.
radioTerapia. radioTerapiiT mkurnalobis procesSi
100 adamianidan arc erTi ar daRupula; mkurnalobidan
erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi daiRupa 23 adamiani, 5 wlis
ganmavlobaSi ki 78.

msjeloba da gadawyvetilebis miReba

problema da naxeT, SecvliT Tu ara Tqvens


arCevans. yuradReba miaqcieT, rom monacemebi
obieqturad erTi da igivea, gansxvaveba mxolod
statistikuri monacemebis aRweraSia, romelic
mkurnalobis TiToeuli meTodisaTvis gadarCenis
an sikvdilianobis terminebiTaa warmodgenili.
cdis pirebis mier mkurnalobis meTodis arCevaze mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens mogebaze da
danakargze fokusireba. problemis `gadarCenis~
formiT miwodebis SemTxvevaSi radioTerapias
cdis pirTa 18% irCevs, `sikvdilianobis~ kuTxiT
miwodebis SemTxvevaSi ki 44%. `formirebis~
es efeqti erTnair gavlenas axdens gadawyvetilebis miRebaze klinikuri pacientebis, statistikis mcodne biznes studentebisa da gamocdili eqimebis jgufebSi (McNeil et al., 1982).
es magaliTi mniSvnelovania imdenad, ramdenadac masSi asaxulia Tqveni realuri cxovrebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli gaurkvevloba.

mkurnalobis romel meTods airCevdiT: operacias Tu


radioTerapias?

355

cxrili

9.9

gadawyvetilebis aversia
A.

warmoidgineT, rom Tqven `sidipleeris~ yidvas


apirebT, magram gadawyvetili ar gaqvT, Tu romeli
modeli iyidoT. maRaziaSi, sadac gamocxadebulia
erTdRiani fasdakleba. isini gTavazoben popularuli firmis _ SONY-s `sidipleers~ sul raRac
99 dolarad, rac sakmaod iafia mis Tavdapirvel
fasTan SedarebiT. rogor moiqceviT?
1.

iyidiT SONY-s `sidipleers~.

daicdiT, sanam ar gaerkveviT sxva modelebSi.


B.

warmoidgineT, rom Tqven `sidipleeris~ yidvas


apirebT, magram gadawyvetili ar gaqvT, romeli
modeli iyidoT. maRaziaSi, sadac gamocxadebulia
erTdRiani fasdakleba, gTavazoben popularul
firmis _ SONY-s `sidipleers~ sul raRac 99
dolarad da umaRlesi xarisxis AIWA `sidipleers~
159 dolarad. orive modelis fasi bevrad ufro
dabalia maT Tavdapirvel fasTan SedarebiT. rogor
moiqceviT?
1.

iyidiT AIWA -s `sidipleers~.

2.

iyidiT SONY-s

`sidipleers~.

gatareba, romelsac dRemde warmateba moaqvs~ ;


oponents SeuZlia mis sawinaaRmdegod Tqvas,
rom ,,mas eSinia axali ideebis.~ erTi kandidati
SeiZleba ambobdes: ,,es politika ekonomiur
aRmavlobamde migviyvans.~ misi oponenti ki
SeiZleba SeewinaaRmdegos: ,,es politika sazianoa
garemosaTvis.~ xSir SemTxvevaSi orive marTals
ambobs _ erTi da igive politika SeiZleba
ekonomikisaTvis kargi aRmoCndes, magram garemosTvis _ saziano. aseT dros formis damajereblobas mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs adamianis
biografia (Tversky & Kahneman, 1981; Vaughan & Seifert,
1992). amgvarad, gadawyvetilebis miRebaze
gamonaTqvamis formulirebis gavlenis codna
dagexmarebaT imis gagebaSi, Tu ra ganapirobebs
msgavs situaciebSi erTmaneTisagan radikalurad
gansxvavebuli gadawyvetilebebis miRebas. Tu
Tqven sxva adamianebis qcevis gagebis survili
gaqvT, SeecadeT ifiqroT imaze, Tu rogor
moaxdines am adamianebma gadawyvetilebis formireba.

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

daicdiT, sanam ar gaerkveviT sxva modelebSi.

356

Tqven axali manqanis yidvas apirebT. gamyidveli


Seecdeba, yvelaferi warmogidginoT mogebis
kuTxiT: `qsenoni~-s 78%-s SekeTeba ar sWirdeba
pirveli wlis ganmavlobaSi!~ Tqven SegiZliaT
mis mier mowodebuli informaciis perefrazireba: ,,22%-s esaWiroeba SekeTeba pirvel wels!~
cvlis Tu ara axali formulireba Tqven mier
situaciis aRqmas? es savarjiSoa, romelic realur cxovrebaSi gamogadgebaT.
manqanis gamyidvelis SemTxveva im situaciis
saukeTeso magaliTia, rodesac viRac cdilobs
informaciis iseTi formiT mowodebas, romelic
saSualebas miscems mas, sasurveli gavlena
moaxdinos Tqvens gadawyvetilebaze. aseTi ram
sistematurad xdeba Cvens cxovrebaSi. magaliTad,
yovelTvis, arCevnebis moaxloebisas, ori mowinaaRmdege kandidati cdilobs sakuTari Tavisa
da sxvadasxva sakiTxebis Sesaxeb informacia
warmoadginos ise, rom amomrCevelTa simpaTia
daimsaxuros. erTma kandidatma SeiZleba Tqvas:
`vTvli, rom unda gavagrZelo im politikis
gadawyvetilebisTvis Tavis arideba (aversia)
(Decision aversion) _ gadawyvetilebis miRebisagan
Tavis aridebis tendencia; rac ufro rTulia
gadawyvetilebis miReba, miT metia misgan ganridebis albaToba.

gadawyvetilebisTvis Tavis arideba


(aversia)
warmoidgineT, rom Tqven didi Sromis Semdeg
sxvadasxva kuTxiT SeafaseT alternativebi. ra
moxdeba Semdeg? SeiZleba aRmoaCinoT, rom ar
gindaT gadawyvetilebis miReba. 9.9. cxrilSi
aRwerilia iseTi pirobebi, romlebmac SeiZleba
gamoiwvion gadawyvetilebis miRebis survilis
dakargva. ganvixiloT A nawilSi mocemuli
situacia, ras airCevdiT? mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines,
rom mxolod cdis pirTa 34% ambobs, rom
moicdian, sanam ufro met informacias ar
miiReben (Tversky & Shafir, 1992); axla ganvixiloT
B nawilSi aRwerili odnav Secvlili situacia.
gsurT Tu ara Tqveni arCevanis Secvla? sinamdvileSi cdis pirTa 46%, vinc es varianti
waikiTxa, ambobs, rom daicdis, sanam damatebiT
informacias ar miiRebs. ra xdeba? (rogor ggoniaT, ratom?) Cveulebriv, Tqven eliT, rom axali
alternativis damateba Seamcirebs sxva alternativis xvedriT wils. Tu magaliTad, politikur arenaze Semodis mesame kandidati, savaraudoa, rom igi xmebis garkveul raodenobas
waarTmevs pirvel ors; Tumca, am SemTxvevaSi
mesame SesaZleblobis gaCena 12%-iT zrdis erTerTi pirveli arCevanis xvedriT wils. ra xdeba?

 adamianebs ar uyvarT iseTi gadawyvetilebis


miReba, romlis Sedegadac zogs eqneba meti
sasurveli keTildReoba, zogs ki naklebi;
 adamianebs SeuZliaT, winaswar ganWvriton,
rogor inaneben, Tu maT mier gakeTebuli arCevani
ufro cudi aRmoCndeba, vidre is, romelic maT
ar gaakeTes;

 adamianebs ar surT, pasuxismgebelni iyvnen


im gadawyvetilebaze, romelsac SeiZleba cudi
Sedegi hqondes;
 adamianebs ar moswonT gadawyvetilebis
miReba sxvebis magivrad.
im pirobebis gansazRvris mizniT, romlebSic
adamianebi eZeben gadawyvetilebas, SegviZlia
am ukanaskneli debulebis sapirispiros formulireba. ramdenadac adamianebs ar uyvarT
gadawyvetilebis miReba, isini ukeT grZnoben
Tavs, Tu amas maT magivrad sxva gaakeTebs. es
yovelTvis unda gaiTvaliswinoT. SeecadeT,

TviTon gadawyvitoT TqvenTvis mniSvnelovani


problemebi. nu daarwmunebT sakuTar Tavs imaSi,
rom Zalian rTuli problemis winaSe dgaxarT
da ar SegiZliaT gadawyvetilebis miReba.
ZiriTadad iqonieT Tqvens kognitur procesebze
damyarebuli msjelobebis imedi da gamoiyeneT
isini Sesaferisi arCevanis gasakeTeblad!
am Tavis dasawyisSi Cven movitaneT citata
elen keleris publikaciidan _ ,,azris
dabrunebiT gancdili mRelvareba~; Semdeg
ganvixileT sxvadaxsva kognituri procesi _
metyveleba, vizualuri Semecneba, problemis
gadaWra, azrovneba, msjeloba da gadwyvetilebis
miReba _ da vimedovnebT, rom Tqven dafiqrdebiT
im sixarulze, romelsac es unarebi ganiWebT.
SeecadeT, isargebloT elen keleris gamocdilebiT da ar moepyroT Tqvens SemecnebiT procesebs, rogorc TavisTavad arsebuls; ifiqreT
Tqveni azrovnebis Sesaxeb, daasabuTeT Tqveni
argumentebi da a.S. Tqven asaxavT adamianuri
yofis arss.

Sejameba
msjelobaze Catarebuli gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom adamianebi ufro xSirad eyrdnobian
evristikul da ara formalur analizs. evristikis xelmisawvdomoba gulisxmobs, rom
adamianebi akeTeben daskvnas im informaciis
safuZvelze, romelic Tavisuflad misawvdomia
mexsierebaSi. evristikis reprezentatulobis
mixedviT, daskvna emyareba ama Tu im sagnis an
movlenis ama Tu im kategoriis arsebiTi niSnebis gansazRvras. `Ruzis~ evristikis mixedviT,
adamianebis msjelobis Sefasebis dazusteba
sawyisi sidididan gamomdinare xdeba. kiTxvis
forma gavlenas axdens gadawyvetilebis miRebaze.
mkvlevrebi Tvlian, rom gadawyvetilebis
sirTule ganapirobebs gadawyvetilebisadmi
antipatiur damokidebulebas.

msjeloba da gadawyvetilebis miReba

aseTi Sedegi SesaZlebelia im SemTxvevaSi,


roca Znelia gadawyvetilebis miReba. rodesac
cdis pirebs miewodebodaT problemis iseTi
varianti, sadac maT damatebiT, dabalxarisxiani
`sidipleeris~ arCevis SesaZlebloba aqvT,
monawileTa mxolod 24% ambobs, rom daicdian,
sanam axal informacias ar miiReben. am maCveneblis Semcireba (da ara gazrda) imiT aixsneba,
rom `sonis~ arCeva advilia, Tumca, arCevanis
gakeTeba `sonis~ SedarebiT iaffasian modelsa
da umaRlesi xarisxis `aivas~ Soris rTulia.
ufro mosaxerxebelia, gadavdoT gadawyvetilebis miReba da davelodoT axal informacias.
miuxedavad individualuri gansxvavebebisa,
adamianTa umravlesobisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia
gadawyvetilebis miRebis Tavidan acilebis
sakmaod Zlieri tendencia, rac ganpirobebulia
ramdenime fsiqologiuri faqtoris zemoqmedebiT
(Bettie et al., 1994):

357

sakvanZo
sakiTxebi
kogniciis Seswavla
kognitur fsiqologiaSi
momuSave specialistebi
Seiswavlian fsiqikur
procesebs da struqturebs, romlebic safuZ-

vlad udevs adamianis


aRqmis, metyvelebis, azrovnebis, problemis gadaWris, msjelobisa da
gadawyvetilebis miRebis
unarebs.
im fsiqikuri procesebis
gamoyofis mizniT, romlebic rTuli amocanis
Sesrulebas udevs safuZvlad, mkvlevrebi mimarTaven reaqciis drois
gazomvas.

Tavi 9 / kognituri procesebi

metyveleba

358
358

adamianebs SeuZliaT azris gamoTqma da naTqvamis gageba.


gamonaTqvamis Sinaarsis
gansazRvra xdeba auditoriis gaTvaliswinebiT.
metyvelebis Secdomebi
naTels hfens metyvelebis dagegmvis bevr process.
gamonaTqvamis Sinaarsis
gageba orazrovnebis
daZleva xdeba konteqstis mixedviT.
mniSvnelobis mexsierebaSi Senaxuli reprezentaciebi efuZneba propoziciebs, xolo maTi Sevseba xdeba daskvniT (varaudiT).
ena, romelzec adamianebi
laparakoben, SesaZloa
gavlenas axdendes maT azrovnebaze.

vizualuri kognicia
vizualuri reprezentaciebi
SesaZloa gamoyenebul iqnes
propoziciuli reprezentaciebis Sesavsebad.
vizualuri reprezentaciebi
garemos vizualuri aspeqtebis gaazrebis saSualebas
gvaZlevs.
adamianebi qmnian vizualur
reprezentaciebs, romlebSic
gaerTianebulia rogorc
verbaluri, ise vizualuri
informacia.

problemis gadaWra da
azrovneba
adamianebma unda gansazRvron
sawyisi mdgomareoba, mizani
da is operaciebi, romlebic
saSualebas miscemT, sawyisi
mdgomareobidan miaRwion
mizans.
logikur wesebze damyarebuli wanamZRvrebis safuZvelze gakeTebuli daskvna
deduqciuri azrovnebaa.
induqciuri azrovneba gulisxmobs daskvnis gakeTebas
xdomilebis albaTobis gaTvaliswinebiT.

msjeloba da
gadawyvetilebis miReba
msjeloba da gadawyvetilebis miReba, ZiriTadad, efuZneba evristikas, romelic
adamians gadawyvetilebis
swrafad miRebis saSualebas
aZlevs.
misawvdomobis, reprezentatulobisa da Ruzis efeqtis~ arasworma gamoyenebam

SeiZleba SecdomaSi Segviyvanos. gadawyvetilebis


miRebaze gavlenas axdens
arCevanis SesaZlo variantebis formireba.
fsiqologiuri zemoqmedebis
gamo adamianebi avlenen
rTuli gadawyvetilebis
miRebis ganridebis tendencias.

ZiriTadi sakiTxebi
avtomaturi procesebi
azrovneba
algoriTmi
gadawyvetilebis aversia
gadawyvetilebis miReba
deduqciuri azrovneba
evristika
eqspresiuli metyveleba
varaudi
induqciuri azrovneba
kognituri procesebi
kognituri fsiqologia
kognituri mecnierebebi
kontrolirebadi procesebi
misawvdomobis evristika
msmenelis gaTvaliswineba
msjeloba
paraleluri procesebi
problemis gadaWra
problemuri situacia
reprezentaciuli evristika
seriuli procesebi
forma
funqcionaluri rigidoba
fsiqikuri ganwyoba
Ruzis evristika
Semecneba
xmamaRali fiqris oqmi
avtomaturi procesebi
azrovneba
algoriTmi
gadawyvetilebis aversia

inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

10
ra aris Sefaseba

Sefasebis istoria

formaluri Sefasebis
ZiriTadi niSnebi
inteleqtis Sefaseba

inteleqtis testebis
istoriuli safuZvlebi
IQ testebi
fsiqologia XXi saukeneSi:
Sefaseba internebtiT
inteleqtis Teoriebi

inteleqtis fsiqometriuli Teoria

sternbergis inteleqtis
triarqiuli Teoria

gardneris mravlobiTi
inteleqti da emociuri
inteleqti
inteleqtis politika

jgufuri Sedarebebis
istoria

memkvidreobiToba da IQ
garemo da IQ
kultura da IQ testebis
validoba
SemoqmedebiToba

kreatulobis Sefaseba
da kavSiri inteleqtTan

gansakuTrebuli
kreatuloba da
SeSliloba

Sefaseba da sazogadoeba
sakvanZo sakiTxebi

ZiriTadi cnebebi

359

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

360

dre, naklebad rTul droSi, imisaTvis, rom xeloba geswavlaT


da saqmianoba dagewyoT, ucvleli
gza Segirdidan ostatamde unda gagevloT. Tqven
bunebrivi procesis Sedegad gaxdebodiT sando
xelosani da ar dagWirdebodaT nerviuloba
imis gamo, rom gamxdariyaviT `serTificirebuli~
da ori nomeri fanqriT SemogexazaT pasuxebi
`WeSmaritia~ an `mcdaria~ fsiqologiuri testis punqtze _ `me upiratesobas vaniWeb maRal
qalebs~. ara, mWedeli imitom iyo mWedeli, rom
ubralod mWedeli iyo; meduqne vaWrobda, Tvlebis ostati ki Tvlebs Wedavda. dRevandel,
superracionalur da postindustriul samyaroSi Cven ricxvebs ufro vendobiT, vidre gamocdilebas, amitom nebismier Semosavlian sferoSi
muSaobisaTvis _ iqneba es iuristi Tu interieris

dizaineri, Tqven SeiZleba testis Sesruleba


dagavalon.
imis dadgenis mizniT, Tu zustad ras moiTxoven damqiraveblebi da profesiuli organizaciebi TavianTi TanamSromlebisa da wevrebisgan
da, sxvaTa Soris, imis dasadgenad, Tu ra saxis
samuSaos Seveferebi me yvelaze metad, ocdaTerTmeti samsaxurebrivi Tu praqtikuli testi
gaviare. testebis klasifikacia metad mravalferovani iyo _ barmenebisaTvis, safosto manqanis
meqanikosebisaTvis, radiodiqtorebisaTvis, samogzauro agentebisaTvis, geologebisaTvis, sagareo
uwyebaTa moxeleTaTvis da federaluri gamoZiebis biuros agentebisaTvis.
Cemi Sedegebi yovelTvis ar iyo damaimedebeli.
me Tavi gavarTvi mxolod sam tests.

nawarmoebSi, `Tqven aRarasodes mouvliT


ZaRlebs am qalaqSi~, eseisti henri alfordi
(Henry Alford, 1993) zogierT im testsa da gamocdas
aRwers, romelic man Semosavliani samsaxuris
Zebnisas gaiara. nebismierisaTvis, visac didi
gza gauvlia samsaxuris ZiebaSi, misTvis kargad
nacnobi iqneba alfordis mier aRwerili iumoristuli SemTxvevebi. damqiraveblebi TiToeuli
kandidatis `SesaZleblobis~ gansasazRvrad
sxvadasxva tests iyeneben. zogjer Zalian Znelia
testsa da samuSaos Soris kavSiris danaxva,
Tumca, TiTqmis yovelTvis arseboben eqspertebi,
romlebic arwmuneben kompanias, rom testi zomavs
relevantur gansxvavebebs kandidatebs Soris.
Tu Tqven aSS-Si gaizardeT, savaraudoa, rom
Tqveni `SesaZleblobebi~ bevrad ufro adre
gazomiliyo, vidre samsaxurs daiwyebdiT _

umetes skolebSi maswavleblebi da administratorebi Tqveni cxovrebis adreul periodSi


cdiloben Tqveni inteleqtis gazomvas. yvelaze
xSirad mizani imis gansazRvraa, Tu saklaso
davalebebi ramdenad Seesabameba moswavleebis
inteleqtualur SesaZleblobebs, rac maT
garkveul moTxovnebs uyenebs, Tumca, rogorc
Tqven, albaT, ukve SeniSneT, adamianis cxovrebaze
inteleqtis testirebis gavlena saklaso oTaxis
farglebs scildeba.
am TavSi inteleqtis Sefasebis safuZvlebsa
da gamoyenebas SeviswavliT. mimovixilavT im
wvlils, romelic fsiqologebma inteleqtis
sferoSi individualuri gansxvavebebis gagebaSi
Seitanes. aseve, vimsjelebT azrTa im sxvadasxvaobaze, romelic aucileblad aRmocendeba,
rodesac adamianebi am gansxvavebebis axsnas

iwyeben. Cveni yuradRebis centrSi iqneba, Tu


rogor muSaobs inteleqtis testebi, ra xdis
nebismier tests vargisad da ratom aris, rom
isini yovelTvis ar asruleben im saqmes,
romlisTvisac arian gankuTvnilni. dabolos,
davasrulebT piradi CanaweriT, romelSic
ganvixilavT fsiqologiuri Sefasebis rols
sazogadoebaSi.
Cvens fsiqologiuri Sefasebis zogadi gamoyenebis mokle mimoxilviT daviwyebT.

fsiqologiuri Sefaseba gulisxmobs individTa unarebis, qcevebisa da pirovnuli


maxasiaTeblebis Sesafaseblad zustad dadgenili procedurebis gamoyenebas. fsiqologiuri
Sefaseba xSirad ganixileba, rogorc individualuri gansxvavebebis gazomva, radgan SefasebaTa umravlesoba adgens, Tu riTi gansxvavdeba, an emsgavseba individi sxvebs mocemuli
niSnis mixedviT. fsiqologiuri testirebis
ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebis detalur ganxilvamde
mokled mimovixiloT Sefasebis istoria. es
istoriuli eqskursi dagexmarebaT, gaigoT
Sefasebis rogorc sargebeli, ise SezRudvebi;
aseve, xels SegiwyobT, SeafasoT am sakiTxis
irgvliv arsebuli zogierTi dava.

