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socialuri fsiqologia (Social psychology) _

fsiqologiis dargi, romelic Seiswavlis


socialuri cvladebis gavlenas individis
qcevebze, damokidebulebebze (attitudes),
aRqmebsa da motivebze; is, agreTve, Seiswavlis
jgufebs da jgufTaSoris fenomenebs.
socialuri rolebi (Social roles) qcevis socialurad gansazRvruli paternebi, romlebsac
moelian pirovnebisgan, romelic mocemul
garemoSi an jgufSi funqcionirebs.

donidan sazogadoebrivamde gavafarTovebT. orive


TavSi abstraqtuli Teoria Semowmebul iqneba
praqtikiT da SevecdebiT, vupasuxoT kiTxvas:
asrulebs Tu ara fsiqologiuri codna raime
rols adamianebisa da sazogadoebis yoveldRiur
cxovrebaSi?

situaciis Zala
fsiqologia da cxovrebis~ wina TavebSi
vnaxeT, rom fsiqologebi, romlebic qcevis
mizezebis axsnas cdilobdnen, pasuxebs Zalze
gansxvavebul sferoebSi eZeben. zogierTi maTgani
genetikur faqtorebs swavlobs, sxvebi _ bioqimiur faqtorebs da tvinSi mimdinare procesebs,
mesameni ki yuradRebas garemos zemoqmedebaze
amaxvileben. socialur fsiqologebs sjeraT,
rom qcevis ZiriTadi ganmsazRvreli mizezebi
im socialuri situaciis maxasiaTeblebia, romelSic is xorcieldeba. isini amtkiceben, rom
socialuri situacia imdenad Zlierad akontrolebs individis qcevas, rom xSirad prevalirebs pirovnebasa da mis warsul gamocdilebaze, faseulobebsa da Sexedulebebze. rogorc papa salvatores zemoT moyvanili magaliTidanac Cans, socialuri situaciis zegavlena imdenad yovlismomcvelia, rom amas Cven,
SesaZloa, verc ki vacnobierebdeT. am qveTavSi
Cven im klasikur kvlevebsa da uaxles eqsperimentebs ganvixilavT, romlebic xsnian adamianis
qcevaze Znelad SesamCnev, magram Zlieri zegavlenis mqone situaciuri cvladebis moqmedebas.

rolebi da wesebi
romeli socialuri rolebia TqvenTvis misaRebi? socialuri roli aris socialurad gansazRvruli qcevis paterni, romlis ganxorcielebasac moelian pirovnebisgan mocemul situaciaSi an jgufSi funqcionirebisas. gansxvavebuli situaciebi gansxvavebuli rolebis
Sesrulebis SesaZleblobas iZleva. rodesac
saxlSi xarT, SesaZloa, morgebuli gqondeT
bavSvis~, dis~ an Zmis~ roli. rodesac saklaso
oTaxSi xarT, Tqven studentis~ rols iRebT.
sxva SemTxvevaSi Tqven, SesaZloa, saukeTeso
megobari~ an Seyvarebuli~ iyoT. SegiZliaT,

situaciis Zala

lobs im saSualebebs, romelTa meSveobiTac


adamianebi qmnian da marTaven socialur
situaciebs.
socialuri fsiqologia fsiqologiis is
dargia, romelic Seiswavlis adamianTa Soris
urTierTobebisa da urTierTdamokidebulebebis
gavlenas maT azrebze, grZnobebze, aRqmebze,
motivebsa da qcevebze.
socialuri fsiqologebi cdiloben Cawvdnen
qcevis arss misi socialuri konteqstis farglebSi. socialuri konteqsti is cocsali,
moZravi qselia, romelzec socialuri cxovelis moZraobebi, Zalisxmeva Tu mowyvladi
adgilebi aisaxeba. ufro farTod Tu ganvmartavT,
socialuri konteqsti Tavis TavSi moicavs
sxvebis realur, warmosaxul an simbolur arsebobas, aqtivobebs da urTierTqmedebebs, romlebic adamianebis Soris xorcieldeba; im socialuri garemocvis maxasiaTeblebs, romelSic
xorcieldeba qceva; aseve, im molodinebsa da
normebs, romlebic mocemul garemoSi warmarTaven qcevas (Sherif,1981).
am da momdevno TavSi Cven socialur-fsiqologiuri kvlevebis ramdenime ZiriTad Temas
ganvixilavT. am Tavis pirvel nawilSi adamianis
qcevis makontrolebel socialuri situaciebis
Zalaze visaubrebT; MmimovixilavT mravali
kvlevis masalebs, romlebiTac dasturdeba, rom
socialuri situaciis umniSvnelo maxasiaTeblebsac ki mniSvnelovani gavlenis moxdena
SeuZliaT imaze, Tu ras fiqrobT an rogor
moqmedebT; Semdeg im xerxebis ganxilvas SevudgebiT, romliTac konstruirdeba, yalibdeba da
icvleba socialuri realobis socialuri
damokidebulebebi; Semdeg ki mowonebisa da
siyvarulis urTierTobebs ganvixilavT. Aam TavSi giCvenebT, Tu ra gavlenas axdens fsiqologiuri kvlevebi Cvens cxovrebaze. rogorc Semdgom, me-18 TavSi naxavT, Cven analizs pirovnuli

701

erTma klasikurma socialur-fsiqologiurma


eqsperimentma, e.w. stenfordis cixis eqsperimentma,
am Zalebis ganmacvifrebeli zemoqmedeba
gamoavlina (Haney & Zimbardo,1977; Zimbardo, 1975;
gameorebul iqna avstriaSi Lovibond et al.,1979).

saidan
viciT

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

socialuri rolebi fiqtiur cixeSi

702

Tvali miadevnoT, Tu rogor swrafad qmnian es


gansxvavebuli rolebi TqvenTvis met-naklebad
Sesatyvissa da xelmisawvdom gansxvavebuli
tipis qcevebs.
situaciebi, agreTve, xasiaTdeba imiT, rom
adamianebi emorCilebian qcevebis warmmarTvel
wesebs, anu iTvaliswineben specifiur moTxovnebs. zogierTi wesi eqspliciturad, TvalsaCinodaa mocemuli (magaliTad, nu moswevT~, ar
WamoT klasSi~), an eqspliciturad daiswavleba
bavSvobaSi (pativi eciT ufrosebs~, ucxos ar
daelaparako~). sxva wesebi implicituria. isini
garkveul situciebSi sxva adamianebTan urTierTobebisas daiswavleba. ramdenad xmamaRla SeiZleba
CarToT musika, ramdenad axlos SeiZleba sxva
adamianTan misvla, rodis SeiZleba, maswavlebels
an ufross saxeliT, anda rogoria misaRebi
reaqcia komplimentsa Tu saCuqarze yvela es
aqtivoba situaciazea damokidebuli. magaliTad,
iaponeli ar gaxsnis saCuqars mCuqnelis TandaswrebiT imis SiSiT, rom, SesaZloa, saTanadod
ver gamoxatos madliereba, xolo ucxoelma,
romelmac ar icis am dauwereli wesis Sesaxeb,
SesaZloa, arasworad gaigos misi saqcieli da
is uxeSad da aragulisxmierad miiCnios. momavalSi liftSi Sesvlisas scadeT, gansazRvroT,
ra wesebs icnobT am situaciasTan dakavSirebiT.
ratom aris, rom aq adamianebi, Cveulebriv,
xmadabla laparakoben, an sulac Cumad arian?
Tqven Cveulebriv, SesaZloa, arc ki icodeT
wesebisa da rolebis zegavlenis Sesaxeb, magram
wesebi (Rules) garkveul situaciaSi garkveuli
saxiT moqcevis moTxovnebi.

kaliforniaSi zafxulis erT kvira


dilas sirenis xmam daarRvia kolejis student tomi viTlous myudroeba. policiis
manqanam mkveTrad daamuxruWaAmisi saxlis
win. sul ramdenime wuTSi toms danaSaulebriv qmedebaSi wauyenes braldeba, misces ganmarteba misi konstituciuri uflebebis Sesaxeb, gaCxrikes da borkilebi daades. amis Semdeg igi registrirebul iqna _
aiRes misi TiTis anabeWdebi da Tvalebaxveuli gadaiyvanes stenfordis sagrafos
cixeSi. aq igi gaaSiSvles, dezinfeqcia
Cautares da kombinizonis msgavsi uniforma
Caacves saidentifikacio nomriT 647 mkerdsa
da zurgze. kolejis sxva 8 studenti, aseve
iqna dakavebuli da danomrili.
tomi da misi Tanamesakneni moxaliseebi
iyvnen, romlebic gazeTSi gamoqveynebul
gancxadebas gamoexmaurnen da Tanxmoba
ganacxades orkvirian eqsperimentSi monawileobaze, romelic cixeSi yofnas iTvaliswinebda. monetis alalbedze agdebiT, moxaliseTa nawils patimris, nawils ki zedamxedvelis roli daekisra.
eqsperimentis yvela monawile didi raodenobis moxalise studentisgan SeirCa, romlebic xangrZlivi fsiqologiuri testirebisa da gamokiTxvebis safuZvelze kanonmorCil, emociurad stabilur, fizikurad janmrTel da saSualo, normalur adamianebad
iqnen miCneulni. patimrebi, eqsperimentis
mimdinareobis periodSi cixeSi imyofebodnen, zedamxedvelebi ki standartulad
8 saaTs muSaobdnen.
ra moxda mas Semdeg, rac studentebma
maTze dakisrebuli rolebi gaiTavises?
zedamxedvelebi _ is studentebi, romlebic

am dramatuli da moulodnelad Rrma emociuri da qceviTi efeqtebis gamo xuTi patimari,


romelmac stresuli reaqcia gamoavlina, droze
adre iqna ganTavisuflebuli am uCveulo cixidan
da fsiqologebi iZulebulni gaxdnen, maTze
dakvirvebis orkviriani vada eqvs dRemde SeemcirebinaT. tomi viTloum ganacxada, rom is
aRar isurvebda msgavs eqsperimentSi ganmeorebiT
monawileobis miRebas. afasebda ra miRebul
gamocdilebas, is ambobda, rom bevri ram Seityo
sakuTari Tavisa da, saerTod, adamianis bunebis
Sesaxeb. sabednierod, is da sxva studentebic,

situaciis Zala

mSvidobiani da kargi biWebi~ iyvnen, agresiulad, zogjer sadisturadac ki iqceodnen. isini mkacrad moiTxovdnen, rom
patimrebi usityvod, yovelgvari yoymanis
gareSe damorCilebodnen wesebs. damorCilebaze uaris Tqmas privilegiebis dakargva mohyveboda. Tavdapirvelad privilegiebSi kiTxvis, weris da TanasaknelebTan
saubris ufleba Sedioda. mogvianebiT
patimrebis mxridan mcire protestic ki
iseTi privilegiebis~ dakargvas iwvevda,
rogoric iyo Wama, Zili da dabana. wesebisadmi daumorCileblobas, aseve, iseTi
damamcirebeli da uazro samuSaoebis Sesruleba sdevda Tan, rogoric iyo tualetis
xeliT recxva, azidvebi zurgze zedamxedvelis fexiT da karcerSi Casma. zedamxedvelebi mudmivad cdilobdnen iseTi axali
sasjelebis mofiqrebas, rom patimrebs Tavi
ufro metad damcirebulad egrZnoT.
patimris rolSi myofma, manamde fsiqologiurad stabilurma studentebma sul male
gamoavlines paTologiuri qcevebi, pasiur
winaaRmdegobas uwevdnen damcirebas da beds
Seeguen. 36 saaTic ar iyo gasuli, rom
patimarma 8412-ma, diliT CaxSobili buntis
erT-erTma liderma, TavSeukavebeli yvirili
daiwyo. mas aReniSneboda mZvinvarebis Setevebi, azrovnebis dezorganizacia da Rrma
depresia. Mmomdevno dReebSi kidev sam patimars ganuviTarda stresuli simptomebi.
mexuTe patimars ki mTel sxeulze fsiqosomaturi warmoSobis gamonayari gauCnda
mas Semdeg, rac uaryofil iqna misi Txovna
Sewyalebis Sesaxeb.

703

suraTi

17.1

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

mcvelisa da patimris qceva

704

stenfordis cixeSi eqsperimentis dros mcvelebisTvis da patimrebisTvis darigebulma rolebma radikalurad Secvales monawileTa qceva. 6-dRiani urTierTqmedebis profilSi Cawerili gamokvlevebi
aCvenebs, rom dakvirvebis 25 periodis ganmavlobaSi
patimrebi miT nakleb winaaRmdegobas wevdnen, rac
ufro met dominanturobas, mkacr kontrols da
mtrul damokidebulebas iCendnen mcvelebi.

ZiriTadad, janmrTelni iyvnen da advilad


gamovidnen am mZime situaciidan. momdevno
periodSic maTze mravalwlianma dakvirvebebma
ar gamoavlina raime xangrZlivi negatiuri efeqti.
monawileebma xeli Seuwyes Zalze mniSvnelovani
daskvnebis gakeTebas: fiqtiur cixeSi Seqmnili
situaciis Zalam patimrebisa da zedamxedvelebis
gonebaSi axali socialuri realoba namdvili
cixis realoba Seqmna.
stenfordis cixis eqsperimentis Sedegebis
mixedviT, patimrebisa~ da zedamxedvelebis~
qcevebi praqtikulad yvela dakvirvebad
situaciaSi gansxvavdeboda erTmaneTisagan (ix.
sur. 17.1). miuxedavad imisa, rom rolebi alalbedze ganawilda, nakisrma rolebma Seqmnes
gansxvavebebi eqsperimentSi monawile studen-

tebis statusebsa da uflebebs Soris, rasac


Zalze didi mniSvneloba hqonda sapatimros
situaciaSi. monawileTaTvis aravis uswavlebia,
rogor unda moqceuliyvnen da isini arc realuri
cixis situaciaSi yofilan odesme, miuxedavad
amisa, TiToeulma maTganma daiswavla gansxvaveba
Zalauflebis qonasa da arqonas Soris (Banuazizi
& Movahedi 1975).
zedamxedveli aris is, vinc zRudavs patimris
Tavisuflebas, marTavs mis qcevas da mas garkveuli qcevebis ganxorcielebas aiZulebs. es
davaleba iZulebiTi wesebis (coercive rules) gamoyenebiT warimarTeboda, rac daumorCileblobisaTvis sasjelis gamoyenebas gulisxmobda.
patimrebs mxolod im socialur struqturaze
SeeZloT reagireba, romelic zedamxedvelebis
Zalauflebidan gamomdinare sapatimros garemos
qmnida. ajanyeba, an damorCileba patimrebis
erTaderTi arCevania. pirvelis Sedegi dasjaa,
meorisa ki _ damoukideblobisa da Rirsebis
dakargva.
eqsperimentSi monawile studentebs msgavsi
gansxvavebuli situaciuri Zalebis zegavlena
ukve gamocdili hqondaT TavianT adreul socialur urTierTobebSi: mSobeli _ Svili, maswavlebeli _ moswavle, eqimi _ pacienti, ufrosi _ muSa, kaci _ qali. am axal konkretul
situaciaSi maT ubralod daxvewes da ganaviTares
TavianTi adreuli qcevis paternebi. nebismier
students nebismieri roli SeiZleboda rgeboda.
zedamxedvelebis rolSi myofi studentebi
gancvifrebulebi miuTiTebdnen, Tu ramdenad
advilad aiTvises da miiRes sxva adamianebis
makontroleblis roli. uniformis Cacmac ki
sakmarisi aRmoCnda imisaTvis, rom kolejis
pasiuri studentebi cixis agresiul zedamxedvelebad qceuliyvnen. ra tipis adamianad iqceviT,
rodesac ama Tu im rols aiRebT? sad mTavrdeba
Tqveni pirovnuli me~ da sad iwyeba Tqveni
socialuri identoba?

socialuri normebi
garda imisa, rom jgufs Tavisi wevrebis
roluri qcevebis mimarT garkveuli molodinebi
aqvs, mas imasTan dakavSirebiTac aqvs molodinebi,
Tu rogor unda moiqcnen jgufis wevrebi. jgufis
wevrebis mimarT socialurad misaRebi ganwyobebisa da qcevebis specifikur moTxovnebs, rom-

socialuri normebi (Social norms) _ molodinebi,


romlebic jgufs gaaCnia Tavisi wevrebis mimarT
maTi qcevebisa da ganwyobebis sasurvelobasTan
da SesabamisobasTan dakavSirebiT.
konformuloba (Conformity) adamianebis tendencia, moergon referentuli jgufis sxva wevrebis qcevebs, ganwyobebsa da Rirebulebebs.

uxeSi gadaxra iqneboda msgavs ceremoniaze


sacurao kostumiT gamoCena.
jgufis wevrebs, yovel konkretul situaciaSi, Cveulebriv, SeuZliaT gansazRvron is, Tu
ramdenad SeiZleba socialuri normebidan
gadaxra, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi maT SesaZloa
jgufuri iZulebis sami iseTi mtkivneuli Zalis
moqmedeba iwvnion, rogoricaa: dacinva, uaryofa
da xelaxali aRzrda.

konformuloba
rodesac socialur rols iRebT, an socialur
normas emorCilebiT, maSin socialuri molodinebis mimarT, garkveulwilad, konformulobas
iCenT. konformuloba adamianebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli tendenciaa, daeTanxmon jgufis
wevrebis qcevebsa da Sexedulebebs. ratom xarT
konformulebi? arsebobs pirobebi, romelTa
gavleniTac socialuri moTxovnebis ignorirebas
axdenT da damoukideblad iqceviT? socialuri
fsiqologebi ganixilaven ori tipis Zalas,
romelsac konformulobamde mivyavarT.

situaciis Zala

lebic jgufis mier Camoyalibebuli manifestirebuli, an faruli saxiT arseboben, socialuri


normebi ewodeba. socialuri normebi, SesaZloa,
qcevebis Zalze farTo speqtrs exebodes. Tu
Tqven demokratiuli partiis wevri mosalodnelia, rom liberaluri politikuri Sexedulebebi
gaiziaroT, xolo Tu xarT axalgazrda respublikelTa ricxvs ekuTvniT, maSin mosalodnelia,
rom ufro konservatul Sexedulebebs dauWerT
mxars. socialuri normebi, agreTve, qcevis garkveuli standartebis dacvasac gulisxmoben. magaliTad, Tu mimtani xarT, maSin Tqven momxmarebels Tavazianad unda moeqceT, ganurCevlad
imisa, ramdenad arasasiamovno da momTxovnia is
Tqven mimarT.
romelime jgufisadmi mikuTvnebuloba, Cveulebriv, mTeli rigi iseTi normebis dacvas
niSnavs, romlebic jgufis SigniT sasurveli
qcevebis ganxorcielebas aregulireben. es ori
gziT xdeba: Tqven amCnevT jgufis yvela wevris,
an maTi umravlesobis qcevebis erTgvarobas, an
im negatiur Sedegebs akvirdebiT, romlebsac
jgufis wevrebi socialuri normebis ugulebelyofis SemTxvevaSi iReben.
normebi ramdenime mniSvnelovan funqcias
asruleben. mocemul jgufur situaciaSi moqmedi
normebi wevrebis orientirebas da maT Soris
socialuri interaqciebis regulirebas emsaxurebian. urTierTobis TiToeul monawiles SeuZlia
iwinaswarmetyvelos, Tu rogor Semova meore
monawile mocemul situaciaSi, rogor Caicvams,
ras ityvis da, aseve, isic, Tu rogori qcevebia
misgan mosalodneli, raTa jgufis sxva wevrebis
mowoneba daimsaxuros. xSirad swored imitom
grZnobT Tavs uxerxulad axal situaciaSi, rom
ar iciT, Tu rogor unda moiqceT. normidan
gadaxris SemTxvevaSi, garkveuli Semwynareblobis diapazonic normis nawilia is zogjer
sakmaod farToa, zogjer ki _ Zalze viwro.
magaliTad, mokle Sarvali da maisuri Zalze
Seuferebeli Cacmuloba iqneboda religiuri
ceremoniisaTvis. aseve, socialuri normebidan

705

 informaciuli gavlenis procesebi _ mocemul situaciaSi koreqtulad, sworad da situaciis Sesabamisad moqcevis survili;
 normatiuli gavlenis procesebi gareSemyofTagan mowonebis, aRiarebisa da miRebis
survili.
qvemoT aRvwerT klasikur eqsperimentebs,
romlebic gavlenis orive tipis sailustraciod
gamodgeba.

informaciuli gavlena: m. Serifis


avtokinetikuri efeqti

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

mravali cxovrebiseuli situacia, romelSic


qcevebTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebis miReba
gixdebaT, sakmaod gaurkvevelia. MmagaliTad, warmoidgineT, rom adamianebis did jgufTan erTad
elegantur restoranSi sadilobT. magida TvalismomWreli sizustiTaa gawyobili vercxlis
dana-CangliT. saidan iciT, romeli Cangali unda
ixmaroT, rodesac pirvel kerZs Semoitanen? Tqven,
albaT, wveulebis sxva wevrebs SexedavT, raTa
saTanado arCevani gaakeToT. es aris informaciuli zegavlena.
muzafer Serifis (Muzafer Sherif, 1935) klasikuri
eqsperimenti naTlad aCvenebs, Tu rogor SeuZlia
informaciul zegavlenas normis kristalizacia,
anu misi formireba da gamyareba.

706

saidan

Sefasebebi sinaTlis wertilis moZraobis


mimarTulebisa da odenobis Taobaze
erTmaneTs emsgavseboda. yvelaze saintereso
ki is iyo, rom, rodesac igive monawileni
marto darCnen da kvlav sTxoves Sefasebebis
gakeTeba, maTi iseTive Sefasebebi gaakeTes,
rogoric jgufuri Sefasebis pirobebSi.

Tuki jgufSi normebi erTxel Camoyalibda,


maT ganmeorebis tendencia gaaCniaT. mogvianebiT
Catarebulma cdebma aCvena, rom avtokinetikuri
efeqtis es normebi droSi mdgradi iyo erTi
wlis Semdegac ki, rodesac monawilis gverdiT
aRar iyvnen Zveli jgufis is wevrebi, romlebic
xmamaRla gamoTqvamdnen TavianT Sefasebebs (Rohrer
et al., 1954). Nnormebi jgufis wevrebis erTi
Taobidan meores gadaecema da adamianebis qcevaze
maSinac ki axdenen gavlenas, rodesac ukve aRar
arsebobs jgufi, romelmac is SeimuSava (Insco et
al., 1980). saidan viciT, rom normebs SeiZleba
aseTi transgeneraciuli zegavlena hqondeT?
avtokinetikuri efeqtis Seswavlisas mkvlevrebi
jgufis wevrebs TandaTanobiT cvlidnen axali
wevrebiT manam, sanam ar moxdeboda maTi sruli
ganaxleba. Sefasebis norma ki igive rCeboda
maSinac ki, rodesac jgufis Semadgenloba
mTlianad Secvlili iyo, e.i. norma gadaecemoda
axal Taobas (Jacobs& Campbell, 1961). atyobT, am
eqsperimentis Sedegebi ramdenad emsgavseba
realur cxovrebaSi momaval Taobaze normebis
gadacemis process?

viciT
informaciuli gavlena ayalibebs
normebs
eqsperimentis monawileebs sTxovdnen,
SeefasebinaT sinaTlis wertilis moZraoba, romelic realurad ar moZraobda,
magram moZravad aRiqmeboda sruliad bnel
oTaxSi, vinaidan ar Canda aTvlis sxva
wertilebi. es aRqmis iluziaa, romelic
avtokinetikuri efeqtis saxeliTaa cnobili. individebis mier mocemuli Sefasebebi
Zalze gansxvavebuli iyo. rodesac cdis
pirebi erT jgufad SeaerTes, romelTa
Soris ucnobebic iyvnen, romlebic xmamaRla msjelobdnen, Sefasebebi TandaTan
erTmaneTs Tanxvdeboda, anu individebis

normatuli gavlena: s. aSis efeqti


rogor SeiZleba imis saukeTesod demonstrireba, rom zogjer adamianebi konformulebi
arian normatuli gavlenis gamo maTi survilis
informaciuli gavlena (Informational influence)
jgufis efeqti, romelic warmoiSoba individis
survilis safuZvelze, iyos koreqtuli, swori
da icodes, rogor unda moiqces
mocemul
situaciaSi.
normatuli gavlena (Normative influence) _ jgufis
efeqti, romelic warmoiSoba individis survilis safuZvelze, iyos jgufis mier mowonebuli, miRebuli da aRiarebuli.
normis kristalizacia (Norm cristalization) jgufis wevrebis molodinebis Tanxvedra erToblivi msjelobis, an aqtivobis pirobebSi.

suraTi

rom isini martivi vizualuri aRqmis kvlevaSi


iRebdnen monawileobas. maT aCvenes muyaos baraTebi, romlebzec gamosaxuli iyo sami gansxvavebuli sigrZis xazi da sTxoves, mieTiTebinaT,
am samidan romeli xazi iyo standartuli xazis
sigrZis (ix. sur. 17.2). xazebis sigrZe sakmaod
gansxvavebuli iyo erTmaneTisagan, ase rom, Secdomebs naklebad hqonda adgili, amasTan, maTi
SefardebiTi zoma yoveli axali seansis dros
icvleboda.