Sefasebis istoria
SefasebisTvis gankuTvnili formaluri
testebisa da meTodikebis ganviTareba SedarebiT
axali saqmea dasavlur fsiqologiaSi, romelic
farTo asparezze mxolod 1990-iani wlebis
dasawyisSi gamovida. Tumca, didi xniT adre,
vidre dasavluri fsiqologia daiwyebda adamianTa Sesafasebeli testebis gamogonebas, Sefasebis
meTodebi ukve arsebobda antikur CineTSi.
faqtobrivad, CineTSi 4000 wlis win gamoiyeneboda sakmaod daxvewili programa saxelmwifo
samoqalaqo samsaxurSi misaRebi moxeleebis
testirebisaTvis. saxelmwifo moxeleebs TavianTi kompetenturobis gamovlena yovel mesame
wels moeTxovebodaT zepir gamocdaze. ori
aTasi wlis Semdeg, hanis dinastiis dros, weriTi

testebi saxelmwifo samoqalaqo samsaxurSi


daqiravebuli moxeleebis kompetenturobis
gamosavlenad gamoiyeneboda iseT sferoebSi,
rogoricaa iurisprudencia, samxedro saqme,
agronomia (an sasoflo-sameurneo saqme) da
geografia. mingis dinastiis periodSi (Cv. w.
aR-iT 1368-1664ww.) saxelmwifo moxeleebis SerCeva
samsafexuriani obieqturi SerCevis proceduraSi
miRebuli Sdegebis safuZvelze xdeboda. pirvel
etapze gamocdebi adgilobriv doneze tardeboda.
im adamianebis 4%, romlebic warmatebiT abarebdnen gamocdebs, gamocdis meore etapze gadadiodnen, anu cxra dRisa da Ramis ganmavlobaSi
werdnen narkvevebs klasikur nawarmoebebze.
mxolod 5%-s imaTgan, vinc abarebda am gamocdas,
ufleba eZleoda, gasuliyo testirebis saboloo
etapze, romelic qveynis dedaqalaqSi tardeboda.
1800-iani wlebis dasawyisSi CineTSi arsebuli SerCevis proceduras britaneli diplomatebi da misionerebi akvirdebodnen da aRwerdnen.
Zalian male britaneTSi, mogvianebiT ki amerikaSi, saxelmwifi samoqalaqo samsaxuris personalis SerCevisaTvis danergil iqna Cinuri
sistemis modificirebuli versiebi (Wiggins,1973).
inteleqtis testirebis ganviTarebis istoriaSi erT-erTi mTavari adgili uWiravs inglisel
fsiqologiuri Sefaseba (Psychological assessment)
_ individTa unarebis, qcevisa da pirovnuli
maxasiaTeblebis Sesafasebelad arsebuli gansazRvruli procedurebi.

ra aris Sefaseba

ra aris Sefaseba

361

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

362

aristokrats, ser frensis galtons (Sir Francis


Galton). misi wigni `geniosobis memkvidreobiToba~
1869 wels gamoqveynda, romelmac mniSvnelovani
gavlena moaxdina testirebis meTodebis,
Teoriebisa da praqtikis Semdgom ganviTarebaze.
galtoni, romelic Carlz darvinis naTesavi
iyo, adamianis qcevis Seswavlisas misi evoluciis Teoriis gamoyenebas cdilobda. mas ainteresebda, Tu rogor da ratom gansxvavdebian
adamianebi erTmaneTisagan maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli unarebis mixedviT; agreTve, akvirvebda
is, rom zogierTi adamiani niWieri da warmatebuli iyo, rogorc TviTon, xolo zogierTi ki
_ ara.
galtoni iyo pirveli, romelmac wamoayena
oTxi mniSvnelovani idea inteleqtis Sefasebis
Sesaxeb. pirvelis mixedviT inteleqtis mixedviT
gansxvaveba raodenobrivia da inteleqtis
xarisxis terminebiT aRiwereba. sxva sityvebiT
rom vTqvaT, maT Soris gansxvavebis dasafiqsireblad raodenobrivi mniSvnelobebi SeiZleba
mieniWos adamianebis inteleqtis doneebs. meore,
adamianebs Soris inteleqtis mixedviT gansxvavebebi zaris formis mruds, anu normalur
ganawilebas qmnis. zaris formis mrudze adamianTa umravlesobis maCvenebeli ganawilebis Sua
nawilSi grovdeba da mxolod mcire nawilia
moTavsebuli ganawilebis ukidures _ geniosobis
da mentaluri deficitis aRmniSvnel _ wertilebTan axlos (zaris formis mruds mogvianebiT
davubrundebiT). mesame, inteleqtis, anu gonebrivi unarebis gazomva SesaZlebelia obieqturi
testebiT, romelTa TiToeul kiTxvas mxolod
erTi swori pasuxi aqvs. meoTxe, testis ori
jgufis maCveneblebs Soris arsebuli mimarTebis
zustad gansazRvra SeiZleba statistikuri
proceduriT, romelsac galtonma korelacia
uwoda da romelic dResdReobiT korelaciis
saxeliTaa cnobili.
samwuxarod, galtonis mravali idea mniSvnelovani kamaTis sagnad iqca. magaliTad, mas
miaCnda, rom geniosoba memkvidreobiT gadaecemoda. misi azriT, talanti, an `sidiade~
formaluri Sefaseba (Formal assessment) _ sistematuri procedurebi da gazomvebi, romelic
gavarjiSebuli profesionalebis mier gamoiyeneba individebis funqcionirebis, unarebis, qcevebis (Cvevebis) an fsiqikuri mdgomareobis Sesaswavlad.

memkvidreobiTia, xolo aRzrdas minimaluri


gavlena aqvs inteleqtze. misi azriT, inteleqti
darviniseul saxeobaTa SeguebasTan da, garkveulwilad, moralur RirebulebebTan aris dakavSirebuli. galtoni cdilobda sazogadoebrivi
politika genetikurad `uaresi~ (inferioruli)
da `saukeTeso~ (superioruli) adamianis cnebaze
daefuZnebina. man Camoayaliba evgenikuri moZraoba, romelic, evoluciuri Teoriis gamoyenebiT, adamianTa modgmis gaumjobesebas uWerda
mxars da dadebiTad iyo ganwyobili biologiurad superioruli adamianebis gamravlebisa
da inferioruli adamianebis mxridan STamomavlobaze uaris Tqmisadmi. galtoni werda: `arsebobs mosazreba, xSir SemTxvevaSi sakmaod
usafuZvlo, inferioruli rasis TandaTanobiT
gadaSendebis ideis gaumarTleblobis Sesaxeb~
(Galton, 1883/1907, gv. 200).
es sakamaTo mosazrebebi mogvianebiT im
adamianebmac gamoTqves, romlebic Tvlidnen,
rom inteleqtualuri (superioruli) rasa
naklebad inteleqtualebis (inferiorebis) xarjze unda gamravldes. am ideebis damcvelTa Soris
iyvnen amerikeli fsiqologebi godardi (Goddard)
da termeni (Terman), romelTa Teoriebsac
mogvianebiT ganvixilavT. aseve, visaubrebT
nacisti diqtatoris, adolf hitleris Teoriis
Sesaxebac. garda amisa, am TavSi vnaxavT, rom es
elitaruli ideebi dResac aqtualuria.
ser frensis galtonma safuZveli Cauyara
inteleqtis Tanamedrove Sefasebas. axla ganvixiloT formaluri SefasebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Taviseburebebi.

formaluri Sefasebis
ZiriTadi niSnebi
formaluri Sefasebis procedura, romelic
gulisxmobs individebis klasifikacias, an maT
SerCevas, sam moTxovnas unda akmayofilebdes.
Sefasebis instrumenti unda iyos (1) sando, (2)
validuri da (3) standartizirebuli. Tu
Sefasebis instrumenti am moTxovnebs ar akmayofilebs, maSin miRebuli Sedegebi sando ar
iqneba. miuxedavad imisa, rom winamdebare Tavi
inteleqtis Sefasebas Seexeba, formaluri
Sefasebis qvemoT aRwerili procedura yvela
saxis fsiqologiuri testirebis dros gamoi-

sandooba
sandooba gviCvenebs, esa Tu is Sefasebis
instrumenti ramdenad iZleva sando monacemebs.
Tu diliT abazanaSi samjer aiwonebiT da
sasawori samjerve sxvadasxva Sedegs giCvenebT,
ifiqrebT, rom is ar muSaobs. Tqven SegiZliaT
TqvaT, rom is ar aris sando, vinaidan ver
iRebT myar maCvenebels; Tu awonvebs Soris
kargad danayrdebiT, maSin, bunebrivia, aRar
geqnebaT molodini imisa, rom saswori erTsa
da imave wonas aCvenebs. gazomvis meTodebi
mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba CaiTvalos
sandod an arasandod, Tu ucvleli darCeba
gasazomi sidide.
testis sandoobis dasadgenad aucilebelia
test-retestuli sandoobis gansazRvra. es aris
korelacia zoma, romelic arsebobs erTsa da
imave cdis pirze, erTi da igive testis sxvadasxva
dros Catarebis Sedegad miRebul maCveneblebs
Soris. sruliad sando testis korelaciis
koeficientia +1.00, rac niSnavs imas, rom orive
SemTxvevaSi erTnair maCveneblebs viRebT. Tu
cdis pirebma pirveli testirebisas miiRes
yvelaze maRali, an dabali qulebi, maSin igives
miiReben meore testirebis Sedegadac. sruliad
arasando testis maCveneblebs Soris korelaciis
koeficienti 0.00-is tolia, rac niSnavs imas,

sandooba (Reliability) _ xarisxi, romelic uzrunvelyofs erTnair qulebs testis nebismier dros
gamoyenebisas, instrumentis mier qulebis stabilurobas an konsistenturobas.
test-retestuli sandooba (Test-retest reliability) _
erTi da igive cdis pirze erTi da igive testis sxvadasxva dros Catarebis Sedegad miRebul
qulebs Soris arsebuli korelaciis sazomi.
paraleluri formebi (Parallel forms) _ testis
sxvadasxva versiis gamoyeneba testis sandoobis
Sesafaseblad; formebis Secvla amcirebs
pirdapiri gamoyenebis, damaxsovrebis efeqts
an individis survils, gamoavlinos konsistenturoba erTi da igive amocanis mimarT.
Sinagani SeTanxmebuloba (Internal consistency) _
sandoobis sazomi. testis sxvadasxva nawilebis,
rogoricaa kenti da luwi punqtebi, SesrulebaSi miRebuli qulebis msgavsebis xarisxi.
SuaSi gaxleCvis sandooba (Split-half consistency)
_ testis ekvivalenturi naxevrebis SesrulebaSi
miRebuli qulebis Sedareba.

ra aris Sefaseba

yeneba. imisaTvis, rom am principebis farTo


gamoyeneba gasagebi gaxdes, ganvixilavT magaliTebs rogorc inteleqtis testirebidan, ise _
fsiqologiuri Sefasebis sxva sferoebidan.

rom aranairi urTierTkavSiri ar arsebobs


pirveli da meore testirebis maCveneblebs
Soris. aseT SemTxvevaSi, Tu cdis pirma
pirvelad umaRlesi qulebi miiRo, meored
SeiZleba sruliad gansxvavebuli Sedegi aCvenos.
korelaciis koeficientis zrdasTan (idealur
+1.00-Tan miaxloebasTan) erTad testis sandoobac
izrdeba.
sandoobis Sefasebis kidev ori gza arsebobs.
pirveli, erTi da imave testis nacvlad cdis
pirs testis urTierTSemcvlel, paralelur
formebs aZleven. paraleluri formebis gamoyeneba amcirebs amocanebis damaxsovrebis gavlenis
SesaZleblobasa da individis survils, Tanamimdevruli Candes erTi testidan meoreze gadasvlisas. sandoobis meore sazomi Sinagani SeTanxmebulobaa, romelic erTi da igive testis
pasuxebis Sesabamisobas gulisxmobs. magaliTad,
SegviZlia erTmaneTs SevadaroT luwi da kenti
davalebebis Sesrulebis Sedegad miRebuli
qulebi. sando testis TiToeuli nawilisaTvis
erTnairi qulebi miiReba. am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba iTqvas, rom testi Sinagani SeTanxmebulobis maRali doniT xasiTdeba, rac SuaSi gaxleCvis sandoobis meTodiT miiRweva.
umetes SemTxvevaSi sando unda iyos ara
marto TavisdaTavad sazomi instrumenti, aramed
am instrumentis gamoyenebis meTodebic. davuSvaT,

363

mkvlevrebs saklaso oTaxSi bavSvebis dakvirveba


surdaT maTi agresiuli TamaSis donis Sesafaseblad. amisaTvis maT SeiZleba SeeqmnaT
kodirebuli sqema, romelic saTanado gansxvavebis dadgenis saSualebas miscemda. es sqema
maSin iqneboda sando, Tu igive bavSvebze sxvebi
awarmoebdnen dakvirvebas da igive Sefasebas
miscemdnen. swored amitom aucilebelia im
adamianebis momzadeba, romelTac SemdgomSi
fsiqologiuri Sefasebis ganxorcieleba mouwevT. isini aucileblad unda flobdnen saTanado formiT gansxvavebis dadgenis sistemebis
gamoyenebis unarebs.

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

validoba

364

testis validoba aris is, Tu ra xarisxiT


zomavs testi imas, risi gazomvac surs eqsperts.
inteleqtis validuri testi zomavs am maxasiaTebels da Sesrulebis winaswarmetyvelebis
saSualebas iZleva im situaciebSi, romelSic
mniSvnelovan rols inteleqti asrulebs. kreatulobis validuri sazomiT miRebuli qulebi
realur kreatulobas gviCvenebs da ara xatvis
unars an guneba-ganwyobilebas. zogadad, vali-

validoba (Validity) gviCvenebs, Tu ramdenad


zomavs testi imas, ris gasazomadac iyo miwodebuli.
TvalsaCino validoba (Face validity) _ xarisxi,
Tu ramdenad aris testis amocanebi uSualod
dakavSirebuli gasazom cvladTan
validoba kriteriumis mixedviT (Criterion valigity)
_ xarisxi, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba gansazRvruli kriteriumis mixedviT miRebuli testis
Sedegebi Sesafasebeli maxasiaTeblis zogierT
sxva kriteriums.

doba asaxavs testis mier im qcevebisa Tu


Sedegebis zusti prognozirebis SesaZleblobas,
romelic dakavSirebulia testis mizanTan, an
mis formasTan. arsebobs validobis sami ZiriTadi tipi: TvalsaCino validoba, validoba
kriteriumis mixedviT da konstruqtuli validoba.
validobis pirveli tipi testis Sinaarss
eyrdnoba. Tu testis amocanebi uSualod ukavSirdeba interesis sagans, maSin tests gaaCnia
TvalsaCino validoba. aseT testebSi Zalian
pirdapir da martivad aris mocemuli is kiTxvebi,
romlebic maT Semqmnelebs ainteresebdaT.
magaliTad, ramdenad aRelvebuli xarT? xarT
Tu ara kreatuli? adamianisgan, romelic
testirebaSi monawileobs, elian, rom is Zalze
zustad da patiosnad upasuxebs testSi dasmul
SekiTxvebs. samwuxarod, TvalsaCino validoba
xSirad ar aris sakmarisi zusti gazomvisTvis.
pirveli rigSi, adamianebi SeiZleba arazustad
aRiqvamdnen sakuTar Tavs, an SeiZleba ar icodnen,
sxvebTan Sedarebisas rogor Seafason sakuTari
Tavi. meore, rodesac testi sakmaod zustad
zomavs ama Tu im maxasiaTebels, is Semsruleblebs maTTvis sasurveli STabeWdilebis
moxdenis saSualebas aZlevs. ganvixiloT
fsiqikuri problemebis mqone hospitalizirebuli pacientebis klasikuri SemTxveva, romelTac ar surdaT klinikis nacnobi, mowesrigebuli
garemodan wasvla.

saidan
viciT
pacientebi manipulireben
fsiqiatrebis SefasebebiT
fsiqiatriuli klinikis personali
SizofreniiT didi xnis ganmavlobaSi
daavadebul pacientebs ekiTxeboda,
ramdenad mZime iyo maTi mdgomareoba.
rodesac maT ekiTxebodnen, iyvnen Tu ara
isini imdenad kargad, rom saerTo palataSi
gadaeyvanaT, pacientebi, ZiriTadad,
dadebiT Sefasebas iZleodnen. Tumca,
rodesac interviu stacionaridan
gawerisTvis mzaobis Sefasebas isaxavda
miznad, maSin maTi pasuxi uaryofiTi iyo,

am magaliTidan Cans, rom testis Semqmnelebi ar unda daeyrdnon mxolod TvalsaCino validobis mqone sazoms. axla ganvixiloT validobis sxva tipebi, romlebic SesaZlebels xdian
zogierTi SezRudvis daZlevas.
testis kriteriumis mixedviT validobis
(cnobilia, aseve, rogorc prognostuli validoba) misaRwevad fsiqologebi erTmaneTs
adareben cdis pirebis mier erT testSi miRebul qulebsa da sxva (imave parametrTan dakavSirebuli) standartis an kriteriumis mixedviT miRebul qulebs. magaliTad, Tu testis
mizania kolejSi warmatebulobis prognozireba, maSin kolejis miRebuli niSnebi Sesabamisi
kriteriumi iqneba. Tu testis qulebi korelirebs kolejis niSnebTan, maSin testi validuria kriteriumis mixedviT. testis avtorebis
ZiriTadi amocana Sesabamisi gazomvadi kriteriumis povnaa. Tu erTxel ukve naCvenebia Sefasebis instrumentis kriteriumis mixedviT
validoba, maSin mkvlevrebi sandod miiCneven
mas da kidev gamoiyeneben Semdgomi prognozirebisaTvis. swored am logikiT iTxovs kolejis
mimRebi komisia SAT-is qulebs. warsulSi SATis qulebi dadebiTad korelirebda kolejSi
swavlis zogierT aspeqtTan, amitom administracias maTze dayrdnobiT kolejSi Tqveni
momavali karieris prognozireba SeeZlo.
pirobebi, romelSic testi validuria, SeiZleba Zalze specifikuri iyos, amitom yovelTvis
saWiroa testis mimarT daisvas kiTxva: `risTvis
aris is mowodebuli, risTvisaa validuri?~ Tu

gvecodineba, kidev romel kriteriumebTan korelirebs an ar korelirebs mocemuli testi,


maSin raime axlis danaxvas SevZlebT kriteriumebSi, maTi agebis koncefciebsa Tu adamianis
qcevis sirTuleSi. vTqvaT, qmniT tests samedicino fakultetis studentebis stresTan gamklavebis unaris gasazomad; Semdeg aRmoaCenT,
rom am testSi miRebuli qulebi korelirebs
studentebis mier mecadineobis procesSi warmoqmnili stresuli situaciebis daZlevis unarTan. amasTan, varaudobdiT, rom testi, aseve,
korelaciaSi iqneba im stresuli situaciebis
daZlevis unarTan, romelTa gadalaxvac uwevT
studentebs gadaudebeli samedicino daxmarebis samsaxurSi muSaobisas, Tumca es varaudi ar
dagidasturdaT. vinaidan nawilobriv ganisazRvra testis validoba, raRac axalic SeityveT
Tqven testis Sesaxeb: (a) ra pirobebSia is validuri da (b) misi agebis koncefciis Sesaxeb _
sxvadasxva kategoriis stresors gansxvavebul
Sedegebamde mivyavarT. amis Semdeg testis koreqtirebas akeTebT ise, rom masSi iTvaliswinebT
gadaudebeli samedicino daxmarebis samsaxurSi muSaobisTvis specifikur stresorebs.
dafiqrdiT im kavSiris Sesaxeb, romelic
sandoobasa da validobas Soris arsebobs. sandooba izomeba imiT, Tu ramdenad korelirebs
testi sakuTar TavTan (sxvadasxva dros gamoyenebisas), xolo validoba _ imiT, Tu ra xarisxiT korelirebs testi raime garegan faqtorTan
(sxva testi, qceviTi kriteriumi an eqspertis
Sefaseba). Cveulebriv, Tu testi ar aris sando,
is arc validuria, radgan Tu testi ver
winaswarmetyvelebs sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb, is
ver iwinaswarmetyvelebs verafers sxvas. magaliTad, Tu Tqven klasSi erT dRes agresiulobis
testi Catarda da miRebuli qulebi ar aRmoCnda korelaciaSi meore dRes Catarebuli paraleluri formis qulebTan (arasandoobis magaliTi), naklebad savaraudoa, rom romelime dRes
miRebuli Sedegebis mixedviT iTqvas, Tu romeli studenti Cxubobda an kamaTobda yvelaze
xSirad gasul kviras. bolos da bolos am ori
testis qulebze dayrdnobiT erTnair winaswarmetyvelebasac ki ver gavakeTebdiT! meores mxriv,
savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom testi iyos sando,
magram _ aravaliduri. magaliTad, Tu inteleqtis sazomad mozrdili adamianis simaRlis
gamoyenebas gadavwyvetT, albaT, iolad mixvdeb-

ra aris Sefaseba

vinaidan maT ar surdaT wasvla. im


fsiqiatrebma, romlebic pacientebis
intervius Sedegebs ajamebdnen, araferi
icodnen intervius miznis eqsperimentuli
variaciis Sesaxeb, amitom im pacientebis
mdgomareobas ufro mZimed afasebdnen,
romlebic ufro negatiur Sefasebas
iZleodnen da amiT maT stacionaridan
gaSvebaze uars ambobdnen. amrigad,
pacientebma Sefasebis sasurveli Sedegi
miiRes. fsiqiatrebis Sefasebaze SeiZleba
im mosazrebamac imoqmeda, rom, Tu vinmes
fsiqiatriul klinikaSi surda darCena,
maSin misi mdgomareoba mZime unda yofiliyo
(Braginsky & Braginsky,1967).

365

iT, ratom SeiZleba, rom es sazomi iyos sando,


magram aravaliduri.

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

normebi da standartizacia

366

amrigad, gvaqvs sando da validuri testi,


magram sxvadasxva testis Sedegebis interpretaciisaTvis isev gvWirdeba normebi. magaliTad,
depresiulobis xarisxis gamovlenisTvis mowodebul testSi 18 qula miiReT. rogorc fiqrobT,
ras niSnavs es? ramdenad depresiuli xarT _
msubuqad, saSualod Tu saerTod ar xarT
depresiuli? miRebuli Sedegis mniSvnelobis
gasagebad, is sxva studentebis tipur qulebs,
anu statistikur normebs unda Sedardes. testis normebi saWiroa imisaTvis, rom gaigoT,
Cveulebriv, ra diapazonSi nawildeba Tqveni
asakisa da sqesis studentebis mier miRebuli
qulebi da rogoria maTi gasaSualoebuli qula.
es Seqmnis konteqts, romelSic SesaZlebeli

normebi (Norms) _ standartizirebulia individebis didi jgufebis gazomvis safuZvelze.


normebi saWiroa imisaTvis, rom SevadaroT
individisa da ama Tu im gansazRvruli jgufis
normebi.
standartizacia (Stanradtization) testirebis
erTnairi procedurebis nakrebi TiToeuli cdis
pirisaTvis, iqneba es interviu, eqsperimenti
Tu monacemebis registracia.

iqneba Tqveni depresiulobis xarisxis interpretireba.