17.2

konformuloba s. aSis eqsperimentebSi


aSis eqsperimentis amsaxvel am fotoze Cans, rom gulubryvilo monawile #6 gaocebulia umravlesobis
mier gakeTebuli mcdari SefasebiT. eqsperimentSi gamoyenebuli tipuri stimulebis wyeba mocemulia
marcxena naxazze, xolo marjvena naxazze mocemuli mrudebi gamoxatavenkonformulobas 12 kritikuli
cdis ganmavlobaSi, saidanac Cans martoxela monawileebis Sedegebis Sedareba winaswarSeTanxmebuli
monawileebis SedegebTan iseve, rogorc maTi damoukidebloba winaswarSeTanxmebul monawileebTan
SedarebiT. swori Sefasebis dabali procenti gamoxatavs jgufis mcdari Sefasebebis mimarT
individis konformulobis maRal xarisxs.

situaciis Zala

gamo, sxvebisgan iyvnen mowonebulni, miRebulni


an aRiarebulni? socialuri fsiqologiis erTerTma pirvelma Zalze mniSvnelovanma warmomadgenelma solomon aSma (Solomon Asch, 1940, 1956)
Seqmna situacia, romelSic eqsperimentis monawileebi daskvnas absoluturad gansazRvruli,
naTeli fizikuri maxasiaTeblebis mqone pirobebSi akeTebdnen, Tumca, jgufis wevrebis umetesoba aRniSnavda, rom realobas gansxvavebulad
xedavda. kolejis studenti vaJebi daarwmunes,

707

saidan
viciT

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

xazebis sigrZis iluzoruli aRqma

708

eqsperimentis monawileni dasves naxevarwreSi, eqvsidan rvamde sxva adamianTan


erTad. monawileTaTvis es sruliad ucnobi
adamianebi eqsperimentis Tanamonawileebi
iyvnen da eqsperimentatoris mier winaswar
SemuSavebuli scenaris Sesabamisad moqmedebdnen. eqsperimentis pirveli sami cdis
ganmavlobaSi wreSi msxdomTagan yvela
eTanxmeboda TiToeul gamoTqmul swor
Sedarebas. Semdeg, meoTxe seansis dros,
pirvelma Tanamonawilem ori xazi erTmaneTis tolad gamoacxada, Tumca, sruliad
cxadi iyo maT Soris gansxvaveba. aseve
moiqca jgufis yvela sxva wevric cdis
piris garda. am students unda gadaewyvita,
daTanxmeboda jgufis danarCeni wevrebis
azrs da konformuli iqneboda, Tu darCeniliyo damoukidebeli da mtkiced daecva
is, rasac xedavda. 18 cdidan 12-Si es
gulubryvilo studenti aseTi dilemis
winaSe idga. cdis pirebi gamoxatavdnen
undoblobis niSnebsa da aSkara diskomforts, rodesac upirispirdebodnen umravlesobas, romelic ase gansxvavebulad aRiqvamda samyaros. ra unda eqnaT?
monawileTa daaxloebiT meoTxedi darCa
sruliad damoukidebeli maT arasdros
gamouvleniaT konformizmi. MmonawileTa
50-80% (kvlevis programis sxvadasxva
stadiebze) erTxel mainc daeTanxma umravlesobis yalb Sefasebebs maSin, rodesac
monawileTa mesamedi umravlesobis araswor
Sefasebebs daeTanxma kritikul cdaTa
naxevar, an met SemTxvevaSi.

s. aSi im monawileebs, romlebic umetes SemTxvevebSi eTanxmebodnen umravlesobas, dezorientirebulebs~ da eWviT marTulebs~ uwodebs. is gamoTqvams mosazrebas, rom adamianTa
es kategoria ganicdida Zalze mZlavr impulss,
rom ar gamoCeniliyo umravlesobisgan gansxvavebulad~ (1952, gv. 396). isini, vinc daTmobaze
wavidnen, xazs usvamdnen socialur zewolas
da TavianT konformulobas, zogierTebi ki imasac

amtkicebdnen, rom, xazebis sigrZeSi gansxvavebis


miuxedavad, maT tolebad aRiqvamdnen.
sxva kvlevebSi aSi Semdegi sami faqtoris
varirebas axdenda: erTsulovani umravlesobis
zoma, iseTi monawilis daswreba, romelic ar
eTanxmeboda umravlesobas da fizikuri stimulebis Sedarebasa da umravlesobis pozicias
Soris gansvlis sidide. man aRmoaCina, rom
mdgradi konformulobis efeqti maSin miiRweva,
rodesac erTsulovani umravlesoba mxolod 35 adamianisagan Sedgeba. MmaSin ki, rodesac gulubryvilo cdis pirs erTi mokavSire misces,
romelic win aRudga umravlesobis Tvalsazriss,
konformulobis efeqti mkveTrad Semcirda,
rogorc es 17.2 suraTidan Cans. TanamoazresTan
erTad gulubryvilo cdis pirs, rogorc wesi,
Seswevda unari, winaaRmdegoba gaewia zewolisTvis da ar dahyoloda umravlesobas. rogorc
mosalodneli iyo, umravlesobisgan damoukidebloba im SemTxvevaSic izrdeboda, rac ufro
didi iyo winaaRmdegoba jgufis romelime erT
wevrsa da jgufis sxva wevrebs Soris. sagulisxmoa, rom individebis garkveuli raodenoba
agrZelebs jgufisadmi damorCilebas maSinac
ki, rodesac xazebis sigrZeebs Soris sxvaoba
maqsimalurad izrdeboda (Ash, 1955,1956).
rogor unda gavigoT es Sedegebi? s. aSi Tavadac gakvirvebuli darCa im xarisxiT, romliTac
adamianebi ar iCendnen konformulobas (Friend et
al., 1990). is Tavis kvlevebs ganixilavda, rogorc
damoukideblobis~ kvlevebs. faqtobrivad, monawileTa pasuxebis ori mesamedi swori da arakonformuli iyo. Tumca, s. aSis eqsperimentebis
aRwerebis umravlesobaSi xazgasma swored konformul erT mesamedze keTdeba. am eqsperimentebis Sesaxeb gakeTebuli angariSebi xSirad
mcdaria da ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli is faqti,
rom eqsperimentis monawileebi gansxvavebulni
iyvnen. im adamianTa ricxvi (daaxloebiT 25%),
romlebic arasdros iqceodnen konformulad,
im adamianTa raodenobas utoldeboda, romlebic
yovelTvis an TiTqmis yovelTvis axorcielebdnen konformul qcevas.
amdenad, s. aSis eqsperimentebi or damatebiT
gakveTils iZleva: erTi mxriv, vxedavT, rom
adamianebi srulad ar eqcevian normatuli gavlenis qveS da umravles SemTxvevaSi (zogierTebi
ki _ yovelTvis) icaven TavianT damoukideblobas;
Mmeore mxriv, vnaxeT, rom adamianebi zogjer

konformuloba yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi


yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi konformulobis
mravali SemTxveva normatuli da informaciuli
zegavlenis kombinaciebs warmoadgens: miRebis,
mowonebisa da aRiarebis survili ubiZgebs adamianebs, rom saTanado ganwyobebisa da swori
qcevis Sesaxeb informaciis mosaZieblad konkretul referentul jgufs mimarTon. ganvixiloT
erTi eqsperimentuli magaliTi.

saidan
viciT
konformulobis mcdeloba
texasis A&M universitetis studentebs
maTi Tanatolebis umravlesobis damokidebulebebis Sesaxeb miewodaT informacia. magaliTad, maT uTxres, rom studentebi sruliad ar eTanxmebian debulebas: ar gavamarTlebdi megobars, romelmac akrZaluli nivTierebebi miiRo~
(sinamdvileSi, studentebis umravlesoba
sruliad eTanxmeboda am debulebas).
eqsperimentis monawileebs am debulebis
interpretireba sTxoves. ras niSnavda me
ar gavamarTlebdi~. es niSnavda, rom isini
ar Seurigdebian narkotikis gamoyenebas~
Tu isini Sewyveten masTan megobrobas?~
amis Semdeg eqsperimentis monawileebs
sTxovdnen, daefiqsirebinaT TavianTi
damokidebuleba debulebis mimarT. studentebis pasuxebis paternebi, umeteswilad,
damokidebuli iyo imaze, Tu ramdenad
Zlierad aigivebdnen isini Tavs xsenebuli
universitetis studentobasTan. Zlieri
identifikaciis~ jgufis wevrebma am debulebisTvis iseTi interpretaciis gakeTeba
scades, romelic maT saSualebas miscemda,
ar eRalataT universitetis studentTa
normebisaTvis, anu maTi interpretacia

megobrobis Sewyvetis~ mimarTulebiT iyo


da amiT TavianTi mkacri damokidebulebebi
gamoxates. im studentebma ki, romlebic
A&M-is studentebTan nakleb identifikacias avlendnen, ar gamoamJRavnes aseTi
dramatuli damokidebuleba im mosazrebis
mimarT, romelsac, maTi azriT, A&M-is
yoveli saSualo studenti iziarebda (Wood
et al.,1996).

am situaciaSi studentebma, romlebisTvisac


mniSvnelovani iyo sxva studentebis msgavsad
yofna, miiRes informacia, romelic maT ar moiyvanda amxanagebTan winaaRmdegobaSi. normatiulma
procesebma maT sakiTxis interpretaciis imgvarad
rekonstruqciisken ubiZges, rom mocemuli informacia maTi mxoflmxedvelobis Sesatyvisic yofiliyo. am kvlevidan Cans, rom Cven im SemTxvevaSi ganvicdiT ufro Zlier informaciul
zemoqmedebas, rodesac informaciis wyaro
CvenTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania.

umciresobis gavlena da nonkonformizmi


vinaidan cnobilia, rom umravlesobas
miniWebuli aqvs resursebisa da informaciis
kontrolis SesaZlebloba, gasakviri araa, rom
adamianebi regularulad konformulebi arian
maT mimarT. amasTan, isic cnobilia, rom zogjer
adamianebi mtkiced icaven sakuTar Sexedulebebs.
rogor xdeba es? rogor xdeba, rom adamianebi
Tavs aRweven jgufis gavlenas da, saerTod,
rogor aris SesaZlebeli raime siaxle
(aranormatiuli)? arsebobs raime pirobebi, sadac
umciresobas SeuZlia umravlesobis Semobruneba
da axali normebis Seqmna? rodesac amerikeli
mkvlevrebi koncentrirebulni iyvnen
konformulobis kvlevebze, es nawilobriv, imis
gamo iyo, rom konformizmi demokratiul
procesebs ukavSirdeba. zogierTi evropeli
socialuri fsiqologi gansakuTrebul
yuradRebas uTmobda umciresobis mier
umravlesobis Secvlis unars. frangi mkvlevari
serJ moskoviCi (Serge Moscovici) pirveli iyo maT
Soris, vinc umciresobis gavlenebis kvleva
daiwyo.

situaciis Zala

konformulebic arian, umravles SemTxvevaSi _


araorazrovan situaciebSic ki. konformulad
yofnis potencia adamianis bunebis mniSvnelovani
elementia.

709

fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi

rogor zemoqmedeben jgufebi gadawyvetilebis miRebaze


Tu Tqven, rogorc jgufis
wevrs, odesme gicdiaT gadawyvetilebis miReba, maSin gecodinebaT, rom es sakmaod Sromatevadi saqmea. magaliTad, warmoidgineT, rom axlaxan megobrebTan
erTad naxeT filmi. miuxedavad
imisa, rom Tqven is mogewonaT,
garCevis Semdeg aRmoaCineT, rom
azri SegecvalaT da daeTanxmeT
azrs, rom filmi warmoudgenlad sustia~. tipuria Tu ara
azris aseTi cvlileba jgufuri
garCevis Semdeg? nuTu jgufis
Sefasebebi yovelTvis gansxvavebulia individebis Sefasebebisagan? socialurma fsiqologebma aCvenes, rom arsebobs
ori Zala, romelic MmaSin moqmedebs, rodesac jgufi iRebs
gadawyvetilebas, esenia: jgufuri polarizacia da jgufuri
azrovneba.

zemoT aRwerili SemTxveva


jgufuri polarizaciis magaliTia: jgufma gamoavlina iseTi
gadawyvetilebis miRebis tendencia, romelic ufro metad ukiduresia, vidre jgufis wevrebis
mier cal-calke, erTmaneTisgan
damoukideblad miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi iqneboda. davuSvaT,
jgufis TiToeul wevrs sTxoveT
filmisadmi sakuTari damokidebulebis gamoTqma. amis Semdeg, jgufis msgavsad, Tqvenc
eTanxmebiT erTaderT misaReb Sefasebas, romelic mTeli jgufis
damokidebulebas asaxavs. Tu
jgufis Sefaseba ufro ukiduresia, vidre calkeuli wevrebis Sefasebebis saSualo, maSin
es polarizaciis SemTxveva iqneba.
imisda mixedviT, Tu rogoria
jgufis wevrebis sawyisi tendencia _ gamoTqvan frTxili Tu

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

saidan

710

viciT
umciresobis Senelebuli zegavlena
erT-erT eqsperimentSi, romelSic monawileebs daurigdaT feradi baraTebi TxovniT, daesaxelebinaT miwodebuli baraTis
feri, umetesobam sworad gansazRvra is,
Tumca eqsperimentatoris ori Tanamonawile
mwvaneze miuTiTebda, rom es cisferi iyo.
uryevi umciresobis poziciam dasawyisSi
zegavlena ar moaxdina umravlesobaze,
magram Semdgom, eqsperimentis zogierTma
monawilem mwvane feris Sefasebisas TandaTan cisferisken gadainacvla (Moscovici,
1976; Moscovici & Faucheux,1972).

amdenad, umciresobis uryevma Sexedulebebma,


bolos da bolos, SesaZloa safuZveli gamoacalos umravlesobis siZlieres (Moscovici, 1980,
1985).

riskiani Sefasebebi jgufuri


polarizaciis procesi maT
meti sifrTxilis, an meti
riskis demonstrirebis mimarTulebiT waiyvans. mkvlevrebma
gamoTqves mosazreba, rom
jgufur polarizacias safuZvlad ori tipis procesi udevs:
informacia-gavlenis modeli
da socialuri Sedarebis
modeli (Liu & Lataane, 1998).
informacia-gavlenis modelis mixedviT, jgufis wevrebs sxvadasxva informacia
SeaqvT gadawyvetilebaSi. Tu
Tqven da Tqvens megobrebs
mcire, magram gansxvavebuli
mizezebi gagaCniaT, rom daiwunoT filmi, maSin am mizezebis erTad Tavmoyra gamoiwvevs imas, rom saboloo jamSi yvelani erTad Zalian daiwunebT mas.

mokveTa jgufuri aqtivobis


mTeli rigi maxasiaTeblebisa,
romelmac, misi azriT, ganapiroba jgufis wevrebis damorCileba jgufuri azrovnebisadmi.
man gamoTqva mosazreba, rom,
magaliTad, jgufebi, romlebic
Zlieri SeWidulobiT xasiaTdebian, emijnebian ra eqspertebs da lideris uSualo miTiTebebiT operireben, jgufuri
azrovnebisTvis damaxasiaTebel
gadawyvetilebebs miiReben. sxva
mkvlevrebma jenisis ideebis
Semowmeba scades rogorc Semdgomi istoriuli movlenebis
analizis, ise laboratoriuli
eqsperimentebis saSualebiT
(Esser, 1998). am kvlevebma aCvena,
rom jgufebi gansakuTrebiT
mowyvladni arian jgufuri
azris mimarT maSin, rodesac
koleqtiuri survilis _ mTeli
jgufisTavis misaRebi dadebiTi
mosazrebis SenarCunebis _ realizebas axdenen (Turner & Praatkanis, 1998). jgufis wevrebs unda
esmodeT, rom uTanxmoeba xSirad aumjobesebs jgufur ga-

es efeqtebi SegiZliaT normatiul da informaciul zegavlenas Soris arsebuli gansxvavebis gaTvaliswinebiT gaiazroT, romelzec
ukve zemoT visaubreT (Wood et al.,1994). umciresobis jgufebs SedarebiT naklebi normatiuli
gavlena aqvT, radgan umravlesobis wevrebs,
Cveulebriv, naklebad awuxebT, iqnebian Tu ara
mowonebulni an miRebulni umciresobis wevrebis
mier. meore mxriv, umciresobis jgufebs mainc
gaaCniaT informaciuli zegavlena umravlesobaze. kerZod, maT ZaluZT, ubiZgon umravjgufuri polarizacia (Group polarization) jgufis tendencia, miiRos iseTi gadawyvetileba,
romelic aris ufro eqstremaluri, vidre is
gadawyvetilebebi, romlebsac cal-calke miiRebdnen igive jgufis wevrebi.
jgufuri azrovneba (Groupthink) gadawyvetilebis mimRebi jgufis tendencia, gafiltros
arasasurveli monacemebi ise, rom miRweul iqnes
konsensusi, gansakuTrebiT maSin, Tu is lideris
Tvalsazriss Seesabameba.

dawyvetilebas, Tumca, SesaZloa, amcirebdes jgufis


pozitiur TviTSefasebas maSinac ki, rodesac is, erTi
SexedviT, Sorsaa jgufis pozitiuri SegrZnebisgan. momavalSi, rodesac jgufur
RonisZiebaSi CaerTvebiT, yuradReba gaamaxvileT, rom aRniSnuli procesebis SemCneva SeZloT.
socialuri Sedarebis modeli gulisxmobs, rom jgufis
wevrebi Tanatolebis mizidvas
imiT cdiloben, rom jgufis
idealebs realurze metad eqstremalurad warmoadgenen.
amrigad, Tu Tqven TvliT, rom
es filmi aravis moewona, SegiZliaT SeecadoT, Tavi gansakuTrebiT gamWriax pirovnebad warmoaCinoT da ukiduresad uaryofiTi Sexeduleba
gamoTqvaT. Tu jgufis yvela
wevri Seecdeba am gziT jgufis
saerTo Sefasebis dafiqsirebas,
Sedegad aucileblad miviRebT
polarizacias.

lesobas sadao sakiTxis sxvadasxva kuTxiT


ganxilvisken (Peterson& Nemeth, 1996). samwuxarod,
informaciuli zegavlenis es unari umciresobas
iSviaTad aZlevs SesaZleblobas, daZlios
umravlesobis warmomadgenelTa survili _ ar
gaiTvaliswinon normisagan gadaxrili da SeuTanxmebeli Sexedulebebi (Wood, 2000).
sazogadoebaSi adamianebis umravlesoba cdilobs, warmoCndes, rogorc status quo-s damcveli.
Cveulebriv, siaxleebis da cvlilebebis moTxovna
umciresobis wevrebisa da im pirebisgan modis,
romlebsac imedi gaucruvdaT arsebuli sistemis
mimarT, an sakiTxis axleburad gaazrebisa da
mimdinare problemis gadaWris alternatiuli
gzebis mofiqrebis unari SeswevT. konfliqti
myarad dafuZnebuli umravlesobis Sexedulebebsa
da disidenturi umciresobis xedvas Soris
umniSvnelovanesi winapirobaa im inovaciebisaTvis, romlebsac dadebiTi socialuri Zvrebi
mohyveba.

situaciis Zala

jgufis polarizacia azrovnebis zogadi paternis _


jgufuri azrovnebis _ erTerTi Sedegia. irvin jenisma (Irving Janis, 1982) termini jgufuri
azrovneba gansazRvra, rogorc
gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi myofi jgufisTvis damaxasiaTebeli _ konsensusis
misaRwevad arasasurveli informaciis gacxrilvis _ tendencia, romelic gansakuTrebiT tipuria im SemTxvevaSi,
rodesac is lideris mosazrebas Tanxvdeba.
i. jenisis jgufuri azrovnebis Teoria maSin aRmocenda,
rodesac is iseTi istoriuli
movlenis gaanalizebas cdilobda, rogoric iyo amerikis
SesaZlo SeWra kubaSi 1960
wels. am SeWraze Tanxmoba prezidentma kenedim mas Semdeg
misca, rac kabinetis sxdoma
Caatara, romelzec SeWris momxre mrCevlebma minimumamde
daiyvanes da daTrgunes sawinaaRmdego mosazreba. am movlenis analizidan jenisma ga-

711

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

situaciis Zala: mxilebani


faruli kameriT

712

socialurma fsiqologebma socialuri normebisa da socialuri situaciebis Zalis demonstrireba iseTi eqsperimentebiT scades, romlebic
aaSkaraveben, Tu ramdenad iolad SeiZleba sazriani, damoukidebeli, racionaluri da sasiamovno
adamianebis iseTi qcevis ganxorcielebamde miyvana, romelic Zalian Sors iqneba optimalurisagan. Cven ukve vnaxeT socialuri situaciis
gavlenis iseTi saxe, rogoricaa socialuri roli,
rogor aqcevs is Cveulebriv students cixis
agresiul zedamxedvelad. imave principis demonstrireba ubrali xumrobis _ faruli kameris
scenarebis _ saSualebiTac SeiZleba, romelic
kargi intuiciis mqone socialurma fsiqologma
alan fantma Seqmna da ukve TiTqmis 50 welia,
rac warmatebiT gamoiyeneba. fantma aCvena, Tu
rogor zustad mihyveba adamianis buneba socialur
scenars. misi gadacemebisas milionobiT telemayurebeli gulianad icinis, rodesac uyurebs,
rom adamiani, romelic hamburgers miirTmevs,
rogor wyvets Wamas, rogorc ki ainTeba abra
warweriT: ar WamoT!~; rodesac adamianebi SuqniSnis wiTel ferze Cerdebian, romelic fexiT
mosiaruleTaTvis gankuTvnil quCaze inTeba;
rodesac avtomagistralze moZraobisas mZRolebi
abruneben manqanebs sagzao niSnis _ delaveri
daketilia~ danaxvisas da, rodesac momxmareblebi
mxolod TeTr filebze dadian administraciis
gancxadebis Sesabamisad, romlis Tanaxmadac, Sav
filebze siaruli akrZalulia. faruli kameris
efeqtis erT-erT saukeTeso ilustraciad iTvleba
situaciuri qcevis makontrolebeli Zalze
daxvewili wesi, e.w. oinebi liftSi~. rodesac
adamiani liftiT mgzavrobs, is Tavdapirvelad
im dauwerel kanons emorCileba, rom saxiT
karisaken unda idges, magram rodesac danarCeni
mgzavrebi karisken zurgiT dgebian, sacodavi
msxverplic mihyveba axlad aRmocenebul normas
da isic zurgs aqcevs Semosasvlels.
cxovrebiseul situaciebSi, minimaluri socialuri pirobebic ki sakmarisia, raTa Cveulebrivi adamianebis uCveulo qcevebi gamovlindes. Tqven geRimebaT imaze, Tu Tqvenive msgavsi
adamianebi maTTvis Cveuli situaciebis mcire
modifikaciis SemTxvevaSic ki Zalze sulelurad
iqcevian. varaudobT ra, rom Tqven ase ar

moiqceodiT, impliciturad emijnebiT maT, magram


amgvari socialur-fsiqologiuri kvlevebi
aCvenebs, rom, analogiur SemTxvevebSi, savaraudod, Tqvenc iseve moiqceodiT, rogorc sxvebi.
poeti jon doni werda: aravin aris kunZuli,
TiToeuli adamiani erTi mTliani kontinentis
nawilia~. adamianebi urTierTdakavSirebulni
arian saziaro situaciebiT, normebiTa da wesebiT.
SekiTxvaze, Tu rogor moiqceodiT iseT situaciaSi, sadac adamianebi cudad, sulelurad an
iracionalurad iqcevian, brZnuli pasuxi, albaT,
aseTi iqneba: ar vici, es damokidebuli iqneba
imaze, Tu ramdenad Zlieri iqneba situacia~.
Cven mivediT seriozul daskvnamde, rom
situaciebi arsebiT rols asruleben adamianis
qcevis determinaciaSi. albaT, Tqvenc SegiZliaT
gaixsenoT cxovrebiseuli situaciebi, romelSic
gaacnobiereT, rom Tqven da Tqveni megobari ar
eTanxmebiT erTmaneTs momxdari movlenis raobis
Taobaze. momdevno TavSi ganvixilavT mosazrebas
imis Sesaxeb, rom sxvadasxva adamianebi erTi da
imave situaciis interpretacias sxvadasxvagvarad
axdenen.