Tu Tqven unarebis testi gagikeTebiaT, testis normebsac naxavdiT. testis normebi
giCvenebT, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba Tqveni qulebi
sxvebis qulebs da gexmarebaT imis dadgenaSi,
Tu ramdenad axlosaa Tqveni Sedegi normatiuli
populaciis SedegTan. individis qulebis
interpretaciisaTvis yvelaze gamosadegia
jgufis normebis codna, rodesac Sesadarebeli
jgufi testirebuli individebis iseTi ZiriTadi
TvisebebiT xasiaTdeba, rogoricaa: asaki,
socialuri klasi, kultura da gamocdileba.
imisaTvis, rom normebs azri hqondes, saWiroa,
rom erTi da igive testi yvela cdis pirma
erTnair, standartizirebul pirobebSi Seasrulos. standartizacia aris testirebis
meTodikis erTnairad, erTnair pirobebSi
gamoyeneba yvela cdis piris mimarT. standartizaciis aucilebloba Zalze TvalsaCinoa,
magram praqtikaSi misi dacva yovelTvis ar
xerxdeba. zogs meti dro eZleva, zogs _ ufro
naTeli da detaluri instruqcia; zogs aqvs
SekiTxvis dasmis ufleba anda metad motivirebulebi arian davalebis ukeT SesrulebisTvis.
ganvixiloT erT-erTi Cvenganis gamocdileba:
ielis universitetis magistraturaSi
swavlisas saSualo skolis moswavleebSi
gamocdebTan dakavSirebuli SfoTvis donis
gasazomad skalas viyenebdi. testirebis
dawyebamde erT-erTma maswavlebelma Tavis
moswavleebs uTxra: `Tqven es mSvenieri
mamakaci axal TamaSs geTamaSebaT, romelic
kiTxvebis dasmas gulisxmobs. es TamaSi
Cven gagvamxiarulebs~. meore maswavlebelma
ki Tavis moswavleebs ase mimarTa: `ielis
universitetidan mosuli es fsiqologi
apirebs testis Catarebas im mizniT, rom
gaigos, Tu ras fiqrobT. imedi maqvs, kargad
SeasrulebT da aCvenebT, Tu ramdenad
kargia Cveni klasi~ (Zimbardo, personal communication, 1958).
SeZlebdiT am ori klasis bavSvebis qulebis
pirdapir Sedarebas, romelic erTi testiT iqna
miRebuli? am kiTxvaze pasuxi uaryofiTia, vinaidan testi ar gamoiyenes standartizirebuli
formiT. am SemTxvevaSi meore klasis bavSvebis

Sejameba
fsiqologiuri Sefaseba fokusirebulia individualur gansxvavebebze, aseve, imis Seswavlaze, Tu riTi gansxvavdeba an hgavs erTi individi sxvebs. Sefasebis formebi antikur CineTSi
Seiqmna. dasavlur samyaroSi pirvelad frensis
galtonma Seqmna da gamoiyena Teoria inteleqtis
testirebis Sesaxeb. samwuxarod, masve ekuTvnis
miTi biologiurad `saukeTeso~ (superioruli)
da `uaresi~ (inferioruli) adamianebis Sesaxeb.
testebi gamoyenebadia, Tu: (a) isini validuria,
anu sxvadasxva dros am testis Sesrulebisas
erTi da igive adamiani erTsa da imave qulebs
iRebs da (b) iZleva sando, zust informacias
im konstruqtis Sesaxeb, ris gasazomadac Seiqmna.
aseve, mniSvnelovania, rom testis Catarebis
procedura iyos standartizirebuli da miRebuli qulebi Sedardes Sesabamisi populaciis
normas.

inteleqtis Sefaseba
ramdenad gonieri xarT Tqven an Tqveni
megobrebi? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema inteleqtis
gansazRvriT unda daiwyoT. es advili amocana
ar aris, magram inteleqtis mkvlevarTa 52-kaciani
jgufi mainc SeTanxmda aseT zogad gansazRvrebaze: `inteleqti aris Zalze zogadi gonebrivi
SesaZlebloba, romelic, sxva komponentebTan
erTad, moicavs logikuri msjelobis, dagegmvis,
problemaTa gadaWris, abstraqtuli azrovnebis,
rTuli ideebis wvdomis, swrafad daswavlisa
da gamocdilebis miRebis unars~ (Gottfredson,1997a,
gv.13). SesaZleblobebis am farTo speqtrs Tu
gaviTvaliswinebT, maSinve naTeli gaxdeba, ratom
aris inteleqtis gazomva kamaTis sagani. is, Tu
rogor axdenen Teoretikosebi inteleqtis da
umaRlesi fsiqikuri funqciebis konceptualizebas, mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs im xerxs,
riTac isini mis gazomvas cdiloben (Sternberg,
1994). zogierT fsiqologs miaCnia, rom adamianis
inteleqti SeiZleba raodenobrivad ganisazRvros da dayvanil iqnes erT garkveul qulaze;
sxvebi amtkiceben, rom inteleqti mravali
komponentisgan Sedgeba, romelic cal-calke
unda gaizomos; arian iseTebic, romlebic
amboben, rom sinamdvileSi arsebobs inteleqtis
ramdenime gansxvavebuli saxe, rac gamocdilebis
sxvadasxva sferos Seesabameba.
am qveTavSi aRvwerT, Tu rogor ukavSirdeba
inteleqtis testebi inteleqtis sxvadasxva
koncefciebs. daviwyoT istoriuli konteqstis
ganxilviT, romelSic aRmocenda inteleqtisadmi
da misi gazomvisadmi interesi.

inteleqtis testebis
istoriuli safuZvlebi
1905 wels gamoqveynda inteleqtis sakvlevi
pirveli qmediTi testi. alfred bine (Alfred
Binet) gamoexmaura safrangeTis saxalxo ganaTlebis ministris mowodebas, SeeqmnaT ufro efeqinteleqti (Intelligence) _ gamocdilebidan sargeblis miRebisa da garemos Sesaxeb mocemuli
informaciis farglebis garRvevis zogadi
unari.

inteleqtis Sefaseba

qulebi gamocdebTan dakavSirebuli SfoTvis


testSi ufro maRali iyo (albaT, es sruliad
ar gikvirT). rodesac Sefasebis procedurebSi
naTlad ar aris mocemuli miTiTebebi testis
Catarebisa da miRebuli qulebis daTvlis gza,
maSin gaZneldeba testis Sedegebis mniSvnelobebis interpretacia an imaze saubari, Tu ra
mimarTebaSia es Sedegebi nebismier normatiuli
SedegebTan.
axla ganvixileT zogierTi im sakiTxTagani,
romelic aRelvebT mkvlevrebs, rodesac isini
qmnian tests da cdiloben gansazRvron sinamdvileSi zomavs Tu ara testi imas, risi gazomvac surT. isini darwmunebulebi unda iyvnen
testis sandoobasa da validobaSi; MmaT, aseve,
unda daadginon testirebis standartuli
pirobebi, mxolod amis Sedegad miRebul normebs
aqvs azri. nebismieri testis qulebi unda
Sefasdes sandoobisa da validobis terminebiT.
aseve, unda Sefasdes Sesrulebis normebi da
standartizaciis pirobebi, romelSic testi
Catarda.
Aaxla mzad varT, rom davubrundeT inteleqtis gazomvas.

367

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

368

turi saswavlo meTodebi ganviTarebaSi Seferxebebis mqone bavSvebisaTvis. bine da misi kolega
Teofil simoni (Theophil Simon) fiqrobdnen, rom
saswavlo programis Sesadgenad aucilebeli
iyo bavSvebis inteleqtualuri unaris gazomva.
man scada inteleqtis obieqturi testis
SemuSaveba, romelsac gamoiyenebdnen ganviTarebaSi Seferxebebis mqone bavSvebis klasificirebisaTvis da normaluri moswavleebisgan
maT gamosarCevad. igi imedovnebda, rom amgvari
testis arseboba saSualebas miscemda skolas,
naklebad dayrdnoboda maswavlebelTa mier
moswavleTa sakmaod subieqtur da xSirad
tendenciur Sefasebebs.
inteleqtualuri aqtivobis raodenobrivi
maCveneblis gamosaTvlelad anu gasazomad binem
Seadgina asakze orientirebuli amocanebi, anu
testuri davalebebi, romelTa mixedviTac
SesaZlebeli iqneboda didi raodenobiT
bavSvebis pasuxebs urTierTSedareba. testSi
Sesatani davalebebis SerCeva ise xdeboda, rom
SesaZlebeli yofiliyo TiToeul maTganze gacemuli pasuxis obieqturad sworad an arasworad
miCneva; davalebebi Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT
mravalferovani da bavSvebis saarsebo pirobebis
Taviseburebebis gavlenisgan maqsimalurad
Tavisufali unda yofiliyo da davalebis
Sesrulebisas unda Sefasebuliyo ara masalis
meqanikuri daxsomebis, aramed _ msjelobisa da
daskvnebis gakeTebis unari (Binet, 1911).
testireba sxvadasxva asakis bavSvebs CautardaT da dadginda TiToeuli asakis normalurad
ganviTarebuli bavSvebisTvis tipuri saSualo
qula. Semdeg TiToeuli konkretuli bavSvis
Sesruleba Seadares am asakis sxva bavSvebis
saSualo maCvenebels. testis Sedegebi gamoisaxa
saSualo asakis terminebiT, sadac normalurad
ganviTarebuli bavSvebi konkretul qulas
iRebdnen. am sazoms gonebrivi asaki ewoda.
magaliTad, rodesac bavSvis mier miRebuli qula
utoldeba xuTi wlis bavSvTa jgufis saSualo
gonebrivi asaki (Mental age) _ bines inteleqtis
sazomis mixedviT aris asaki, romelSic bavSvis
inteleqtualuri aqtioba im saSualo asakiT
gamoixateba, romelSic normaluri ganviTarebis
bavSvebi gansazRvrul qulas iReben.
qronologiuri asaki (Chronological age) _ individis dabadebidan gasuli Tveebisa da wlebis
raodenoba.

qulas, am bavSvis gonebrivi asaki iqneba 5,


ganurCevlad imisa, Tu rogoria misi qronologiuri asaki, anu dabadebidan gasuli wlebis
raodenoba.
bines midgoma oTxi mniSvnelovani niSanTvisebiT xasiaTdeba. pirveli, man am testis
qulebi gaiazra, rogorc inteleqtis mimdinare
ganviTarebulobis Sefaseba da ara rogorc
Sinagani inteleqtis sazomi; meore, mas testis
qulebis im bavSvebis gamosavlenad gamoyeneba
surda, romlebic specialur daxmarebas saWiroeben da ara maTi stigmatizaciisTvis.; mesame,
igi xazs usvamda, rom varjiSsa da ganviTarebis
pirobebs SeuZlia inteleqtze zemoqmedeba da
ganviTarebaSi Seferxebebis mqone bavSvebis
inteleqtis im sferoebis dadgenas cdilobda,
romlebSic specialuri ganaTlebis daxmarebiT
gaumjobesdeboda am bavSvebis SesaZleblobebi.
dabolos, man testi empiriulad aago _ Seagrova
monacemebi, rom enaxa ramdenad validuri iyo
Seqmnili testi da ar ucdia misi dakavSireba
inteleqtis romelime konkretul TeoriasTan.
inteleqtis testis SemuSavebaSi bines warmatebam didi gavlena moaxdina SeerTebul
StatebSi, sadac istoriuli movlenebisa da
socialur-politikuri Zalebis unikalurma kombinaciam ganapiroba interesi gonebrivi unarebis
gazomvisadmi. XX saukunis dasawyisisaTvis
SeerTebul StatebSi sicocxle Cqefda da
duRda. globaluri ekonomikuri, socialuri
da politikuri viTarebebis gamo qveyanaSi
milionobiT emigranti Sedioda. sayovelTao
ganaTlebis axalma kanonma skolebi moswavleebiT aavso. emigranti mozrdilebisa da skolis
moswavleebis identificirebis, dokumentirebisa
da klasificirebisTvis saWiro iyo Sefasebis
meTodikebi (Chapman,1988). pirveli msoflio omis
dawyebis Semdeg milionobiT moxalise gaemarTa
gamwvevi punqtebisaken. rekrutirebis samsaxuris
TanamSromlebs uamravi msurvelidan unda
amoerCiaT isini, vinc swrafad SeZlebda axali
masalis aTvisebas da vinc specialuri sameTauro
kursebis gavlis Semdeg warmatebiT gaarTmevda
Tavs meTauris samuSaos. amisaTvis inteleqtualuri unarebis axali, araverbaluri, jgufuri
testebi 1.7 milionze met axalwveulTan gamoiyenes. gamoCenil fsiqologTa jgufi, romelSic
Sediodnen luis termeni (Lewis Terman), eduard
Torndaiki (Edward Thorndik) da robert ierksi

IQ testebi

miuxedavad imisa, rom binem inteleqtis standartizebuli gazomva safrangeTSi daiwyo, sul
male am saqmeSi wamyvani poziciebi aSS-is
fsiqologebma daikaves. maT SeimuSaves, agreTve,
IQ, anu inteleqtis koeficienti. IQ inteleqtis
ricxobrivi, standartizebuli sazomia. amJamad
farTod gamoiyeneba individualuri gamoyenebisTvis mowodebuli IQ-testis ori jgufi:
stenford-binesa (Stanford-Binet) da veqsleris
skalebi (Wechsler).

stenford-bines inteleqtis skala


luis termenma (Lewis Terman), stenfordis
universitetis sajaro skolis yofilma administratorma, Rirseulad daafasa inteleqtis
gazomvis bineseuli meTodis mniSvneloba.
aTasobiT bavSvisaTvis am testis miwodebiT
man moaxdina bines testis adaptireba aSS-is
skolis moswavleebisaTvis, standartizeba gaukeTa testis gamoyenebas da SeimuSava asakobrivi
normebi. 1916 wels man gamoaqveyna bines testis
stenfordiseuli revizirebuli varianti,
romelic, Cveulebriv, moixsenieba, rogorc stenford-bines inteleqtis skala (Terman, 1916).
am axali testiT termenma safuZveli moamzada
iseTi cnebisTvis, rogoricaa inteleqtis

koeficienti, anu IQ (termini, romelic 1914


wels Sternma Semoitana). IQ aris gonebrivi
asakis Sefardeba qronologiur asakTan, gamravlebuli 100-ze:
IQ = gonebrivi asaki qronologiuri
asaki 100
bavSvs, romlis qronologiuri asaki 8 welia
da romlis testis qulebma aCvena gonebrivi
asaki 10 weli, IQ 125 (10:8100=125) eqneba, xolo
igive qronologiuri asakis bavSvs, romelmac
testi 6 wlis bavSvis doneze Seasrula, IQ 75
(6:8100=75) eqneba; individebs, romlebmac
Seasrules Tavisi asakisaTvis Sesabamisi
gonebrivi testi, IQ 100 eqnebaT. amrigad, 100
qula saSualo IQ-ad iqna miCneuli.Q
stenford-bines axali testi male gadaiqca
klinikuri fsiqologiis, fsiqoTerapiis da
saswavlo konsultirebis standartul instrumentad. es testi Seicavs mTel rig subtestebs,
romelic konkretul gonebriv asakzea morgebuli da romelTac mcire reviziaTa CautardaT 1937, 1960 da 1972 wlebSi, raTa
miRweuliyo sami mizani: _ (1) mcirewlovani
bavSvebisa da Zalze gonieri zrdasrulebis IQis gasazomad gafarToebuliyo testis diapazoni;
(2) ganaxlebuliyo leqsikuri maragis punqtebi,
romelTa sirTule sazogadoebaSi momxdar
cvlilebaTa kvaldakval icvleba; (3) ganaxlebuliyo normebisa da asakis Sesabamisi saSualo
qulebi (Terman&Merril,1937,1960,1972.). stenfordbines testis ukanaskneli, me-4 gamocema (Torndike
et al.,1986) testis validobis gaumjobesebis mizans
emsaxureba, romelTac uzrunvelyofs IQ-s zust
gazomvas rogorc Sesrulebis normaluri rangis
mqone individebisaTvis, ise, `fsiqikuri funqcionirebis problemebis mqone~, an niWieri individebisaTvis (Laurent et al.,1992).
miaqcieT yuradReba, rom IQ qulebi ukve aRar
miiReba gonebrivi asakis qronologiur asakze
gayofiT. Tu tests dRes CaitarebT, Tqveni qulebi
inteleqtis koeficienti (IQ) (Intelligence quotient)
_ indeqsi, romelic miRebulia inteleqtis
standartizebuli testebidan; pirvelad IQ
gamoiTvleboda individis gonebrivi asakis
qronologiur asakze gayofiT da Semdeg 100-ze
gamravlebiT; amJamad pirdapir gamoiTvleba,
rogorc IQ testis qula.

inteleqtis Sefaseba

(Robert Yerkis), gamoexmaurnen omis wlebis sagangebo viTarebas da es testebi sul raRac erT
TveSi Seqmnes (Lennon,1985).
am farTomasStabiani testirebis programis
Sedegad amerikis sazogadoebisaTvis misaRebi
gaxda azri, rom inteleqtis testebs SeuZliaT
adamianTa diferencireba liderobis unarisa
da sxva socialurad mniSvnelovani maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT, ramac xeli Seuwyo maT farTo
gamoyenebas skolebsa da sawarmoebSi. Sefaseba
ganixileboda, rogorc qaotur sazogadoebaSi
wesrigis Setanis saSualeba. aseve, es iyo sakmaod
iafi, demokratiuli xerxi im adamianTa gamodiferencirebisa, visac ganaTlebidan da samxedro
meTaurTa treningidan garkveuli codnis miReba
SeeZlo. inteleqtis farTomasStabiani testirebis gamoyenebis gasaioleblad mkvlevrebi
Zalas ar iSurebdnen da farTo gamoyenebis
mqone testur procedurebs qmnidnen.

369

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

370

Sejamdeba da pirdapir moxdeba maTi Sedareba


Tqveni asakis sxva adamianTa qulebTan. 100-is
toli IQ aris `saSualo~ da gviCvenebs, rom
Tqveni asakis adamianTa 50% ufro dabal qulebs
agrovebs (ix. sur. 10.1). 90-sa da 110-s Soris
moTavsebuli qulebi `normaa~, xolo maTze meti
(120 da zemoT) _ `umaRlesi~. rodesac 18 wlamde
asakis individebi agroveben validur IQ qulebs
70-dan 75-mde, an ufro qvemoT, isini gonebrivi
CamorCenilobis erT-erT kriteriums Seesabamebian, magram, rogorc 10.1 cxrilSia naCvenebi,
gonebrivad CamorCenilebad rom CaiTvalon,
individebma cxovrebiseul amocanebTan dakavSirebuli adaptaciuri Cvevebis SeZenis SezRuduli unaric unda gamoavlinon (American Association on Mental Retardation AAMR,1992). adreul
wlebSi IQ qulebi msubuqi, zomieri, Zlieri da
Rrma gonebrivi CamorCenilobis klasificirebisaTvis gamoiyeneboda (ix. sur. 10.1.), magram,
adaptaciur Cvevebze Tanamedrove Sexedulebam
eqspertebs am terminologiis uaryofa ukarnaxa
iseTi ufro zusti aRwerebis sasargeblod,
rogoricaa `gonebrivi CamorCenilobis mqone
pirovneba, romelic eqstensiur mxardaWeras
saWiroebs socialuri unarebisa da sakuTari
gonebrivi CamorCeniloba (Mental retardation) _
rodesac individebis IQ qulebi meryeobs 7075-mde intervalSi an masze naklebia, aseve,
rodesac SezRudulia cxovrebiseuli amocanebis gadasaWreli adaptaciuri Cvevebis SemuSavebis unari.

Tavis marTvis sferoebSi~, an `gonebrivi CamorCenilobis mqone pirovneba, romelic komunikaciasa da socialur CvevebSi mcire mxardaWeras
saWiroebs~ (American Association on Mental Retardation AAMR,1992. gv.34).

veqsleris inteleqtis skala


david veqsleri (David Wechsler), romelic niu
iorkis belviu hospitalSi muSaobda, Tvlida,
rom mozrdilTa inteleqtis gazomvis procedura
naklebad unda yofiliyo verbalur debulebebze
damokidebuli. 1939 wels man gamoaqveyna veqslerbelvius inteleqtis skala, romelSic verbaluri subtestebi kombinirebuli iyo araverbalur, anu praqtikuli Sesrulebis subtestebTan.
amrigad, mTliani IQ qulebis garda, adamianebs
damatebiT miecaT maTi verbaluri da araverbaluri IQ-is damoukidebeli Sefasebebi. 1955 wels,
mcireodeni cvlilebebis Semdeg, tests Seecvala
saxelwodeba da `veqsleris inteleqtis skala
mozrdilTaTvis~ _ WAIS ewoda, xolo dResdReobiT misi gadasinjuli versia cnobilia, rogorc _ WAIS-R (Wechsler, 1981).
WAIS-R-Si eqvsi verbaluri subtestia: informirebuloba, leqsikuri maragi, gageba, ariTmetikuli unarebi, msgavsebebi (gansazRvra, Tu ratom
aris ori sagani msgavsi) da ricxvebis rigi
(eqsperimentatoris mier warmoTqmul ricxvTa
seriis gameoreba). es testebi aris rogorc
werilobiTi, ise _ zepiri. praqtikuli Sesru-

cxrili

10.1
gonebrivi CamorCenilovbis diagnozi

gonebrivi CamorCenilobis diagnozis dasma SesaZlebelia im SemTxvevaSi, Tu:

individis IQ aris daaxloebiT 70-75 an ufro dabali;

dasturdeba mniSvnelovani unarSezRuduloba 2, an meti saadaptacio unaris sferoSi; es sferoebia:


komunikacia _ lingvisturi da aralingvisturi (magaliTad, saxis gamometyveleba) saSualebebiT
informaciis gagebisa da gamoxatvis unarTan dakavSirebuli Cvevebi;
Tavis movla _ tualetis, kvebis, Cacmis, higienis da garegnobaze zrunvis Cvevebi;
saojaxo yofa _ saxlSi funqcionirebis Cvevebi, rogoric aris saojaxo meurneobis gaZRola da
yoveldRiuri saqmianobis dagegmva;
socialuri _ sxva adamianebTan socialuri urTierTobis unarebi;
komunaluri resursebiT sargebloba _ komunaluri resursebiT sargeblobis unari, rogoric aris
sasursaTo maRaziaSi sayidlebze siaruli da sazogadoebrivi transportis gamoyeneba;
sakuTari Tavis marTva _ gadawyvetilebis miRebisa da daxmarebis moZiebasTan dakavSirebuli unarCvevebi;
janmrTeloba da usafrTxoeba _ sakuTari janmrTelobisa da usafrTxoebis SenarCunebasTan dakavSirebuli Cvevebi;
funqcionaluri mimarTulebis codna _ akademiuri sagnebis aTvisebasTan dakavSirebuli unarebi
(rogoric aris kiTxva da maTematika), rasac wvlili Seaqvs damoukidebeli cxovrebisas miznis ganxorcielebaSi;
Tavisufali dro (mocaleoba) _ Tavisufali drois gamoyenebisa da dasvenebis interesebTan
dakavSirebuli unar-Cvevebi;
samuSao _ nawilobrivi an sruli datvirTviT muSaobasTan dakavSirebuli unarebi.

CamorCeniloba vlindeba 18 wlamde asakSi.

lebis xuTi subtesti moicavs masaliT manipulirebas, praqtikulad ar aris sityvebi. magaliTad, kuburebis awyobis testSi individs
baraTebze gamosaxuli nimuSis gameoreba evaleba,
risTvisac igi kuburebis ferad mxareebs usadagebs erTmaneTs. cifrebi-simboloebis testSi
mocemulia gasaRebi, romelic 9 simbolos 9
cifrs usadagebs da amocana meore gverdze
moTavsebuli simboloebisaTvis Sesabamisi
cifrebis miweraSi mdgomareobs. praqtikuli
Sesrulebis danarCen testebSi Sedis suraTebis
dalageba, suraTebis dasruleba da obieqtis
ageba. Tu CaitarebT WAIS-R-s, TerTmetive
subtesti unda SeasruloT da sami saxis qula
_ verbaluri IQ, Sesrulebis IQ da mTliani,
anu sruli skalis IQ _ miiRoT. 10.2 cxrilSi
mocemulia magaliTebi imisa, Tu ra tipis
kiTxvebs SexvdebiT WAIS-R-Si. WAIS-R gankuTvnilia 18 da meti wlis adamianebisaTvis, magram
msgavsi testebi SemuSavebulia bavSvebisaTvisac
(sur. 10.2). veqsleris inteleqtis skala bavSvebisaTvis _ mesame gamocema (WISC-III; Wechsler,
1991) morgebulia 6-dan 17 wlamde bavSvebze da

veqsleris skolamdeli da dawyebiTi klasebis


bavSvebis inteleqtis skala _ gadasinjulia
(WPPSI-R, Wechsler, 1989) 4-dan 6.5 wlis bavSvebisaTvis. orive testis bolo reviziebma
masala ufro feradovani, Tanamedrove da bavSvebisaTvis sasiamovno gaxada. orive testma
daamtkica, rom sando da validur sazoms
warmoadgens (Little,1992; Sattler& Atkinson,1993).
WAIS-R, WISC-III da WPPSI-R qmnian inteleqtis
testebis ojaxs, romelic gvaZlevs verbalur
IQ-s, Sesrulebis IQ-s da sruli skalis IQ-s yovel
asakobriv doneze. garda amisa, isini gvawvdian
subtestebis Sedarebad qulebs, rac saSualebas
aZlevs mkvlevrebs Tvali gaadevnon ufro
specifikuri inteleqtualuri unarebis droSi
ganviTarebas. amis gamo veqsleris skalebi
gansakuTrebiT Rirebulia, rodesac erTi da
igive individi testirebas gansxvavebul asakSi
gadis, magaliTad, rodesac mimdinareobs gansxvavebuli saswavlo-saganmanaTleblo programebis Sedegad bavSvis mier miRweuli warmatebis
monitoringi.

inteleqtis Sefaseba

wyaro: American Association on Mental Retardation AAMR, 1992,p24,40-41.

371

cxrili

WAIS-R

10.2
testis analogiuri sakiTxebi
da problemebi

verbaluri subtesti
informirebuloba

vin dawera `didi geTsbi~?

gageba

ras niSnavs, roca


adamianebi amboben: `feri
fersa - madli RmerTsa~.

ariTmetika

Tu kinos bileTSi 8.5


dolari gadaixade da
batibutSi - 2.5 dolari,
maSin ocdolarianidan
xurda ramdeni unda
dagibrunon?

msgavseba

riTi hgavs erTmaneTs


TviTmfrinavi da wyalqveSa
navi?

ricxvTa rigi

gaimeore Semdegi ricxvebi:


3 2 7 5 9

leqsikur maragi

ras niSnavs `paeqroba~?

Sesrulebis subtesti

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

ricxobrivi simbolo

372

eqsperimentatori cdis pirs


awvdis gasaRebs, romelic
ricxvebs (magaliTad, 1, 2, 3)
simboloebs (magaliTad, ,
, ) uTanadebs. cdis piri
sqemis Sesavsebad iyenebs
gasaRebs, romelzec mxolod
ricxvebi an simboloebia
mocemuli.

suraTis dasruleba

cdis piri aTvalierebs


suraTs da ambobs, ra aklia
mas (magaliTad, cxeni
fafaris gareSe)

kuburebis nimuSi

cdis piri iyenebs kuburebs,


rom gamomcdelis mier
mowodebuli nimuSi
gaimeoros.

suraTebis dalageba

cdis piri alagebs muyaos


suraTebis serias iseTi
TanmimdevrobiT, TiTqos
moTxrobas hyveba;

obieqtis ageba
eqsperimentatori awvdis
cdis pirs muyaos firfitebis nawilebs, romelic
cdis pirma ise unda daalagos, rom nacnobi sagnis
suraTi miiRos.

Sejameba
inteleqtis Tanamedrove testireba saTaves
iRebs alfred bines mcdelobidan, romelsac
is iseTi moswavleebis gamosavlenad axorcielebda, romlebic skolaSi swavlisas dama-

suraTi

10.2

tebiT daxmarebas saWiroebdnen. binem wamoayena


winadadeba, rom TiToeuli bavSvi klasificirebuli yofiliyo misi gonebrivi asakis
mixedviT. IQ qulebi gamoiTvleba, rogorc
funqcia _ gonebrivi asaki gayofili qronologiur asakze. luis termenma da david veqslerma
IQ-s axali gasazomi instrumentebi SeimuSaves.

inteleqtis Teoriebi
Cven ganvixileT inteleqtis gazomvis zogierTi xerxi. amJamad Tqven ukve SegiZliaT hkiTxoT
sakuTar Tavs: daadgens Tu ara es testebi
yovelive imas, rasac sityva inteleqti gulisxmobs? daadgens Tu ara es testebi yvela im
unars, rac, Tqveni azriT, Tqvenive inteleqts

fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi

Sefaseba internetiT

ori mas `sakmaod normaluris~


kategoriaSi aTavsebs, ori ki _
sazRvris marjvniv, `maRalinteleqtualebSi~. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba vivaraudoT,
rom testis Sedegebi ar aris
gansakuTrebiT sando.
Tu testebi ar aris sando,
isini verc validuri iqneba. davuSvaT, rom Cven SemTxvevaSi
testebi sando iyo. ganvixiloT
yvela SemTxveva, rodesac daveWvdebodiT maT validobaSi:
poindeqsteris qulebi gamoTvlili iyo misi Sedegis (20 kiTxvaze miRebuli swori pasuxebis raodenoba) im individebis
SedegebTan SedarebiT, vinc masze
adre iyo am saitze da Seasrula
is testebi. qulebis 10.1 suraTze
mocemuli zaris formis ganawilebaze gadataniT veb-gverdi IQs afasebs. ra problemasTan
gvaqvs aq saqme? pirveli, Cven ar
gvaqvs safuZveli gvjerodes, rom
veb-gverdze Sesul adamianTa
saSualo IQ (gazomili tradiciuli, sando arainternetuli
testiT) 100-is (wesiT, rogorc
unda iyos) toli iqneba. iqneb
adgili hqonda TviTSerCevas im
adamianebis mxridan, vinc vebgverdze mocemuli testi Seasrula? meore, Cven araviTari
safuZveli ar gvaqvs vivaraudoT,
rom testi yvelam erTnair stan-

Seadgens? am sakiTxebis gaazrebaSi rom dagexmaroT, inteleqtis Teoriebs ganvixilavT. TiToeuli Teoriis gacnobisas hkiTxeT sakuTar Tavs:
moxerxebulad igrZnobdnen Tu ara Tavs misi
momxreebi, Tu maTi inteleqtis gasazomad IQ-s
gamoiyenebdnen.

dartul pirobebSi gaakeTa.


magaliTad, testSi Sedis
kiTxvebi, romlebic leqsikur
marags saWiroebs. rogor
SeiZleba viyoT darwmunebuli,
rom vinmem Tavisi qulebis
gazrdis mizniT Cveulebrivi
an eleqtronuli leqsikoniT
ar isargebla (`Sexede dediko,
yovelTvis vambobdi, rom
geniosi var!~)?
interneti TqvenTvis uzrunvelyofs rogorc IQ-is,
ise sxva unarebisa da pirovnuli konstruqtis Sefasebis
uamrav SesaZleblobas. Tqven
unda gamoiyenoT am TavSi
miRebuli codna imisTvis, rom
frTxilad SeafasoT internetiT miRebuli qulebis sandooba da validoba.
amasobaSi, poindeqsteri
internetSi mocemuli IQtestebis daJinebul momxmareblad gadaiqca. `evropul IQtestebze~ misma saukeTeso
qulam 159-s miaRwia. igi irwmuneba, rom 159 qula IQ-is
validuri sazomia. Tqvenc
darwunebuli xarT amaSi?
veb-gverdebi:
 www.2h.com/Tests/iq.phtml _
veb-gverdi, sadac didi raodenobiT testebia mocemuli;
 www.majon.com/iq.html --_
mravali testi erT saitze.

inteleqtis fsiqometruli
Teoriebi
inteleqtis fsiqometruli Teoriebi, ZiriTadad, imave filosofiur velSi warmoiSva, romelmac IQ testebs misca dasabami. fsiqometria

inteleqtis Teoriebi

inteleqtis Sesaxeb Tavis


wakiTxvis Semdeg studentebs
xSirad uCndebaT interesi
imisa, Tu Tavad rogor gaarTmeven Tavs IQ testebs. Cvens
droSi sakamaod advilia
ewvioT romelime veb-gverds,
amoirCioT testi da miiRoT
garkveuli qulebi. niSnavs Tu
ara rames miRebuli qulebi?
am kiTxvas pasuxs im zogierTi
cnebis mimoxilviT gavcemT,
romelsac am TavSi gaecaniT.
analizisaTvis monacemebi
dagvWirda da Cvens megobars,
romelsac pirobiTad poindeqsters vuwodebT, CvenTvis
internetSi mudmivad arsebuli
ramdenime IQ-testis gakeTeba
vTxoveT. mis mier gaxsnil
pirvelive veb-gverdze oTxi
sxvadasxva testi ido, ramac
sandoobis Sefasebis SesaZlebloba mogvca. gavixsenoT,
rom sandooba konsistentiurobas exeba: gvaZlevs Tu ara
msgavs qulebs is testebi,
romlebic iTvleba rom, faqtobrivad, erTsa da imave rames
zomavs. poindeqsterma Semdegi
qulebi miiRo: 116, 117, 129 da
130. Tu 10.1 suraTs davubrundebiT, vnaxavT, rom misi qulebi saSualoze maRalia (ra
kargia poindeqsterisaTis!),
magram miRebuli qulebidan

373

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

374

fsiqologiis dargia, romelic fsiqikuri funqciebis testirebas emsaxureba. mis mraval aspeqts
Sorisaa pirovnebis diagnostikuri Sefaseba,
inteleqtis Sefaseba da ganwyobebis gazomva.
amrigad, fsiqometruli midgomebi mWidro
kavSirSia testirebis meTodebTan. es Teoriebi
ikvlevs statistikur mimarTebebs unarebis
gansxvavebul sazomebs Soris, magaliTad, WAISR-is 11 subtests Soris da Semdeg am mimarTebaTa
safuZvelze adamianis inteleqtis Sesaxeb
daskvnebi gamoaqvs. teqnikas, romelic amisaTvis
yvelaze xSirad gamoiyeneba, faqtoruli analizi
ewodeba. es aris statistikuri procedura,
romelic parametrebis, klasterebisa da faqtorebis ufro mcire raodenobis identificirebas
axdens damoukidebel cvladTa ufro didi
erTobliobis SigniT. faqtoruli analizis
mizani sakvlevi koncefciis ZiriTadi fsiqologiuri parametrebis dadgenaa. cxadia, statistikuri procedura mxolod statistikur
mudmivebs adgens; am mudmivebis axsna da maTi
dasabuTeba ukve fsiqologebis saqmea.
Carlz spirmenma (Charles Spearman) pirvelma
gamoiyena faqtoruli analizi inteleqtis kvlevis sferoSi, rac sakmaod STambeWdavi iyo. man
aRmoaCina, rom individTa mier inteleqtis
sxvadasxvagvari testebis Sesrulebis Sedegad
miRebuli qulebi kargad korelirebs erTmaneTTan. aqedan gamomdinare, man daaskvna, rom
arsebobs zogadi inteleqtis faqtori, anu
faqtori g, romelic gonebrivi aqtiobis ganxorcielebas udevs safuZvlad (Spearman,1927). yoveli
calkeuli sfero, aseve, dakavSirebulia Tavis
fsiqometria (Psychometrics) _ fsiqologiis dargi, romelic gonebrivi SesaZleblobebis testirebaSi specializirdeba.
g _ spirmenis mixedviT, zogadi inteleqtis
faqtori, romelic safuZvlad udevs yovelgvar
inteleqtualur aqtiobas.
kristalizebuli inteleqti (Cristallized intelligence) _ inteleqtis komponenti, romelSic
Sedis pirovnebis mier SeZenili codna da am
codnis gazrda-gamoyenebis unari; izomeba leqsikuri maragis, ariTmetikuli da zogadi informirebulobis testebiT.
fluiduri inteleqti (Fluid intelligence) _ inteleqtis komponenti, romelic moicavs rTuli
mimarTebebis danaxvisa da problemebis gadaWris
unars.

specifikur unarTan, rasac spirmenma s uwoda.


magaliTad, leqsikur da ariTmetikul testSi
miRebuli Sedegebi damokidebulia rogorc
zogad inteleqtze, ise am sferosaTvis damaxasiaTebel specifikur unarebze.
raimond ketelma (Raymond Cattel, 1963) faqtoruli analizis ufro mowinave teqnikis gamoyenebiT daadgina, rom zogadi inteleqti SeiZleba
daiyos or, SedarebiT damoukidebel komponentad,
romelsac man kristalizebuli da fluiduri
inteleqti uwoda. kristalizebuli inteleqti
moicavs individis mier ukve aTvisebul codnas
da am codnis gazrda-gamoyenebis unars; is
izomeba leqsikuri, ariTmetikuli da zogadi
informirebulobis testebiT. fluiduri inteleqti rTuli mimarTebebis xedvisa da problemebis gadaWris unaria; is izomeba kuburebis
nimuSisa da sivrcobrivi vizualizaciis testebiT, romlebSic problemis gadasaWrelad saWiro
fonuri informacia daskvniT miiReba. TvalsaCino kristalizebuli inteleqti saSualebas
gaZlevT, kargad gaarTvaT Tavi cxovrebis
mimdinare, konkretul gamowvevebs; fluiduri
inteleqti ki gexmarebaT, ieriSi miitanoT axal,
abstraqtul problemebze.
joi pol gilfordma (J.P.Guilford, 1961) faqtoruli analizi inteleqtTan dakavSirebuli
mravali amocanis moTxovnaTa Sesaswavlad gamoiyena. inteleqtis struqturis miseul modelSi
gamoyofilia inteleqtualuri amocanebis sami
niSan-Tviseba: Sinaarsi, anu informaciis tipi;
produqti, anu forma, romliTac informacia
aris warmodgenili da operacia _ Sesrulebuli
gonebrivi moqmedebebis tipi.
rogorc 10.3 suraTi gviCvenebs, am modelSi
mocemulia xuTi saxis Sinaarsi: mxedvelobiTi,
smeniTi, simboluri, semantikuri da qceviTi;
eqvsi saxis produqti: erTeulebi, klasebi,
mimarTebebi, sistemebi, transformaciebi da
implikaciebi; xuTi saxis operacia: Sefaseba,
konvergentuli produqcia, divergentuli produqcia, mexsiereba da Semecneba. inteleqtis
mier Sesrulebuli TiToeuli amocana SeiZleba
ganisazRvros masSi Cadebuli Sinaarsis, produqtebis da operaciebis mixedviT. garda amisa,
gilfordi fiqrobs, rom yoveli kombinacia
Sinaarsi-produqti-operacia (yoveli mcire kubi
modelSi) gansxvavebul gonebriv unars warmoadgens. magaliTad, rogorc naCvenebia 10.2 suraTze,

suraTi

10.3

inteleqtis struqtura

leqsikuri testi adgens semantikuri Sinaarsis


mqone erTeulebis Semecnebis unars, xolo
sacekvao nomris daswavla qceviTi sistemebis
mexsierebas saWiroebs.
es Teoriuli modeli qimiur elementTa perioduli sistemis analogiuria. amgvari sistematuri sqemis meSveobiT inteleqtis faqtorebi,
qimiuri elementebis msgavsad, SesaZlebelia maT
aRmoCenamde iqnen postulirebuli. 1961 wels,
rodesac gilfordma es modeli warmoadgina,
cnobili iyo daaxloebiT 40 inteleqtualuri
unari. mas Semdeg mkvlevrebma 100-ze meti unari
aRweres, rac gilfordis inteleqtis koncefciis
prognostikur unarze metyvelebs (Guilford, 1985).
gilfordis Semdeg mravalma fsiqologma
gaafarTova inteleqtis koncefcia imisaTvis,
rom maT Teoriebs ufro meti ram moecva, vidre
tradiciuli IQ testebis mixedviT gamovlenili
SesaZleblobebia. amJamad ganvixilavT or
Teorias, romelic scildeba IQ-is farglebs.

sternbergis inteleqtis
triarqiuli Teoria
robert sternbergic (Robert Sternberg, 1985, 1988)
xazs usvams problemebis gadaWraSi kognituri
procesebis mniSvnelobas, rogorc misi ufro
zogadi inteleqtis Teoriis nawils. sternbergi

ayalibebs triarqiul _ samnawilian _ Teorias.Dmis mier mowodebuli inteleqtis sami


saxe _ komponenturi, empiriuli da konteqstualuri _ efeqturi Sesrulebis daxasiaTebis
gansxvavebul xerxebs warmoadgens.
komponenturi inteleqti ganisazRvreba komponentebis, anu saazrovno procesebis meSveobiT, romlebic safuZvlad udevs azrovnebas
da problemebis gadawyvetas. sternbergi asaxelebs sami tipis komponents, romelTac centraluri mniSvneloba aqvT informaciis gadamuSavebaSi: (1) codnis SeZenis komponentebi axali
faqtebis dasaswavlad; (2) Sesrulebis komponentebi problemis gadaWris strategiebisa da
teqnikisaTvis; (3) metakognituri komponentebi
strategiebis SerCevisa da warmatebisaken momavali procesis monitoringisaTvis. axla Tqveni
komponenturi inteleqtis asamoqmedeblad
gvsurs, rom scadoT 10.3- cxrilSi mocemuli
savarjiSos Sesruleba.
rogor amoxseniT anagramebi? anagramebis
amosaxsnelad, ZiriTadad, Sesrulebis komponentebis da metakognituri komponentebis gamoyeneba dagWirdebaT. Sesrulebis komponentebi
is komponentebia, romelTa saSualebiTac
gonebaSi asoebiT manipulireba SegiZliaT;
metakognituri komponentebi gadawyvetilebis
mosaZebni strategiebis arsebobis saSualebas

inteleqtis Teoriebi

inteleqtis struqtuis am modelSi j. p. gilfordi (J. P. Guilford) gamoyofs inteleqtualuri


amocanebis sam maxasiaTebels _ Sinaarss, anu
informaciis tips; produqts, anu formas
romliTac warmodgenilia informacia da
operacias, anu ganxorcielebuli gonebrivi
aqtivobis tips. inteleqtis mier Sesrulebuli
TiToeuli amocana SeiZleba dadgindes masSi
CarTuli Sinaarsis, produqtebis da operaciebis mixedviT. magaliTad, leqsikuri testi
adgens semantikuri Sinaarsis mqone erTeulebis Semecnebis unars.

375

cxrili

10.3

komponenturi inteleqtis gamoyenebis


unari
qvemoT mocemulia anagramebi, areuli sityvebis sia.
rac SeiZleba swrafad moZebneT TiToeuli anagramis
amoxsna (Sternberg,1986).
1.

H-U-L-A-G

__________

2.

P-T-T-M-E

__________

3.

T-R-H-O-S

__________

4.

T-N-K-H-G-I

__________

5.

T-E-W-I-R

__________

6.

L-L-A-O-W

__________

7.

R-I-D-E-V

__________

8.

O-C-C-H-U

__________

9.
10.

T-E-N-R-E
C-I-B-A-S

__________
__________

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

amoxsna mocemulia am Tavis bolos.

376

iZleva. ganvixiloT anagrama T-R-H-O-S. rogor


gardaqmniT mas SHORT-ad? dasawyisisTvis saukeTeso strategia iqneba TanxmovanTa SeTanxmebebis mosinjva, romlebic xSiria inglisur
enaSi, rogoricaa S-H da T-H. strategiebis
SerCeva metakognitur komponentebs saWiroebs,
maTi ganxorcieleba ki _ Sesrulebis komponentebs. yuradReba miaqcieT, rom kargi strategia
zogjer ar amarTlebs. ganvixiloT anagrama TN-K-H-G-I. bevr adamians uWirs am anagramis
amoxsna, radgan K-N ar aris is kombinacia,
romliTac inglisuri sityvebi xSirad iwyeba,
xolo T-H _ xSiria.YTqvenc xom didxans cdilobdiT am anagramis iseT sityvad gardaqmnas,
romelic T-H-iT iwyeba?
sxvadasxva amocanis Semadgenel komponentebad
daSliT mkvlevrebs SeuZliaT, zustad gansazRvron procesebi, romlebic gansxvavebuli IQis mqone individebis mier testSi miRebul
Sedegebs Soris sxvaobas ganapirobeben. magaliTad, mkvlevrebma SeiZleba aRmoaCinon, rom
maRali IQ-is mqone moswavleTa metakognituri
komponenti maT garkveuli tipis problemis
gadasaWrelad gansxvavebuli strategiebis
SerCevas karnaxobs, dabali IQ-is mqone Tanatolebisgan gansxvavebiT.
empiriuli inteleqti gulisxmobs adamianis
unars, gaumklavdes or ukiduresobas _ axal da
rutinul problemebs. warmoidgineT, magaliTad,

rom adamianTa jgufi avariis Semdeg mZime


mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda. Tqven unda endoT
jgufis im wevris gonierebas, romelic yvelaze
swrafad SeZlebs Sinisken mimavali gzis moZebnas. sxva viTarebaSi Tqven gonierad unda miiCnioT im adamianis qceva, romelsac rutinuli
amocanebis avtomaturi Sesruleba SeuZlia. Tu,
magaliTad, adamianTa jgufi yoveldRiurad erTsa
da imave amocanebs asrulebs, Tqvenze yvelaze
did STabeWdilebas is adamiani moaxdens, romelic amocanebis warmatebiT Sesrulebas `axali
ideebis umciresi raodenobiT~ moaxerxebs.
konteqstualuri inteleqti nebismier tipis
saqmis praqtikul mogvarebaSi vlindeba. is axal
da gansxvavebul viTarebebTan (konteqstebTan)
adaptirebis, Sesatyvisi situaciebis SerCevisa
da Tqveni moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisi efeqturi
garemos Seqmnis unars gulisxmobs. konteqstualuri inteleqti isaa, rasac adamianebi `gaqeqilobas~ da `saqmis alRos~ uwodeben. gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom adamianebs SeiZleba hqondeT
maRali konteqstualuri inteleqti maRali IQ-s
gareSe.

saidan
viciT
konteqstualuri inteleqti ipodromze
IQ-sa da winaRobebiT rbolaSi cxenebis
warmatebas Soris mimarTebis dasadgenad
mkvlevrebma ipodromis mudmivi klientebi
SearCies. 30-kaciani jgufi daiyo eqspertebad da araeqspertebad, maTi winaswarmetyvelebis safuZvelze, Tu romel cxenebs
eqneboda gamarjvebis saukeTeso Sansi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom orive jgufis IQ
saSualo 100-is farglebSi iyo da TiTqmis
araviTari korelacia ar arsebobda IQ-sa
da eqspertobas Soris, eqspertebma SemTxvevaTa 93%-Si sworad daasaxeles pirvel
adgilze gasuli cxeni, araeqspertebma ki
_ SemTxvevaTa mxolod 33%-Si. mkvlevrebma
isic aCvenes, rom eqspertebi TavianT zust
Sefasebebs im xerxiT asrulebdnen, romelic
rTul statistikur procedurebs waagavda
(Ceci & Liker, 1986).

emociuri inteleqti (Emotional intelligence) _ inteleqtis tipi, romelSic Sedis Semdegi unarebi:
emociaTa zusti da Sesatyvisi aRqma, gageba da
gamoxatva; azrovnebis gasaioleblad emociebis
gamoyeneba; emociis gageba da analizi; emociuri
codnis efeqturad gamoyeneba da sakuTari
emociebis regulireba rogorc emociuri, ise _
inteleqtualuri zrdis xelSesawyobad.

Seqmnas, romelTa meSveobiTac TiToeuli


adamianis Sedegi SeiZleba `gonivrulad gamoiyurebodes~.

gardneris mravlobiTi
inteleqti da emociuri
inteleqti
hovard gardnerma (Howard Gardnner, 1983,1999)
SemogvTavaza Teoria, romelSic inteleqtis
cnebis Sinaarsi scildeba IQ testebSi gaTvaliswinebul unarebs. gardneri gamoyofs inteleqtis mraval saxeobas, romelic adamianis
gamocdilebis farTo speqtrs moicavs. TiToeul
am unars gansxvavebuli Rirebuleba eniWeba
adamianTa sazogadoebebSi imis mixedviT, Tu
ras miiCnevs saWirod, sasargeblod da faseulad
mocemuli sazogadoeba. rogorc 10.4 cxrilSia
naCvenebi, igi inteleqtis rva saxes gamoyofs.
gardneri amtkicebs, rom dasavluri sazogadoeba wina planze ayenebs pirveli ori saxis
inteleqts, xolo aradasavlur sazogadoebaSi
xSirad sxva saxeebia Rirebuli. magaliTad,
mikroneziaSi, karolinis kunZulze, mezRvaurs
unda SeeZlos did manZilebze zRvaosnoba rukis
gareSe, mxolod sivrcobrivi inteleqtisa da
sxeulebrivi kinesTetikuri inteleqtis gamoyenebiT. es unarebi am sazogadoebaSi ufro
fasobs, vidre valdebulebis dokumentis Sedgena.
balis kunZulze, sadac artistuli warmodgena
yoveldRiuri cxovrebis nawilia, talantebi
da musikaluri inteleqti, romelic rTuli
sacekvao ileTebis koordinirebaSi monawileobs,
gansakuTrebiT dafasebulia. interpersonalur

inteleqtis Teoriebi

vinaidan TiToeuli cxeni, mTeli rigi parametrebis mixedviT (Cveuli siswrafe, miRebuli
prizebi, sarbeni asparezis mdgomareoba, mxedris
unarianoba da a.S.), cvladebis gansxvavebul
kombinacias warmoadgens, eqspertebis warmateba
msgavsi situaciebis ubralo gameorebas ver
miewereba; ufro savaraudoa, rom maT ganuviTardaT STambeWdavi unarebi, romelic maT
garemos specifikurad esadageba.
sternbergis triarqiul TeoriaSi aRiarebulia, rom IQ qulebi inteleqtualur qcevas
ver asaxaven srulad da nacadia imaze metis
gakeTeba, vidre individebisTvis maRali da
dabali IQ-is iarliyebis miniWebaa.YdavuSvaT,
mkvlevrebma gaiges, rom `aragonier~ adamianebs
garkveuli amocanebi imitom uZneldebaT, rom
ver axerxeben mTeli relevanturi informaciis
kodirebas. aseTi adamianebi SeZleben `gonivrul~
Sesrulebas, Tuki am konkretul komponents
gaivarjiSeben. amrigad, savsebiT SesaZlebelia
komponenturi inteleqtis gaZliereba. sternbergs, agreTve, miaCnia, rom adamianebs SeuZliaT
empiriuli da konteqstualuri inteleqtis
gaumjobeseba (Sternberg, 1986). Tu Sesatyvisad
gaigeben qcevis safuZvlad mdebare komponentur
process, mkvlevrebi SeZleben iseTi teqnikebis

377

cxrili

10.4
gardneris inteleqtis rva saxe

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

inteleqti

378

saboloo statusi

ZiriTadi komponentebi

logikurmaTematikuri

mecnieri
maTematikosi

logikuri da ricxobrivi paternebisadmi


mgrZnobeloba da maTi garCevis unari, msjelobis grZeli jaWvis agebis unari.

lingvisturi

poeti
Jurnalisti

sityvaTa bgerebis, riTmebisa da mniSvnelobebisadmi mgrZnobeloba; enis gansxvavebuli


funqciebisadmi mgrZnobeloba.

sabunebismetyvelo

biologi
bunebrivi garemos
mkvlevari

mgrZnobeloba cxovelTa saxeobebs Siris


gansxvavebebisadmi; cocxal arsebebTan
saTuTad mopyrobis unari.

musikaluri

kompozitori
mevioline

ritmis, simaRlis da tembris Seqmnisa da


dafasebis unari; musikaluri gamomsaxvelobebis formebis codna

sivrcobrivi

navigatori
moqandake

vizualur-sivrcobrivi samyaros zustad


aRqmis da sakuTari sawyisi aRqmebis
transformirebis unari.

sxeulebrivkinesTetikuri

mocekvave
aTleti

pirovnebaTSorisi

fsiqoTerapevti
saqonlis gasaRebis
muSaki

Sidapirovnuli

sakuTari Tavis
detalurad mcodne
pirovneba

inteleqts ufro wamyvani adgili uWiravs


koleqtivistur sazogadoebaSi, rogoricaa iaponia, sadac aqcentirebulia TanamSromloba
da komunaluri cxovreba, vidre iseT individualistur sazogadoebaSi, rogoricaa aSS (Triandis,1990).
inteleqtis am saxeobaTa Sesafaseblad qaRaldisa da fanqris testebi _ martivi raodenobrivi
sazomebi _ arasakmarisia. inteleqtis gardneriseuli Teoria moiTxovs, rom mas daakvirdnen
da Seafason mTel rig cxovrebiseul situaciebSi
da, aseve, cxovrebiseul mcire epizodebSi,
romelic inteleqtis tradiciul testebSia
mocemuli.
bolo wlebSi mkvlevrebma inteleqtis iseTi
tipis kvleva daiwyes, rogoricaa emociuri
inteleqti, romelic gardneriseul interpersonaluri da intrapersonaluri inteleqtis
cnebebs ukavSirdeba (ix. cxrili 10.4). emociuri
inteleqti ganisazRvreba, rogorc oTxi Ziri-

sakuTari sxeulebrivi moZraobebis marTvis


da obieqtebTan marjved urTierTobis unari.
sxva adamianTa guneba-ganwyobilebis, temperamentis, motivebis da survilebis garCevisa da
maTze Sesatyvisi reagirebis unarebi.
sakuTari grZnobebis misawvdomoba da maT
Soris sxvaobis povnis unari da maT Sesatyvisad qcevis warmarTva; sakuTari Zlieri da
susti mxareebis, survilebisa da gonebrivi
SesaZleblobebis codna.