Sejameba
socialuri situaciebi xSirad eqceva socialuri fsiqologebis yuradRebis centrSi, rogorc
qcevis mniSvnelovani determinantebi. stenfordis
cixis eqsperimentma aCvena, Tu rogori dramatuli
zegavlenis moxdena SeuZlia socialur rolebs
adamianis qcevaze. socialuri normebi gansazRvravs sasurvel damokidebulebebsa da qcevebs.
jgufuri gavlenis ori tipi aiZulebs adamianebs,
iyvnen konformulebi, esenia: informaciuli
gavlena da normatuli gavlena. rogorc Cans,
umciresoba umravlesobis Sexedulebebze gavlenas
ufro informaciuli gavlenis gziT axdens.

socialuri realobis
konstruireba
warmoidgineT, rom studenturi qalaqis teritoria unda gadakveToT megobarTan erTad, romelic ar icnobs fsiqologiis Sesaval kurss.
Tqven xvdebiT policiels, romelic uyviris
students. Tqveni megobari ambobs: es policieli

saidan
viciT
SegviZlia ki rodisme vTqvaT, Tu ra
moxda sinamdvileSi?~
studentur gazeTebSi mocemuli SefasebebiT dainteresebulma socialuri fsiqologebis jgufma studentebs matCis Canaweri aCvena da orive gundis mier ganxorcielebuli darRvevebis raodenobis Sefaseba sTxova. TiTqmis yvela prinstonelma
TamaSi Seafasa, rogorc uxeSi da binZuri~.
aravis Seufasebia is sufTa da patiosan~
TamaSad da umetesoba darwmunebuli iyo,
rom es dartmuTeli moTamaSeebis brali
iyo. amis sapirispirod, dartmuTeli studentebis umravlesobam CaTvala, rom uxeS
TamaSSi orive mxare Tanabrad iyo damnaSave
da rom TamaSi uxeSi, sufTa da lamazi~
iyo. metic, Canaweris naxvisas prinsto-

nelma studentebma dainaxes~, rom mowinaaRmdegem orjer meti jarima miiRo, vidre
maTma gundma, xolo dartmuTelma studentebma igive Canaweris naxvisas dainaxes~,
rom jarimebis raodenoba Tanabari iyo
(Hastorf &Cantril, 1954).

gamokvlevam cxadyo, rom SeuZlebelia fexburTis matCisnairi rTuli socialuri movlenis


obieqturad da moukerZoeblad ganxilva. socialuri situaciebi mniSvnelobas maSin iZenen,
rodesac mayurebeli seleqciurad aRiqvams imas,
Tu ra moxda, imis Sesabamisad, Tu ris danaxvas
eloda an surda. fexburTis matCis SemTxvevaSi
adamianebi erTi da igive aqtivobas uyurebdnen,
magram or gansxvavebul TamaSs xedavdnen.
imis asaxsnelad, Tu rogor mividnen prinstoneli da dartmuTeli gulSematkivrebi
esoden gansxvavebul interpretaciebamde, mivubrundeT aRqmis sakiTxs. gavixsenoT me-5 Tavi,
romelSic orazrovani perceptuli obieqtebis
interpretaciisas xSirad ukve arsebuli codnisTvis unda migemarTaT. fexburTis matCis ganxilvis drosac igive principi moqmedebs:
adamianebi warsulSi SeZenil codnas mimdinare
movlenebis interpretirebisTvis iyeneben, Tumca
perceptuli procesebis obieqtebad adamianebi
da situaciebi gvevlinebian. socialuri percepcia aris procesi, romliTac adamianebi sxvaTa
qcevebis gagebasa da kategorizebas axdenen. am

socialuri realobis konstruireba

ar unda iyos aseTi uxeSi~, Tqven ki TqvenTvis


fiqrobT: amgvarad moqcevas mas misi roli
aiZulebs~. amrigad, Tqven da Tqveni megobari
erTi da igive movlenas uyurebT, magram sruliad
sxvadasxvagvar interpretacias aZlevT. ai,
swored amas vuwodebT socialuri realobis
konstruirebas. Tqven gamoiyeneT Tqveni codna
da gamocdileba, raTa masze dayrdnobiT agexsnaT
situacia. Tqven aageT socialuri realoba imiT,
rom moaxdineT movlenis kogniturad da
emociurad reprezentireba.
modiT, socialuri fsiqologiis klasikuri
magaliTi davixmaroT, romelSic Sexedulebebi
ubiZgebs adamianebs, rom erTi da igive situacia
sxvadasxva momgebiani poziciidan dainaxon da
urTierTsapirispiro daskvnebi gaakeTon imis
Taobaze, Tu ra moxda sinamdvileSi~. kvleva
exeboda ramdenime wlis win Catarebul amerikuli
fexburTis matCs ligis or gunds Soris. prinstonis daumarcxebeli gundi sezonis ukanasknel
matCs atarebda dartmuTis gundTan. TamaSi,
romelSic prinstonis gundma gaimarjva, ormxrivad uxeSi iyo, mravali sajarimoebiTa da
seriozuli travmebiT. TamaSis Semdeg orive
skolis gazeTma mkiTxvels matCis msvlelobis
Sesaxeb Zalze gansxvavebuli versiebi SesTavaza.

713

yvela socialuri aRmqmelis winaSe mdgomi


erT-erTi mniSvnelovani amocana socialuri
movlenebis mizezebis dadgenaa. Tqven gsurT
cxovrebiseuli movlenebis mizezebis codna:
ratom Sewyvita Tqvenma megobarma TqvenTan
urTierToba? ratom miiRo samuSao sxvam da ara
_ Tqven? ratom ganqorwindnen Tqveni nacnobis
mSoblebi mravalwliani Tanacxovrebis Semdeg?
TiToeul aseT kiTxvas garkveuli moqmedebis,
movlenisa Tu Sedegis SesaZlo mizezobrivi
determinantebis analizamde mivyavarT. atribuciis Teoria warmoadgens zogad midgomas, romelic socialuri aRmqmelis mier mizezobrivi
axsnisas informaciis gamoyenebis gzebs aRwers.
atribuciis Teoria fric haideris (Fritz Heider)
Sromebidan (1958) iRebs sawyiss. haideri amtkicebda, rom socialur cxovrebaSi gasarkvevad
adamianebi ganuwyvetlad axorcieleben socialuri movlenebis mizezobriv analizs. is Tvlida, rom yvela adamiani intuituri fsiqologia,
romelic, profesionali fsiqologis msgavsad,
adamianis bunebasa da sakuTari qcevebis mizezebSi garkvevas cdilobs. haideri Tvlida, rom
atribuciuli analizis ZiriTadi sakiTxi qcevis

mizezebis lokalizaciis garkvevaa. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, qcevis mizezebi pirovnebaSi
(Sinagani, anu dispoziciuri kauzaloba) unda
veZeboT Tu situaciaSi (garegani, anu situaciuri
kauzaloba) da vin aris mis Sedegebze pasuxismgebeli. rogor msjeloben adamianebi da rogor
midian aseT Sefasebebamde?
harold kelim (Harold Kelley, 1967) haideris
mosazrebebis formalizeba moaxdina _ gamoyo
cvladebi, romlebsac adamianebi atribuciuli
daskvnebis gakeTebisas iyeneben. kelis ekuTvnis
mniSvnelovani dakvirveba, rom adamianebi gaurkvevel, bundovan pirobebSi ufro xSirad axdenen
kauzalur atribucias. Tqven iSviaTad gaqvT
sakmarisi informacia imis Taobaze, Tu ratom
moiqca adamiani ase da ara sxvagvarad. kelis
azriT, adamianebi gaurkvevlobas mravali movlenidan informaciis dagrovebiTa da kovariaciis principis gamoyenebiT ewinaaRmdegebian.
kovariaciis principis Tanaxmad, adamianebi
garkveul mizezobriv faqtors ukavSireben qcevas,
Tu es faqtori yovelTvis mocemulia qcevasTan
erTad, magram arasodes _ am qcevis gareSe.
magaliTad, warmoidgineT, rom quCaSi seirnobT
da xedavT megobars, romelic yviriliT migiTiTebT cxenze. ris safuZvelze daaskvnidiT,
rom is gagiJda (dispoziciuri atribucia) an
realuri safrTze gemuqrebaT (situaciuri atribucia)?
h. kelis miaCnia, rom adamianebi aseT daskvnebs
kovariaciis Sefasebebis safuZvelze akeTeben,
im adamianis Sesaxeb informaciis sami ganzomilebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlis qcevis axsnasac
isini cdiloben. es ganzomilebebia: gansxvavebuloba, konsistenturoba da konsensusi.

socialuri aRqma/percepcia (Social perception)


procesebi, romelTa safuZvelzec adamianebi
igeben an aRiqvamen TavianT an sxvebis pirovnul
atributebs.

gansxvavebuloba gulisxmobs imas, Tu ramdenad damaxasiaTebelia qceva mocemuli situaciisaTvis Tqveni megobari yovelTvis yviris
cxenebis danaxvaze?

qveTavSi vrclad mimovixilavT socialuri


percepciis or sakiTxs: pirvel rigSi, ganvixilavT, Tu rogor afaseben adamianebi im Zalebs,
romlebic gavlenas axdenen sxva adamianebis
qcevebze, anu maT kauzalur atribuciebs; Semdeg
ki ganvixilavT, Tu rogor xdeba, rom zogjer
socialuri percepcia Tanxvdeba Cvens molodinebs.

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

atribuciis Teoriis warmoSoba

714

atribuciis Teoria (Attribution theory) socialur-kognituri Teoria, romelic aRwers informaciis gamoyenebis gzebs, romelsac iyenebs
socialuri aRmqmeli mizezobrivi axsnisas.
kovariaciis principi (Covariation principle) Teoria, romelic amtkicebs, rom adamianebi qcevisa
da misi mizezis dakavSirebas axdenen principiT:
Tu arsebobs es mizezi, maSin iarsebebs qcevac
da, piriqiT, Tu ar arsebobs es mizezi, ar
iarsebebs qcevac.

konsistenturoba gulisxmobs imas, Tu ramdenad xSirad meordeba qceva mocemul situaciaSi _ Tqvens megobars adrec uyviria Tu ara
cxenis danaxvaze?
konsensusi gviCvenebs, sxva adamianebic
analogiurad iqcevian am situaciaSi Tu ara _
cxenis danaxvaze yvela adamiani iSvers xels
misken da yvirils iwyebs?

atribuciis fundamenturi
Secdoma
davuSvaT, Tqvens megobars SeuTanxmdiT, rom
7 saaTze SexvdebodiT. axla ukve rvis naxevaria
da Tqveni megobari jer ar mosula. rogor axsnidiT am faqts?
darwmunebuli var, rom raRac Zalian mniSvnelovani moxda, ris gamoc man ver SeZlo droze
mosvla.
ra nelia. ar SeuZlia cota auCqaros?
Cven kvlav warmogidgineT dispoziciur da
situaciur atribuciebs Soris arCevani. gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom adamianebi, saSualod, ufro
meore tipis _ dispoziciuri atribuciisken arian
midrekilni (Ross & Nisbett, 1991). es tendencia,
faqtobrivad, imdenad Zlieria, rom socialurma
fsiqologma li rosma (Lee Ross, 1977) mas atribuciis fundamenturi Secdoma uwoda.
atribuciis fundamenturi Secdoma (afS)
adamianisTvis damaxasiaTebeli ormagi tendenciaa,
romelic konkretuli qcevis Sedegis an mizezis
Ziebisas dispoziciuri faqtorebis (adamianebis
dadanaSauleba an ndoba) gadafasebasa da situaciuri faqtorebis saTanadod verSefasebas (garemos dadanaSauleba an ndoba) gulisxmobs.
atribuciis fundamenturi Secdoma (Fundamental
attribution error) _ damkvirveblebis ormagi tendencia, daakninon situaciuri faqtorebis roli
da gadaafason dispoziciuri faqtorebis roli
adamianis qcevaSi.

ganvixiloT afS-is laboratoriuli kvlevis


magaliTi. l. rosma da misma kolegebma (1977)
saxumaro TamaSis Collage Bowl~-is eqsperimentuli
versia Seqmnes, romelSic eqsperimentis monawileni, monetis agdebis safuZvelze, Sejibris
monawileTa da kiTxvebis damsmelTa jgufebSi
nawildebodnen.

saidan
viciT
monetis agdeba qmnis~
codnisunarianobas
kiTxvis damsmels gamomwvevi kiTxvebis
dasmis instruqcia eZleoda. am kiTxvebze
pasuxi man winaswar icoda. Sejibris monawile konkurenti kiTxvebze pasuxebis gacemas cdilobda, Tumca, xSirad _ uSedegod. TamaSis bolos kiTxvis damsmelebma,
Sejibris monawileebma da damkvirveblebma
(sxva monawileebi, romlebic uyurebdnen
TamaSs) Seafases TamaSis monawileTa orive
mxaris codna. kvlevis Sedegebi asaxulia
17.3 suraTze. rogorc xedavT, kiTxvis
damsmelebs eCvenebaT, rom maT da Sejibris
monawileebma codnis saSualo done gamoavlines maSin, roca Sejibris monawileebma da damkvirveblebma kiTxvebis damsmelebis codna saSualoze metad Seafases,
vidre Sejibris monawileebisa. TviT monawileni sakuTar codnas xSirad saSualoze
ufro naklebadac ki afasebdnen.

rogor mogwonT? TavisTavad naTelia, rom


situacia kiTxvis damsmels upiratesobas aniWebda
(gana Tqvenc ar isurvebdiT kiTxvebis damsmeli
yofiliyaviT?) da xels uwyobda maT, rom gonebamaxvilad gamoCeniliyvnen, rasac ugulebelyofdnen Sejibris monawileni da damkvirveblebi
TavianT SefasebebSi. swored es aris atribuciis
fundamenturi Secdoma.
SesaZloa, Tqven TviTon ipovoT afS-is
magaliTebi, magram es arc ise iolia. qcevis
situaciuri safuZvlebis aRmoCena yovelTvis
garkveuli mokvlevis~ ganxorcielebas moiTxovs. situaciuri Zalebis gavlena qcevaze xSirad SeumCnevelia. magaliTad, Tqven ver xedavT

socialuri realobis konstruireba

informaciis es samive ganzomileba garkveul


rols asrulebs Tqven mier gakeTebul dakvnebSi.
magaliTad, warmoidgineT, rom Tqveni megobari
erTaderTi iyo, vinc yviroda. savaraudod, rogor
atribuciul daskvnas gaakeTebdiT, dispoziciurs
Tu situaciurs?
f. haiderisa da h. kelis soliduri fundamenturi kvlevebis daxvewisa da gafarToebis mizniT
aTasobiT kvleva Catarda (Fiske &Taylor, 1991). maTi
umravlesoba im pirobebis Seswavlas exeba,
romlebSic arsebuli informaciis sistematuri
gadasinjvis Sedegad atribuciebi formirdeba.
qvemoT oTxi tipis situacias aRvwerT, rodesac
Tqveni atribucia SeiZleba mikerZoebuli, tendenciuri aRmoCndes.

715

suraTi

17.3

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

kiTxvis damsmelis da Sejibris


monawilis zogadi ganaTlebis
reitingebi

716

situaciur normebs. Tqven xedavT mxolod


qcevebs, romelTac es normebi ganapirobebs.
rogor unda aviciloT Tavidan afS? magaliTad,
negatiuri dispoziciuri atribuciis SemTxvevaSi
(ra nelia~), ukan unda daixioT da sakuTar
Tavs hkiTxoT, xom ar arsebobda am qcevis
gamomwvevi xelisSemSleli situaciuri faqtorebi? aseT varjiSs, pirobiTad, atribuciuli
qvelmoqmedeba~ SegiZliaT uwodoT. xvdebiT
ratom?
es rCeva gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani SeiZleba iyos maTTvis, vinc dasavluri tipis sazogadoebaSi cxovrobs, radganac monacemebi adasturebs, rom afS-s, nawilobriv, kulturuli
wyaroebic aqvs (Miller, 1984). gaixseneT me-14 TavSi
ganxiluli diskusia me~-s (Self) konstruirebaSi
kulturaTSorisi gansxvavebebis arsebobis Sesaxeb. rogorc iq avxseniT, dasavlur kulturaTa
umetesoba iseT maxasiaTeblebs vxvdebiT, romlebic damoukidebel me~-s ayalibeben, aRmosavluri kulturebis umravlesoba ki _ iseT
maxasiaTeblebs, romlebic
urTierTdamokidebulebis me~-s ayalibeben (Markus & Kitaiama,
1991). kvlevebma cxadyo, rom, rogorc urTierTdamokidebulebebis kulturis Sedegi, aradasavluri kulturebis warmomadgenlebi naklebad
fokusirdebian situaciaSi moqmed calkeul
individebze. modiT, vnaxoT, ra gavlenas axdens
es kulturuli gansxvavebebi axali ambebis mowodebaze.

saidan
viciT
atribuciebi finansuri skandalis
Sesaxeb
mkvlevrebma SearCies statiebi amerikuli
(The New York Times) da iaponuri (Asahi Shimbun)
gazeTebidan, sadac 1995 wlis iseT finansur
skandalze iuwyebodnen, rogoric inglisis
uZvelesi bankis _ beringsis gakotreba iyo.
mkvlevris asistentma, romelmac ar icoda
kvlevis mizani, waikiTxa yvela statia da
SearCia is statiebi, romelSic mocemuli
iyo momxdaris mizezobrivi axsna. amis Semdeg
saqmeSi Cauxedav or asistents TiToeul
statiaze daskvnis gakeTeba sTxoves, kerZod,
Tu ra tipis iyos axsna dispoziciuri,
anu iseTi, sadac brali pirovnebebs miuZRvodaT, Tu situaciuri, anu iseTi, sadac brali
organizacias edeboda. am or gazeTSi
gamoqveynebul statiebSi sakiTxisadmi midgoma mkveTrad gansxvavebuli aRmoCnda. amerikeli korespondenti mkacrad dispoziciuri atribuciis gakeTebas cdilobda
maSin, rodesac iaponeli korespondenti
situaciur atribucias usvamda xazs (Menon
et all., 1999).

saidan
viciT
megobroba da sakuTari Tavisadmi
mikerZoeba
eqsperimentis monawileebs sTxoves, rom
kreatulobis gasazom cdaSi megobarTan
an ucnobTan erTad CarTuliyvnen. davalebis Sesrulebis Semdeg TiToeul monawiles miawodes misi jgufisa da didi
normatiuli SerCevis monacemebis Sesaxeb
SedarebiTi informacia. miuxedavad maTi
realuri Sedegebisa, monawileTa naxevars
miawodes warmatebis Sesaxeb informacia
(rom maTi Sesruleba 93-e procentili iyo),
meore naxevars ki _ warumateblobis Sesaxeb
informacia (rom maTi Sesruleba 31-e procentili iyo). amis Semdeg TiToeul monawiles sTxovdnen, SeefasebinaT davalebis
Sesrulebis Sedegze misi da jgufis meore
wevris pasuxismgeblobis xarisxi 10-safexurian skalaze, romlis erTi ukiduresi
pozicia iyo 1 (partnioris pasuxismgeblobas), meore ki _ 10 gamoxatavda (sakuTar
pasuxismgeblobas). rogorc 17.4 suraTidan
Cans, eqsperimentis is monawileni, romlebic ucxo pirTan erTad monawileobdnen
cdaSi, warmatebas ufro metad miawerdnen
sakuTar Tavs, vidre warumateblobas (Campbell et al.,2000). monawileTa atribuciebi rogorc warmatebis, ise warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi ufro adekvaturi iyo, rodesac
isini cdaSi megobrebTan erTad monawileobdnen.
sakuTari Tavisadmi mikerZoeba (Self-serving bias)
_ atribuciul mikerZoebaTa erToblioba,
rodesac adamianebi cdiloben, Tavis damsaxurebad CaTvalon warmateba, xolo warumateblobisaTvis pasuxismgebloba sxvebs daakisron.

sakuTari Tavisadmi mikerZoeba


monetis agdebis gamoyenebiT Catarebuli
eqsperimentis erT-erTi yvelaze ganmacvifrebeli
Sedegi konkurentTa mier sakuTari SesaZleblobebis uaryofiTi Sefaseba iyo. es gvafiqrebinebs, rom adamianebi afS-s sakuTari Tavis
xarjzec ki uSveben (faqtobrivad, Tqven unda
gaixsenoT me-15 TavSi aRwerili erTi Teoria
depresiis wyaroebis Sesaxeb, romlis mixedviTac,
depresiuli adamianebi sakuTari Tavis mimarT
ufro met uaryofiT atribucias axdenen, vidre
situaciuri faqtorebis mimarT). Tumca, umravles
SemTxvevaSi, adamianebi piriqiT iqcevian da
mikerZoebas sakuTari Tavis mimarT iCenen. sakuTari Tavisadmi mikerZoeba aiZulebs maT, rom
yovelgvari warmateba sakuTar Tavs miaweron da
aicilon pasuxismgebloba warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi. umetes SemTxvevaSi, adamianebi mid-

suraTi

17.4

megobrebisa da ucxoebis mimarT


atribuciis modelebi
eqsperimentis monawileebs sTxoves, moexdinaT ranJireba, vin iyo pasuxismgebeli maTi jgufis warmatebaSi,
an warumateblobaSi. ucxoebTan erTad yofnisas eqsperimentis monawileebma gamoavlines sakuTari Tavisadmi mikerZoeba: jgufis warmatebaSi TavianT rols
ufro mniSvnelovnad miiCnevdnen, xolo warumateblobas partniors abralebdnen. ranJireba ufro zusti
iyo, rodesac partniori maTi megobari iyo.

socialuri realobis konstruireba

am cdis STambeWdavi maxasiaTebeli is iyo,


rom dafiqsirda kulturuli atribuciis gansxvavebuli stilebi, romlebic sagazeTo statiebis Seqmnisas vlindeboda. am kvleviT isic
dadasturda, rom atribuciis kulturuli stilebi gadaecema da narCundeba yvelaSi, vinc
Sesabamisi kulturis mediis gavlenis qveS eqceva.