Tadi komponentis mqone inteleqti (Mayer &


Salovely, 1007; Mayer et al., 2000). es komponentebia:
emociebis zustad da Sesatyvisad aRqmis,
Sefasebis da gamoxatvis unari;
azrovnebis gasaioleblad emociebis gamoyenebis unari;
emociebis gagebisa d analizis, agreTve,
emociuri codnis efeqturad gamoyenebis unari;
emociuri da inteleqtualuri zrdis xelSesawyobad sakuTari emociebis regulirebis unari.
am gansazRvrebaSi asaxulia axali Tvalsazrisi emociebis pozitiuri rolis Sesaxeb inteleqtis funqcionirebasTan mimarTebaSi _ emociebs SeuZliaT azrovneba ufro gonieri gaxadon, adamianebs SeuZliaT gonierad gaiazron
sakuTari da sxvaTa emociebi.
ganvixiloT situacia, rodesac maswavlebeli
Tqvens klass usvams SekiTxvas: `ra erqva stambuls Zvelad~? miuxedavad imisa, rom tomi xedavs,

saidan
viciT
EQ-is gazomva
503 mozrdilisa da 229 mozardisagan
Semdgarma SerCevam Seavso `mravalfaqtoriani emociuri inteleqtis skala~,
romelic individebisagan emociur problemaTa seriis gadaWris iseTi variantebis
warmodgenas moiTxovs, rogoricaa mocemuli situaciiT aRZruli emociebis
dadgena. monawileTa pasuxebi Sefasda
rogorc eqspertTa msjelobebTan, ise yvela
im adamianis erTsulovan msjelobebTan
mimarTebaSi, romlebmac skala Seavses. EQis qulebi mxolod zomier korelaciaSi
iyo IQ-is qulebTan rogorc mozrdilebTan,
ise _ mozardebTan. es adasturebs, rom EQ
zomavs IQ-is tradiciuli sazomebisgan
gansxvavebul unarebs. mozrdilebi ufro
maRal qulebs iReben, vidre mozardebi,
rac metyvelebs imaze, rom EQ mniSvnelovani garemoseuli komponentia. dabolos, emociuri inteleqtis am axal skalaze qalebs emociebis aRqmaSi gacilebiT
didi upiratesoba hqondaT, vidre mamakacebs
(Mayer et al., 1999).

Tqveni azriT, ratom unda hqondeT qalebs


mamakacebze ufro maRali EQ? xom ar fiqrobT,
rom amas buneba (qalis evoluciuri momzadeba
garkveuli rolebisaTvis) an aRzrda (qalTa
socializacia metad emociur arsebebad) ganagebs
(Brody,1997; Eisenberg et al., Lafrance&Banaji,1992)?
inteleqtis testirebis da inteleqtis Teoriebis mimoxilvam safuZveli moamzada im sazo-

gadoebrivi viTarebebis ganxilvisaTvis, rac


inteleqtis Temas esoden sadaos xdis.

Sejameba
Carlz spirmens miaCnda, rom inteleqti
Sedgeba zogadi unarisagan, romelsac man uwoda
g da sxvadasxva sferos Sesabamisad specifikuri
unarebisagan, romlic aRniSna s-iT. sxva
fsiqometrikosma mkvlevrebma inteleqtis sxva
mdgenelebis kvleva scades.
sternbergma gamoTqva varaudi, rom adamianebs
sami saxis inteleqti aqvT: komponenturi,
empiriuli da konteqstualuri. gardnerma gaafarTova inteleqtis gansazRvreba da masSi rva
tipis inteleqti gaaerTiana, romlebic IQ-is
tradiciuli testebiT gamovlenil unarebs
scildeba. emociuri inteleqti asaxavs individis unars, efeqturad gamoiyenos da gaigos
emociebi.

inteleqtis politika
Cven vnaxeT, rom inteleqtis Tanamedrove
koncefciebi ewinaaRmdegeba IQ-is testSi
miRebul qulebsa da pirovnebis inteleqts
Soris arsebul mWidro kavSirs, magram dasavlur
sazogadoebaSi IQ testebi mainc rCeba inteleqtis yvelaze gavrcelebul sazomad. IQ
testirebis gavrcelebulobisa da IQ qulebis
xelmisawvdomobis gamo advilia sxvadasxva
jgufebis Sedareba maTi `saSualo~ IQ-is
mixedviT. aSS-Si aseTi eTnikuri da rasobrivi
jgufuri Sedarebebi xSirad gamoiyeneboda,
rogorc umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebis TanSobili genetikuri arasrulfasovnebis damadasturebeli sabuTi. Cven mokled mimovixilavT
IQ testebis qulaTa gamoyenebis praqtikas
zogierTi jgufis gonebrivi arasrulfasovnebis
maCveneblad. Semdeg ganvixilavT sakiTxs _ buneba
Tu aRzrda, anu ra aris inteleqtSi da inteleqtis testebis SesrulebaSi bunebiT moniWebuli
da ra _ aRzrdis Sedegi. Tqven naxavT, rom
fsiqologiaSi es politikurad yvelaze cvaleEQ IQ-s oreuli _ emociuri inteleqti.

inteleqtis politika

pamelam xeli aiwia, igi adgilidan wamoiZaxebs


pasuxs _ `konstantinopoli~. Tqven gesmiT, rom
pamela gabrazebulia, radgan tomma mas `dideba
waarTva~. Tqven SeiZleba TvlideT, rom toms
aqvs maRali IQ, magram ara EQ _ IQ-is emociuri
oreuli (Goleman,1995). Cven mier pamelas grZnobebis gageba _ EQ-is erT-erTi magaliTia. mkvlevrebi Seudgnen sazomi instrumentebis Seqmnas,
romlebic, maTi rwmeniT, EQ-is sando da
validuri sazomebi iqneba.

379

badi sakiTxia, vinaidan saemigracio kvotebis,


ganaTlebis resursebisa da sxva sakiTxebi
SeiZleba aigos imaze, Tu rogor aris interpretirebuli jgufuri IQ-is monacemebi.

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

jgufuri Sedarebebis istoria

380

1990-iani wlebis daswyisSi fsiqologi henri


godardi (Henry Goddard) amtkicebda, rom yvela
emigrants unda Cautardes gonebrivi unarebis
testireba da maT, visac `fsiqikuri defeqti~
aRmoaCndeba, `SerCeviT aekrZalos qveyanaSi
Semosvla~. amgvar Sexedulebebs Tavisi wvlilis
Setana SeeZlo emigrantTa zogierTi jgufis
qveyanaSi SeSvebisadmi mtruli nacionaluri
damokidebulebis SeqmnaSi (Cronbach,1975;
McPherson,1985; Sokal,1987). marTlac, 1924 wels
kongresma miiRo aqti, romelic zRudavda
emigracias da emigrantebisaTvis awesebda
inteleqtis testebis gavlas niu iorkis
navsadgurSive, an elisis kunZulze moxvedrisTanave. ebrael, italiel, rus da sxva
erovnebis emigrantTa didi nawili IQ testebis
safuZvelze klasificirebul iqna, rogorc
`Wkuasusti~. zogierTma fsiqologma es statistikuri monacemebi imis sabuTad miiCnia, rom
emigrantebi samxreTi da aRmosavleTi evropidan
genetikurad ufro dabal safexurze imyofebodnen, vidre CrdiloeT da dasavleTevropuli
warmomavlobis emigrantebi (Ruch,1937). Tumca,
es `arasrulfasovani~ jgufebi yvelaze cudad

icnobdnen dominantur enas da kulturas,


romelsac eyrdnoba IQ testebi, radganac axali
Casulebi iyvnen (ramdenime aTeuli wlis Semdeg
IQ testebSi gamovlenili es jgufuri sxvaobebi
mTlianad gaqra, magram Teoria inteleqtis
sferoSi rasobrivi sxvaobebis Sesaxeb ganagrZobda arsebobas).
godardi da sxvebi (1917) dabali IQ-is eTnikur
warmomavlobasTan ubralo dakavSirebaze Sors
wavidnen. dabal IQ-Tan dakavSirebul uaryofiT
Tvisebebs maT moraluri uRirsoba, fsiqikuri
defeqturoba da amoraluri socialuri qceva
daumates. maTi Tvalsazrisis dasabuTeba cudi
reputaciis mqone ori ojaxis _ jukis ojaxisa
da kilikakis ojaxis _ klinikuri Seswavlidan
momdinareobda. am ojaxis ramdenime Taobis
Seswavla TiTqosda aCvenebda, rom ojaxur
genebSi daTesili cudi Tesli uciloblad
defeqtur STamomavlobas mogvcemda. godardma
igive daaskvna kilikakTa ojaxis klinikuri Seswavlidanac. maT ojaxur xes hqonda erTi `kargi
Teslis~ da meore `cudi Teslis~ mxareebi (am
gamokvlevaSi ojaxs saxeli godardma Searqva,
rac berZnulad karg-cuds niSnavs). martin kilikaks, revoluciuri omis jariskacs, arakanonieri vaJi hyavda qalTan, romelic aRweris
Tanaxmad, gonebrivad CamorCenili iyo. maTma
kavSirma, saboloo jamSi, 480 STamomavali mogvca.
godardma aqedan 143 `defeqturad~, 46 ki _
`normalurad~ miiCnia. ojaxis danarCeni wevrebisaTvis ki aRmoaCina, rom maTTvis Cveuli ram
iyo danaSauli, alkoholizmi, fsiqikuri aSli-

saidan
viciT
genetikurad arasrulfasovani ojaxebi
ityobinebodnen, rom (dawyebuli 1875
wlidan) mokvleul iqna niu iorkis Statis
`jukis sisxlis~ mqone ojaxebis 2000-ze
meti wevri, radganac am ojaxs damyarebuli
hqonda gonebriv ganviTarebaSi CamorCenilobis, kanondarRvevisa da danaSaulis
samarcxvino rekordi. am ojaxis 458 wevrma
ver SeZlo skolaSi swavla gonebrivi
unarebis arqonis gamo. 171 kriminaluri
warsulis adamiani aRmoCnda, xolo maTi
sanaTesaos aseulobiT wevri `glaxaki,
TavaSvebuli da meZavi~ iyo. daaskvnes, rom
memkvidreobiToba am saSineli ojaxis wevrTa samarcxvino ganviTarebis wamyvani faqtori iyo.

genetikuri arasrulfasovnebis godardiseuli


argumenti Semdgom ganamtkicaFim faqtma, rom
pirveli msoflio omis dros armiaSi gamoyenebul inteleqtis testebSi afro-amerikelebi
da sxva rasobrivi umciresobebi nakleb qulebs
iRebdnen, vidre TeTrkaniani umravlesoba. luis
termenma, romelmac didad Seuwyo xeli aSS-Si
IQ testirebas, Zalze aramecnieruli komentari
gaukeTa monacemebs, romelic misive daxmarebiT
aSS-Si mcxovrebi rasobrivi umciresobebisgan
Segrovda:
`maTi siClunge, rogorc Cans, rasobrivia... amJamad ar Cans raime SesaZlebloba,

davarwmunoTsazogadoeba, rom maT ar unda


mieceT reproduqciis ufleba, Tumca, evgenikis TvalsazrisiT, maTi araCveulebrivad swrafi gamravlebis gamo, isini seriozul problemas qmnian (Terman,1916, gv. 9192).
saxelebi Seicvala, magram problema igive
darCa. dResac SeerTebul StatebSi afroamerikelebi da laTinosebi standartizebul
inteleqtis testebSi, saSualod, ufro dabal
qulebs iReben, vidre azieli amerikelebi da
TeTrkanianebi. cxadia, yvela jgufSi arian
individebi, romelTa IQ qulebi umaRles (da
udables) poluss Seesabameba. rogoraa SesaZlebeli IQ-is qulebSi aseTi jgufuri gansxvavebebis interpretireba? SeerTebul StatebSi
da did britaneTSi arsebuli tradiciis
mixedviT, es gansxvavebebi genetikur arasrulfasovnebas (bunebas) miewereba. mas Semdeg, rac
IQ-is maCveneblebSi genetikuri gansxvavebebis
realurobaze vimsjelebT, ganvixilavT meore
SesaZleblobas, romlis mixedviT, garemo
pirobebis nairgvaroba (aRzrda) mniSvnelovan
gavlenas axdens IQ-ze. TiToeuli axsnis an maTi
kombinaciis dasabuTebas mniSvnelovani socialuri, ekonomikuri da politikuri Sedegebi
mohyveba.

memkvidreobiToba da IQ
rogor SeuZliaT mkvlevrebs inteleqtis
genetikuri gansazRvrulobis xarisxis dadgena?
am kiTxvaze nebismieri pasuxi mkvlevrebisgan
inteleqtis indeqsad garkveuli sazomis SerCevas
moiTxovs. amrigad, sakiTxi is ki araa, axdens
Tu ara memkvidreobiToba inteleqtze gavlenas,
aramed is, umetes SemTxvevaSi, msgavsia Tu ara
ojaxur xeTa SigniT IQ maCvenebeli. am konkretul
kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad, mkvlevrebs sWirdebaT
saerTo genebisa da saerTo garemos gavlenaTa
erTmaneTisgan gancalkeveba. amisTvis mowodebuli erT-erTi meTodia identuri (monozigoturi) da araidenturi (dizigoturi) tyupebis
da sxvadasxva donis genetikuri gadafarvis
naTesavTa funqcionirebis Sedareba. 10.3 suraTze
warmodgenilia individTa IQ-is qulaTa Soris
korelaciebi maTi genetikuri naTesaobis done-

inteleqtis politika

lobebi da kanondarRvevis SemTxvevebi. amis sapirispirod, rodesac martin kilikakma meored


`karg qalTan~ iqorwina, am kavSirma mogvca 496
STamomavali, saidanac mxolod sami iqna
`defeqturad~ aRiarebuli. godardma isic naxa,
rom am maRalxarisxovani kavSiris mravali
STamomavali `gamoCenili adamiani~ gaxda (Godard,
1914). igi mivida im azramde, rom memkvidreobiTobam dadebiTi mxridan gansazRvra inteleqti, genialoba da gamoCeniloba, xolo
uaryofiTi mxridan _ delikventoba, alkoholizmi, seqsualuri amoraloba, gonebrivi
CamorCeniloba da siRatakec ki (McPherson,1985).

381

suraTi

10.4

memkvidreobiToba da IQ

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

am suraTze warmodgenilia korelaciebi erTad gazrdili (erTsa da imave garemoSi), identuri (monozigoturi)
da araidenturi (dizigoturi) tyupebis IQ qulaTa Soris. Sedarebis mizniT suraTze, agreTve, mocemulia
siblingebis (debisa da Zmebis) da biologiuri da arabiologiuri mSoblebisa da Svilebis monacemebi.
monacemebi aCvenebs orive faqtoris _ genetikuris (ricxvebi, romlebic weria `genetikuri naTesaobis~
qveS, azusteben genetikuri masalis gadafarvas) da garemos (ricxvebi, miwerili saerTo Sinauri garemos
qveS, aCveneben, garemo igive iyo [1] Tu gansxvavebuli [0]), mniSvnelobas. magaliTad, identuri tyupebi
aCveneben ufro maRal korelacias IQ-s Soris, vidre araidenturi tyupebi, anu saxezea genetikuri
gavlena, magram orive tipis tyupebi avlenen ufro maRal korelaciebs, rodesac isini erTad arian
gazrdili, anu saxezea garemos gavlena.

382

ebis mixedviT (Plomin & Petrill,1997). rogorc xedavT,


rac ufro didia genetikuri msgavseba, miT metia
IQ-is msgavseba (am monacemebSi yuradReba unda
miaqcioT imas, rom garemos zegavlena erTad
gazrdilTa IQ-is didi msgavsebis saxiTac
gamovlinda).
mkvlevrebi amgvar Sedegebs IQ-is memkvidreobiTobis Sesafaseblad iyeneben. romelime niSanTvisebis, magaliTad, inteleqtis memkvidreobiT
gadacemis SesaZlebloba im niSan-Tvisebis testuri qulebis variabilobis Sefardebas emyareba,
rac SeiZleba genetikur faqtorebs mieweros.
memkvidreobiTobis Sefaseba (Heritability estimate)
_ mocemuli Tvisebis an qcevis memkvidreobiTobis xarisxis
statistikuri Sefaseba
dadgenili im individTa mixedviT, romlebic
icvlebian maTi genetikuri msgavsebis xarisxiT.

es maCvenebeli miiReba mocemuli populaciis


(magaliTad, kolejis studentebi, an fsiqikurad
daavadebuli adamianebi) yvela testuri qulis
variaciis gamoTvliTYda Semdeg imis dadgeniT,
Tu mTliani variaciidan ra wili aqvs genetikur,
anu memkvidreobiT faqtorebs. es genetikuri
gadafarvis sxvadasxva donis mqone adamianTa
SedarebiT keTdeba. mkvlevrebi, romlebmac IQis memkvidreobiT gadacemis Sesaxeb Catarebuli
mravali gamokvleva Seiswavles, askvnian, rom
IQ qulebis variaciis daaxloebiT 50% genetikuri nakrebiTaa gamowveuli (Grigorenko, 2000;
Neisser et al., 1996; Plomin & Petrill, 1997), magram yvelaze
saintereso, albaT, isaa, rom memkvidreoboTobis
wili imatebs cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi: memkvidreobiToba daaxloebiT 40%-s utoldeba 4-6 wlis
bavSvebTan, Tumca daaxloebiT 60%-mde izrdeba
adreul mozardobaSi da daaxloebiT 80%-s

inteleqtis politika

aRwevs ufros mozrdilebTan! bevrs gaukvirda


es Sedegi, radgan, intuiturad, asakis matebasTan
erTad garemos sul ufro meti da ara naklebi
gavlena unda hqondes. intuiciasTan am Seusabamo
Sedegs mkvlevrebi aseT axsnas aZleven: `SesaZlebelia, genetikuri dispoziciebi gvibiZgeben
im garemosken, romelic Cveni genetikuri
midrekilebebis aqcentirebas axdens da Sedegad
cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi momatebul memkvidrulobas viRebT~ (Plomin & Petrill,1997. gv. 51).A
kvlav davubrundeT im wertils _ testuri
qulebis sxvaobas afro-amerikelebsa da TeTrkanian amerikelebs Soris _ saidanac genetikuri
analizi winaaRmdegobrivi xdeba. miuxedavad
imisa, rom ramdenime aTeuli wlis winaT es
sxvaoba IQ-is 15 qulas Seadgenda, TeTrkanianTa
da SavkanianTa qulebi garkveuli drois Semdeg
erTmaneTs dauaxlovda. ase rom, Tanamedrove
indikatorebis mixedviT, sxvaoba 7-10 qulas Soris
Tavsdeba (Nisbett, 1995, 1998, Williams & Ceci, 1997),
Tumca, sxvaobis Semcireba garemos gavlenaze
miuTiTebs. es sxvaoba bevr adamians mainc
afiqrebinebs, rom rasebs Soris dauZleveli
genetikuri gansxvavebebi arsebobs (Hernnstein
&Murrey, 1994), magram, maSinac ki, Tu IQ memkvidreobiTia, asaxavs ki es sxvaoba dabalqulian

jgufSi Semaval individTa genetikur arasrulfasovnebas? pasuxi erTmniSvnelovania _ `ara!~


memkvidreobiToba erTi konkretuli jgufis
SigniT ganxorcielebul gazomvas efuZneba. is
ar gamodgeba jgufTaSorisi gansxvavebebis
interpretirebisTvis, ganurCevlad imisa, Tu
ramdenad didia maT Soris gansxvaveba obieqturi
testis monacemebis mixedviT. memkvidreobis
maCveneblebi individTa mocemuli populaciis
Sesaxeb mxolod gasaSualoebul warmodgenaTa
ricxvs ganekuTvneba. maSinac ki, roca iciT,
rom simaRle, magaliTad, memkvidreobiTobis
maRali maCvenebliT xasiaTdeba (daaxloebiT
90%), mainc ver gansazRvravT imas, Tu ramdenadaa
Tqveni simaRle genetikurad ganpirobebuli.
igive argumenti gamodgeba IQ-saTvis: -miuxedavad
inteleqtis memkvidreobiTobis maRali maCveneblebisa, ver ganvsazRvravT konkretuli individis IQ-Si, an jgufTaSoris saSualo IQ-Si
genetikis gavlenas. is faqti, rom IQ testSi
erTi rasobrivi Tu eTnikuri jgufi nakleb
qulebs iRebs, vidre meore, ar unda niSnavdes
imas, rom am jgufebs Soris gansxvaveba genetikuri warmoSobisaa maSinac ki, rodesac memkvidreobiTobis maCvenebeli (romelic jgufSi iyo
dadgenili) IQ qulebisaTvis maRalia.
meore mizezi, Tu ratom ar SeiZleba genetikuri nakrebi srulad iyos pasuxismgebeli jgufTaSoris sxvaobaze, am gansxvavebaTa SefardebiT
sidides exeba. saSualo gansxvavebis miuxedavad,
arsebobs mniSvnelovani Tanxvedra TiToeuli
jgufis qulebis ganawilebaSi: jgufebs Soris
gansxvaveba, TiToeul jgufSi individebis
qulebs Soris gansxvavebebTan SedarebiT, mcirea
(Loehlin, 2000; Suzuki&Valencia, 1997). zogadad,
gansxvavebebi sxvadasxva rasobrivi jgufis genur
nakrebSi umniSvneloa erTi da igive jgufis
wevrebs Soris arsebul genetikur gansxvavebebTan SedarebiT (Could, 1981; Zuckerman, 1990). metic,
aSS-Si rasa xSirad ufro socialuri konstruqtia, vidre biologiuri. ganvixiloT golfis
SesaniSnavi axalgazrda moTamaSis taiger vudsis
(Tiger Woods) SemTxveva, romelsac xSirad afrikel amerikelad moixsenieben da amiT uares
pirobebSi ayeneben mas, Tumca, misi realuri
warmomavloba gacilebiT rTulia (misi winaprebi TeTrkaniani, Savkaniani, tai, Cineli da
adgilobrivi amerikelebi iyvnen). vudsi SesaniSnavi magaliTia imisa, Tu ramdenad ar

383

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

384

Seesatyviseba sazogadoebrivi Sexeduleba


biologiur realobas. aseT SemTxvevaSi arsebobs
seriozuli safrTxe, rom sxvadasxva sazogadoebrivad gamijnuli jgufebis gansxvavebebi
IQ-is mixedviT ganxilul iqnes, rogorc biologiuri faqtorebiT ganpirobebuli gansxvavebebi (Suzuki & Valencia, 1997).
mkvlevrebma gamonaxes am Sexedulebis kvlevebis saSualebiT Semowmebis gzebi. eqsperimentSi
monawileobdnen Savkaniani amerikelebi, romelTac TeTrkaniani amerikeli an evropeli mSoblebi hyavdaT. aSS-Si Savi~ mosaxleobis 20-30%
Sefasebulia, rogorc evropuli warmomavlobis
mqone, rac Sereuli qorwinebis Sedegia. qmnis
Tu ara gansxvavebas IQ-Si is, Tu ramdenad aris
datvirTuli evropuli geniT `Savi~ individi?
im Tvalsazrisis mixedviT, romelic genebs
yovelives qvekuTxedad miiCnevs, es cvlis
viTarebas, Tumca, monacemebi gviCveneben, rom
memkvidreobiT miRebul evropeiodulobasa da
IQ-s Soris korelacia Zalze sustia (mravalricxovan kvlevebSi es maCvenebeli mxolod 0.15s Seadgens). es samarTliania yvela SemTxvevaSi,
ganurCevlad imisa, Tu romeli maxasiaTebeli _
kanis feri Tu sisxlis jgufi _ gamoiyeneba
rasobrivi aRrevis maCveneblad. im germaneli
bavSvebis IQ maCveneblebis Sedarebam, romelTa
mamebi Savkaniani da TeTrkaniani samxedroebi
iyvnen, ar gamoavlina gansxvaveba maT Soris.
amasTanave, `Savkaniani-TeTrkaniani~ kavSiris
Sedegad gaCenil bavSvebs rva quliT maRali
Sedegi hqondaT im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac deda
iyo TeTrkaniani. am gansxvavebis savaraudo axsna
isaa, rom deda ufro metad monawileobs bavSvis
inteleqtualuri socializaciis procesSi, vidre
mama da, cxadia, es gansxvaveba ar unda mieweros
genetikur faqtors, radgan Svilis genetikuri
monacemebi orive mSoblis genetikiTaa
ganpirobebuli (Loehlin, 2000; Nisbert,1998).
genetika mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs individis IQ-is formirebaSi, iseve rogorc mis bevr
sxva maxasiaTebelsa da unarze. miuxedavad amisa,
Cven vamtkicebT, rom rasobriv da eTnikur
jgufebs Soris IQ-is mixedviT arsebuli gansxvavebebis memkvidreobiT axsna SeuZlebelia.
is aucilebeli, magram arasakmarisi pirobaa
amgvari maCveneblebis misaRebad. axla ganvixiloT, Tu ra rols SeiZleba asrulebdes ga-

remo pirobebi IQ-is maCveneblebSi aseTi


wyvetebis arsebobaSi.

garemo da IQ
vinaidan memkvidreobiTobis maCveneblebi 1.0ze naklebia, vaskvniT, rom nebismieri individis
IQ-ze mxolod genetikuri memkvidreoba ar aris
pasuxismgebeli. garemo IQ-zec unda axdendes
gavlenas. rogor SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT, garemos romeli aspeqtia IQ-sTvis mniSvnelovani?
garemos romeli maxasiaTebeli moqmedebs IQ
testSi maRali qulebis miRebis SesaZleblobaze
(Beiser & Gotowiec, 2000; Ceci, 1999; Rowe, 1997; Suzuki &
Valencia, 1997.)? garemo warmoadgens stimulTa
rTul (kompleqsur) nakrebs, romelic icvleba
mravali ganzomilebis mixedviT rogorc fizikuri, ise _ socialuri TvalsazrisiT da SeiZleba gansxvavebulad aRiqmebodes adamianebis
mier. aucilebeli ar aris, rom erTi da igive
ojaxis bavSvebi erTnair kritikul (arsebiTi
mniSvnelobis mqone) fsiqologiur garemoSi
imyofebodnen. gaixseneT, rogor izrdebodiT
Tqven ojaxSi; Tu gyavT da-Zma, aqcevdnen Tu
ara maT erTnair yuradRebas mSoblebi? icvleboda Tu ara stresuli pirobebi droTa ganmavlobaSi? Seicvala Tu ara Tqveni ojaxis finansuri SesaZleblobebi? an xom ar Seicvala Tqveni
mSoblebis ojaxuri mdgomareoba? naTelia, rom
garemo bevri komponentisgan Sedgeba da es
komponentebi mudmivad urTierTqmedeben da
icvlebian droTa ganmavlobaSi. aqedan gamomdinare, sakmaod rTulia fsiqologebisaTvis imis
gansazRvra, Tu sinamdvileSi ra saxis garemo
pirobebi _ zrunva, stresi, siRaribe, janmrTeloba, omi da a.S _ axdens gavlenas IQ-ze.
umravles SemTxvevaSi mkvlevarTa yuradRebis
centrSi iyo garemos ufro globaluri sazomebi,
iseTebi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, ojaxis socioekonomikuri statusi. erT-erT farTomasStabian
longitudur kvlevaSi, romelSic 26 000-ze meti
bavSvi Seiswavles, bavSvis IQ-is saukeTeso
winaswarmetyveli 4 wlis asakSi ojaxis socioekonomikuri statusi da dedis ganaTlebis done
iyo, rac erTnairad WeSmariti aRmoCnda afrikeli, amerikeli da kavkasieli bavSvebisaTvis
(Broman et al., 1975). analogiurad, 10.5 suraTze
naCvenebia socialuri klasis zogadi gavlena
IQ-ze.

10.5

memkvidreobas, garemosa da IQ-s Soris


arsebuli urTierTdamokidebulebaa
grafikze asaxulia memkvidreobisa da garemos wvlili
IQ qulebSi. mamebs da vaJebs hqondaT erTnairi IQebi (memkvidreobiTobis gavlena), magram rogorc
mamebis, ise vaJebis IQ dakavSirebuli iyo socialur
klasTan (garemos gavlena).

ratom moqmedebs socialuri klasi IQ-ze?


simdidres, iseve rogorc siRatakes, SeuZlia
inteleqtualur funqcionirebaze sxvadsxvagvari
gavlenis moxdena. maTgan yvelaze aSkara janmrTelobis da ganaTlebis uzrunvelyofis
pirobebia. orsulobis dros sustma janmrTelobam da dabadebisas mcire wonam SeiZleba

inteleqtis politika

suraTi

mniSvnelovnad ganapirobos bavSvis daqveiTebuli


inteleqti. Ratak ojaxebSi dabadebuli bavSvebi
xSirad cudad ikvebebian, bevri maTgani skolaSi
mSieri midis, amitom naklebad axerxebs davalebebze koncentracias. amasTanave, Raribi
ojaxebi ganicdian wignebis, Jurnal-gazeTebis,
kompiuterebis da sxva im nivTebis naklebobas,
romlebic xels uwyoben adamianis gonebriv
ganviTarebas. `orientacia gadarCenaze~ nakleb
drosa da energias utovebs Rarib mSoblebs,
gansakuTrebiT ki martoxelebs, rom iTamaSon
bavSvebTan da moaxdinon maTi inteleqtualuri
stimulacia, rac, Tavis mxriv, Zalze uaryofiTad
moqmedebs bavSvebis mier iseTi davalebebis
Sesrulebaze, rogoricaa standartuli IQ
testebi.
dabolos, gaWirvebaSi mcxovrebi adamianebi
garkveul daRs atareben Cvens sazogadoebaSi
iseve, rogorc msoflios umravles qveyanaSi,
rasobrivad iseT homogenur sazogadoebaSic ki,
rogoric iaponiaa. magaliTad, burakaminis _ am
sazogadoebis yvelaze dabali kastis wevris _
IQ, sxva iaponelebTan SedarebiT, 15 quliT
dabalia (Ogbu, 1987). im jgufis socialurma
daRma, romelsac individi miekuTvneba, SeiZleba
uaryofiTad imoqmedos mis TviTdarwmunebulobaze da araxelsayreli gavlena moaxdinos
testis Sedegebsa da saskolo miRwevebze, amitom
bavSvebis xelsayrel pirobebSi gazrdis SemTxvevaSi TvalsaCino unda iyos garemos uSualo
gavlena IQ-ze.

385

suraTi

10.6

naSvilebi bavSvebis IQ qulebi


saSualo klasis TeTrkaniani ojaxebis mier naSvileb Savkanian da Sereuli rasis bavSvebs hqondaT saSualoze maRali IQ, radgan bavSvebi arian
im jgufebis wevrebi, romlebisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia saSualoze dabali Sedegebi. miRebuli monacemebi aCveneben garemo pirobebis gavlenas IQze.

saidan
viciT

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

garemos gavlena IQ-ze

386

mkvlevrebi swavlobdnen bavSvebis or


jgufs, romlebic naSvilebi iyvnen 2 wlis
asakSi saSualo klasis TeTrkaniani mSoblebis mier (Moore, 1986). erTi jgufis
bavSvebis (9 bavSvi) orive biologiuri
mSobeli Savkaniani iyo, xolo meore jgufis bavSvebs (14 bavSvi) erTi biologiuri
mSobeli Savkaniani hyavdaT, meore ki _
TeTrkaniani. 7-dan 10 wlamde asakSi
veqsleris inteleqtis skalis gamoyenebiT
afasebdnen TiToeuli bavSvis IQ-s.
im bavSvebis saSualo IQ, romlebsac
orive mSobeli Savkaniani hyavdaT, 108.7
iyo, xolo Sereuli bavSvebis IQ _ 107.2.
rogorc naCvenebia 10.6 suraTze, es maCveneblebi saSualoze maRalia afrikeli amerikelebisaTvis (Lynn,1996).

unda aRiniSnos, rom individualur gansxvavebas qmnis ara rasa, aramed ekonomikuri, janmrTelobis da ganaTlebis uzrunvelyofis
resursebi, romelic, rogorc Cven sazogadoebaSi,
ise bevr sxva qveyanaSi, dakavSirebulia rasobriv
mikuTvnebulobasTan.
praqtikulad, ukanaskneli 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi mkvlevrebi am Sedegis saxelmwifoebriv
doneze ganzogadebas cdiloben. programa `Head

Start~ federalurma mTavrobam pirvelad 1965 wels


daafinansa. is gankuTvnili iyo `mcire SesaZleblobebis mqone ojaxebis bavSvebis fizikuri
janmrTelobis, ganviTarebis, socialuri,
saganmanaTleblo da emociuri mdgomareobis
gasaumjobeseblad; garda amisa, specialuri
mxardamWeri samsaxurebis saSualebiT zrdida
ojaxebis SesaZleblobas, ezrunaT sakuTar
Svilebze~ (Kassebaum, 1994, gv. 123). Head Start programis arsi iyo ara bavSvebis gadayvana privilegirebul pirobebSi, aramed im pirobebis gaumjobeseba, romelSic isini daibadnen da izrdebodnen. aRniSnuli programis mixedviT, bavSvebi
iReben specialur skolamdel ganaTlebas,
yoveldRe normalurad ikvebebian, maTi mSoblebi
iReben janmrTelobasTan da bavSvis aRzrdasTan
dakavSirebul rCevebs. am programis efeqturobis
pirveli Sefasebebi fokusirebuli iyo inteleqtis testebis da miRwevis sxva sazomebis mixedviT miRebuli Sedegebis gaumjobesebaze. faqtobrivad, programaSi CarTvidan sul ramdenime
kviris Semdeg bavSvebis IQ 10 quliT gaizarda.
samwuxarod, programis datovebis Semdeg, maTi
IQ maCveneblebi isev mcirdeboda (Barnett, 1998;
Zigler&Muenchow, 1992; Zigler&Styfco, 1994). am
modelidan SesaZlebelia ori daskvnis gamotana:
IQ-ze SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos garemom, magram
xelsayreli garemo pirobebi unda iyos xangrZlivi. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Head Start programis SedarebiT gviandelma Sefasebebma
gadalaxa Tavdapirveli viwro interesi mxolod
IQ-is mimarT.

Tu Cven gamoviyenebT inteleqtis ufro farTo


gansazRvrebas, romelic scildeba ubralod
verbalur da araverbalur davalebebs inteleqtis testebSi, garemo faqtorebis gavlena
ufro naTeli gaxdeba. xelsayreli, mxardamWeri
garemo mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs warmatebebs
inteleqtualur, saskolo miRwevebsa da situaciur adaptaciaSi.

kultura da IQ testebis
validoba
adamianebi, albaT, naklebad izrunebdnen IQ
qulebze, rom ar iTvaliwinebdnen Semdeg sasargeblo prognozs: mravalricxovanma kvlevebma
aCvena, rom IQ qulebs sakmaod validurad
SeuZliaT iseTi sakiTxebis prognozireba, rogoricaa saskolo niSnebi, profesiuli statusi da sakuTari Tavis warmoCenis xarisxi
mraval sxvadasxva samuSaoze (Brody, 1997b;
Gottfredson, 1997b). am Sedegebidan gamomdinare, IQ
testebi validurad zomavs inteleqtualur
SesaZleblobebs, romlebic Zalian mniSvnelovania individis mier sxvadasxva saxis warmatebis miRwevisTvis; es ki, Tavis mxriv, metad
Rirebulia dasavluri kulturebisaTvis _ IQis saSualebiT gazomili inteleqti uSualo
gavlenas axdens warmatebaze. gansxvavebebma IQSi, aseve, SeiZleba imoqmedos akademiur moswrebasa da samuSaos Sesrulebis xarisxze

arapirdapiri gziT, Secvalos ra individis


motivebi da rwmenebi. isini, visac maRali IQ
aqvT, ufro metad mosalodnelia, rom warmatebulni iyvnen skolaSi, gaxdnen swavlisadmi
ufro motivirebulni, orientirebulni miRwevaze da optimisturad uyuron sakuTar SesaZleblobebs, rom Tavs gaarTmeven nebismier siZneles.
aseve, bavSvebs, romelTac dabali IQ aqvT,
SeiZleba `Tan sdevdes~ dabali donis skolebi
da programebi, ramac, SeiZleba, garkveulwilad,
imoqmedos maT TviTdarwmunebulobaze studentobis periodSic ki. amgvarad, IQ-ma SeiZleba
ganicados garemos gavlena, magram, amave dros,
IQ-s, Tavis mxriv, SeuZlia axali garemo pirobebis _ rogorc ukeTesis, ise uaresis _ Seqmna.
amgvarad, IQ-Sefaseba SeiZleba sabediswero
gaxdes bavSvisaTvis da gansazRvros misi bedi
inteleqtSi bavSvis ZiriTadi genetikuri unarebis wvlilis miuxedavad.
miuxedavad imisa, rom dadasturda IQ testebis
validoba maTi ZiriTadi mimarTulebiT gamoyenebisaTvis, bevri damkvirvebeli jer kidev
eWvqveS ayenebs maT validobas sxvadasxva
kulturuli da rasobrivi jgufebis Sedarebisas
(Greenfield, 1997; Samuda, 1998; Serpell, 2000). testebis
da testirebis mravali forma SeiZleba ar
Tanxvdebodes inteleqtis kulturul gagebas,
an saTanado qcevas. ganvixiloT klasSi uaryofiTi Sefasebis erTi magaliTi:
rodesac laTinoamerikeli warmoSobis
emigranti mSoblebis bavSvebi amerikul
skolaSi wavidnen, isini gagebaze ufro
metad iyvnen orientirebulni, vidre _
laparakze; maswavleblis avtoritetis
pativiscemaze, vidre _ sakuTari azrebis
gamoxatvaze, rasac maTi uaryofiTi akademiuri Sefaseba mohyva. maSasadame, erT
kulturaSi Rirebuli komunikaciis forma _ pativiscemiT mosmena _ gaxda uaryofiTi Sefasebis safuZveli iseTi skolis pirobebSi, sadac TviTdajerebuli,
mtkice laparaki komunikaciis Rirebul
formad aris miCneuli.
am emigrantma bavSvebma unda iswavlon, Tu
rogor moiqcnen amerikul skolaSi ise, rom
daarwmunon maswavleblebi TavianT gonierebaSi.
erT-erTi standartuli piroba imisa, rom IQ
testebs sifrTxiliT ekidebian, maTi tendenci-

inteleqtis politika

empiriuli literaturidan... viRebT


rogorc karg, ise _ cud ambebs. cudi
ambavi isaa, rom arc HHead Start-s da arc
nebismier sxva skolamdel programas ar
SeuZlia bavSvebis dacva siRatakis damangreveli zemoqmedebisagan. adreul intervencias ubralod ar SeuZlia cxovrebis
cudi pirobebis, aradamakmayifolebeli
kvebisa da jandacvis, uaryofiTi roluri
modelebisa da dabali donis skolebis
daZleva. dadebiTi mxare ki isaa, rom programebs SeuZlia bavSvebis momzadeba
skolisaTvis da, Sesabamisad, amiT exmareba maT daZlevisa da adaptaciis unarebis
ganviTarebaSi, rac SesaZleblobas miscems maT, cxovrebaSi miaRwion saukeTesos Tu ara, ukeTes Sedegebs mainc
(Zigler&Styfco,1994, gv.129).

387

urobaa, romelic mimarTulia sxvadasxva


kulturis wevrebis winaaRmdeg, an sasargeblod.
kritikosebi aRniSnaven, rom jgufebs Soris
gansxvavebebs IQ qulebSi iwvevs sistematuri
mikerZoeba testis kiTxvebSi, rac maT aravalidursa da usamarTlos xdis umciresobebTan
mimarTebaSi. maSinac ki, rodesac testebis
Sedgenisas gaTvaliswinebulia kulturuli
faqtori, masSi mainc gvxvdeba rasobrivi
xarvezebi (Neisser et al., 1996). faqtobrivad, es
sakiTxi SeiZleba testis konteqsts ufro
ukavSirdebodes, vidre testis Sinaarss. klaud
stili (Claude Steel, 1997; Steel & Aronson, 1995, 1998)
aRniSnavda, rom adamianebis mier unarebis
testebis Sesrulebaze gavlenas axdens stereotipuli muqara (cnobili, agreTve, stereotipuli mowyvladobis saxelwodebiT) _ safrTxe
imisa, rom SeiZleba dadasturdes negatiuri
stereotipi garkveuli jgufis Sesaxeb. klaud
stilis gamokvlevebis mixedviT, imis rwmenam,
rom situaciaSi moqmedebs uaryofiTi stereotipi, SeiZleba gamoiwvios im cudi maCveneblis
miReba, romelic stereotipSi moiazreboda.

saidan

studentebs. rogorc 10.7 suraTis A nawilze


xedavT, miRebulma Sedegebma es prognozi
daadastura. rodesac Savkaniani studentebi
darwmunebulni iyvnen, rom testSi miRebuli qulebis mixedviT vinmes maTi inteleqtis Sesaxeb SeeZlo emsjela, isini davalebebs uaresad asrulebdnen (Steel &
Aronson, 1995). stereotipuli muqariT
gamowveuli logika muSaobs nebismier
jgufSi, romlis mimarTac arsebobs arasrulfasovnebis stereotipi. magaliTad,
stereotipis mixedviT, qalebs, mamakacebTan
SedarebiT, maTematikis aTvisebis naklebi
unari aqvT. rogorc 10.7 suraTis B nawilze
Cans, rTulma maTematikurma testma sqesis
mixedviT gansxvavebuli Sedegebi mxolod
maSin aCvena, rodesac studentebs eubnebodnen, rom aseTi gansxvavebebi SeiZleba
yofiliyo (Steel, 1997), anu testze muSaobis
dawyebamde. rodesac studentebi acnobierebdnen TavianT sqesobriv ganxvavebulobas, studentebs eubnebodnen, rom
warsulSi aseTma testma aCvena sqesis
mixedviT gansxvaveba. swored igive moxda
am studentebis SemTxvevaSic.

viciT

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

stereotipuli muqaris moqmedeba

388

erT-erT kvlevaSi gamosaSvebi kursis


Savkaniani da TeTrkaniani studentebi
cdilobdnen epasuxaT magistraturaSi
misaReb standartul testSi Semavali
kiTxvebis msgavsi Zalze rTuli kiTxvebisTvis, romlebic enis kargad codnas
moiTxovda. studentebis naxevars uTxres,
rom am kiTxvebze gacemuli pasuxebis
mixedviT imsjelebdnen maTi inteleqtualuri unarebis Sesaxeb, meore naxevarma
ki icoda, rom am eqsperimentiT amocanis
gadaWris procesSi CarTul fsiqologiur
faqtorebs ikvlevdnen. stereotipuli
muqaris Teoriis mixedviT, SedarebiT
dabali Sedegebi unda hqonodaT im studentebs, romelTac situaciam Seuqmna
stereotipuli muqara, anu pirveli jgufis
(maT icodnen, rom fasdeboda inteleqtualuri SesaZleblobebi) Savkanian

yuradReba miaqcieT, rom TiToeul am kvlevaSi


mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor afasebs situacias
testis Semsrulebeli. mxolod im SemTxvevaSi,
rodesac adamianebs sjeraT, rom situacia exeba
stereotips, magaliTad, rodesac miaCniaT, rom
inteleqtis am testiT maTi stereotipulad
cudi Sedegebi gamovlindeba, maT mier davalebebis Sesruleba uaresdeba. SesaZlebelia Tu
ara IQ-is gazomva stereotipuli muqaris aRmocenebis gareSe? Tu es SeuZlebelia, mkvlevrebi
verasodes SeZleben inteleqtualuri unarebis
adekvaturad Sefasebas.
dabolos, kidev erTi mosazreba inteleqtisa da kulturis Sesaxeb. zogadad, aSS-is kultura individualuri gansxvavebebis axsnisas
tendenciuria da am gansxvavebebis genetikuri
faqtoriT axsnisken ixreba. harold stivensonma da misma kolegebma (Harold Stevenson, 1993)
ramdenime weli dauTmes Cineli, iaponeli da
stereotipuli muqara (Stereotype threat) _ safrTxe
imisa, rom SeiZleba dadasturdes negatiuri
stereotipi garkveuli jgufis Sesaxeb.

suraTi

10.7

stereotipuli muqara

amerikeli bavSvebis maTematikuri miRwevebis


kvlevas. 1980 wels azieli bavSvebi sagrZnoblad jobnidnen TavianT amerikel Tanatolebs.
1990 wels es intervali SenarCunebuli iyo:
`Cineli bavSvebis mxolod 4.1%-s da iaponeli
bavSvebis 10.3%-s hqonda iseTive dabali qulebi, rogoric _ saSualo amerikel bavSvs~. niSnavs Tu ara es imas, rom azieli bavSvebi genetikuri upiratesobiT xasiaTdebian? faqtobrivad, ufro mosalodneli iyo, rom adamianebi
aSS-Si am kiTxvas dadebiTad upasuxebdnen. rodesac stivensoni da misi kolegebi sTxovdnen
aziel da amerikel studentebs, maswavleblebs
da mSoblebs mieTiTebinaT, Tu ra ufro mniSvnelovani iyo maTTvis: `bejiTad mecadineoba~
Tu `Tandayolili goniereba~, azieli respondentebi aqcents `bejiTad mecadineobaze~
akeTebdnen, amerikeli respondentebi ki _ `Tandayolil gonierebaze~. axla xedavT, Tu rogor

SeiZleba, rom am Sexedulebebma amerikelebi


miiyvanos daskvnamde, rom azielebi genetikuri
upiratesobiT unda xasiaTdebodnen maTematikis
aTvisebaSi. vinaidan aseTi rwmena saxelmwifo
politikaze aisaxeba, magaliTad, ra Tanxaa
saWiro imisaTvis, rom amerikelebi daeuflon
maTematikas maSin, rodesac ar aqvT am sagnis
Seswavlis unari. Zalian mniSvnelovania zusti mecnieruli monacemebis gaanalizeba, raTa
ganisazRvros, risi Secvlaa SesaZlebeli gonebrivi SesaZleblobebis gamovlenaSi da risi _
ara.