717

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

718

rekilni arian, warmatebis SemTxvevaSi dispoziciuri atribucia moaxdinon, xolo warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi _ situaciuri (Gilovich,1991):
jildo Cemi unarebis gamo miviRe~; Sejibri
usamarTlo msajobis gamo wavage~.
sakuTari Tavis mimarT mikerZoebis SemTxvevebi sxva cxovrebiseul situaciebSic _ sakuTari
qcevebis Sesaxeb msjelobisas _ SegiZliaT naxoT.
miaqcieT yuradReba, rogor msjelobT swavlasTan
dakavSirebiT. ras ityodiT maRali Sefasebis
miiRebisas da rogor imsjelebdiT dabali
Sefasebis miRebisas? gamokvlevebi cxadyofs, rom
studentebs axasiaTebT tendencia, sakuTar
Zalisxmevas miaweron maRali, xolo gareSe faqtorebs _ dabali Sefaseba (McAllister,1996). faqtobrivad, igive models iyeneben maswavleblebic:
studentis warmatebas isini sakuTar Tavs
miaweren, warumateblobas ki _ ara. kidev erTxel
SexedeT, ra gavlenas SeiZleba axdendes atribuciis es paternebi Tqvens miRwevebze? Tu
warmatebebisas Tqven ar ifiqrebT garegan
mizezebze (magaliTad, pirveli gamocda advili
iyo~), SesaZloa, SecdeT da naklebi Zalisxmeva
daxarjoT Semdeg jerze; Tu warumateblobis
SemTxvevaSi ugulebelyofT dispoziciuri mizezebis rols (magaliTad, amden xans ar unda
davrCeniliyavi wveulebaze~), maSin SesaZloa,
aseve naklebi ZalisxmeviT moekidoT Semdeg
gamocdas. zemoT isic aRvniSneT, rom Tqven unda
ecadoT afS-is Tavidan acileba maSin, rodesac
sxvebis qcevebis mizezebze fiqrobT. aseve, SegiZliaT SeamowmoT xolme Tqven mier gakeTebuli
atribuciebi da ecadoT, Tavidan aiciloT yovelgvari mikerZoeba sakuTari Tavis mimarT.
adamianebi jgufis wevrobis SemTxvevaSic
aseTive mikerZoebulobas iCenen. isini ufro
xSirad cdiloben jgufis warmatebebis sakuTar
Tavze miweras, xolo warumateblobebSi _ jgufis
sxva wevrebis dadanaSaulebas. albaT, kmayofili
darCebiT, rodesac gaigebT, rom es efeqti iq
sruldeba, sadac megobroba iwyeba.
momavalSi, rodesac jgufTan erTad raime
saqmianobaSi CaerTvebiT, SeecadeT naxoT, ramdenad Seesabameba am eqsperimentis Sedegebi Tqven
TviTqmnadi winaswarmetyveleba (Self-filfilling prophecy) _ zogierTi momavali qcevis an movlenis
Sesaxeb winaswarmetyveleba, romelic dRevandel urTierTobebs molodinis Sesabamisad
cvlis.

mier jgufis sxvadasxva wevrebis pasuxismgeblobebTan dakavSirebiT gakeTebul atribuciebs.


ratom aqvs aseTi didi mniSvneloba Tqven mier
gakeTebul atribucias? gaixseneT paemanze dagvianebuli megobris magaliTi. davuSvaT, imis gamo,
rom Tqven ar moiZieT situaciasTan dakavSirebuli informacia, daaskveniT, rom is aRar aris
dainteresebuli TqvenTan megobrobiT. SeuZlia
Tu ara am arasworma mosazrebam marTlac ubiZgos
mas, rom momavalSi aramegobruli iyos Tqven
mimarT? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad im rolis
ganxilvaze gadavdivarT, romelsac socialuri
realobis konstruirebaSi rwmenebi da molodinebi asruleben.

molodinebi da TviTqmnadi
winaswarmetyveleba
SesaZlebelia Tu ara, rom Sexedulebebma da
molodinebma gamocdilebis interpretaciis garda, socialuri realobac gansazRvron? mravali
kvleva gvarwmunebs, rom situaciis buneba SesaZloa mniSvnelovnad Seicvalos im rwmenebisa
da molodinebis zemoqmedebiT, romlebic adamianebs gaaCniaT am situaciebis mimarT. TviTqmnadi winaswarmetyveleba (Self-filfillling prophercies,
Merton, 1957) zogierT SesaZlo qcevebTan da movlenebTan dakavSirebiT gakeTebuli winaswarmetyvelebebia, romlebic imgvarad cvlian qceviT
urTierTobebs, rom isini iseT saxes iReben,
rogorsac adamianebi erTmaneTisgan elodnen.
warmoidgineT, rom wveulebaze midixarT da
mxiarul saRamos eliT, Tqveni megobari ki amave
wveulebaze mxolod mowyenilobis molodinSia.
am molodinebis gaTvaliswinebiT, SegiZliaTF
warmoidginoT, Tu ramdenad gansxvavebulad
moiqceviT Tqven da Tqveni megobari? qcevis es
gansxvavebuli formebi, Tavis mxriv, SeiZleba
imis Sesabamisadac Seicvalos, Tu rogor mogeqcevian sxvebi. aseT SemTxvevaSi, romel
Tqvengans aqvs saRmos ufro mxiarulad gatarebis
Sansi?
TviTqmnadi winaswarmetyvelebis erT-erTi
saukeTeso magaliTi bernard Sous piesidan _
pigmalionidan~ _ aris nasesxebi, romelSic
quCis gogona profesor hari higinsis xelmZRvanelobiT varjiSis Sedegad aristokrat qalbatonad iqca. socialuri molodinebis, anu pigmalionis efeqti gamoyenebul iqna fsiqolog

saidan
viciT
molodinebma SeiZleba Secvalos IQ
bostonis dawyebiTi skolis maswavleblebs mkvlevrebma miawodes informacia,
rom rogorc testirebebma aCvena, maTi
zogierTi moswavle warmatebulia akademiuri moswrebis~ TvalsazrisiT. maswavleblebi daarwmunes, rom es moswavleebi
saswavlo wlis ganmavlobaSi swavlaSi
gansakuTrebul Sedegebs miaRwevdnen~. sinamdvileSi aseTi prognozisaTvis realuri
safuZveli ar arsebobda da moswavleTa
gvarebic SemTxveviT iyo SerCeuli. miuxedavad amisa, saswavlo wlis bolos im
bavSvebis 30%-ma, romlebic momavali varskvlavebis siaSi iyvnen Seyvanilni, saSualod 22 erTeuliT gaaumjobesa TavianTi
IQ maCvenebeli! TiTqmis yvelam ki, sul
mcire, 10 erTeuliT gaaumjobesa TavianTi
maCvenebeli. inteleqtis standartuli
testiT gazomili inteleqtualuri zrdis
es maCveneblebi mniSvnelovnad ufro maRali iyo, vidre imave skolis sxva moswavleebisa, romlebic sakontrolo jgufs
Seadgendnen da kvlevis dasawyisisaTvis
IQ-is standartuli saSualo maCvenebeli
hqondaT (Rossenthal & Jacobson,1968).

rogor aisaxa maswavleblebis mcdari molodinebi moswavleTa aseT warmatebaSi? rozentali


(1974), sul mcire, oTx procesze miuTiTebs,
romelic maswavleblebis molodinma gaaaqtiura
(ix. agreTve, .Jussim,1986).Ppirveli, maswavleblebi
ufro Tbilad da megobrulad eqceodnen momaval varskvlavebs~, maTTvis socialuri aRiarebisa da miRebis klimats qmnidnen; Mmeore,
isini ufro mets iTxovdnen, Sesaswavli masalis
sirTulisa da masalis xarisxis CaTvliT, maTgan, viszec esoden did imedebs amyarebdnen;
mesame, isini ufro swraf da konkretul reaq-

ciebs iZleodnen (rogorc Seqebis, aseve kritikis


TvalsazrisiT) gamorCeuli moswavleebis saqmianobaze; dabolos, maswavleblebi gamorCeul
moswavleebs Tavis gamoCenis met SesaZleblobebs
aZlevdnen, riTac maT sakuTari Tavis rwmena
umtkicdebodaT da Tvlidnen, rom isini marTlac
iseTi kargebi iyvnen, rogorc es maswavleblebs
miaCndaT.
cxadia, am situaciaSi uCveulo iyo, rom
maswavleblebs mizanmimarTulad Seuqmnes mcdari
molodinebi. am meTodologiam rozentalsa da
jeikobsons TviTqmnadobis (Self-fulfilling) sruli
potencialis Cvenebis saSualeba misca. Tumca,
realur cxovrebaSi, mraval situaciaSi, molodinebi zust socialur aRqmebs efuZneba (Jussim,
1991). maswavleblebi, magaliTad, zogierTi moswavlisgan maRal akademiur moswrebas imitom
elian, rom isini skolaSi ukeT momzadebulebi
modian da, rogorc wesi, es moswavleebi ukeTes
Sedegebsac aCveneben. gamokvleva, faqtobrivad,
gvafiqrebinebs, rom TviTqmnad, winaswarmetyveleba gansakuTrebiT did efeqts dabali akademiuri miRwevebis mqone moswavleebis cxovrebaze axdens (Madon et al.,1997). rodesac maswavleblebi maTgan dabal maCveneblebs moelian,
isini ufro sustad swavloben, xolo, rodesac
maswavleblebi maTgan ukeTes maCveneblebs moelian, isini marTlac aumjobeseben maT.
realur saswavlo situaciebSi maswavleblebsa da profesorebs konkretuli mtkicebulebebi gaaCniaT _ gamocdebisa da weriTi naSromebis saxiT _ moswavleTa miRwevebis Sesafaseblad. TviTqmnadi winaswarmetyvelebis efeqti
yvelaze didia iseT situaciebSi, romlebic
daskvnisTvis saWiro minimalur informacias
iZlevian. modiT, es mosazreba sqesobrivi stereotipebis konteqstSi SevamowmoT.

saidan
viciT
rodis aqvT mniSvneloba stereotipebs
eqsperimentatorma socialuri fsiqologiis studentTa jgufSi 9 Tvis bavSvi
miiyvana. damswre studentebis naxevari
daarwmunes, rom bavSvs keiti erqva, meore
naxevard ki uTxres, rom mas kareni erqva.

socialuri realobis konstruireba

robert rozentalis (Robert Rossenthal) klasikur


eqsperimentSic, romelic skolis direqtor leonora jeikobsonTan (Leonore Jacobson) TanamSromlobiT Catarda.

719

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

studentebs sTxoves bavSvis fizikuri maxasiaTeblebis, klasSi ganxorcielebuli


qcevisa da pirovnebis Sefaseba. keitis~
da karenis~ jgufis mier dasaxelebuli
maxasiaTeblebi ar gansxvavdeboda erTmaneTisagan, rodesac isini bavSvis fizikuri
monacemebisa da qcevebis Sefasebas iZleodnen, vinaidan situaciaSi TvalsaCinod
iyo mocemuli aRqmadi maxasiaTeblebi _
fizikuri niSnebi da ganxorcielebuli
qceva. gansxvavebam mxolod im SemTxvevaSi
iCina Tavi, rodesac maxasiaTeblebi ar
iyo TvalsaCinod mocemuli da Sefasebebi
sqesobriv stereotipebs efuZneboda. keiti~
daaxasiaTes, rogorc ufro aTleturi,
xmauriani, aqtiuri da uxeSi bavSvi, vidre
kareni~ (Jusssim, 1993).

720

rodesac garemo Tavad iZleoda konkretul


monacemebs, molodinebma ar imoqmedes Sefasebebze: _ studentebs ubralod SeeZloT daenaxaT, rogori iyo bavSvi da rogor iqceoda is.
mxolod pirovnuli Taviseburebebis Sefasebisas
anu maSin, rodesac aseTi pirdapiri maxasiaTeblebi aRar arsebobda, stereotipebma gavlena
moaxdines Sefasebebze. amrigad, molodinebis
gavlena ufro Zlieria da, savaraudoa, rom ufro
metad eqneba adgili sakuTari Tavisadmi mikerZoebas, rodesac individs ar aqvs uSualo dakvirvebis safuZvelze Sefasebis gakeTebis SesaZ-

lebloba. cxadia, socialur urTierTobebSi,


Sefasebebi~ xSirad Sesatyvisi qcevebis ganxorcielebasac ganapirobeben. Eaxla vnaxoT, Tu ra
gavlenas axdens socialuri realobis konstruirebaze adamianis mier ganxorcielebuli qceva.

qcevebi, romlebic adastureben


molodinebs
kidev erTxel ganvixiloT bostonis skolis
magaliTi. Cven ukve aRvniSneT, rom maswavleblebma ganaxorcieles mTeli rigi qcevebisa,
romelmac maT xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi
TavianTi molodinebis dadasturebis SesaZlebloba misca. mark snaiderma (Mark Snyder, 1984)
Semoitana termini qceviTi dadastureba im
procesis aRsaniSnad, romlis meSveobiTac erTi
pirovnebis molodinebi meoris mimarT realurad
zemoqmedebs am ukanasknelis qcevaze imgvarad,
rom dasturdeba misi sawyisi hipoTeza. magaliTad,
warmoidgineT, rom Tqven viRacisgan iRebT
intervius da am adamianze giTxres, rom is morcxvi an introvertia. am kiTxvebidan romels
SearCevdiT interviusTvis (Snyder &Swann, 1978):
ras moimoqmedebdiT wveulebis gasaxaliseblad?
rogor situaciebSi isurvebdiT, rom metad
komunikabelurni yofiliyaviT?
ra giSliT xels, rom realurad gaixsnaT
sxva adamianebTan?
ra situaciebSi laparakobT bevrs?
davuSvaT, meore SekiTxva SearCieT, rogorc
amas umetesoba akeTebs, rodesac maT sjeraT,
rom introverts esaubrebian. gana metad albaTuri ar aris, rom am SekiTxvaze ukiduresad
eqstraverti pirovnebac ki adekvaturad gipasuxebdaT? amrigad, molodini me unda vesaubro
introverts~, ganapirobebs qceviT arCevans unda
davsva kiTxvebi, romlebsac, Cveulebisamebr,
introvert adamianebs usvamen~; am ukanasknels
ki molodinis potenciur dadasturebamde mivqceviTi dadastureba (Behavioral confirmation) procesi, romlis meSveobiTac adamianebi iqcevian
sxvebis specifikurad mosalodneli reaqciebis
Sesabamisad da Semdeg am reaqciebs iyeneben
TavianTi Sexedulebebis dasadastureblad.

saidan
viciT
qceviTi dadasturebis sazRvrebi
mkvlevrebma Seqmnes pirobebi, sadac
studenti gogonebis erT jgufs _ aRmqmelebs~ Seuqmnes yalbi molodinebi gogonaTa meore jgufis _ samizneebis~ eqstravertuloba-introvertulobis mimarT.
faqtobrivad, samizneebis~ yoveli wevri
uzrunvelyofil iqna reitingiT, romelic
eqsperimentatorebs mis eqstravertad an
introvertad aRqmis saSualebas aZlevda.
Tumca, Tavad am gogonebis TviTSefasebebi
am niSnis mixedviT gansxvavebuli iyo _
zogierT maTgans myari (mZlavri) mosazreba
gaaCnda sakuTari introvertuloba-eqstravertulobis Sesaxeb, zogierTs ki _ ufro
myife (susti). ra moxda, rodesac aRmqmelebi~ samizneebi~ erTmaneTs daekontaqtnen? rodesac samizneebs~ ar hqondaT
myari TviTSefaseba, adgili hqonda qceviT
dadasturebas. aRmqmelebi~ aRwevdnen imas,
rom samizneebs~ iseTi qcevebi ganexorcielebinaT, romlebic daadasturebdnen
maT molodinebs. Tumca, rodesac samizneebs~ SedarebiT myari me-koncefcia hqondaT, isini aRmqmelebis~ molodinebis
sawinaaRmdego qcevebs avlendnen (Swann &
Fly, 1984).

qceviTi dadasturebis sazRvrebi imazecaa


damokidebuli, Tu ra motivaciiT urTierTqmedebs
samizne. sxva gamokvlevaSi mamakacTa _ aRmqmelebis
_ erT jgufs fotoebi aCvenes da daarwmunes,
rom maTTan telefonze mosaubre qalebi _ samizneebi _ saSualo wonisani iyvnen, meore jgufis
wevrebi ki darwmunebulni iyvnen, rom Warbwonian
qalebs esaubrebodnen. zogierT qals (romelTa
faqtobrivi wona ar Seesabameboda fotoze
gamosaxuls) satelefono saubarSi monawileobis
miReba da maTTan mosaubre mamakacis pirovnuli
maxasiaTeblebis amocnoba sTxoves. sxva SemTxvevaSi ki qalebis mizani partnior mamakacebTan
mSvidi da sasiamovno saubris gabma iyo. zogadad,
es meore situacia qceviT dadasturebas qmnida:
samizneebis qceva mamakacebis mier fasdeboda,
rogorc simsuqnis damadasturebeli (magaliTad,
qalebi fasdebodnen, rogorc naklebad gulRiebi
da ubedurebi). Tumca, rodesac samizneebi
informaciis moZiebas cdilobdnen, qceviT dadastureba aRar xdeboda (Snyder & Haugen,1995). es
eqsperimenti gvafiqrebinebs, rom normaluri socialuri interaqciis impulsi adamianebs ufro
met SesaZleblobas aZlevs, rom samyaro TavianTi
rwmenebis, damokidebulebebisa da stereotipebis
Sesabamisad gadaastruqturon.
am qveTavSi aRweril eqsperimentebs bunebrivad
mivyavarT kiTxvamde, Tu rogor warmoiqmneba
damokidebulebebi da molodinebi? Cven mier
ganxilul eqsperimentebSi monawileebs xelovnurad uqmnidnen molodinebs, magram ra xdeba
realur cxovrebaSi, rodesac Tqveni sakuTari
molodinebis Sesabamisad moqmedebT? Semdeg
qveTavSi ganvixilavT damokidebulebebs, maT
Camoyalibebasa da Secvlas da vnaxavT, Tu ra
kavSiria rwmenebs, damokidebulebebsa da moqmedebebs Soris.

Sejameba
kidev erTxel SegiZliaT naxoT, rom molodinebi yvelaze efeqturi maSinaa, rodesac
garemos realuri, mimdinare mdgomareoba samiznis realuroba~ _ orazrovani an bundovania.
am pirobebSi Yyvelaze metadaa mosalodneli,
rom adamiani daeyrdnoba ara monacemebs~, aramed
daskvnebs Sinagani faqtorebidan gamomdinare
gaakeTebs.

socialuri realobis konstruirebis koncefciis mixedviT, adamiani situaciis interpretaciisas iyenebs da eyrdnoba sakuTar codnasa da
gamocdilebas. Aatribuciis Teoria cdilobs
axsnas, Tu rogor afaseben adamianebi aqtivobebis,
movlenebisa da qcevebis Sedegebis mizezebs.
adamianebi xSirad saTanadod ver afaseben qcevis
situaciur mizezebs da axdenen dispoziciuri

socialuri realobis konstruireba

yavarT: Tu is mipasuxebs am SekiTxvaze, mivxvdebi,


rom is marTlac introverti yofila~.
ramdenad mZlavria qceviTi dadasturebis
Zala? am kiTxvaze pasuxi TviTqmnadi winaswarmetyvelebis SemTxvevaSi mocemuli pasuxis msgavsia. is damokidebulia imaze, Tu ramdenad xelmisawvdomia garemoSi arsebuli zusti informacia.

721

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

722

faqtorebis gadafasebas, rac cnobilia atribuciis fundamenturi Secdomis saxeliT. kvlevebi


mowmobs, rom araindividualisturi kulturebis
warmomadgenlebs naklebad axasiaTebT aseTi
Secdoma. adamianebi sakuTari Tavis mimarT mikerZoebas eqvemdebarebian, rodesac warmatebebs
dispoziciur faqtorebs miaweren, xolo warumateblobebs _ situaciur faqtorebs. TviTqmnad
winaswarmetyvelebebs maSin aqvT adgili, rodesac
molodinebi emTxveva cvlilebebs realur samyaroSi. amisMmsgavsad, qceviT dadasturebas adgili aqvs maSin, rodesac adamianebis molodinebi
realurad cvlis sxva adamianebis qcevas. es
orive efeqti mcirdeba garemoSi arsebuli da
adamianisTvis xelmisawvdomi obieqturi informaciiT.

boda. ra udevs safuZvlad Tqvens damokidebulebebs da ra gavlenas axdenen isini Tqvens


qcevebze?

damokidebulebebi, maTi
Secvla da qceva

davuSvaT, SemoxazeT cifri 3", e.i. garkveulwilad ar eTanxmebiT mocemul debulebas. ram
gamoiwvia es Sefaseba? Cven SegviZlia mivuTiToT
informaciis sam tipze, romelic safuZvlad udevs
Tqvens damokidebulebas.

dRes ukve gqondaT Tqveni damokidebulebis


gamoxatvis SesaZlebloba? vinmem ukve gkiTxaT:
ras fiqrob Cems maisurze~, an mogewonaT Tu
ara es kerZi~? damokidebuleba (Attitude) adamianebis, obieqtebis an ideebis dadebiTi, an uaryofiTi Sefasebaa. Tqven, SesaZloa, dadebiTi
damokidebulebebi gqondeT muSebis, sportuli
manqanebis an sagadasaxado ganakveTis mimarT,
xolo uaryofiTi damokidebuleba _ telemarketebis, Tanamedrove xelovnebis an astrologiis
mimarT. aseTi gansazRvreba uSvebs, rom Tqveni
damokidebulebis umravlesoba ar aris TvalsaCino. Tqven, SesaZloa, verc ki acnobierebdeT,
rom garkveuli damokidebulebebis matarebeli
xarT. damokidebulebebi mniSvnelovania, radgan
isini gavlenas axdenen Tqvens qcevasa da imaze,
Tu rogor axdenT socialuri realobis konstruirebas. GgaixseneT prinston-dartmuTis matCi.
prinstonis gundis gulSematkivrebi TamaSs
dartmuTis gundis gulSematkivrebisagan gansxvavebulad xedavdnen~; atribuciebi movlenebis
Sesaxeb damokidebulebebis Sesabamisad keTdedamokidebuleba (Attitude) adamianebis, sagnebisa
da movlenebis mimarT SefasebiTi reagirebis
daswavlili, SedarebiT myari tendencia.

damokidebulebebi da qcevebi
damokidebulebebi ganvsazRvreT, rogorc
pozitiuri, an negatiuri Sefasebebi. am qveTavSi
SesaZlebloba geqnebaT, rom TviTon gaakeToT
aseTi Sefaseba. ramdenad eTanxmebiT qvemoT
mocemul debulebas (SemoxazeT Sesabamisi
cifri)?
momwons filmebi jim keris monawileobiT.
1___2___3___4___5___6___7___8___9
sruliad
ar
veTanxmebi

neitraluri

sruliad
veTanxmebi

kognituri _ ra azrebi giCndebaT jim keris


saxelis gagonebisas?
afeqturi _ ra grZnobebs aRZravs TqvenSi
jim keris saxelis xseneba?
qceviTi _ rogor iqceviT, rodesac, davuSvaT,
SesaZlebloba gaqvT, naxoT erT-erTi filmi
misi monawileobiT?
savaraudoa, rom am sami tipis informaciis

saidan
viciT
damokidebulebis xelmisawvdomobis
safuZvelze saarCevno qcevis
winaswarmetyveleba
mkvlevrebma torontos raionSi (ontario,
kanada) 1990 wlis adgilobrivi arCevnebis
win da Semdeg satelefono gamokiTxva
Caatares. maT arCevnebis win amomrCevlebs
ori kiTxviT mimarTes: rogor fiqrobT,

romel partias miscemT xmas?~ da SegiZliaT


TqvaT, rom Tqveni arCevani sabolooa, Tu
fiqrobT, rom kidev SeiZleba SeicvaloT
azri?~.AarCevnebis Semdeg maT sTxovdnen,
daesaxelebinaT ganxorcielebuli arCevani.
winasaarCevno damokidebulebis xelmisawvdomobis sazomad gamoyenebul iqna pasuxis gacemis siswrafe kiTxvaze: _ vis miscemT
xmas?~. PpasuxebisTvis saWiro drois gamosaTvlelad kompiuteri gamoiyenes (monacemis
koreqtirebas respondentis metyvelebis
individualuri Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT akeTebdnen). ra mimarTeba iyo damokidebulebis xelmisawvdomobasa da qcevas
Soris? is individebi, romelTac xelmisawvdomi damokidebulebebi gamoavlines, anu
SedarebiT swrafad pasuxobdnen kiTxvaze,
ufro metad axorcielebdnen gamokiTxvisas
dafiqsirebul saarCevno qcevas (Bassili, 1995).

am SedegSi mniSvnelovani isaa, rom, rogorc


maRali xelmisawvdomobis~, ise dabali xelmisawvdomobis~ respondentebi, arCevnebamde aRniSnavdnen, rom ar Seicvlidnen azrs. amdenad,
realuri saarCevno qcevis winaswarmetyvelebisaTvis damokidebulebis xelmisawvdomoba ufro
sando maCvenebeli aRmoCnda, vidre TviT amomrCevelTa mier gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi!
rogor iZens damokidebuleba maRal xelmisawvdomobas (Fazio,1995)?Kkvlevebma aCvenes, rom
damokidebulebebi ufro xelmisawvdomia, rodesac
isini uSualo gamocdilebas efuZnebian. Tqven

damokidebulebebi, maTi Secvla da qceva

kombinaciam gibiZgaT, rom 3" (an nebismieri sxva


cifri) SemogexazaT. Tqveni damokidebulebebi,
aseve, moicaven am sami kategoriis Sesabamis
reaqciebs. Tu Tqveni damokidebuleba jim keris
mimarT uaryofiTia, es niSnavs, rom SegiZliaT
TqvaT: misi iumori vulgarulia~ (kognituri),
ar momwons misi saxis yureba~ (afeqturi), an
ar vapireb fuli gadavixado imis yurebaSi, Tu
rogor vardeba viRac~ (qceviTi).
rTulia ara damokidebulebis gazomva, aramed
imis dadgena, damokidebulebebi yovelTvis zustad
aisaxebian qcevaSi Tu ara. sakuTari gamocdilebidanac iciT, rom es yovelTvis ase ar xdeba.
adamianebma, SesaZloa, ganacxadon, rom ar uyvarT
jim keri, magram mainc didi fuli daxarjon misi
filmebis sanaxavad. Tumca, xSirad adamianebis
qcevebi Seesabameba maT damokidebulebebs. isini
amboben, rom fuls ar daxarjaven jim keris
filmebis sanaxavad da asec iqcevian. rogor
SeiZleba gavarkvioT, rodis gansazRvravs damokidebuleba qcevas da rodis _ ara? mkvlevrebma
Zalze bevri imuSaves am sakiTxze, kerZod, im
pirobebis dasadgenad, romelSic yvelaze Zlieria
kavSiri adamianebis damokidebulebebsa da maT
qcevebs Soris (Ajzen & Sexton, 1999; Fazio & TowlesSchwen, 1999).
damokidebulebis erT-erTi Tviseba, romelic
qcevis winaswarmetyvelebis saSualebas iZleva,
xelmisawvdomoba (accessibility), anu damokidebulebis
obieqtsa da adamianis mier am obieqtis Sefasebas
Soris kavSiris siZlierea (Fazio, 1995). rodesac
jim keris Sesaxeb gisvamT kiTxvas, Tqven gonebaSi
eZebT pasuxs, Tu is ucbad mogdiT TavSi? Kkvlevebma
aCvenes, rom qcevebi miT ufro metad Seesabamebian
damokidebulebebs, rac ufro metad xelmisawvdomni
arian es ukanasknelni.