Sejameba
godardma xeli Seuwyo zogierTi rasobrivi
da eTnikuri jgufebis genetikuri inferiulobis aRiarebis warumatebeli tradiciis damkvidrebas. qcevis genetikurma analizma IQ-Si

inteleqtis politika

stereotipul muqaras adgili aqvs maSin, rodesac adamianebi Tvlian, rom negatiuri
stereotipebi marTebulia mimdinare testirebis pirobebSi. (A) erT kvlevaSi swavloben
stereotips: afro-amerikelebs dabali qulebi aqvT inteleqtis testebSi. cdis pirebis
_ Savkaniani da TeTri studentis _ naxevarma icoda, rom testi diagnostikuri iyo da
zomavda maT inteleqtualur SesaZleblobas. cdis pirebis meore naxevars ar hqonda es
informacia. jgufSi, romelmac icoda, rom testi diagnostikuri iyo, maTi Sesruleba
uaresdeboda (mosalodnel SesrulebaSi ukve arsebuli gansxvavebebis gamosaricxad
gamoiyeneboda cdis pirTa SAT qulebi). (B) meore kvlevaSi swavlobdnen stereotips:
qalebi dabal qulebs iReben matematikis gamocdebze. cdis pirebis _ qali da mamakaci
studentebis naxevars eubnebodnen, rom maTematikis testma wina SemTxvevaSi aCvena genderuli gansxvavebebi SedegebSi. cdis pirebis meore naxevari aseT informacias ar
Rebulobda. rodesac qalebi fiqrobdnen, rom testma SeiZleba genderuli TvalsazrisiT
gansxvavebuli Sedegebi aCvenos, maSin maTi Sesruleba uaresdeboda.

389

mravalricxovani genetikuri komponenti aCvena.


Tumca, IQ-is gazomvas xSirad politikuri elferi dakravs, IQ-is mixedviT miRebuli rasobrivi gansxvavebebis gamo. mkvlevrebma daadgines garemos faqtorebi, romlebic mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdenen IQ-ze. miuxedavad imisa,
rom IQ-s sakmaod validurad SeuZlia iseTi
cxovrebiseuli Sedegebis prognozireba, rogoricaa warmatebebi skolasa da samsaxurSi, misi
gazomvebi SeiZleba aravaliduri iyos sxvadasxva
rasobrivi da kulturuli jgufebis SemTxvevaSi. magaliTad, zogierTi jgufi inteleqtualuri SesaZleblobebis gazomvisas stereotipuli muqaris zemoqmedebas ganicdis.

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

SemoqmedebiToba
sanam inteleqtisa da misi gazomvis Temas
davasrulebT, mivubrundeT iseT sakiTxs,
rogoricaa kreatuloba, anu SemoqmedebiToba.
kreatuloba aris iseTi ideebis generirebisa
da produqtebis Seqmnis unari, romlebic axali
da aqtualuria mocemul pirobebSi (Sternbeg &
Lubart, 1999). ganvixiloT borblis gamogonebis
magaliTi. es meqanizmi axali iyo, radgan ucnob
gamomgoneblamde aravis unaxavs, Tu ra sargeblis
miReba SeiZleboda gagorebuli sagnebisgan. es
gamogoneba pirobebis adekvaturi iyo, radgan
Zalze cxadi iyo misi gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba.
pirobebTan Sesatyvisobis gareSe, axali ideebi
xSirad ucnaurad da uadgilod aRiqmeba.
kreatulobas gonebrivi SesaZleblobebisadmi
miZRvnil TavSi ganvixilavT, vinaidan bevri
adamiani aRiarebs inteleqtsa da kreatulobas
Soris mWidro kavSiris arsebobas. am varaudis
dasamtkiceblad, upirveles yovlisa, SemoqmedebiTi unarebis Sefaseba unda SegveZlos, xolo
Semdeg _ kreatulobasa da inteleqts Soris
kavSiris dadgena. amrigad, jer ganvixilavT
meTodebs, romelTa saSualebiT ideebi an pro-

kreatuloba (Creativity) iseTi ideebis generirebisa da produqtebis Seqmnis unari, romlebic


axali da aqtualuria mocemul pirobebSi.
divergentuli azrovneba (Divergent thinking) _

390

duqtebi fasdeba, rogorc SemoqmedebiTi da


SevamowmebT inteleqtTan maT kavSirs, Semdeg
ganvixilavT gansakuTrebuli (an uCveulo)
kreatulobis pirobebs da maT kavSirs SeSlilobasTan. vnaxavT, ra SeiZleba viswavloT
gansakuTrebuli SemoqmedebiTi unarebiT dajildoebuli adamianebisagan.

kreatulobis Sefaseba da
kavSiri inteleqtTan
rogor SeiZleba imis gansazRvra, adamianebi
(SedarebiT) kreatulebi arian Tu ara? bevri
midgoma divergentul azrovnebaze fokusirdeba,
romelic ganisazRvreba, rogorc problemis
sxvadasxvagvari uCveulo gadawyvetis unari.
kiTxvebi, romelebic zomaven divergentul
azrovnebas, saSualebas aZleven testis
Semsrulebels naTlad gamoavlinos sxarti da
moqnili azrovneba (Torrance, 1974; Wallah & Kogan,
1965):
daasaxeleT yvela sagani, romelic, Tqveni
azriT, oTxkuTxedia;
sami wuTis ganmavlobaSi daasaxeleT rac
SeiZleba meti TeTri feris, saWmelad vargisi
sagnebi;
daasaxeleT aguris gamoyenebis yvela
SesaZlo varianti, rac TavSi azrad mogivaT.
pasuxebi fasdeba iseTi ganzomilebebis mixedviT, rogoricaa (1) sisxarte _ gansxvavebuli
ideebis saerTo raodenoba; (2) unikaluroba _
im ideebis raodenoba, romelic Sesabamis
SerCevaSi aravis gamouTqvams da (3) uCveuloba
_ im ideebis raodenoba, romelic gamoTqva
mocemuli SerCevis, vTqvaT, 5%-ze naklebma
(Runco,1991).
rodesac kreatulobas am gziT afaseben,
SesaZlebelia miRebuli maCveneblis Sedareba
sxva sazomebTan da maT Soris kavSiris dadgena.
xSirad mkvlevrebi afasebdnen kavSirs divergentuli azrovnebis sazomebsa da IQ-s Soris.
saxezea zogadi suraTi: or sazoms Soris arsebobs susti an zomieri korelacia, rodesac
IQ aris 120 qulamde, 120 qulaze zemoT ki
korelacia mcirdeba (Sternberg & OHara, 1999).
ratom unda xdebodes ase? erT-erTi mkvlevari
fiqrobs rom `inteleqtis~ garkveuli done

10.8

iZleva SemoqmedebiTobis amoqmedebis SesaZleblobas, magram ar axdens mis stimulacias (Perkins,


1998, gv. 319). sxva sityvebiT, inteleqtis gansazRvruli done saSualebas aZlevs pirovnebas,
iyos kreatuli, magram man SeiZleba ver gamoiyenos es SesaZlebloba.
SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebis mkvlevrebi xSirad
aRniSnaven, rom divergentuli azrovnebis
testebi Zalian mWidrod ukavSirdeba inteleqtis
testirebis tradiciasa da TviTon IQ testebs
(ramac SeiZleba axsnas maRali korelacia 120
IQ-s farglebSi) (Lubart,1994). kriteriumiT _
kreatuli-arakreatuli _ adamianTa Sefasebis
gansxvavebul midgomas warmoadgens maT mier
gansazRvruli SemoqmedebiTi produqtis _
naxatis, leqsis an patara moTxrobis Seqmna.
eqspertebs SeuZliaT Seafason TiToeuli produqtis kreatulobis xarisxi. gamokvlevebma
aCvena, rom eqspertebi sakmaod erTsulovanni
arian produqtis kreatulobis Sefasebisas
(Amabile, 1983). maT SeiZleba sakmaod zustad
Seafason adamianebi naklebi an meti kreatulobis
mixedviT.

gansakuTrebuli kreatuloba
da SeSliloba
arseboben gansakuTrebuli adamianebi,
romlebic SemoqmedebiTobis etalonebs
warmoadgenen. vin gaxsendebaT, roca gTxoven

gansakuTrebiT SemoqmedebiTi adamianis dasaxelebas? savaraudoa, rom Tqveni pasuxi, nawilobriv, damokidebuli iqneba im sferoze,
romelSic moRvaweobT da, nawilobriv, Tqvens
prioritetebze. fsiqologebma SeiZleba daasaxelon zigmund froidi; ferweriT, musikiT an
cekviT dainteresebulma adamianebma SeiZleba
daasaxelon pablo pikaso, igor stravinski an
marta grahami. SesaZlebelia Tu ara aseTi
individebis pirovnebebs Soris im saerTo
maxasiaTeblebis aRmoCena, romelic gansakuTrebuli SemoqmedebiTobis winaswarmetyvelebis
saSualebas mogvcems? hovard gardnerma (Howard
Gardner, 1993) airCia is individebi, romelTa
eqstraordinaruli unarebi Cven mier adre
ganxiluli inteleqtis rva tipis relevanturi
iyo. maT Soris iyvnen froidi, pikaso, stravinski
da grahami. gardneris analizma saSualeba misca
mas, Seeqmna tipuri Semoqmedis cxovrebiseuli
gamocdilebis portreti, romelsac man E.C.
uwoda.
E.C. aRebs problemuri sferosa da
gansakuTrebuli interesebis samefos kars,
romelic mas gaukvalav gzaze ayenebs. es
aris uaRresad sapasuxismgeblo momenti.
am wuTidan E.C. izolirebulia Tanatolebisgan da, ZiriTadad, damoukideblad
unda imuSaos. is grZnobs, rom raRac
aRmoCenis zRvarze imyofeba, romelic jer
TviTonac ar aqvs gaazrebuli. am kritikul

SemoqmedebiToba

suraTi

391

momentSi E.C. miiltvis rogorc kognituri,


ise _ emociuri mxardaWerisken, amiT is
Tavisi mdgomareobis SenarCunebas axerxebs.
amgvari mxardaWeris gareSe igi SeiZleba
Zalisa da energiisagan daicalos (Gardner,
1993, gv. 361).

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

am pasaJis dasasrul gardneri moixseniebs


tipur SemoqmedTa erT-erT yvelaze zogad
stereotips _ maTi cxovreba esazRvreba, zogjer
ki gulisxmobs SeSlilobas. ideas imis Sesaxeb,
rom udidesi SemoqmedebiToba mWidrod ukavSirdeba SeSlilobas, didi xnis istoria aqvs
da platonis saxels ukavSirdeba (Kessel, 1989).
SedarebiT Tanamedrove periodSi krepelini (1921)
aRniSnavda, rom `maniakalur-depresiuli sigiJiT
Sepyrobili~, anu bipolaruli aSlilobis mqone
individebi maniakalur fazaSi qmnian azris
Tavisuflad dinebis1 pirobebs, rac xels uwyobs
did SemoqmedebiTobas. rogorc me-15 TavSi
vnaxavT, mania xasiaTdeba xangrZlivi agznebis
periodebiT. adamians amaRlebuli ganwyobileba
aqvs da eqspansiuri qceviT, TavSeukaveblobiT
xasiaTdeba. arsebobs mosazreba, rom xelovnebisa
da humanitaruli mecnierebebis mravali
gamoCenili moRvawe swored guneba-ganwyobilebis
aseTi aSlilobiT xasiaTdeba (Keiger,1993), magram,
rogor unda gansazRvron mkvlevrebma, imoqmeda
Tu ara fsiqikurma daavadebam am individebis
azrovnebis realur procesze?

392

saidan
viciT
kreatuloba da mania
aRniSnul kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad
kreatulobis mkvlevarma robert veisbergma
(Robert Weisberg, 1994, 1996) Seiswavla kompozitor robert Sumanis Semoqmedeba,
romelsac bipolaruli aSlilobis diagnozi hqonda. garkveuli monacemebi maniasa
da SemoqmedebiTobas Soris navaraudevi
kavSiris sasargeblod metyvelebs. Sumanma
gacilebiT meti nawarmoebi Seqmna maniakaluri fazis wlebSi (saSualod 12.3),

Free flowing though processes.

vidre _ depresiul fazaSi (saSualod 2.7),


Tumca, es kavSiri gacilebiT susti iyo
nawarmoebebis xarisxis Sefasebisas. maniakalur periodSi Seqmnili nawarmoebebi
xarisxiT ar sjobnida depresiul periodSi
Seqmnil nawarmoebebs.

veisbergis kvleva gvafiqrebinebs, rom SeSliloba (gamovlenili maniis saxiT) mniSvnelovnad zemoqmedebs motivaciaze. individi
imorCilebs maniis Semotevas da bevrs qmnis.
Tu pirovneba garkveuli talantiT gamoirCeva,
am periodSi Seqmnili zogierTi, magram ara
yvela, nawarmoebi brwyinvale iqneba, Tumca,
xarisxiT ar iqneba sxva periodebSi Seqmnil
nawarmoebebze ukeTesi. istoriuli SemTxvevebis
yuradRebiT Seswavlam, romelic SemoqmedebiTobasa da SeSlilobas Soris arsebul garkveuli xarisxis kavSirze metyvelebs, eqsperti
albert rotenbergi (Albert Rothengerg) miiyvana
daskvnamde, rom `mcdari da romantiulia Sexeduleba, romlis mixedviTac, TiTqos, adamianebi
TviTon unda daitanjon, rom SeZlon sxvebis
mwuxarebisa da tanjvis gageba~ (Rothenberg, 1990,
gv.164).
mas mere, rac adamianma miiRo informacia
gansakuTrebul kreatulobis Sesaxeb, ra SeiZ-

Sejameba
kreatuloba divergentuli azrovnebis testebiT izomeba. zogierTi Sexedulebis sawinaaRmdegod, ar dadasturda mWidro kavSiri SemoqmedebiTobasa da SeSlilobas Soris, Tumca,
SemoqmedebiToba moiTxovs garkveuli riskis
gawevas, momzadebasa da motivacias.

Sefaseba da sazogadoeba
fsiqologiuri Sefasebis ZiriTadi mizani
adamianebis zustad Sefasebaa, rac eqspertebis
mier gakeTebul SeZlebisdagvarad uSecdobo
daskvebSi aisaxeba. am miznis miRweva SesaZlebelia maswavleblebis, damqiraveblebis da sxva

Semfaseblebis subieqturi daskvnebis ufro


obieqturi sazomebiT SecvliT, romlebic
sakmaod zedmiwevniT, guldasmiTaa agebuli da
Riaa kritikuli SefasebisaTvis. swored am
mizanma misca dasabami alfred bines pionerul
Sromas. bines da sxvebs miaCndaT, rom testireba
xels Seuwyobda sazogadoebis demokratizacias
da Seamcirebda sqesis, rasis, erovnebis, privilegiebis, an fizikuri garegnobis SemTxveviT
kriteriumebze dafuZnebul gadawyvetilebebs,
Tumca, am amaRlebuli miznebis miuxedavad,
fsiqologiaSi ar arsebobs Sefasebaze ufro
sakamaTo sfero. polemika ZiriTad sam eTikur
sakiTxs exeba: (1) testze dafuZnebuli gadawyvetilebebis samarTlianobas, (2) ganaTlebis
Sesafasebeli testebis vargisianobasa da (3)
testis qulebis gamoyenebas individebis
garkveul kategoriebSi gaerTianebis mizniT.
testirebis procesis kritikosebi aRniSnaven,
rom zogierTebisTvis testirebis sazRauri, an
uaryofiTi Sedegebi ufro metia, vidre
sxvebisaTvis (Bond, 1995). sazRauri sakmaod
maRalia, magaliTad, rodesac testi, romelzec

Sefaseba da sazogadoeba

leba iswavlos man aqedan. Tqven SeiZleba


mibaZoT riskis gawevis models; uaRresad kreatuli adamianebi mzad arian dadgnen `gaukvalav
gzaze~. aseve, SegiZliaT gaiziaroT momzadebis
modeli. gansakuTrebuli kreatulobiT dajildoebuli adamianebi wlebs uTmoben im sferoSi
daxelovnebas, romelSic saukeTesoni iqnebian
(Weisberg,1986). SesaZlebelia gaiziaroT Sinagani
motivaciis modeli (Pattern of intrinsic motivation).
SemoqmedebiTi adamianebi gulmodgined asruleben mocemul davalebebs, radgan siamovnebas da
kmayofilebas aniWebT is, rasac isini qmnian
(Collins & Amabile, 1999). Tu Tqvens cxovrebaSi
SeZlebT am sami modelis sakuTar Tavze
morgebas, maSin moaxerxebT Tqveni SemoqmedebiTi
unarebis metad gamovlenas.
axla ukve iciT is xerxebi, romelTa saSualebiT fsiqologebi afaseben da xsnian individualur gansxvavebebs, romelebic arseboben
inteleqtsa da kreatulobas Soris, Tumca,
ueWvelia, iciT, rom adamianis gasagebad gacilebiT metia saWiro, vidre codna misi inteleqtualobisa da SemoqmedebiTobis xarisxis Sesaxeb. Semdeg qveTavSi ganvixilavT im xerxebs,
romliTac fsiqologebi iReben informacias im
pirovnuli Tvisebebis diapazonis Sesaxeb, romlebic TiToeuli individis unikalurobas
gansazRvravs.

393

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

394

umciresobaTa jgufebma dabali qulebi miiRes,


ar aZlevs maT garkveul samuSaoebis Sesrulebis
uflebas. zogierT qalaqSi saxelmwifo samoqalaqo samsaxurSi damlageblad muSaobis
dasawyebad, msurvelma unda gaiaros verbaluri
testi da ara _ ufro adekvaturi fizikuri
unarebis testi. mkvlevar uiliam benksis (William Banks) mixedviT, am strategiis mizani sxvadasxva umciresobebis samuSaoebze ardaSvebaa
(1990). zogjer umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebi
testSi cud Sedegebs iZleodnen, radgan maTi
Sedegebi arasaTanado normebis mixedviT fasdeboda. garda amisa, erTi jgufis kandidatebisaTvis SemTxveviT dadgenili gamsvleli
qulebi SeiZleba sxvebis mimarT iqnes gamoyenebuli SerCevis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebisas maSin, rodesac realurad ufro dabali
gamsvleli qula iqneboda samarTliani da, Sesabamisad, samuSaoze daqiravebasTan dakavSirebiT
miRebuli gadawyvetileba swori iqneboda. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom testirebaze gadaWarbebuli
dayrdnoba kadrebis avtomatur SerCevas
ganapirobebs, Tumca, zogjer sazogadoeba SeiZleba ufro mogebuli darCes, Tu samuSaos
aRwerilobebi adamianTa moTxovnilebebisa da
unarebis gaTvaliswinebiT modificirdeba.
meore eTikur sakiTxs warmoadgens is, rom
testireba ara mxolod studentebis Sefasebas
axdens, aramed ganaTlebis formirebaSic
garkveul rols asrulebs. saskolo sistemis
xarisxsa da maswavlebelTa efeqturobaze xSirad
msjeloben imaze dayrdnobiT, Tu ramdenad
warmatebiT asruleben maTi moswavleebi miRwevis
standartul testebs. TviT maswavlebelTa
xelfasebic ki SeiZleba damokidebuli iyos
testebis Sedegebze, ramac skolebSi xeli Seuwyo
TaRliTobasTan dakavSirebul skandalebs.
magaliTad potomakSi (Potomac, Maryland) dawyebiTi
skolis direqtori gadadga, rodesac gamoaSkaravda mtkicebulebebi imis Sesaxeb, rom testis
Sedegebis gaumjobesebis mizniT skolis mexuTeklaselebma iseTi saxis daxmareba miiRes, rogoricaa damatebiTi dro da testis xelmeored
Sesruleba (Thomas & Wingert, 2000). es faqtebi
TviTon moswavleebma gamoavlines, romelTac
mSoblebs uTxres, rom skolaSi maT TaRliTuri
qcevis ganxorcieleba sTxoves. bavSvebi gaocebulni iyvnen ufrosebis qceviT da mSoblebs
maTi qcevis axsnas sTxovdnen. bavSvebis amgvari

damokidebuleba miuTiTebs imaze, Tu ramdenad


saSiSi SeiZleba iyos, rodesac testis Sedegebi
ganaTlebaze ufro mniSvnelovani xdeba.
mesame eTikuri problema isaa, rom testis
Sedegebi SeiZleba Seucvlel iarliyad iqces.
adamianebi sakmaod xSirad aRiqvamen sakuTar
Tavs 110-is toli IQ-is mqone individebad, an B
qulis mimReb studentebad, TiTqos es maCveneblebi, an qulebi maT Sublze aweriaT. amgvari
iarliyebi SeiZleba maTi winsvlis damabrkoleblad iqces, radgan adamianebi ijereben, rom
maTi gonebrivi da pirovnuli maxasiaTeblebi
fiqsirebuli da ucvlelia; rom maT ar SeuZliaT sakuTari SesaZleblobebis gaumjobeseba;
testSi miRebulma dabalma qulebma SeiZleba
uaryofiTad imoqmedos maT motivaciaze da
Seasustos TviTefeqturobis gancda. garkveuli
jgufebis arasrulfasovnad miCneva IQ monacemebis mixdeviT testirebis kidev erTi uaryofiTi
Sedegia. isini, vinc ase sajarod arian `daRdasmulebi~, ijereben imas, rasac `eqspertebi~
amboben maT Sesaxeb. amitom skola da ganaTleba
ar miaCniaT maTi cxovrebis gaumjobesebis
saSualebad.
testebis Sedegebisadmi xelSeuxebeli statusis miniWebis aseTi tendencia vrceldeba
rogorc sazogadoebriv, ise _ pirovnul doneze.
rodesac testis Sedegebi individis pirovnuli
Tvisebebis, mdgomareobebis, araadaptirebulobis,
konfliqtisa da paTologiis iarliyad iqceva,
adamianebi gansakuTrebuli bavSvebis `aranormalurobaze~ ufro iwyeben fiqrs, vidre ganaTlebis sistemaze, romelic saWiroebs programebis
imgvar modificirebas, rom TiToeul moswavleze
morgebuli iyos. iarliyebs wina planze devianturi pirovnenebi ufro gamoyavs, vidre maTi
garemos disfunqciuri aspeqtebi. iseT individualistur sazogadoebebSi, rogoric, magaliTad, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebia, adamianebis umravlesoba mzad aris adamianis warmateba
da warumatebloba arasworad miaweros mas da,
amave dros, saTanadod ar Seafasos garemo
pirobebis zegavlena. Cven vkicxavT adamians
warumateblobisaTvis da amiT sazogadoebis
danaSauls vamsubuqebT. Cven vaqebT pirovnebas
warmatebisaTvis da amitomac ar vaRiarebT
sxvadasxva sazogadoebriv gavlenas, romelmac
SesaZlebeli gaxada misi warmateba. Cven unda
vaRiaroT, Tu rogorebi arian adamianebi amJamad,

miuxedavad Cemi, rogorc profesionali


fsiqologis, warmatebuli karierisa, Cem
mier mravali wlis win gakeTebulma testebma sul sxva ram iwinaswarmetyvela.
miuxedavad imisa, rom warCinebuli kursdamTavrebuli viyavi, romelmac umaRlesi
akademiuri moswrebiT (Summa Cum Laude)
davamTavre, erTaderTi Sefaseba (niSani)
C miviRe fsiqologiis SesavalSi, sadac
gamocda mxolod mravaljeradi arCevanis
testiT Catarda. Tavdapirvelad uari
miTxres ielis universitetSi staJirebaze.,
Semdeg rezervSi Camricxes da bolos
uxalisod mimiRes. es, nawilobriv, gamowveuli iyo imiT, rom Cemi maTematikis qulebi
fsiqologiis fakultetis mier dawesebul
zRvarze naklebi iyo, magram mogvianebiT
aRmovaCine, rom es nawilobriv gamowveuli
iyo imiTac, rom profesor-maswavleblebma
Cemi pasuxebisa da sxva mtkicebulebebis
mixedviT, romelic naxes Cems gancxadebasa
da testebSi, ivaraudes, rom zangi viyavi.
am monacemebma uaryofiTad imoqmeda maT
daskvnebze Cemi SesaZleblobis _ mimeRwia
warmatebisaTvis fsiqologiaSi _ Sesaxeb.
sabednierod, zogierTi maTgani mzad iyo

CemTvis Sansis mosacemad, rodesac maT


mier dafinansebuli kandidati (gordon
boueri, amJamad cnobili fsiqologi)
sxvagan wavida staJirebaze.
warmatebebi karierasa da cxovrebaSi
gacilebiT mets moiTxovs, vidre mxolod
standartizebuli testebiT gazomili
unarebi, SesaZleblobebi da maxasiaTeblebia. miuxedavad imisa, rom testebs
SeuZliaT imis prognozireba, Tu saSualod
ramdenad kargi Sedegi eqnebaT adamianebs,
nebismieri mocemuli individis SemTxvevaSi
SeiZleba adgili hqondes Secdomas.
adamianebma SeiZleba uaryon testis qulebis pesimisturi prognozi, rodesac
mizandasaxulobiT, warmosaxviT, imediT,
pirovnuli siamayiT da intensiuri ZalisxmeviT gaaumjobeseben TavianT monacemebs.
albaT, metad mniSvnelovania, gjerodeT
sakuTari Tavis, vidre _ testis Sedegebis.