723

cxrili

17.1

specifikuroba aumjobesebs
damokidebulebasa da qcevas Soris
korelacias
gazomili atitudebi

damokidebuleba Sobadobis
kontrolis mimarT.

korelacia Casaxvis
sawinaaRmdegoabebis
gamoyenebasTan
.08

damokidebuleba Casaxvis
sawinaaRmdego abebis
mimarT.

.32

damokidebuleba Casaxvis
sawinaaRmdego abebis
gamoyenebis mimarT.

.52

damikidebuleba Semdegi
ori wlis ganmavlobaSi
Casaxvis sawinaaRmdego
abebis gamoyenebis mimarT

.57

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

SeniSvna: mkvlevrebma scades ewinaswarmetyvelaT qalebis


mier ori wlis ganmavlobaSi Casaxvis sawinaaRmdego
abebis gamoyenebis albaToba. rac ufro specifikur
kiTxvebs usvamdnen qalebs, miT ufro maRali iyo
damokidebulebebis aqtualur qcevasTan korelacia.

724

jim keris filmebisadmi ufro xelmisawvdomi


damokidebuleba geqnebaT, Tu misi monawileobiT
ramdenime filmi naxeT manam, sanam mis Sesaxeb
raimes moismendiT an waikiTxavdiT. aseve, damokidebulebebi ufro xelmisawvdomia maSin, rodesac isini sakmaod xSirad meordebian, anu
rac ufro xSirad gixdebaT maTi verbalurad
formulireba.
damokidebulebebiT ukeT xdeba qcevebis
winaswarmetyveleba, rodesac maT specifikurobis
erTsa da imave doneze vzomavT. ganvixiloT
cxrilSi 17.1 warmodgenili monacemebi. am kvlevaSi mkvlevrebi cdilobdnen, ewinaswarmetyvelaT 18-38 wlis 270 qalisgan Semdgari SerCevis
mier Casaxvis sawinaaRmdego abebis gamoyenebis
albaToba. cxrilidan Cans, rom, rac ufro specifikuri iyo abebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb dasmuli
kiTxva, miT ufro maRali iyo korelacia maT
mier realurad ganxorcielebul specifikur
qcevasTan (Davidson & Jaccard, 1979) (gaixseneT, rom
korelaciis koeficienti rac ufro axlosaa 1Tan an 1-Tan, miT ufro Zlieria kavSiri). termini specifikuri im specifikur egzemplarebsac
exeba, romlebic maT mimarT damokidebulebis

gamoxatvisas gvaxsendeba (Sia et al,. 1997). magaliTad,


davuSvaT, rom gekiTxebian, eTanxmebiT Tu ara
debulebas: vendobi politikosebs~. Tqveni
Sefaseba damokidebuli iqneba imaze, Tu romeli
politikosi gagaxsendebaT am dros: -jorj
vaSingtoni, uinston CerCili, bil klintoni
Tu jorjGbuSi. Tu Cven igive kiTxvas erTi
kviris Semdeg dagisvamT, Tqveni Sefaseba rac
Tqvens zogad damokidebulebas gamoxatavs _
SesaZloa Seicvalos, vinaidan im momentSi,
SesaZloa, sxva politikosebi gagaxsendeT.
rodesac Tqveni damokidebulebebi informaciis sxvadasxva qvejgufebs efuZneba, isini
SeiZleba radikalurad Seicvalos droTa ganmavlobaSi. rodesac jim kerisadmi damokidebulebas gamoTqvamT, mis romel filmze fiqrobT?
mxolod maSin SeiZleba velodoT myar urTierTdamokidebulebas Tqvens Sefasebebsa (goneba)
da qcevebs (qmedebas) Soris, rodesac Tqvens
damokidebulebasTan dakavSirebuli faqtebi~
droTa ganmavlobaSi stabiluri gaxdeba.

darwmunebis procesi
Cven ukve vnaxeT, rom saTanado pirobebSi
damokidebulebebs ZaluZT qcevis gansazRvra. es
kargi siaxlea maTTvis, vinc drosa da fuls
xarjavs Tqvens damokidebulebebze gavlenis
mosaxdenad, magram sakmaod xSirad, didi survilisda miuxedavad, sxvebs ar SeuZliaT Tqvens
damokidebulebebze gavlenis moxdena. Tqven
teleekranze elvarekbilebian msaxiobis, romelic
kbilis saxexi axali saSualebis reklamirebas
axdens, yoveli xilvis Semdeg ver SeicvliT
kbilis pastas. yovelTvis ver SeicvliT politikur Sexedulebebs, rogorc ki morigi kandidati
kameris win mTeli gulwrfelobiT ganacxadebs,
rom arCevnebSi swored mas unda dauWiroT mxari.
Tqven garSemo mravali adamiani Tavs uflebas
aZlevs da raRacaSi Tqvens darwmunebas, anu Tqveni
damokidebulebebis winaswarganzraxulad Secvlas
cdilobs. darwmunebis gansaxorcieleblad garkveuli pirobebis Tanxvedraa saWiro. ganvixiloT
zogierTi maTgani.
Tavdapirvelad warmogidgenT gadamuSavebis
albaTobis models1 _ darwmunebis Teorias, romelic aRwers, Tu ramdenad albaTuria, anu
1

elaboration likelihood model.

darwmuneba (Persuasion) damokidebulebebis Secvlis mizanmimarTuli mcdelobebi.


gadamuSavebis albaTobis modeli (Elaboration likelihood model) darwmunebis Teoria, romelic
gansazRvravs, Tu ramdenadaa SesaZlebeli, rom
adamianebi TavianTi kognituri procesebis fokusirebas axdendnen Setyobinebis gasaazreblad
da, Sesabamisad, misdevdnen darwmunebis centralur an periferiul procesebs.

damokidebulebebi, maTi Secvla da qceva

ramdenad mosalodnelia, rom adamianebi TavianT


kognitur procesebs damarwmunebeli Setyobinebis detalurad gadamuSavebisken warmarTaven
(Petty & Cacioppo, 1986; Petty & Wegener, 1999). es
modeli kritikulad ganasxvavebs erTmaneTisgan
darwmunebis centralur da periferiul procesebs. centraluri procesi gulisxmobs pirobebs,
romelSic adamianebi guldasmiT, zedmiwevniT
gaiazreben damarwmunebeli komunikaciis procesSi miwodebul informacias imgvarad, rom
damokidebulebebis cvlileba miwodebuli
argumentebis siZlierezea damokidebuli. rodesac vinme cdilobs Tqvens darwmunebas, rom
erTi baloni benzini 5 dolari unda Rirdes,
Tqven am informacias, albaT, yuradRebiT moekidebiT. periferiuli procesi iseT pirobebs gulisxmobs, romelSic adamianebi seriozulad
ar ekidebian Setyobinebas da situaciis zedapirul maniSneblebze reagireben. rodesac gamyidvelis mier SemoTavazebuli ama Tu im produqtis

win seqsualuri garegnobis modeli dgas, is


(gamyidveli) imedovnebs, rom Tqven bevr fiqrs
ar daiwyebT am produqtis xarisxze da SeiZenT
mas. adamianis mier gamoyenebuli centraluri
da periferiuli procesebi, garkveulwilad, maT
motivaciazea damokidebuli, kerZod, imaze, surs
da SeuZlia Tu ara adamians miRebuli damarwmunebeli Setyobinebis guldasmiT gadamuSaveba.
Tu kargad daukvirdebiT Tqven irgvliv
arsebul Setyobinebebs, swrafad daaskvniT, rom
reklamis specialistebs xSirad swored imis
imedi aqvT, rom Tqven zedapirulad miudgebiT
reklamas. ratom uxdian cnobil adamianebs did
fuls reklamis specialistebi maTi produqtis
gayidvisaTvis? marTla gjeraT, rom holivudis
varskvlavebs Zalian adardebT saqalaqTaSoriso
satelefono kavSiris fasis cvlileba? savaraudoa, reklamis specialistebi imedovneben, rom
Tqven Rrmad ar gaaanalizebT argumentebs da
gasaqans miscemT Tqvens gulTbil grZnobebs
msaxiobis mimarT, romelic xotbas asxams
warmodgenil produqcias.
axla sakuTar Tavs hkiTxeT: _ rodis xarT
motivirebulni darwmunebis centraluri procesebis gamoyenebisTvis? pasuxi mniSvnelovania
rogorc maTTvis, vinc isurvebda, rom Tqven ase
moiqceT (vinaidan isini fiqroben, rom Zlieri
argumentebi gaaCniaT), aseve, maTTvis, visac es
ar surs (radganac Tqvens darwmunebas zedapiruli maniSneblebiT imedovneben). moviyvanoT
damarwmunebeli komunikaciis magaliTi, romelic
gaazrebis centraluri procesis arCevisken da
argumentebis guldasmiT Sefasebisken gibiZgebT,
vinaidan mas TqvenTvis pirovnuli mniSvneloba
aqvs da Tqvenc iZulebuli xdebiT, ufro
siRrmiseulad ganixiloT argumentebi (Eagly &
Chaiken, 1993). warmoidgineT, rom TanmimdevrobiT
moismineT ori moxseneba. pirveli momxsenebeli
amtkicebda, rom holivudma ufro meti samganzomilebiani filmebi unda awarmoos, meore ki
ambobda, rom kolejSi swavlis safasuri 50%iT unda gaizardos. romeli gamosvla ufro
gamoiwvevs gadamuSavebis centralur process?
axla ganvixiloT eqsperimenti, romelSic ganxilulia miwodebuli informaciis pirovnuli
Rirebulebis mniSvneloba gamogonil, fiqciur
samyaroTa gancdaSi.

725

saidan
viciT

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

warmosaxul samyaros Sesaxeb


informaciis pirovnuli
mniSvnelovneba

726

aris Tu ara TqvenTvis damajerebeli is


informaciebi, romlebsac iseTi gamogonili
samyaroebis aRwerisas xvdebiT, rogoricaa
mxatvruli literatura da filmebi? mkvlevarTa erTma jgufma gamoTqva varaudi, rom
darwmunebisadmi Tqveni damyolobis xarisxi
damokidebuli iqneba imaze, Tu ramdenad
axlos dgas aRwerili situacia Tqvens pirovnebasTan. kvlevaSi ielisa da prinstonis
universitetebis studentebi monawileobdnen. orive universitetis studentebisagan
Semdgar erT jgufs waukiTxes moTxroba,
romlis moqmedebac prinstonSi viTardebida.
igive moTxroba waukiTxes meore jgufsac,
magram am SemTxvevaSi moqmedeba ielSi iyo
gadatanili. moTxrobis gmirebi iseT
realur Temebze saubrobdnen, rogoricaa:
ramdenad sasargebloa kanisTvis mzis sxivebi; gadamdebia Tu ara fsiqikuri daavadebebi
da a.S. mkvlevrebma ivaraudes, rom eqsperimentis monawileni ufro Sesatyvisad
CaTvlidnen teqsts, romelic maT sakuTar
saswavlebels Seexeboda. magaliTad, prinstoneli studentebi, romlebic prinstonis
Sesaxeb kiTxulobdnen teqsts, ufro
motivirebulni unda yofiliyvnen, rom
guldasmiT waekiTxaT es teqsti da Rrmad
Cawvdomodnen gmirebis argumentebs. rogorc
17.5 suraTidan Cans, Sedegebma daadastura
es hipoTeza. studentebma gamoavlines damokidebulebebis cvlileba im argumentebis
mimarT, romlebic gadmocemuli iyo sxva
saswalebelTan dakavSirebul moTxrobaSi
(magaliTad, prinstonis versia ielis studentebisaTvis). es niSnavs, rom, rodesac
informacia ar iyo pirovnulad relevanturi, studentebma ar gamoiyenes informaciis gaazrebis centraluri procesebi
argumentebis gasaazreblad da maTi zegavlenis qveS moeqcnen (Prentice et al., 1997).

yuradReba miaqcieT, rom moTxrobis orive


versia identuri iyo da mxolod moqmedebis
adgili iyo gansxvavebuli. amrigad, informaciis
damarwmunebloba mxolod imiTaa ganpirobebuli,
Tu ramdenad motivirebulni arian studentebi
gadamuSavebis centraluri procesebis arCevisa
da informaciis guldasmiT SefasebisTvis
(Prentice & Gerrig, 1999). momavalSi, rodesac axali
Sous sanaxavad CarTavT televizors, Tqven
SeZlebT gaarkvioT, Tu ra saxis damarwmunebelma
informaciam SeiZleba gaiaros periferiuli

suraTi

17.5

darwmuneba da pirovnuli Sesabamisoba


studentebi kiTxulobdnen moTxrobebs, romlebSic
moqmedeba xdeboda an maT `mSobliur~ saswavlebelSi
da, amdenad, pirovnulad Sesabamisi iyo, an `sxva~
saswavlebelSi. ivaraudeboda, rom pirovnuli
Sesabamisoba gamoiwvevda informaciis gaazrebis
centraluri procesesbis CarTvas da, amdenad,
darwmunebas naklebad eqneboda adgili. faqtobrivad, darwmunebis process adgili hqonda mxolod
maSin, rodesac studentebi kiTxulobdnen `sxva~
saswavlebelTan dakavSirebul moTxroba (magaliTad, ielis universitetis studentebi kiTxulobdnen prinstonis versias). Sedegebi amtkiceben varauds, rom pirovnulad Sesabamisi `mSobliuri~ saswavleblis versia studentebSi iwvevda
gaazrebis centraluri procesebis CarTvas da
moTxrobaSi gadmocemuli argumentebis uaryofas
maSin, rodesac pirovnulad Seusabamo `sxva~ saswavleblis versia iwvevda gaazrebis periferiul
procesebs da moTxrobaSi mocemuli argumentebisadmi daTanxmebas.

gziT, Tu gadacemis Sinaarsi Tavisi wyobiT,


monawileebiT da a.S, ar aris TqvenTvis pirovnulad Rirebuli.
damokidebulebis tipisa da argumentis tipis
Tanxvedra kidev erTi faqtoria, romelic gavlenas axdens informaciis gadamuSavebis gzis
arCevaze (Ajzen & Sexton, 1999). Aadre aRvniSneT,
rom damokidebulebas gansazRvravs rogorc
kognituri, ise _ emociuri gamocdileba. mkvlevrebma aCvenes, rom damokidebulebebi maSin ufro
icvleba, rodesac reklamis specialistebi kognituri safuZvlis mqone arguments kognituri
safuZvlis mqone damokidebulebas ukavSireben,
emociuri safuZvlis mqone arguments ki _
emociuri safuZvlis mqone damokidebulebas.
Tu vinmesTvis damokidebulebebis Secvalas
cdilobT, es Sedegebic unda gaiTvaliswinoT.
rogori safuZveli sWarbobs damokidebulebaSi
_ Zlieri kognituri Tu Zlieri emociuri? amis
Sesabamisad, rogor unda SesZinoT Tqven mier
mofiqrebul Setyobinebas meti damajerebloba?

Tu rogori pirovneba xarT. mas SeuZlia


uCveulo, gansxvavebuli gemo gagrZnobinoT~. cdis monawileebs reklamis TiToeuli seriis wakiTxvis Semdeg am produqtebis mimarT TavianTi damokidebulebis
dafiqsireba moeTxovebodaT. rogorc 17.6
suraTidan Cans, dadasturda zemoT aRniSnuli Zlieri kavSiris arseboba. monawileni maSin ufro met dadebiT arCevans
afiqsirebdnen, rodesac Setyobinebis tipi
(magaliTad, kognituri safuZvlis mqoneni)
damokidebulebebis tips (magaliTad,
kognituri safuZvlis mqone damokidebulebebs) Seesabameboda (Shavitt, 1990).

sakuTari qmedebiT darwmuneba


bolo qveTavSi im faqtorebs aRvwerT,
romlebic adamianebis mier sxvebis damokidebulebebis Secvlis unarze axdenen gavlenas.
Tumca, moqmedeben iseTi Zalebic, romlebic,

saidan
viciT

ra ganapirobebs Tqvens damokidebulebas


yavis markis mimarT? savaraudod, Tqveni
Sefaseba efuZneba mis gemosTan da fasTan
dakavSirebul kognitur mosazrebebs. axla
misaloci baraTebi gavixsenoT. savaraudoa,
rom maT mimarT Tqvens damokidebulebas
ufro afeqturi reaqciebi gansazRvravs.
ramdenad Rimilis momgvrelni arian isini
da ramdenad miuTiTeben TqvenTvis sasurvel urTierTobebze? erT-erT eqsperimentSi
monawileebs sxvadasxva produqtis _ yavisa
da misaloci baraTebis _ kognitur da
emociur safuZvelze damyarebuli reklamebi aCvenes. kognitur safuZvelze Seqmnili
reklamebi ase ikiTxeboda: namdvili yavis
saucxoo, mZlavri gemo da surneli, romelic damzadebulia umaRlesi xarisxis
marcvlebisagan~. emociur safuZvelze
Seqmnili reklamidan ki albaT SeityobdiT,
rom yava, romelsac Tqven svamT, mianiSnebs,

suraTi

17.6

emociur da kognitur safuZvelze


agebuli reklama da produqtebi
rodesac reklamis tipi (emociuri an kognituri
safuZvlis mqone) dakavSirebulia im ganzomilebasTan, romelic gamoxatavs produqtis arss: emociuri _ misaloci baraTebis an kognituri _ yavis
mimarT, adamianebi ufro keTilganwyobiT reagireben
produqtis mimaRt (skalaze, sasurveloba izomeba
-3-dan +3-mde).

damokidebulebebi, maTi Secvla da qceva

reklamisa da damokidebulebis
Tanxvedra

727

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

mTel rig SemTxvevebSi, imis mizezic xdebian,


rom adamianma sakuTari damokidebulebebic
Secvalos. vTqvaT, daificeT, rom ar miiRebdiT
zedmet kaloriebs. midixarT samsaxurSi da iq
Tqveni ufrosis dabadebis dResTan dakavSirebiT
namcxvari gxvdebaT. Tqven erT naWers miirTmevT.
gatexeT amiT Tqveni fici Tu ara? niSnavs es
imas Tu ara, rom Tqven uaryofiTi damokidebuleba unda gqondeT sakuTari qcevisadmi? xom
ar fiqrobT, rom mainc swored moiqeciT? ratom?
Cven aRvwerT TviTdarwmunebis or models,
disonansis Teorias da TviTaRqmis Teorias.

728

megobris rCevis sawinaaRmdegod, sayidlad


SearCieT garkveuli tipis manqana. ratom unda
gagiCndeT eWvi Tqveni arCevanis sisworis Taobaze?
miiCneven, rom, rodesac adamianma icis, rom misi
damokidebuleba da qceva ar Tanxvdeba erTmaneTs
(sxva sityvebiT, disonansSia erTmaneTTan), anu
qceva ar Seesabameba damokidebulebas, Cndeba
uaryofis, Tavis aridebis mdgomareoba da adamiani
mis Semsubuqebas, Semcirebas cdilobs. disonansis
Semcirebis tendencia am mdgomareobis usiamovnebis gancdiT aqtivirdeba. manqanis markis SerCevis SemTxvevaSi, TavdacviTi pozicia anu
Tqveni arCevanisaTvis gadaWarbebuli Rirebulebis
miniWeba _ saSualebas gaZlevT, airidoT es
usiamovno gancda da Tavi ufro Tavdajerebulad
igrZnoT (disonansma, SesaZloa, gibiZgoT, rom
megobarze cudadac ki ifiqroT).
disonanss motivaciuri Zala gaaCnia. is usiamovno grZnobis Semcirebaze mimarTuli qmedebis
ganxorcielebisken gibiZgebT (Wood, 2000). disonansis Semcirebis motivacia kognituri SeusabamobiT Seqmnili disonansis zomis Sesabamisad
izrdeba. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, rac ufro
Zlieria disonansi, miT ufro didia misi reducirebis, anu Semcirebis motivacia. disonansis
klasikur eqsperimentSi kolejis studentebma
moatyues sxva studentebi da Semdeg im SemTxvevaSi
ufro metad daijeres sakuTari tyuili, rodesac
am qcevisaTvis sakmaod umniSvnelo jildos
iRebdnen.

disonansis Teoria
damokidebulebebis kvlevisas erT-erTi
fundamenturi daSveba isaa, rom adamianebs droTa
ganmavlobaSi maTi damokidebulebebis ucvlelobis sjeraT (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993). konsistenturobis es tendencia gamoyenebul iqna socialur fsiqologiaSi, kerZod, leon festinjeris
(Leon Festinger, 1957) mier Camoyalibebul kognituri
disonansis TeoriaSi. kognituri disonansi konfliqtis mdgomareobaa, romelsac adamiani ganicdis gadawyvetilebis miRebis, qcevis ganxorcielebis an misi rwmenebis, grZnobebis da Rirebulebebis sawinaaRmdego informacis miRebis
Semdeg. magaliTad, warmoidgineT, rom Tqven,
kognituri disonansi (Cognitive dissonance) Teoria, romlis mixedviTac, araTavsebadi kognituri
elementebis mier Seqmnili daZabulobis gamomwvevi efeqtebi adamianebs ubiZgeben, moaxdinon
aseTi daZabulobis Semcireba.

saidan
viciT
disonansi tyuils simarTled aqcevs
stenfordis universitetis studentebma
monawileoba miiRes Zalze mosawyeni davalebis SesrulebaSi. amis Semdeg eqsperimentatorma (misi pativiscemis niSnad) maT
sTxova, rom tyuili eTqvaT _ sxva monawileebisTvis davaleba saxalisod da sainteresod daexasiaTebinaT. amis safasurad
monawileTa nawils 20 dolari gadauxades,
meore nawils ki _ 1. 20 dolari sakmarisi
aRmoCnda tyuilis gasamarTleblad, magram
1 dolari gamarTlebis araadekvaturi iyo.
maT kognituri disonansi gamoavlines.

rogorc am eqsperimentma aCvena, Zlieri


disonansis pirobebSi momxdari faqtis Semdeg
individi sakuTari qcevis gamarTlebis mimarTulebiT moqmedebs da TviTdarwmunebas iwyebs. es
analizi metyvelebs imaze, rom damokidebulebebis Secvlis erT-erTi gza, pirvel rigSi,
qcevis Secvlaa. bibliuri drois brZenebma
icodnen es principi. isini ravinebs avalebdnen,
rom adamianebisgan ar moeTxovaT rwmenis dadastureba manam, sanam isini ar ilocebdnen.
mxolod locvis Semdeg iTxovdnen maTgan rwmenis
aRiarebas. gavixsenoT winamdebare Tavis dasawyisSi xsenebuli papa salvatore, romelmac ostaturad Seuqmna Tavxed biWebs disonansi.MmaT konfliqturi kogniciiT upasuxes: Cven yvirilSi
25 centi unda migveRo~, Semdeg ki: is ki CvenTvis
mxolod 10 centis gadaxdas apirebs~. maT
Secvales Tavisi qceva _ uari Tqves yvirilze.
asobiT eqsperimentma da realurma dakvirvebebma aCvena kognituri disonansis Zala: mas SeuZlia
damokidebulebebisa da qcevebis Secvla (Eagly &
Chaiken, 1993; Wicklund & Brehm, 1976). Tumca, bolo
dros mkvlevrebi dainteresdnen imis garkveviT,
Tu ramdenad SeiZleba disonansis efeqtebis sxva
kulturebze ganzogadeba. kidev erTxel gaixseneT, rom cneba me~ gansxvavebulad esmiT sxvadasxva kulturaSi. adrec aRvniSneT, rom Crdiloamerikelebi, Cveulebriv, damoukideblad
aRiqvamen Tavs da es maTTvis socialur garemosgan damoukideblobas niSnavs. aziuri kulturebis warmomadgenlebic, Cveulebriv, damoukideblebad Tvlian Tavs, magram amave dros

isini socialur garemosTan fundamenturad arian


dakavSirebulni. axdens Tu ara gavlenas kognitur disonansze me~-s gagebis aseTi kulturuli gansxvavebebi?

saidan
viciT
kultura da kognituri disonansi
eqsperimentis kanadel da iaponel
monawileebs sTxoves, rom 40 SemoTavazebulidan 10 maTTvis yvelaze sasurveli
kompaqt-diski aerCiaT. Semdeg maT sTxoves,
rom arCeuli 10 kompaqt-diski Zalian sasurvelidan nakleb sasurvelamde daelagebinaT da isini _ sruliad ar momwons~,
Zalian momwons~ _ skalaze SeefasebinaT.
Semdeg eqsperimentatorma maT SesTavaza,
rom erTi maTgani saxlSi wasaRebad aerCiaT,
rogorc eqsperimentSi monawileobis
safasuri. amave dros, maTi arCevani rigis
Sua nawiliT SezRudes. monawileebs SeeZloT, aerCiaT mexuTe an meeqvse kompaqtdiski. am arCevanis gakeTebis Semdeg maT
kvlav sTxoves aTive diskis ranJireba. rogor Seicvala ranJireba meore SemTxvevaSi,
pirvelTan SedarebiT? disonansis Teoriis
mixedviT, rodesac gaazrebul arCevans
akeTebT, vTqvaT, mexuTesa da meeqvses Soris
Tqven damokidebulebebi arCevanis Sedegs
unda SeusabamoT, raTa ar gagiCndeT
usiamovnebis gancda: me janet jeqsonis
diski (#5) avirCie, vinaidan is marTla
ufro momwons, vidre REM (#6)~. faqtobrivad, kanadelma monawileebma damokidebulebebSi cvlilebebi gamoavlines: arCeuli
diskebis Sefasebebi umjobesdeboda danarCenebTan SedarebiT. amis sawinaaRmdegod,
iaponelma monawileebma ar gamoavlines
disonansis efeqti _ maTi arCevani ar cvlida mTlian ranJirebas (Heine & Lehman, 1997).

es kvleva aCvenebs, rom adamianebi kognitur


disonanss ganicdian anu, Sinagani me~-s wonasworobis miRwevas mxolod maSin cdiloben, rodesac isini Tavs socialuri garemosgan damoukideblad Tvlian. Tu aRmoCndebiT situaciaSi,

damokidebulebebi, maTi Secvla da qceva

davaleba mosawyeni iyo~, me varCevdi,


rom tyuili yovelgvari safasuris gareSe
meTqva,~ _ ambobdnen isini.
disonansis Sesamcireblad monawileebma,
romelTac 1 dolari gadauxades, Secvales
davalebis maTeuli Sefaseba. maT mogvianebiT aRniSnes, rom davaleba marTlac
saintereso iyo da kidev erTxel siamovnebiT Seasrulebdnen mas. SedarebisaTvis,
im monawileebs, romlebmac 20 dolari
miiRes tyuilis TqmaSi, ar SeucvliaT
TavianTi Sefasebebi. maTTvis davaleba Zalze mosawyeni iyo. maT mxolod fulis
gamo~ Tqves tyuili (Festinger &Cdarlsmith,
1959).

729

sadac sxva kulturebis warmomadgenlebTan erTad


unda miiRoT gadawyvetileba, unda gaxsovdeT
im gavlenis Sesaxeb, romelsac kultura axdens
gadawyvetilebis Semdgom azrebsa da qcevebze.

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

TviTaRqmis Teoria

730

disonansis Teoria aRwers erT-erT meTods,


romliTac, sul mcire, dasavluri kulturebis
warmomadgenlebi TavianT qcevebs (me avirCie
es diski~) damokidebulebebze (me es ufro metad
unda momwondes, vidre sxva~) gavlenis moxdenis
saSualebas aZleven. deril bemis (Daryl Bem, 1972)
mier SemoTavazebuli TviTaRqmis Teoria sxva
pirobebze miuTiTebs, romlebSic qcevebi axali
informaciiT avseben damokidebulebebs. TviTaRqmis Teoriis mixedviT, Tqven askvniT Tqveni
Sinagani mdgomareobebis (rwmenebis, damokidebulebebis, motivebisa da grZnobebis), an imis
Sesaxeb, rogori unda iyos es mdgomareobebi
imaze dakvirvebis Sedegad, Tu rogor iqceviT
axla, an imis gaxsenebiT, Tu rogor iqceodiT
warsulSi msgavs situaciebSi. Tqveni Tavis
Sesaxeb codnas warsulSi CaRrmavebisa da sakuTari qcevis SesaZlo mizezebis saZieblad iyenebT. vTqvaT, kiTxvaze: mogwonT fsiqologia?~
TviTaRmqmeli gpasuxobT: ra Tqma unda, me
vswavlob ZiriTad kurss da miuxedavad imisa,
rom ar momeTxoveba, yvelafers vkiTxulob
fsiqologiasTan dakavSirebiT, vismen leqciebs
da karg niSnebsac viReb~. sxva sityvebiT rom
vTqvaT, Tqvens pirovnuli prioritetebis Sesaxeb
SekiTxvas situaciasTan dakavSirebuli qmedebebisa
da faqtorebis aRweriT pasuxobT, sakuTar grZnobebsa da azrebSi yuradRebiT garkvevis nacvlad.
TviTaRqmis Teorias motivaciuri komponentebi
aklia, romlebic disonansis TeoriaSia mocemuli. vinaidan TviTaRqma avsebs Tqvens damokidebuTviTaRqmis Teoria (Self-perception theory) _ mosazreba, romlis Tanaxmadac, adamianebi sakuTar
Tavs akvirdebian, raTa gamokveTon TavianTi
qcevebis mizezebi. adamianebi cdiloben, gaerkvnen sakuTar Sinagan mdgomareobebSi imaze
dakvirvebiT, Tu rogor iqcevian mocemul situaciaSi.
daTanxmeba (Compliance) _ komunikaciis wyaros
pirdapiri moTxovnebis Sesabamisad qcevis
Secvla.

lebebs Tqven akvirdebiT Tqvens qcevebs da


swavlobT imas, Tu ras unda grZnobdeT Sesabamis
situaciaSi, masTan umTavresad maSin gvaqvs saqme,
rodesac gaurkvevel situaciaSi xarT da ucnob
movlenebTan giwevT gamklaveba (Fazio,1987). am
situaciebSi imis garkveva gWirdebaT, Tu ra
grZnobebi da damokidebulebebi unda gqondeT
axali obieqtis mimarT. magaliTad, Tu gagaxsendebaT, rom icinodiT filmze jim keris monawileobiT, savaraudoa, rom am dadebiT damokidebulebas maszec gadaitanT. TviTaRqmis gziT
sakuTar Tavze codnis mopovebis erT-erTi nakli
isaa, rom adamianebi ver amCneven, Tu ramdenad
zemoqmedeben situaciuri Zalebi maT qcevebze.
amas naTlad davinaxavT, Tu monetis agdebis
zemoT aRwerili eqsperimentis finalur nawils
gavixsenebT. gaixseneT, rom Sejibris monawile~
warumatebeli cdis pirebi TavianT codnas
zogadad ufro naklebad afasebdnen. warmoidgineT, ra mdgomareobaSi iyvnen isini. Tqven
sul ufro da ufro metad gaiZuleben, rom dasmul
kiTxvaze uaryofiTad upasuxoT da kidev da kidev
moisminoT sakuTari Tavisgan sityvebi: ar vici,
ar maqvs am kiTxvaze pasuxi.~ xedavT, rogoraa
SesaZlebeli, rom uaryofiT TviTSefasebas am
qcevaze dakvirveba _ TviTaRqmis procesi iwvevdes.
axla davubrundeT im SemTxvevas, rodesac
namcxvris naWeri miirTviT Tqveni ufrosis
dabadebis dRis wveulebaze da amis gamo uaryofiTi damokidebuleba SegeqmnaT sakuTari Tavis
mimarT. disonansis Teoriis mixedviT, Tqvens
cnobierebaSi Seiqmna winaaRmdegoba Tqven mier
dadebul pirobasa (me ar minda zedmeti
kaloriebis miReba~) da Tqvens qcevas (namcxvris
naWris SeWma) Soris. am usiamovno gancdis mocilebis mravali gza arsebobs. Tqven SegiZliaT
imsjeloT ase: me ver vawyeninebdi ufross
namcxvarze uaris TqmiT~. analogiurad, TviTaRqmis Teoriis Tanaxmad, sakuTari qcevis aRqmiT,
Tqven aucileblad ar unda SegcvlodaT damokidebuleba sakuTari Tavis mimarT, vinaidan SegeZloT ase gemsjelaT: vinaidan namcxvris naWeri
SevWame, Cemi ufrosis dabadebis dRe CemTvis
Zalze mniSvnelovani unda yofiliyo~, riTac,
aseve, aicilebdiT uaryofiT TviTSefasebas.
TviTdarwmuneba xandaxan sasargebloc SeiZleba
iyos!

daTanxmeba
am qveTavSi damokidebulebebsa da maTi
Secvlis SesaZleblobebze vmsjelobT. Tumca,
TqvenTvis naTeli unda iyos, rom adamianebs
yvelaze xSirad surT is, rom Tqven qceva
SecvaloT. adamianebi cdiloben dagiTanxmon
miaRwion Tqveni qcevebis iseT Secvlas, rom
isini maTi moTxovnebis Sesabamisi iyos. rodesac
reklamis damkveTi uamrav fuls xarjavs satelevizio reklamaSi, mas mxolod sakuTari nawarmis kargad warmoCena ki ar surs, aramed misi
mizani Tqveni maRaziaSi miyvana da produqciis
SeZenaa. analogiurad, eqimebs surT, rom Tqven
daujeroT maT da SeasruloT janmrTelobis
dacvisTvis saWiro rCevebi. socialurma fsiqologebma intensiurad ikvlies, Tu rogor aRweven adamianebi Tanxmobas sxvebisgan (Gialdini,
2001). Cven aRvwerT zogierT meTods da Tqven
SeafaseT, Tu ramdenad xSirad axorcielebT iseT
qcevebs, romlebsac sxva SemTxvevebSi ar
ganaxorcielebdiT.

cxvirwin mijaxunebis~ meTods uwodeben: rodesac


adamianebi ara~-s amboben did Txovnaze, isini
xSirad Tanxmdebian ufro zomieri Txovnis
Sesrulebaze.

saidan
viciT
karis cxvirwin mijaxunebis meTodi
erT eqsperimentSi monawile studentebs
sTxoves, ori wlis ganmavlobaSi, kviraSi
ori saaTi, rogorc konsultantebs, arasrulwlovani damnaSaveebisaTvis daeTmoT.
yvela studentma uari ganacxada. Aamis Semdeg maT sTxoves, zooparkSi mainc gaeseirnebinaT isini. didi daTmobis saxiT studentebis 50%-ma Tanxmoba ganacxada am
SedarebiT mcire Txovnis Sesrulebaze.
rodesac studentebis sxva jgufs sTxoves
igive ise, rom maTTvis didi~ TxovniT ar
miumarTavT, aRmoCnda, rom maTgan, mxolod
17% daTanxmda am Txovnis Sesrulebaze
(Cialdini at al,.1975).

erT-erTi wesi, romelic adamianis cxovrebaSi


dominirebs, isaa, rom rodesac vinme rames gikeTebT, Tqvenc, aseve, rame unda gaukeToT mas. am
wess migebis norma ewodeba. laboratoriulma
kvlevam cxadyo, rom erTi adamianis mxridan
sul mcire sikeTis gakeTebasac ki xSirad meore
mxridan sapasuxod ufro didi sikeTis migeba
mohyveba (Regan, 1971). gamyidvelebi migebas ise
iyeneben Tqvens winaaRmdeg, rom TiTqmos isini
Tqven samsaxurs giweven: ras getyviT iciT, 5
dolariT naklebs gamogarTmevT~ an ufasod
inebeT es nimuSi, Cveni dRevandeli saubris
aRsaniSnad~. es strategia Tqven fsiqologiuri
distresis mdgomareobaSi gayenebT, Tu ar gamoiCenT sapasuxo Tavazianobas da ar SeiZenT
rames.
daTanxmebis kidev erT meTods, romelic, aseve,
migebis normidan gamomdinareobs, xSirad karis
migebis norma (Reciprociti norm) _ molodini, rom
gaweuli samsaxuri dagibrundeba. Tu erTi adamiani meores raimes ukeTebs, meoremac raime
unda gaukeTos sapasuxod.

rogor axdens daTanxmebis es meTodi migebis


normis amoqmedebas? rodesac adamianebi didi
Txovnidan zomierze gadadian, isini amiT
TqvenTvis raRacas akeTeben; sanacvlod Tqvenc
unda gadadgaT sapasuxo nabiji da daeTanxmoT,
an arada daarRvevT migebis normasDda Tqvenc
TanxmdebiT!

valdebuleba
karebis cxvirwin mijaxunebis meTodi gulisxmobs dididan mcire Txovnaze gadasvlas. gamyidvelebma, aseve, ician, rom Tqveni raimeTi
davaldebulebiT, SesaZlebelia mcire daTmobis
Semdeg ufro didi daTmobac gagakeTebinon.
eqsperimentebSi adamianebi, romlebic mcire
valdebulebis aRebaze (magaliTad, peticiaze
xelis mowera) Tanxmdebodnen, Sesabamisad, metad
ganwyobilni iyvnen ufro did valdebulebaze
daTanxmebisTvisac (magaliTad, saxlis win
daedgaT didi maniSnebeli dafa). Aam xerxs
xSirad karSi fexis Cadgmis meTods uwodeben.

damokidebulebebi, maTi Secvla da qceva

migeba

731

erTxel Tu Semodges fexi Tqvens karSi, Semdeg


gamoiyeneben ra Tqveni valdebulebis grZnobas,
metsac moiTxoven. gamyidvelebi Tqven winaaRmdeg
am meTods maSin iyeneben, rodesac gadawyvetilebis miRebas gaiZuleben da Semdeg ki nelnela cvlian Temas da geubnebian: me vici, rom
Tqven am manqanis yidva gindaT, magram Cemi ufrosi
mxolod 200 dolaris daklebaze Tanxmdeba~, an
me vici, rom Tqven is adamiani xarT, romelic
mxolod xarisxian saqonels yidulobs, amitom
darwmunebuli var, rom cota metsac gadaixdiT~.
am situaciaSi Tqven Tavs araTanmimdevrulad, an
sulelad igrZnobT, Tu ar SeiZenT SemoTavazebul
saqonels.

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

deficiti

732

adamianebs ar uyvarT imis SegrZneba, rom maT


ar aqvT raime (an meore mxridan Tu SevxedavT,
moswonT imis floba, rasac ar floben sxvebi).
MmagaliTad, eqsperimentis monawileebi maRal
Sefasebas aZlevdnen im Sokoladis gemos, romelic
qilaSi ori cali iyo, vidre im Sokolads,
romelic imave qilaSi aTi cali iyo (Worchel et
al., 1975). rogor muSaobs deficitis principi
bazarze? gamyidvelebma ician, rom maT SeuZliaT
meti fuli dagaxarjvinon, Tu mogaCveneben, rom
esa Tu is nivTi deficituria: esRa darCa, ase
rom, jobia axlave iyidoT~, me ukve myavs
myidveli, romelic unda mobrundes da iyidos~.
es strategia gagrZnobinebT, rom Tqven xelidan
gauSvebT sasurvel moments, Tu axlave ar SeiZenT
ama Tu im nivTs.

modelireba
Tanxmobis miRwevis bolo magaliTisTvis konformulobis ideas davubrundeT. rodesac adamianebi konformulobas avlenen, isini referentuli jgufis qcevas imeoreben. amrigad, Tu
gsurT, rom adamianebi konformulebi ganxdnen,
anu ise moiqcnen, rogorc Tqven gsurT, isini
iseT pirobebSi unda CaayenoT, sadac maTze informacia imoqmedebs: qcevaSi cvlilebebis gamowveva
TvalsaCino nimuSis, modelis qcevis demonstrirebiTaa SesaZlebeli.

saidan
viciT
wylis dazogvis qcevis modelireba
kaliforniis Statis qalaq santa-kruzis
universitetis administracias surda, rom
sauniversiteto qalaqSi mcxovreb studentebs ufro ekonimiurad exarjaT eleqtroenergia da wyali. vinaidan studentebi
amtkicebdenen, rom bunebis damcvelebi
iyvnen, administraciam es daijera da
saSxapeebSi dabanis procedurasTan dakavSirebuli instruqcia gamoakra, romliTac
varaudobda, rom miaRwevda studentTa qcevis
Secvlas da wylis xarjis mniSvnelovnad
Semcirebas. mamakacTa saSxapeSi gamokruli
instruqcia mimarTuli iyo imaze, rom gasapnis periodSi studentebs wyali gadaeketaT.
kerZod, mas aseTi saxe hqonda: (1) dasveldiT,
(2) gadaketeT wyali, (3) gaisapneT, (4)
gadaivleT~. xuTi dRis Semdeg studentTa
mxolod 6%-ma Secvala qceva instruqciis
Sesabamisad. rodesac instruqcias adgili
Seucvales da ufro gamosaCen adgilze
dakides, aRmoCnda, rom mas studentTa 19%
daemorCila. miuxedaval amisa, aRmoCnda,
rom saerTo efeqturoba Zalian dabali
iyo, vinaidan zogierTi studenti Zalze
didxans iRebda Sxaps.
bolos yvela instruqcia Camoxsnes da
erTma studentma aCvena, Tu rogor unda
esargeblaT SxapiT. eqsperimentatoris
asistenti Sedioda saSxapeSi, rodesac iq
aravin iyo, uSvebda wyals da Sesasvlelisken zurgiT dgeboda. rogorc ki vinmes
xmas gaigonebda, instruqciis Sesabamisad
iwyebda dabanas _ maSinve ketavda wyals,
isapneboda, ivlebda da gadioda. Sedegad,
administraciisTvis sasurveli instruqciis
Sesrulebis maCvenebelma 49%-s miaRwia.
rodesac igive qcevis demonstrirebisTvis
ori modeli gamoiyenes, damswreTa 67%-ma
gaimeora qceva. sawyisi instruqciis Sesrulebis 6%-Tan SedarebiT es didi mateba
iyo (Aronson,1990).

gamovlenas; yovelTvis daitoveT dro mofiqrebisaTvis. socialuri fsiqologiis codnam,


SesaZloa, Tqven yovelmxriv gonier momxmareblad
gaqcioT.
am TavSi xSirad gTxovdiT megobrebis warmodgenasa da warmosaxul situaciebSi maT CarTvas.
rogor da ratom xdeba zogierTi adamiani Tqveni
megobari? Tqven, albaT, ar gagikvirdebaT, rom
socialuri fsiqologiis mniSvnelovani sferoa
socialuri urTierTobebis adamianebsa da
adamianTa jgufebs Soris urTierTobebis _
Seswavla. axla ki pirovnebaTaSorisi mizidulobis im Zalebs gavecnoT, romlebic adamianebs
erTmaneTTan aaxloebs.

Sejameba
damokidebuleba obieqtebis, movlenebisa Tu
ideebis dadebiTi an uaryofiTi Sefasebaa.
damokidebulebebi rac ufro aSkarad gamoxatulia
an specifikuria, miT ufro myaria maTi kavSiri
Sesabamis qcevebTan. gadamuSavebis albaTobis
modelis Tanaxmad, darwmunebis procesis efeqturoba damokidebulia imaze, informaciis gadamuSavebis centralur process gamoiyeneben adamianebi Tu periferiuls. centraluri procesi
gamoiyeneba maSin, rodesac adamianebs argumentebis guldasmiT Sefasebis motivacia aqvT.
damokidebulebis safuZvlis tipsa da argumentis
tips Soris kavSiric iwvevs argumentis efeqturobis zrdas. disonansisa da TviTaRqmis Teoriebi migviTiTeben, rom adamianebi xSirad icvlianNTavianT damokidebulebebs, TavianTi
qcevebidan gamomdinare. migeba, davaldebuleba,
deficiti da modelireba is Zalebia, romelTac
daTanxmebamde mivyavarT.

socialuri urTierTobebi
rogor irCevT maT, visTan erTadac mTel
cxovrebas gaatarebT? ratom eltviT megobrebis
kompanias? ratom aRmoCndebian xolme iseTi
adamianebi, romelTa mimarT grZnoba scildeba
megobrobis sazRvrebs da romantikul siyvarulSi
gadadis? socialur fsiqologebs socialur

socialuri urTierTobebi

maSinac ki, rodesac mibaZvis TvalsaCino magaliTi ar aris situaciaSi, gamyidvelebi xSirad
cdiloben normatuli da informaciuli gavlenis moxdenas imis aRniSvniT, Tu TqvenTvis
sasurveli wridan (anu im wridan, romelsac
gsurT, rom miekuTvnebodeT) gamosulma ramdenma
adamianma SeiZina esa Tu is produqti: am markis
avtomanqanebs mxolod gamWriax da sakuTar TavSi
darwmunebul xalxze vyidi~, am models yvelaze
xSirad is adamianebi yiduloben, romelTac
umaRlesi xarisxis stereodinamikebi sWirdebaT~.
SesaZlebelia, daTanxmebis teqnikebis axsnisas
warmodgenili ramdenime magaliTis gameorebis
survili gagiCndeT. SeiZleba mogindeT, rom
keTili miznebis ganxorcielebas dauTmoT dro,
an Tqveni wvlili SeitanoT bunebrivi resursebis dazogvaSi. asea Tu ise, Tqven naxeT, rom
drois did nawils adamianebi erTmaneTis qcevebis Secvlis mcdelobebs uTmoben. aRwerili
meTodebis gamoyenebiT isini imis gakeTebas
gaiZuleben, ris gakeTebasac, albaT, ar isurvebdiT. rogor davicvaT Tavi moxerxebuli gamyidvelebisa da msgavsi tipis saqmianobiT
dakavebuli adamianebis xrikebisagan? Tqven unda
SeecadoT, rom gamoiWiroT isini am teqnikebis
gamoyenebis momentebSi da amiT win aRudgeT
maT mcdelobebs.EecadeT, yuradReba ar miaqcioT
umniSvnelo Tavazianobebs; nu gamoiCenT azrs
moklebul, gaumarTlebel simtkices; ecadeT,
SemoTavazebuli produqtis iSviaTobisa da
deficiturobis Sesaxeb mtkicebebis siyalbis

733

mizidulobasTan dakavSirebul am kiTxvebze


mTeli rigi pasuxebi gaaCniaT (magram nu wuxxarT,
siyvarulis saidumlo srulad jer aravis
amouxsnia!).