Sejameba
miuxedavad imisa, rom fsiqologiuri testireba xSir SemTxvevaSi sasargebloa individisaTvis, jer kidev aris testebis upasuxismgeblod gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi. kritikosebs
awuxebT iseTi sakiTxebi, rogoricaa testis
Sedegebze dafuZnebuli gadawyvetilebebis
samarTlianoba, testebis vargisianoba saganmanaTleblo praqtikis Sesafaseblad da testebis
Sedegebis gamoyeneba adamianTa garkveul kategoriebad daxarixebisaTvis.

sakvanZo
sakiTxebi
ra aris Sefaseba
fsiqologiur Sefasebas
xangrZlivi istoria aqvs
da dasabams antikuri

CineTidan iRebs. am sferoSi


mniSvnelovani wvlili
Seitana ser frensis galtonma.
Sefasebis instrumenti unda
iyos sando, validuri da

standartizirebuli. sando
sazomi gvaZlevs Sesabamis
Sedegebs. validuri sazomi
afasebs im Tvisebebs, romelTa
gasazomadac Seiqmna testi.

sakvanZo sakiTxebi

rac imis Sedegia, Tu sad imyofebodnen, sad


Camoyalibdnen da ra mimdinare situacia axdens
gavlenas maT qcevaze.
es Tavi gvinda fil zimbardos piradi weriliT davasruloT, romelic SeiZleba STagonebis wyarod iqces im studentebisaTvis,
romlebic kargad ver arTmeven Tavs obieqtur
testebs:

395

standartizirebuli testis
Catareba da Sedegebis Sejameba yovelTvis erTi da
igive gziT xdeba. normebis
arseboba saSualebas gvaZlevs, SevadaroT pirovnebis
qulebi igive asakis, sqesis
da kulturis individTa
saSualo maCvenebels.

inteleqtis Sefaseba
XX saukunis oTxmocdaaTiani wlebis dasawyisSi
safrangeTSi alfred binem
safuZveli Cauyara inteleqtis obieqturi testirebis ganviTarebas. qulebi
mocemuli iyo gonebrivi
asakis terminebiT da bavSvebis funqcionirebis arsebul dones asaxavda.
aSS-Si termenma Seqmna stenford-bines inteleqtis skala da moaxdina IQ-is cnebis
popularizacia.
veqslerma Seqmna specialuri inteleqtis testebi
mozrdilebisTvis, skolamdeli da saskolo asakis
bavSvebisaTvis.

Tavi 10 / inteleqti da inteleqtis Sefaseba

inteleqtis Teoriebi

396
396

IQ-is fsiqometriulma analizma aCvena, rom zogierT


ZiriTad unars, rogoricaa
inteleqtis fluiduri da
kristaluri aspeqti, garkveuli wvlili Seaqvs IQ
qulebSi.
Tanamedrove Teoriebi Zalian farTod ganixilaven
da zomaven inteleqts,
msjeloben ra im unarebsa
da insaitebze, romelTac
adamianebi sxvadasxva amocanis gadasaWrelad iyeneben.

stenbergi ganasxvavebs inteleqtis komponentur, empiriul da konteqstualur


aspeqtebs.
gardnerma daadgina inteleqtis rva tipi, romelic
moicavs da scildeba kidec
standartuli IQ sazomebiT
gazomvad inteleqtis formebs. Tanamedrove kvlevebi
fokusirebulia emociur inteleqtze.

inteleqtis politika
Tavdapirvelad inteleqtis
testebi eTnikuri da rasobrivi jgufebis Sesaxeb uaryofiTi gancxadebebis gasakeTeblad gamoiyeneboda.
IQ-is maRali memkvidreobiTobis gamo zogierTi
mkvlevari garkveuli rasobrivi da kulturuli jgufebis dabal Sedegebs maT
Tandayolil arasrulfasovnebas miawers.
araxelsayreli garemo pirobebiT da stereotipuli muqariT aixsneba zogierTi jgufis dabali IQ qulebi. gamokvleva aCvenebs, rom jgufuri
gansxvavebebi SeiZleba ganpirobebuli iyos garemo faqtorebiT.

SemoqmedebiToba
xSir SemTxvevaSi kreatulobis Sefaseba divergentuli
azrovnebis testebis saSualebiT xdeba.
gansakuTrebiT kreatuli adamianebi midian riskze, gadian
momzadebas da uaRresad motivirebulni arian.
ar dadasturda kavSiri kreatulobasa da SeSlilobas
Soris.

10.3 cxrilSi mocemuli anagramis gadawyveta


1. Laugh

6. Allow

2. Tempt

7. Drive

3. Short

8. Cough

4. Knight

9. Enter

5. Write

10. Basic

Sefaseba da
sazogadoeba
miuxedavad imisa, rom testebi xSirad sasargeblod
gamoiyeneba momavali Sesrulebis winaswarmetyvelebisaTvis, maTi Sedegebi ar
unda ganapirobebdes individis ganviTarebisa da
cvlilebebis ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobis SezRudvas.
rodesac Sefasebis Sedegebi
momavalSi gavlenas axdens
individis cxovrebaze, gamoyenebuli teqnikebi unda
iyos sando da validuri
rogorc am individTan, ise
_ gamoyenebis mizanTan
mimarTebaSi.

ZiriTadi cnebebi
qronologiuri asaki
kreatuloba
kriteriumis validoba
kristalizebuli inteleqti
divergentuli azrovneba
emociuri inteleqtiQ
TvalsaCino validoba
fluiduri inteleqti
formaluri Sefaseba
memkvidreobiTobis
maCvenebeli
inteleqti
inteleqtis koeficienti (IQ)
Sinagani SeTanxmebuloba
gonebrivi asaki
gonebrivi CamorCeniloba
normebi
paraleluri formebi
prognozirebadi validuroba
fsiqologiuri Sefaseba
fsiqometria
sandooba
SuaSi gaxleCvis sandooba
standartizeba
stereotipuli muqara
test-retestuli sandooba
validoba

adamianis ganviTareba cxovrebis manZilze

11

ganviTarebis Seswavla da axsna

ganviTarebis aRwera ganviTarebis axsna


fizikuri ganviTareba cxovrebis
manZilze

ganviTareba Canasaxisa da
adreuli bavSvobis periodSi
fizikuri ganviTareba mozardobaSi fizikuri cvlilebebi mozrdilobaSi
kognituri ganviTareba cxovrebis
manZilze

piaJes aRmoCenebi kognituri


ganviTarebis Sesaxeb adreuli kognituri ganviTarebis
Tanamedrove midgomebi
kognituri ganviTareba mozrdilobaSi
enis aTviseba

sityvebisa da metyvelebis
aRqma sityvebis mniSvnelobaTa daswavla gramatikis
Seswavla
socialuri ganviTareba cxovrebis
manZilze

eriksonis fsiqosocialuri
stadiebi socialuri ganviTareba bavSvobaSi socialuri ganviTareba mozardobaSi socialuri ganviTareba mozrdilobaSi
fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: ra
gavlenas axdens baga-baRi bavSvis
ganviTarebaze
genderuli ganviTareba

sqesi da genderi genderuli


rolebis aTviseba
moraluri ganviTareba

moraluri gansjis stadiebi


kolbergis mixedviT genderobisa da kulturis gavlena
moralur gansjaze viswavloT sworad da warmatebulad dabereba
sakvanZo sakiTxebi

ZiriTadi cnebebi

397

Tavi 11 / adamianis ganviTareba cxovrebis manZilze

398

fiqrob, rom Cemnair bavSvobas yvela inatrebda. mamaCemi eqimi iyo


da deda _ sadazRvevo agenti. TandaTan finansuri mdgomareoba umjobesdeboda
da es yvelas moswonda, magram aravis rCeboda
dro ojaxisaTvis. gesmiT risi Tqma minda? mama
cdilobda eSova fuli da eyida dedasTvis
mersedesi~, gvelis tyavis fexsacmeli da sxva
msgavsi ram, magram ojaxisTvis aravis ecala.
ase rom, Tqven warmoidgineT, me, ZiriTadad,
garemosgan vswavlobdi yvelafers. vswavlobdi
mezobeli bavSvebisagan.
vinaidan ojaxisTvis dro aravis hqonda, me
yvela araswori saqcielisaTvis visjebodi, magram arasodes viRebdi Seqebas kargi qcevis gamo.
es mudam ase iyo. maS, Caidine raime onavroba,

rom migtyepon. samagierod, yuradRebas mainc


miiqcev ramiT.
is, rac me minda, rom gavakeTo, Cemi sakuTari
skolis gaxsnaa. aTi wlis Semdeg Cems Tavs
skolaSi vxedav, magram ara Cveulebriv saklaso
oTaxSi, aramed skolaSi, romelSic ar iqneba
asaxuli Cveni politikuri da ekonomikuri sistemis mankierebani. es sistema xom viRacaze upiratesobis mopovebas gulisxmobs.
Cemi skola ubralod Tanasworuflebiani
maswavleblebis skola iqneba _ TeTrkaniani,
Savkaniani, laTino-amerikeli, Cineli, nebismieri, radgan es yvelaferi sulier aRzevebas
da Tavisuflebas emsaxureba. araviTari komercia. fuliT SeiZleba iyido didi mersedesi~
da vila, magram Tu Seni suli daukmayofilebelia, Sen mainc ubeduri pirovneba xar.

es aris atlantaSi mcxovrebi 16 wlis afroamerikelis, derilis, sityvebi. aSkaraa, rom


movlenebma, romelTac misi warsuli ganapirobes,
misi samomavlo miswrafebebic ganapirobes (Goodmillie, 1993, gv. 28-29). rogor mivida derili aseT
daskvnamde? rogor viTardeboda misi azrovneba
wlebis ganmavlobaSi? me-11 TavSi Cven SevecdebiT, gaviazroT im ZalaTa moqmedeba, romlebic
individTa cxovrebas mTeli sicocxlis manZilze
ayalibeben.
warmoidgineT, rom xelSi axalSobili
giWiravT. ramdenad zustad SegiZliaT gansazRvroT, rogori iqneba igi erTi wlis Semdeg?
xuTi wlis Semdeg? TxuTmetis? ormocdaaTis?
samocdaaTis? oTxmocdaaTis? Tqveni winaswarmetyveleba, albaT, zogadisa da konkretulis

nazavs daefuZneba. bavSvi, albaT, namdvilad


iswavlis enas, magram is SeiZleba iyos an ar
iyos niWieri mwerali. Tqveni winaswarmetyveleba, aseve, SeiZleba Tandayolilisa da garemo
pirobebis gaTvaliswinebas daefuZnos: Tu orive
mSobeli niWieri mwerali iyo, Tqven SeiZleba
ifiqroT, rom bavSvic, aseve, literaturuli
niWiT iqneba dajildoebuli. bavSvs rom ganaTleba mdidrul garemocvaSi hqonoda miRebuli,
Tqven SeiZleba gefiqraT, rom misi akademiuri
moswreba gadaaWarbebda mSoblebisas. am TavSi
Cven aRvwerT ganviTarebis fsiqologiis Teoriebs, romlebic saSualebas gvaZlevs, sistemurad gaviazroT, Tu ra tipis prognozis gakeTeba
SegviZlia axalSobilis momavlis Sesaxeb.

11.1

ganviTarebis safexurebi
safexuri

asaki

Canasaxovani
(prenataluri)

dabadebis wina periodi

Cvili bavSvoba

dabadebidan 18 Tvemde

adreuli bavSvoba

daaxloebiT 18 Tvidan 6 wlamde

gviani bavSvoba

daaxloebiT 6 wlidan 13 wlamde

mozardoba

daaxloebiT 13 wlidan 20 wlamde

axalgazrdoba 1

daaxloebiT 20 wlidan 30 wlamde

mowifuloba

daaxloebiT 30 wlidan 65 wlamde

xnovani

daaxloebiT 65 wlidan zeviT

ganviTarebis fsiqologia aris fsiqologiis


sfero, romelic Seiswavlis cvlilebebs adamianis fizikur da fsiqologiur funqcionirebaSi
Casaxvidan sicocxlis bolomde. ganviTarebis
fsiqologebis amocanaa, gaarkvion, rogor da
ratom icvlebian organizmebi drois ganmavlobaSi da aRweron da axsnan es cvlilebebi.
mkvlevrebi swavloben drois periodebs, romelTa
ganmavlobaSic pirvelad iCens Tavs sxvadasxva
unarebi da funqciebi da akvirdebian, Tu rogor
icvleba es unarebi. ZiriTadi winapirobaa is,
rom adamianis fsiqikuri funqcionireba, socialuri urTierTobebi da sxva sasicocxlod aucilebeli aspeqtebi viTardeba da icvleba mTeli
cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi. cxrili 11.1 miaxloebiT
gviCvenebs sicocxlis ZiriTad periodebs.
am TavSi warmogidgenT, Tu rogor ikvleven
mkvlevrebi ganviTarebas da rogor warmoadgenen
im Teoriebs, romelTa saSualebiTac cdiloben
droTa ganmavlobaSi momxdari cvlilebebis
axsnas. Semdeg Tqvens cxovrebiseul gamocdilebebs sxvadasxva sferoebad davyofT da
TiToeuli maTganis gaTvaliswinebiT ganvixilavT ganviTarebas. Tavis dasawyisSi Cven yuradRebas fizikur, kognitur da enobriv ganviTarebaze SevaCerebT. Semdeg ki yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT socialuri urTierTobebis cvalebad
1
cxrilSi mocemuli Semdegi sami kategoria erTiandeba ufro did kategoriaSi da ewodeba mozrdiloba.
originaluri teqstis mixedviT aris: mozrdiloba,
sadac Sedis: (1) adreuli mozrdiloba _ aq: axalgazrdoba, (2) Suaxnis mozrdiloba _ aq: mowifuloba
da (3) gviani mozrdiloba _ aq: xnovani. (mTargmnelis
SeniSvna)

bunebaze sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi da, aseve, im


specifikur amocanebze, romelTa winaSec adamianebi dgebian cxovrebis garkveul etapebze.
axla gavarkvioT, ras niSnavs ganviTarebis Seswavla.

ganviTarebis Seswavla da
axsna
warmoidgineT, rom gTxoveT yvela im cvlilebis siis Sedgena, romelic, Tqveni azriT,
bolo erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi ganicadeT. ras
CawerdiT am siaSi? xom ar CaerTeT fizikuri
gajansaRebis axal programaSi? an xom ar
gankurnebulxarT raime daavadebisagan? xom ar
gagCeniaT raime axali hobi an interesi? megobarTa axali wre xom ar SegiZeniaT? vinmes gansakuTrebiT xom ar dauaxlovdiT? rodesac ganviTarebas aRvwerT, Cven mis konceptualizacias
cvlilebis terminebiT vaxdenT. Cven gTxoveT
sakuTar cxovrebaSi momxdar cvlilebebze
fiqri, raTa dagvenaxvebina, rom cvlileba TiTqmis yovelTvis niSnavs kompromiss. xSirad
adamianebi cxovrebas ganixilaven, rogorc, ZiriTadad, SeZenis process (ukeTesobisaken svlas)
bavSvobaSi da, piriqiT, dakargvis process (danakargs, uaresobisaken svlas) xandazmul asakSi.
ganviTarebis Cveneuli perspeqtiva aqcents
imaze akeTebs, rom arCevanebi da, Sesabamisad,
mogebebi da danakargebi ganviTarebis yvela etaps
axasiaTebs (Dixon 1999; Uttal & Perlmutter, 1989).
magaliTad, rodesac adamianebi cxovrebis Tanamgzavrs irCeven, isini Tmoben farTo arCevanis
saSualebas, magram iZenen usafrTxoebas. rodesac
adamianebi berdebian da pensiaze gadian, isini
Tmoben statuss, magram iZenen Tavisufal dros.
agreTve, didi mniSvnaloba aqvs imas, rom
ganviTareba ar ganixiloT, rogorc pasiuri
procesi. Tqven dainaxavT, rom ganviTarebis bevri
cvlileba individisgan garemoSi aqtiur CarTvas
moiTxovs (Bronfenbenner, 1999; Bronfenbenner & Ceci,
1994).
ganviTarebis fsiqologia (Developmental psychology) _ fsiqologiis dargi, romelic swavlobs
fizikuri da fsiqologiuri procesebis urTierTqmedebas da ganviTarebis stadiebs mTeli
cxovrebis manZilze ganviTarebis poziciidan.

ganviTarebis Seswavla da axsna

cxrili

399

axla, vnaxoT, rogor aRweren mkvlevrebi ganviTarebis cvlilebebs.

Tavi 11 / adamianis ganviTareba cxovrebis manZilze

ganviTarebis aRwera

400

imisaTvis, rom aRvweroT cvlileba, pirveli


sasargeblo nabiji iqneba, davadginoT, Tu ras
warmoadgens da rogor gamoiyureba saSualo
adamiani garkveul asakSi garegnobis, gonebrivi
SesaZleblobebis da sxva faqtorebis mixedviT.
normatiuli kvlevebi cdiloben, aRweron konkretuli asakis, an ganviTarebis konkretuli etapis
maxasiaTeblebi. sxvadasxva asakis individTa sistematuri testirebis gziT, mkvlevrebi adgenen
ganviTarebis TvalSisacem Tvisebebs. bevr adamianze dakvirvebis safuZvelze es monacemebi uzrunvelyofen normebs _ ganviTarebis, an miRwevis
standartul paternebs, romelic didi raodenobiT adamianebze dakvirvebiT aris miRebuli.
normatiuli standartebis saSualebiT fsiqologebi erTmaneTisgan mijnaven qronologiur
asaks _ pirovnebis dabadebidan gasuli Tveebisa
Tu wlebis raodenobas da ganviTarebis asaks _
qronologiur asaks, rodesac adamianebis umravlesoba avlens fizikuri da gonebrivi ganviTarebis garkveul dones. sami wlis bavSvi, romelic metyvelebs, rogorc saSualo 5 wlis bavSvi,
iTvleba, rom metyvelebis ganviTarebis mixedviT
is 5 wlisaa. normebi uzrunvelyofs standartul
baziss, romlis safuZvelzec SesaZlebeli xdeba
individebisa da jgufebis urTierTSedareba.
cvlilebaTa SesaZlo meqanizmis gasagebad
ganviTarebis fsiqologebi kvlevis ramdenime
normatiuli kvleva (normative investigation) _
gulisxmobs gansazRvruli asakisa Tu ganviTarebis safexurisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebis aRweras.
qronologiuri asaki (chronological age) _ individis dabadebidan gasuli Tveebis an wlebis
raodenoba.
ganviTarebis asaki (developmental age) _ qronologiuri asaki, romlis drosac bavSvebis umravlesoba amJRavnebs fizikuri Tu gonebrivi
ganviTarebis garkveul dones.
longituduri meTodi (longitudinal design) _ kvlevis meTodi, romlis drosac erTsa da imave
cdis pirebze warmoebs ganmeorebiTi dakvirveba
droTa ganmavlobaSi, zogjer mravali wlis
manZilze.

models iyeneben. longituduri meTodis gamoyenebisas erTi da igive individebi mravali


wlis ganmavlobaSi sistematuri dakvirvebisa
da testirebis qveS imyofebian. magaliTad,
mkvlevrebs SeuZliaT ramdenime Tvis ganmavlobaSi kviraSi ramdenjerme ikvlion erTi da
igive bavSvebi, raTa, rac SeiZleba zustad
daafiqsiron is momenti, roca TiToeuli bavSvi
mza strategiis gamoyenebas daiwyebs ariTmetikuli amocanebis gadasawyvetad (Siegler & Crowley,
1991). cvlilebis momentis gamoyofiT mkvlevrebs
SeuZliaT ukeTesad dainaxon, Tu, kerZod, ra
uswrebs win ama Tu im cvlilebas. mkvlevrebi
longitudur meTods, aseve, xSirad iyeneben
individualuri gansxvavebebis Sesaswavlad.
sxvadasxva adamianis cxovrebis mimarTulebisa
da Sedegebis ukeT gasagebad mkvlevrebma SeiZleba Seafason mTeli rigi SesaZlo mizezobrivi
faqtorebisa, romelic cxovrebis adreul
periodSi moqmedebs da naxon, ra gavlenas axdens
es faqtorebi calkeuli individis cxovrebaze.
grZelvadiani gamokvlevis upiratesoba isaa,
rom, vinaidan cdis pirebi, ZiriTadad, erTgvar
sicialur-ekonomikur pirobebSi erTsa da imave
socialur-ekonomikur periodSi cxovroben,
SevZlebT asakTan dakavSirebuli cvlilebebis
dafiqsirebas da isini ar agvereva socialuri
pirobebis cvalebadobaSi (Schaie, 1989). am meTodis
minusi ki isaa, rom ganzogadeba SeiZleba gakeTdes mxolod imave kohortaze, anu kvlevaSi CarTuli subieqtebis analogiur periodSi dabadebul adamianebze. amasTanave, longituduri
kvlevebi Zviri jdeba, radgan Znelia cdis
pirebze dakvirveba drois xangrZlivi monakveTebis manZilze da, Tanac, monacemebi advilad
SeiZleba daikargos cdis pirTa kvlevidan gasvlis an gauCinarebis gamo.
ganviTarebis kvlevaTa umravlesoba e. w. jvaredini Seswavlis meTods iyenebs, sadac sxvadasxva qronologiuri asakis mqone cdis pirTa
jgufebze erTdroulad dakvirvebac xdeba da
urTierTSedarebac. Sedegad, mkvlevars SeuZlia
daaskvnas im qceviTi gansxvavebebis Taobaze,
romlebic, SesaZloa, dakavSirebuli iyos
asakobriv cvlilebebTan. magaliTad, mkvlevrebma
imis Sesaswavlad, Tu rogor uzrunvelyofen
erTmaneTisTvis megobrebi socialur mxardaWeras, maT SeiZleba erTnairi laboratoriuli
davalebebi miscen 11, 15 19 wlis mozardTa