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

mowoneba

734

rodesme gicdiaT garkveuliyaviT, Tu rogor


da ratom SeiZineT esa Tu is megobari? am kiTxvis
pirvel nawilze pasuxi martivia: adamianebs izidaven isini, vinc maTTan axlos aRmoCndnen
Tqven imitom xedavT da xvdebiT maT, rom isini
cxovroben an muSaoben Tqven gverdiT. es faqtori, albaT, naklebad saWiroebs ganmartebas,
Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom adamianebs saerTod
axasiaTebT tendencia imisa, rom adamianebi da
sagnebi mxolod imitom moswondeT, rom isini
xSirad xvdebian maTi mxedvelobis velSi. rac
ufro xSirad xarT raimesTan an vinmesTan erTad,
miT ufro giyvarT is (Zaionc,1968). xangrZlivi
urTierTobebis es efeqti niSnavs, rom mTlianobaSi Tqven sul ufro da ufro metad mogewonebaT is adamianebi, romlebic Tqven irgvliv
arian, magram, rogorc Cven amas Semdeg davinaxavT,
kompiuterebis epoqa axal mniSvnelobas aniWebs
siaxlovis ideas. dRes mravali adamiani inarCunebs urTierTobas kompiuteruli qselis meSveobiT. SesaZloa, isini geografiulad erTmaneTisagan Zalze Sors iyvnen, magram ekranze gamoCenili yoveldRiuri Setyobinebebi fsiqologiurad Zalze aaxloebs maT. axla ki yuradReba
sxva faqtorebsac mivapyroT, romlebsac
mowonebisa da mizidvis gamowveva SeuZliaT.

fizikuri mimzidveloba
kargia Tu ara, fizikuri mimzidveloba xSirad
aRvivebs megobrobas. dasavlur kulturaSi arsebobs Zlieri stereotipi, rom fizikurad
mimzidveli adamiani yvelaferSi kargi iqneba.
70-ze meti gamokvlevis mimoxilva adasturebs,
rom fizikuri mimzidvelobis stereotipi udides
zegavlenas axdens adamianis socialuri kompetenturobis Sesaxeb msjelobaze. adamianebs sjeraT,
rom mimzidveli adamianebi ufro metad sociabilurebi da eqstravertulebi arian, vidre naklebad mimzidvelni (Eagly et al., 1991). miuxedavad
amisa, fizikuri mimzidveloba gacilebiT nakleb
efeqts axdens gonierebasTan an karieraSi war-

matebasTan dakavSirebul msjelobebze. stereotipebis socialur safuZvelze msjelobisas


TqvenTvis, albaT, ar unda iyos gasakviri, rom
fizikur mimzidvelobas Tavisi roli aqvs
mowonebaSi.

saidan
viciT
fizikurad mimzidveli partniorebis
kvaldakval
erT klasikur gamokvlevaSi mkvlevrebma
minesotis universitetis axlad miRebul,
SemTxveviT SerCeul studentebs sTxoves,
erTmaneTisTvis sacekvao moedanze daeniSnaT paemani. mkvlevrebma am studentebis
bevri informacia Seagroves, maTi zomebidan
dawyebuli, inteleqtiTa da pirovnuli
TaviseburebebiT damTavrebuli. cekvis
saRamos da am saRamos Semdegac studentebs
SemTxveviT SerCeuli partniorebis Sefasebasa da imis miTiTebas sTxovdnen, Tu
ramdenad iyo mosalodneli maTi ganmeorebiTi Sexvedra. qalebis da kacebis Sedegebi naTeli da Zalze msgavsi iyo.
silamaze ufro mniSvnelovan faqtorad
Sefasda, vidre inteleqtis koeficientis
zoma, kargi socialuri Cvevebi an dadebiTi
pirovnuli Tvisebebi. mxolod maT gamoTqves urTierTobis gagrZelebis survili,
vinc silamazis mixedviT moaxdina Sefaseba
(Walxster et al., 1966).

msgavseba
msgavsebis Sesaxeb cnobili andaza ambobs:
feri fersa, madli RmerTsa~. marTalia es?
kvlevis monacemebi aCvenebs, rom bevr SemTxvevaSi
pasuxia: diax~. msgavseba iseTi parametrebis
mixedviT, rogoricaa rwmenebi, damokidebulebebi
da faseulobebi, xels uwyobs damegobrebas.
ratom unda xdebodes ase? adamianebs, romlebic
Tqveni msgavsni arian, SeuZliaT Tqveni pirovnuli TviTdamkvidrebis SegrZnebis uzrunvelyofa, radganac Tqveni msgavsi pirovneba gagrZnobinebT, rom, magaliTad, Tqveni damokidebulebebi,
faqtobrivad, swori damokidebulebebia (Byrne &
Clore, 1970). metic, msgavsebis ararsebobas Zlier
antipaTiamde mivyavarT (Rosenbaum, 1980). rodesac
aRmoaCenT, rom viRacis Sexedulebebi gansxvavdeba
Tqveni Sexedulebebisagan, Tqven, SesaZloa, gaixsenoT warsulSi sxva adamianebTan gadatanili
konfliqtebis magaliTebi. aman ki SeiZleba am
adamianebTan daSorebisken gibiZgoT da samegobrod mxolod Tqveni msgavsi adamianebi dagrCeT.
Tu swavlis periodSi saerTo sacxovrebelSi
cxovrobT, SegiZliaT irgvliv mimoixedoT da
naxoT, rogor muSaobs~ msgavseba. hgvanan erTmaneTs is adamianebi, romlebic erT oTaxSi
cxovroben? hgvanan erTmaneTs is TanaoTaxelebi,
romlebsac kargi urTierToba aqvT erTmaneTTan?
mkvlevrebma es sakiTxi sxvadasxva parametris
mixedviT Seiswavles. magaliTad, erT-erT
kvlevaSi TanaoTaxelTa wyvilebis komunikaciuri
unarebi fasdeboda. ramdenadDmsgavsi iyo maTi
komunikacia iseTi parametris mixedviT, rogoricaa urTierTobis dawyebis survili? aRmoCnda,
rom is wyvilebi, romlebic hgavdnen erTmaneTs
am parametris mixedviT, ufro megobrulebi iyvnen,
vidre urTierTsapirispiro maxasiaTeblebis mqone

wyvilebi (Martin & Andersen, 1995). Tu Tqven saerTo


sacxovrebelSi cxovrobT, SegiZliaT es modeli
praqtikaSi SeamowmoT.

ormxrivoba
dabolos, Tqven xasiaTdebiT im adamianebis
mowonebis tendenciiT, romelTac Tqven moswonxarT. gaxsovT Cveni saubari gamyidvelebze,
romlebic migebas iyenebdnen? wesi, romlis
mixedviTac miRebulis nacvlod raRac unda
gasceT, am SemTxvevaSic moqmedebs. adamianebi
mowonebiT~ pasuxoben imaT, visac, maTi azriT,
isini moswonT~ (Backman & Secord, 1959; Kenny & La
Voie, 1982). metic, rwmenam, rom Tqven vinmes
moswonxarT an ar moswonxarT, SesaZloa, ise
imoqmedos Tqvens qcevaze, rom Tqven Tavadac
SeuwyoT xeli msgavsi urTierTobebis Camoyalibebas (Curtis & Miller, 1986). Tqven SegiZliaT
winaswar TqvaT, rogor moeqceviT mas, visac,
Tqveni azriT, moswonxarT? visac ar moswonxarT?
warmoidgineT, rom mtrulad eqceviT mas, visac,
Tqveni azriT, ar moswonxarT. atyobT Tqvens
grZnobebSi rogor SeiZleba Caerios sakuTari
Tavisadmi mikerZoeba? rodesac Tvals gadavavlebT Cven irgvliv arsebul socialur samyaros,
aRmovaCenT, rom is urTierTobebi, romlebsac
SeiZleba mowoneba~ vuwodoT, mniSvnelovnad
aris dakavSirebuli ormxrivobasTan. amitom, Tu
viciT, rom pirovneba A-s gansakuTrebiT moswons
pirovneba B, Cven vaskvniT, rom pirovneba B-sac
igive grZnobebi eqneba pirovneba A-s mimarT
(Kenny at al., 1996).
es faqti, romelic axla mimovixileT, saSualebas gvaZlevs, vifiqroT, rom Tqveni megobrebis
umravlesoba is xalxi iqneba, romelsac Tqven
ufro xSirad xvdebiT da visTanac dakavSirebulni xarT msgavsebiTa da ormxrivi urTierTobebiT, magram, risi Tqma SeuZliaT mkvlevrebs iseT ufro intensiur urTierTobebze, rogoric Seyvarebaa~?

Seyvareba
igive Zalebi, romlebsac adamianebi mowonebamde mihyavT, Semdeg maT siyvarulisaken ubiZgeben. Uumetes SemTxvevaSi Tqven jer mowonebas
grZnobT da Semdeg _ siyvaruls (Tumca, aris
SemTxvevebi, rodesac adamianebi aRniSnaven, rom

socialuri urTierTobebi

fizikuri mimzidveloba sxva kulturebSic


ganapirobebs mowonebas. magaliTad, Cineli XXII klaseli moswavleebi adasturebdnen, rom
fizikurad mimzidvel Tanaklaselebs ufro
maRali statusi hqondaT (Dong et al., 1996); Tumca,
rogorc me-12 TavSi aRvniSneT, kulturebi gansxvavdebian fizikuri silamazis standartebis
mixedviT. magaliTad, afro-amerikelebs naklebad
uaryofiTi damokidebuleba aqvT Warb wonasTan,
vidre anglo-amerikelebs (Helb & Heatherton, 1998;
Jackson & McGill, 1996).

735

maT uyvarT zogierTi naTesavi, Tumca, ar moswonT


isini). ra specifikur faqtorebze laparakoben
socialuri fsiqologebi sasiyvarulo urTierTobebis SemTxvevaSi?

siyvaruli, rogorc gancda


ras niSnavs, ganicado siyvaruli? Tqven unda
gamonaxoT dro, raTa ifiqroT am mniSvnelovan
cnebaze. rogor fiqrobT, Tqveni gansazRvreba
Seesabameba Tqveni megobrebis gansazRvrebebs?
am kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemas mkvlevrebi sxvadasxva
gziT Seecadnen da raRac saerTo midgomac gamoinaxa. adamianebis mier siyvarulis gaazreba
sam jgufad SeiZleba daiyos (Aron & Westbay,
1996):
vneba seqsualuri ltolva da survili;
intimuroba gulwrfeloba da urTierTgageba;

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

ndoba erTguleba da Tavganwirva.


SegiZliaT, Tqveni sasiyvarulo urTierTobebi
samive am niSniT daaxasiaToT? Tqven, albaT,
fiqrobT: ara~, ara yvela maTgani~. rogorc
Cans, erTmaneTisgan unda ganvasxvavoT vinmes
siyvaruli2 da vinmesTan sasiyvarulo urTierTobebi3 (Miers & Bersheid, 1997). adamianebis umravlesoba aRniSnavs, rom siyvarulis kategoria
ufro didi raodenobiT adamians moicavs, vidre
_ sasiyvarulo urTierTobebi. albaT, bevrisTvis
utkenia guli sityvebs: miyvarxar, magram SenTan
ver davamyareb sasiyvarulo urTierTobebs~.
sasiyvarulo urTierTobebSi raRac ufro intensiuri da gansakuTrebuli igulisxmeba; am tipis
urTierTobebi seqsualur ltolvas moicavs.
sasiyvarulo urTierTobebi SesaZlebelia
zogadi niSnebiT daxasiaTdes. samyaros Sesaxeb
Tqvenma codnam SesaZloa migiyvanaT im daskvnamde,
rom adamianebi gansxvavebulad ganicdian siyvaruls. mkvlevrebi gansakuTrebiT dainteresebulni arian drois xangrZliv periodSi sasiyvarulo urTierTobebis SenarCunebaSi individualuri gansxvavebebis SeswavliT. ukanasknel
wlebSi gansakuTrebiT gamaxvilda yuradReba
zrdasrulTa mijaWvulobis stilis kvlevebze
2

736

loving.
being in love.

(Fraley & Shaver, 2000; Shaver & Hazan, 1994). gaixseneT


me-11 Tavidan, Tu raoden didi mniSvneloba hqonda
bavSvis adekvaturi socialuri ganviTarebisaTvis
mSoblebTan mijaWvulobas. mkvlevrebma daiwyes
imis garkveva, Tu ra mniSvneloba SeiZleba
hqondes mijaWvulobis am adreul gamocdilebas
Semdgom cxovrebaSi, rodesac bavSvebi izrdebian
da sakuTari savaldebulo urTierTobebi da
sakuTari Svilebi uCndebaT (Hazan & Shaver, 1987;
Main et al., 1985).
ra aris mijaWvulobis stili? cxrilSi 17.2
mocemulia debulebebi axlo urTierTobebis
Sesaxeb (Hazan & Shaaver, 1987; Saver & Hazan, 1994).
gamoZebneT dro da miuTiTeT, Tu romel debulebas eTanxmebiT. rodesac igive kiTxviT sxva
adamianebs mimarTes, Tu romeli debuleba ukeT
aRwerda maT, umravlesobam (55%-ma) pirveli
debuleba airCia. es aris myari mijaWvulobis
stili. sagrZnobma umciresobam airCia meore
debuleba (25% _ ganridebadi stili), xolo
mesame ki _ 20%-ma (SfoTviT-ambivalenturi
stili). aRmoCnda, rom mijaWvulobis es stilebi
zustad gansazRvraven urTierTobebis xarisxs
(Feeney & Noller, 19990; Tidwell et al., 1996). im adamianebisgan gansxvavebiT, romlebmac meore da
mesame stili airCies, myari stilis mijaWvulobis mqone adamianebs xangrZlivi da romantikuli urTierTobebi aqvT (Sharpsteen & Kirkpatrick,

cxrili

17.2

axlo urTierTobebisas mozrdilTa


mijaWvulobis stilebi
debuleba 1:
SedarebiT advilad vuaxlovdebi sxvebs da Tavs komfortulad vgrZnob, rodesac maTze var damokidebuli.
me xSirad ar vwuxvar imaze, rom vinmesgan mitovebuli
var, an vinmeze zedmetad damokidebuli.

debuleba 2:
garkveulwilad arakomfortulad vgrZnob Tavs,
rodesac sxvebTan axlo urTierTobebSi Sevdivar. miWirs
maTze srulad mindoba; miWirs isic, rom sakuTar
Tavs ufleba mivce, damokidebuli viyo maTze. me
vRiziandebi, rodesac vinme Zalian axlos dgeba CemTan.
xSirad partniori ufro met siaxloves mTxovs, vidre
es CemTvis aris misaRebi.

debuleba 3:
vTvli, rom sxvebs ar surT, CemTan ise axlos yofna,
rogorc es me momewoneboda. xSirad vnerviulob,
ganvicdi, rom partniors ar vuyvarvar, an ar surs
CemTan darCena. me minda, rom Cems partniorTan Zalian
axlos viyo, rac xSirad afrTxobs mas.

ra faqtorebi uwyobs xels


urTierTobebis gaxangrZlivebas
albaT naTelia, rom yvelas, vinc am wigns
kiTxulobs da imasac, vinc dawera is, hqonia
iseTi urTierTobebi, romlebic didxans ar
gagrZelebula da Sewyvetila. ra moxda? igive
kiTxvas ufro pozitiurad Tu davsvamT _ risi
Tqma SeuZliaT mkvlevrebs im situaciebze da
mas myof adamianebze, romlebsac xangrZliv
sasiyvarulo urTierTobebamde mivyavarT?
erT-erTi Teoria sasiyvarulo urTierTobebs
gaiazrebs, rogorc sxvis~ CarTvas Cvens sakuTar
m e ~ - S i (Aron et al., 1991; Aron & Aron, 1994).
ganvixiloT 17.7 suraTze mocemuli diagramebi.
TiToeuli maTgani asaxavs, Tu rogor SeiZleba
axlo urTierTobebis gaazreba. Tu Tqven gaqvT
romantikuli urTierToba, SegiZliaT TqvaT,
romeli diagrama gamoxatavs ukeT Tqvensa da
Tqvens partniors Soris urTierTobas? kvlevam
aCvena, rom is adamianebi, romlebic TavianTi
urTierTobebis gamosaxatad im diagramas irCeven,
romelzec me~-s da sxvis~ yvelaze meti

socialuri urTierTobebi

1997). magaliTad, adamianebi, romlebic SfoTviTi


stiliT xasiaTdebian, ufro xSirad da intensiurad eWvianobden, vidre myari mijaWvulobis
mqone adamianebi.
dabolos, kidev erTi gansxvaveba: xSir SemTxvevaSi sasiyvarulo urTierTobebi Zlieri
ltolviTa da gatacebis periodiT iwyeba, romelsac vnebiani siyvaruli SeiZleba vuwodoT.
droTa ganmavlobaSi ltolvis intensivoba iklebs da intimuroba imatebs. amas megobruli
siyvaruli SegviZlia vuwodoT (Berscheid &Walster,
1978). rodesac Seyvarebuli iqnebiT, Tqven TviTon
SeamCnevT aseT cvlilebas; ase rom, ar ifiqroT,
rom siyvaruls kargavT~, es bunebrivi procesiaDda Tundac ase ar iyos, vnebiani siyvarulidan
gamosvla arc ise dramatulia, rogorc es erTi
SexedviT SeiZleba Candes. mkvlevrebma am saxis
siyvaruli 30 wlis asakiT SemosazRvres (Aron &
Aron, 1994). rodesac Tqven sasiyvarulo urTierTobebs amyarebT, SesaZloa, imedi gqondeT, rom
es mudmivad gagrZeldeba, magram Semdeg sxva
moTxovnilebebic Cndeba.
gaxsovdeT, rom siyvarulis gancdac ganicdis
kulturis gavlenas. am TavSi ramdenjerme aRvniSneT, rom arsebobs kulturuli sxvaoba damoukidebloba-urTierTdamokidebulebis ganzomilebaze. arseboben damoukideblobis kulturebi, romlebic pirovnebis me~-s maxasiaTeblebs
koleqtiur maxasiaTeblebze maRla ayeneben da
urTierTdamokidebulebebis kulturebi, romlebic gaziarebul kulturul Rirebulebebs
adamianis individualobaze maRla ayeneben. ra

gavlenas moaxdens es faqti Tqvens sasiyvarulo


urTierTobebze? Tu partniors Tqvens pirad
grZnobebze dayrdnobiT irCevT, maSin upiratesobas Tqvens pirad Sexedulebebs aniWebT, xolo,
Tu partniors imis mixedviT irCevT, Tu rogor
gamoCndebiT sxvebis TvalSi da ras ifiqreben
isini Tqvens ojaxze, Tqven ufro koleqtivistur
Sexedulebebze yofilxarT orientirebulni.
kros-kulturuli gamokvlevebi mowmoben, rom
arsebobs myari safuZveli vifiqroT, rom damoukideblobaze orientirebuli kulturebi ufro
met mniSvnelobas aniWeben siyvaruls (Dion &
Dion, 1993; Hatfield & Sprecher, 1995; Levine at al., 1995).
aseT kiTxvas dagisvamT: Tu qals (kacs) yvela
is Tviseba aqvs, romelic Tqven mogwonT, SeirTavdiT Tu ara mas, miuxedavad imisa, rom is
Tqven ar giyvarT?~ am kiTxvaze amerikeli
studentebis mxolod 3.5%-ma, xolo indoeli
studentebis _ 49%-ma upasuxa diax~ (Levine,
1995). urTierTdamokidebulebebze orientirebuli kulturebis warmomadgenlebi ufro momTxovnebi arian partniorebis mimarT. es imitom xdeba,
rom am kulturebSi ufro Zlieria urTierTobebiT pirovnuli winsvlis idea da isini meuRlisagan ufro mets moelian.

737

fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

urTierTobebi da interneti

738

iwvevs ki vinmeSi eWvs is


faqti, rom internetis gamoCenam udidesi impulsi misca
adamianebis urTierTobas da
maT daaxloebas? warmoidgineT
13 wlis biWi niuiorkidan,
saxelad denieli, romlis
axali megobari gogona~, aseve,
13 wlis, reiCeli samxreT
karolinaSi imyofeba. maT ar
SeeZloT suraTebis gacvla
internetiT. rodesac dedam
dens aSS-is fostiT suraTis
gagzavna urCia, man upasuxa:
deda, is ar apirebs CemTvis
Tavisi misamarTis mocemas~
(Gardner, 2000, gv. 40). cxadia, XXI
saukunis bolo wlebamde
biWebis umravlesobas azradac
ki ar mouvidodaT axal
megobar gogonebTan~ am gziT
urTierTobis damyareba. modiT,
vnaxoT, ra wvlili Seitana
internetma urTierTobebSi.
kvlevebma aCvena, rom internetis momxmarebelTa yvelaze
aqtiur saqmianobas socialuri
urTierTobebi warmoadgens.
internetis daaxloebiT 4100
momxmareblis gamokiTxvam
cxadyo, rom maTi 90% internets eleqtronuli fostisTvis iyenebda, 24% ki e.w.
CatSi~ monawileobda (Nie &
Erbing, 2000). sxva kvleva aCvenebs, rom urTierTobaTa
didma raodenobam kibersivrcidan fizikur sivrceSi gadainacvla. ganvixiloT kvleva,
romelSic 568 individi monawileobda (59% qali da 41%
kaci). maT sTxoves, rom erTmaneTisTvis internetiT axa-

li ambebi gaegzavnaT (Mc Kena


et al., 2001). am jgufis wevrebis
63% internetiT gacnobis Semdeg satelefono urTierTobebze gadavida, 54% ki internetiT gacnobil pirovnebas
Sexvda. ori wlis Semdeg Catarebulma gamokiTxvam aCvena, rom
internetiT damyarebuli urTierTobebi isev myari iyo.
faqtobrivad, SerCevis 15%
daniSnuli iyo, 10% ki _ ukve
daqorwinebuli internet-partniorze.
adre aRvniSneT, rom siaxlove mowonebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mdgenelia. aucilebelia, rom adamians SexvdeT,
vidre Tqven Soris mowoneba
an romantikuli urTierTobebi
Camoyalibdeba. zemoT ganxiluli kvlevebi aCvenebs, rom
geografiuli daSorebulobis
miuxedavad, interneti fsiqologiuri daaxloebis karg
saSualebas iZleva. arsebobs
monacemebi, rom internetis
saSualebiT urTierTobebi
ukeT iwyeba, vidre pirispir
(Bargh et al., 2001). erT gamokvlevaSi, romelSic kolejis
studentebi monawileobdnen,
monawileebma gansxvavebul pirobebSi daamyares urTierToba
erTsa da imave partniorTan.
orive interaqciisas wyvilebis
naxevars pirispir urTierTobebis SesaZlebloba mieca,
meore naxevars ki pirispir
Sexvedramde internetiT urTierTobis saSualeba hqonda.
urTierTobis meore etapis
Semdeg partniorebs sTxoves,

SeefasebinaT erTmaneTi 15safexurian skalaze -7-dan


(Zalian ar momwons~) +7-mde
(Zalian momwons~). im monawileebma, romelTac pirispir Sexvedramde internetiT urTierTobis SesaZlebloba hqondaT, bevrad
meti urTierTsimpaTia gamoavlines (saSualod 4.70),
vidre im monawileebma, romelTac aseTi SesaZlebloba
ar hqondaT (saSualod 2.45).
ratom unda momxdariyo ase?
mkvlevrebi fiqroben, rom
internetiT dawyebuli urTierToba monawileebs saSualebas aZlevs, naklebad
moeqcnen garegnobis gavlenis
qveS. ufro metic, internetis
droebiTi anonimuroba, rogorc Cans, amxnevebs adamianebs, ufro metad gaxsnis
SesaZleblobas aZlevs maT,
rac ufro metad aZlierebs
mowonebas.
mecnierTa yuradReba miipyro im adamianebis cxovrebam,
romelTa mier internetis
gamoyenebis sixSire amcirebs
maT aqtivobas realur cxovrebaSi (Kraut et al., 1998; Nie &
Erbing, 2000). Tumca, zemoT
mocemuli magaliTebi gvafiqrebinebs, rom interneti,
SesaZloa, adamianTa didi
nawilis socialur da romantikul cxovrebaSi dadebiT mamoZravebel Zalad
CaiTvalos. SesaZloa, male
denielmac miiRos Tavisi
megobari gogonas misamarTi.

suraTi

17.7

sxvebis me-Si
CarTulobis skala
(IOS-Inclusion of Others in
the Self)

gadafarvaa, sxvas sakuTar me~-Si CarTulad


ganixilaven da TiTqmis yovelTvis grZnoben
xangrZlivi urTierTobebis SenarCunebis did
valdebulebas (Aron et al., 1992; Aron & Fraley, 1999).
kidev ra faqtorebi uwyobs xels urTierTobebis gaxangrZlivebas? damokidebulebis modeli
varaudobs, rom erTguleba garkveul msjelobebs
efuZneba (Drigotas & Rusbult, 1992, gv.65):
TiToeuli CamoTvlili moTxovnilebis mniSvnelovnebis xarisxi individisTvis mocemul
urTierTobaSi. mniSvnelovani moTxovnilebebia:
intimuroba, seqsi, emociuri CarTuloba, megobruli damokidebuleba da inteleqtualuri
CarTuloba;
TiToeuli am moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebis xarisxi mocemul urTierTobaSi;
TiToeuli moTxovnilebisTvis, arsebuli
partnioris garda, arsebobs Tu ara vinme, visTanac pirovnebas mniSvnelovani urTierToba aqvs;
am moTxovnilebebis alternatiuli urTierTobiT dakmayofilebis done.
rogorc mosalodneli iyo, es modeli amtkicebs, rom adamianebi miT ufro metad inarCuneben
myar sasiyvarulo urTierTobas, rac ufro metad
ikmayofileben im mniSvnelovan moTxovnilebebs,
romlebsac sxva veravin daakmayofilebs. amdenad,
Tu megobruli urTierTobebi TqvenTvis Zalze
mniSvnelovania giyvarT Tavisufali drois
gatareba sxva adamianebTan erTad da, amave dros,

arsebobs viRac, vinc Tqvens mniSvnelovan moTxovnilebebs akmayofilebs, maSin savaraudoa,


rom Tqven am urTierTobebis mimarT met valdebulebas igrZnobT. es marTebulia maSinac,
Tu Tqveni partniori ar aris Tqveni pirveli
arCevani. damokidebulebis modeli im SemTxvevis
axsnasac gvTavazobs, Tu ratom inarCuneben adamianebi urTierTobebs maSinac ki, rodesac isini
fizikuri Zaladobis msxverplni xdebian (Choice
& Lamke, 1999). nacem qalTa TavSesafris 100
qalidan isini, vinc Tvlidnen, rom maT arc ise
didi arCevani hqondaT, ZiriTadad, materialuri
mizezebis gamo, Tavs valdebulad Tvlidnen,
rom dabrunebodnen Zvel urTierTobebs (Russbult
& Martz, 1995). amrigad, adamianebi SeiZleba Zalze
ubedurebi iyvnen urTierTobebSi, magram mainc
damokidebulni iyvnen am urTierTobebze da maT
gareSe ar SeeZloT arseboba.
am TavSi vnaxeT, Tu rogor moqmedeben
socialuri Zalebi adamianebze. magaliTad,
vnaxeT, Tu ra gavlenas axdens situacia qcevaze,
rogor yalibdeba Tqveni damokidebulebebi
socialur urTierTobebSi. Cven girCevT, SeiswavloT Tqveni qcevebi, raTa dainaxoT is gzebi,
romliTac socialuri garemocva gexmarebaT
Tqveni yoveldRiuri gamocdilebis mniSvnelovani aspeqtebis axsnaSi.
momdevno TavSi vnaxavT, Tu rogor warmarTaven
igive Zalebi socialur qcevas pirovnul doneze
_ iwveven agresias da altruizms _ da kulturul doneze _ iwveven omsa da mSvidobas.

socialuri urTierTobebi

Tu Tqven gaqvT romantikuli sasiyvarulo urTierToba, romeli


diagrama gamoxatavs ukeT Tqveni
da Tqveni partnioris urTierTdamokidebulebas? skaliT Catarebuli gamokvlevebi aCveneben,

739

Sejameba
adamianebis umetesobas uyvars is adamianebi,
romlebic maTTan fizikurad axlos imyofebian,
fizikurad mimzidvelni, maTi msgavsni arian da
visganac igive impulsebs iReben. adamianebi
TavianT sasiyvarulo gamocdilebas axasiaTeben,
rogorc vnebas, intimurobas da valdebulebas.
siyvarulSi individualuri gansxvavebebi, SesaZ-

loa, nawinaswarmetyveleb iqnes mijaWvulobis


stilisa da kulturuli molodinebis safuZvelze. sasiyvarulo urTierTobebi miT ufro
myaria, rac ufro metadaa CarTuli partniori
Cvens me~-Si. damokidebulebis modeli gulisxmobs, rom adamianebi ufro metad inarCuneben
urTierTobas, rac ufro metad akmayofilebs es
urTierToba iseT specifikur moTxovnilebebs,
romlebsac sxva veravin daakmayofilebs.

sakvanZo
sakiTxebi

Tavi 17 / socialuri procesebi da urTierTobebi

situaciis Zala

740
740

adamianis azrebi da aqtivobebi ganicdis situaciis zemoqmedebas.


individebi TavianTi rwmenebis, faseulobebisa da
midrekilebebis sawinaaRmdegid iqcevian, Tu maT
evalebaT garkveuli socialuri rolis Sesruleba, Tundac xelovnurad
Seqmnil garemoSi.
socialuri normebi ayalibeben jgufis wevrebis
damokidebulebebsa da
qcevebs.
Serifisa da aSis klasikuri gamokvlevebi warmoaCens im informaciul
da normatiul Zalebs,
romlebic konformizms
iwveven.
umciresobis zegavlena,
SesaZloa, informaciuli
zegavlenis Sedegad aRiZras.

socialuri realobis
konstruireba
yoveli adamiani TviTon
agebs Tavis socialur
realobas.

socialuri percefcia determinirebulia SexedulebebiTa da molodinebiT.


atribuciis Teoria aRwers
im Sefasebebs, romlebsac
adamianebi qcevebis mizezebis
Taobaze akeTeben.
zogirTi gadaxra, rogoricaa,
magaliTad, atribuciis fundamenturi Secdoma, sakuTari
Tavisadmi mikerZoeba da TviTqmnadi winaswarmetyveleba,
SesaZloa CaerTos atribuciaSi, sxva Sefasebebsa da
qcevebSi.
magram mainc, molodinebis
gavlena Semofarglulia im
informaciis sizustiT, romelic Tqven gare samyaros
Sesaxeb gagaCniaT.

damokidebulebebi, damokidebulebebis Secvla da


qceva
damokidebulebebi aris obieqtebis, movlenebisa Tu ideebis pozitiuri, an negatiuri
Sefaseba.
yvela damokidebuleba ar
iZleva qcevis zustad winaswarmetyvelebis SesaZleblobas; is Zalze xelmisawvdomi an Zalze specifikuri
unda iyos.

gadamuSavebis albaTobis
modelis Tanaxmad, darwmunebis centraluri procesebi gulisxmobs argumentebis zedmiwevniT analizs
maSin, roca periferiuli
procesebi darwmunebis procesis garegnul maniSneblebs exeba.
damokidebulebebis safuZvlebis tipsa da argumentis tips Soris kavSiri, aseve, axdens gavlenas
argumentis efeqturobaze.
disonansisa da TviTaRqmis
Teoriebi exeba damokidebulebebis Camoyalibebasa
da Secvlas, rac qcevis
ganxorcielebas mohyveba.
daTanxmebisaTvis adamianebma, SesaZloa, mimarTon
migebis, davaldebulebis,
deficitis Seqmnis da modelirebis meTodebs.

socialuri urTierTobebi
interpersonaluri mimzidveloba determinirebulia
nawilobriv fizikuri siaxloviT, fizikuri mimzidvelobiT, msgavsebiTa da ormxrivobiT.

ZiriTadi cnebebi
atribuciis Teoria
qceviTi dadastureba
kognituri disonansi
daTanxmeba
konformuloba
kovariaciis principi
gadamuSavebis albaTobis
modeli
atribuciis fundamenturi
Secdoma
jgufis polarizacia
jgufuri azrovneba

informaciuli gavlena
normatiuli gavlena
normebis kristalizacia
darwmuneba
migebis norma
wesebi
TviTqmnadi winaswarmetyveleba
TviTaRqmis Teoria
sakuTari Tavisadmi mikerZoeba
socialuri norma
socialuri aRqma
socialuri fsiqologia
socialuri roli

sakvanZo sakiTxebi

sasiyvarulo urTierTobebi
ganisazRvreba ltolvis,
intimurobis da valdebulebis parametrebiT.
mozdrilTa mijaWvulobis
stili gavlenas axdens
urTierTobebis xarisxze.
adamianis valdebulebebi
sasiyvarulo urTierTobebis dros dakavSirebulia
siaxlovisa da damokidebulebis doneze.

741
741

socialuri fsiqologia, sazogadoeba da


kultura

18
altruizmi da
prosocialuri qceva

altruizmis fesvebi
prosocialuri qcevis
motivebi
situaciis gavlenebi
prosocialur qcevaze
agresia

evoluciuri midgoma
individualuri
gansxvavebebi
situaciuri gavlenebi
kulturuli SezRudvebi
crurwmenebi

crurwmenis sawyisebi
stereotipebis efeqtebi
crurwmenebis daZleva
fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi:
samyaro pataravdeba
konfliqtisa da mSvidobis
fsiqologia

avtoritetisadmi
daqvemdebareba
genocidisa da omis
fsiqologia
mSvidobis fsiqologia
fsiqologia Cvens
cxovrebaSi: ratom
eziarebian adamianebi
kults
avtoris bolosityvaoba
sakvanZo sakiTxebi

742

ZiriTadi cnebebi

ilosofosma hana arendtma (Hannah


Arendt) 1963 wels gamoaqveyna wigni
aihmani ierusalimSi~, romelSic
ganxiluli iyo nacist adolf aihmanis danaSaulebebi, riTac man xeli Seuwyo milionobiT
ebraelis mkvlelobas. aihmani iseve amarTlebda
Tavis qmedebebs, rogorc sxva nacistebi:

mSoblebis, Zmebis, debisa da megobrebis


mimarT iyo ara mxolod normaluri, aramed
Zalze sasurvelic ki~ (gv. 25-26).
aihmanis pirovnebisAanalizis gziT arendti
cnobil daskvnamde midis:

fsiqiatrebi axasiaTebdnen mas, rogorc


normalurs~: _ ufro normaluri iyo, yovel SemTxvevaSi ufro metad, vidre me viyavi
misi gamokvlevis Semdeg~, _ ganacxada erTerTma maTganma. meorem ki aRmoaCina, rom
misi saerTo fsiqologiuri mdgomareoba,
damokidebuleba meuRlisa da Svilebis,

aihmanis ubedureba is iyo, rom uamravi


adamiani hgavda mas, isini arc gaukuRmarTebulebi iyvnen da arc sadistebi, isini
iyvnen da jerac arian SemaSfoTeblad normalurebi. Cveni samarTlebrivi instituciebis da Sefasebis moraluri standartebis TvalsazrisiT, es normaluroba ufro
SemaSfoTebelia, vidre yvela simxece erTad
aRebuli, im daSvebis gamo, rom danaSaulis
es axali saxe mis danaSaulebebs iseTi
garemoebebis gavlenis qveS aqcevs, rom
misTvis SeuZlebeli xdeba sakuTari qcevis
aramarTebulobis gageba an SegrZneba (gv.276).
rogorc Cans, (aihmanis cxovrebis) ukanasknel wuTebSi man Seajama is gakveTilebi, romlebsac adamianis codvilobis mTeli
nairferovneba iZleva saSiSi gakveTilebi,
romlebsac SeiZleba codvis banaluroba
vuwodoT (gv. 252).

hana arendtis fraza codvis banaluroba~


XXIOsaukunis movlenebsac exmaureba. nacisturi
holokostidan 60 wlis Semdegac ki terorizmis
talRebma moicva msoflio. dResac ki, roca am
sityvebs vwerT 2000 wlis bolos axlo
aRmosavleTi isev moicva Zaladobam, rac gamoixateba israelisa da palestinelebis SejaxebiT
mdinare iordanes dasavleT sanapiroze. iugoslaviaSi xalxis ajanyebas daundobeli diqtatoris slobodan miloSeviCis _ damxoba mohyva,

magram, rogorc Cans, is da misi reJimis sxva


wevrebi gadaurCebian samxedro danaSaulebebisaTvis pasuxismgeblobas. nigeriaSi hausas da
iorubas tomebis wevrebs Soris konfliqtis
Sedegad gasul wels aTasobiT adamiani daiRupa.
Cndeba cduneba, rom es movlenebi rogorc sigiJis
gamovlena ise ganvixiloT. yvelaferi codvil
xasiaTs mivaweroT, rogorc, vTqvaT, adolf hitleris SemTxvevaSi, magram arendtis analizi
uaryofs amas. is gviCvenebs, Tu ramdenad advilad

(aihmans) kargad axsovda, rom cud xasiaTze iyo xolme, Tuki ar SeeZlo imis
gakeTeba, rac misi mowodeba iyo milionobiT kacis, qalisa da bavSvis mkvleloba,
didi gulmodginebiTa da pedanturobiT
(gv.25).
miuxedavad amisa, ramdenad gasaocaric ar unda
iyos, arendti aihmans axasiaTebs, rogorc absoluturad Cveulebriv adamians:

altruizmi da prosocialuri qceva

743

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

744

SeuZliaT socialur Zalebs, aiZulon normaluri


adamiani, rom man sazareli qceva ganaxorcielos.
fsiqologia da cxovreba~-Si im adgilamde
mivediT, sadac adamianis qcevaze socialuri
Zalebis zemoqmedebis ukiduresi SemTxvevebi unda
ganvixiloT. am Tavis zogierTi nawili sakmaod
SemaSfoTebeli iqneba, vinaidan adamianSi destruqciuli da arahumanuri aqtebis ganxorcielebis potencials naTelyofs. Cven ganvixilavT
agresiul qcevas, crurwmenebs da im pirobebs,
romlebmac, SesaZloa, genocidis aqtebamde
migviyvanos. amave dros, aRvwerT adamianuri
arsebis Tandayolil ltolvas, iyos prosocialuri ganaxorcielos didsulovani altruistuli aqtebi, yovelgvari jildos molodinis
gareSe. dabolos, imedi gvaqvs, es Tavi mkiTxvelSi
aRZravs optimistur azrs, rom socialuri
mecnierebebis aRmoCenebs msoflioSi mSvidobis
damyarebaSi daxmarebis gaweva SeuZliaT.
xSirad am TavSi ganxilul sakiTxebs studentebi provokaciulad da saCoTirod Tvlian.
imedi gvaqvs, rom SesaZlebloba geqnebaT, isini,
maswavlebelTan erTad, srulad ganixiloT da
debatebic moawyoT. Tqven am Tavis Seswavla
imis gagebiT unda daamTavroT, Tu rogor moqmedeben socialur-fsiqologiuri Zalebi calkeul individebze, rogor erTiandebian individebi jgufebSi da ra gavlenas axdenen isini
msoflio istoriis yvelaze SemaSfoTebel momentebze.

altruizmi da
prosocialuri qceva

altruizms iseT prosocialur qcevebs, romlebsac adamianebi TavianTi sakuTari usafrTxoebisa da interesebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe
axorcieleben. is, rasac Cven kulturas an
sazogadoebas vuwodebT, mniSvnelovani adgili
uWiravs erTmaneTis daxmarebis survils. rogorc
kulturis an sazogadoebis wevrebi, adamianebi
TanamSromloben da msxverpladac ki ewirebian
sxvebis keTildReobas. am Tavs imis ganxilviT
daviwyebT, Tu ratom surT adamianebs altruistuli qcevebis ganxorcieleba.

altruizmis fesvebi
TiTqmis yvela tragediis Semdeg xedavT
suraTs, rom adamianebi TavianTi sicocxlis
riskis fasad cdiloben sxva adamianebis sicocxlis dacvas. magaliTad, gavixsenoT oklahoma
sitis dabombviT gamowveuli saSineleba. alfred
a. murahis dangreuli saxli da mTeli qveynidan
Camosuli adamianebis gaweuli erTiani Zalisxmeva
im imediT, rom aRmoaCendnen da daexmarebodnen
gadarCenil adamianebs. aseTi tragediebi aaSkaraveben adamianis, rogorc saxeobis, potencials,
ganaxorcielos prosocialuri qcevebi, anu iseTi
qcevebi, romelTa mizani sxva adamianebis daxmarebaa. metic, es tragediebi xSirad aaSkaraveben

daviwyoT amerikul yoveldRiur gazeTSi


gamoqveynebuli altruizmis konkretuli magaliTiT (Porstner, 1997):
sanapiro dacvis TanamSromelma samSabaTs, samxreTis saxelmwifo gzatkecilze,
prosocialuri qcevebi (Prosocial behaviors) _ qcevebi, romlebic sxva adamianebis daxmarebis
mizniT sruldeba.
altruizmi (Altruizm) prosocialuri qcevebi,
romlebsac adamiani Tavisi sakuTari usafrTxoebis an interesebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe
asrulebs.

ra reaqcia gqondaT am ambavze? SegiZliaT,


warmoidginoT Tqveni sicocxlis an, Tundac,
Tqveni manqanis gariskva vinmes sicocxlis dasacavad, ragorc am SemTxvevaSia aRwerili? ras
fiqrobda sakuTar Tavze sanapiro dacvis mZRoli?
gjeraT, rom qcevis ganxorcielebamde man gamoTvala mogeba da wageba?
rodesac am mamaci mZRolis qcevis msgavs
magaliTebs naxavT, sruliad bunebrivia, daaskvnaT, rom adamianebs gaaCniaT altruizmis
bazisuri, wminda adamianuri motivacia. faqtobrivad, altruizmis arseboba zogjer winaaRmdegobrivia. imis gasagebad, Tu ratomaa ase, me-3 da
me-12 TavebSi evolociuri Zalebis Sesaxeb
dawyebul diskusias unda davubrundeT. evoluciuri moZRvrebis Tanaxmad, sicocxlis mTavari
mizani sakuTari Tavis reproduqciaa, rac erTi
arsebis mier meoresTvis sakuTari genebis gadacemas gulisxmobs. ras niSnavs altruizmi am
SemTxvevaSi? ratom unda daayenoT Tqveni sicocxle sxvebis daxmarebis gamo safrTxis qveS?
am kiTxvaze ori pasuxi arsebobs imisda mixedviT,
Tu ras vigulisxmebT sxvebSi~ _ ojaxis wevrebs
Tu ucnobebs.
ojaxis wevrebisTvis altruistuli qcevis
ganxorcieleba ar aris azrs moklebuli, vinaidan, maSinac ki, rodesac adamianis sicocxle

18.1

naTesaobis daxmarebis
tendenciebi

saidan
viciT
altruizmi naTesavebis mimarT
aSS-is da iaponiis kolejebis studentebs sTxoves, ganexilaT SeTavazebuli
scenarebi, romlebSic samidan erTi adamianis gadasarCenad sicocxles gariskavdnen. magaliTad, erT-erT scenarSi am sam
individs almokidebul saxlSi eZina. TiToeul scenarSi individebi gansxvavdebodnen
erTmaneTisgan kvlevis monawileebTan warmosaxuli naTesaobis xarisxiT. zogierTi
iseTi Zalian axlo naTesavi iyo, rogorica
da-Zma (0.5-iani genetikuri Tanxvedra), sxvebi
SedarebiT Soreuli naTesavebi _ biZaSvilebi iyvnen (0.125 Tanxvedra). studentebs
ekiTxebodnen, am samidan romlis gadarCenas
isurvebdnen yvelaze metad. suraTi 18.1
gviCvenebs, rom, rac ufro axlo naTesavia
individi, miT ufro metad gamoxataven
adamianebi misi gadarCenis~ survils. suraTze mocemulia im SemTxvevis Sedegebic,
rodesac ar idga sikvdil-sicocxlis
sakiTxi: studentebs ekiTxebodnen, Tu rogor
moiqceodnen yoveldRiuri gadawyvetilebebis SemTxvevaSi, magaliTad, rodesac

yoveldRe
daxmarebis tendenciebi

suraTi

safrTxis qveS dgeba, misi mizani, zogadad, Tavisi


genetikuri memkvidreobis gadarCenaa. faqtobrivad, rodesac adamianebs ekiTxebian, Tu vis
gadaarCenen sikvdil-sicocxlis situaciaSi,
maSin adamianebi gacilebiT mZafrad SeigrZnoben
sakuTar genetikur memkvidreobasTan siaxloves.

sicocxle an sikvdili

3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.50 (Zma)

0.25 (biZa)

0.125
(biZaSvili)

naTesaoba

0.00
(nacnoboba)

altruizmi da prosocialuri qceva

lindenharstSi, Tavisi manqana win Cauyena


da amiT gadaarCina koneqtikuteli kaci,
romlis manqanamac gzidan gadauxvia. me
win Cavudeqi da specialurad davajaxebine
manqana, raTa amiT SemeCerebina is~, _
ganacxada 25 wlis mZRolma: _ es erTaderTi saSualeba iyo, riTac me misi SeCereba
SemeZlo~.

745

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

vinmes davalebis Sesrulebaa saWiro. SedegebSi aqac aisaxa naTesaobis efeqti, Tumca
damokidebuleba ar iyo iseTi Zlieri,
rogorc pirvel SemTxvevaSi. sikvdil-sicocxlis~ scenarisas naTesaobis Sefaseba
gacilebiT ukiduresia, vidre yoveldRiuri~ scenarisas~. erTnairi Sedegebi
miiRes rogorc iaponeli, ise _ amerikeli
studentebis SemTxvevaSi (Burnstein et al.,1994).

746

am gamokvlevaSi studentebs realurad ar


moeTxovebodaT cecxlmokidebuli saxlidan
vinmes gadarCena, magram, miuxedavad amisa, SegiZliaT dainaxoT, Tu ra gavlenas axdenda naTesaoba
maT arCevanze. Tumca, Zneli warmosadgenia, rom
romelime maTgani cnobierad fiqrobda: me unda
davicva genetikuri memkvidreoba~, magram Tu
adamianebi 18.1 suraTze warmodgenili nimuSis
mixedviT moqmedeben, es niSnavs, rom genetikuri
memkvidreobas daculi iqneba.
magram ra xdeba maSin, rodesac saqme ar gvaqvs
naTesaobasTan? magaliTad, ratom riskavs mZRoli
sicocxles sxva adamianebis genebis gadasarCenad?
sxva nacnobebisa Tu ucnobebis mimarT ganxorcielebuli altruistuli qcevebis asaxsnelad
Teoretikosebi ormxrivi (reciprokuli) altruizmis cnebas iyeneben (Trivers, 1971). es cneba
miuTiTebs, rom adamianebi altruistul qcevebs
axorcieleben imitom, rom, garkveuli azriT,
sxva adamianebis mxridanac moelian, rom isinic
maT mimarT, aseve, ganaxorcieleben altruistul
qcevebs: Tuki Sen ixrCobi, me gadagarCen im imediT,
rom Senc igives gaakeTeb im SemTxvevaSi, Tu me
damemuqreba daxrCobis saSiSroeba. amdenad,
ormxrivoba altruizms sasicocxlo Rirebulebas
aniWebs. am cnebas sxva formiT Tqven adre ukve
SexvdiT. Mme-17 TavSi, magaliTad, SemovitaneT
migebis (reciprokulobis) normis cneba im gzis
asaxsnelad, romliTac adamianebi Tanxmobamde
midian. rodesac vinme Tqvendami keTilganwobas
avlens, Tqven fsiqologiur distresSi iqnebiT
manam, sanam ar SegeZlebaT sapasuxo keTilganwyobis gamovlena. naTelia, rom aseT distress evoluciuri safuZvlebi aqvs, vinaidan is
ormxrivi (reciprokuli) altruizmi (Reciprocal
altruizm) idea, romlis Tanaxmadac adamianebi
altruistul qcevebs axorcieleben imitom,
rom sxvebis mxridanac maT mimarT altruistuli qcevebis ganxorcielebas moelian.

Seguebis SesaZleblobas zrdis. am evoluciuri


safuZvlis gamo altruizmi ar aris adamianuri
arsebis unikaluri niSani. antropologebma ormxrivi altruizmis nimuSebis identificireba
mraval saxeobaSi moaxdines, rogorebicaa, magaliTad, jgufurad mcxovrebi vampiri Ramurebi
da Simpanzeebi (Nielsen, 1994).
unda aRiniSnos, rom ormxrivi altruizmis
cneba ver xsnis socialur cxovelebSi kooperaciis yvela aspeqts. mkvlevrebma moipoves monacemebi, romlebic mowmoben, rom mraval situaciaSi, adamianebic da cxovelebic, reciprokulobis molodinis gareSe axdenen kooperirebasa
da resursebis ganawilebas (Matheson & Bernstein,
2000; Wedekind & Milinski, 2000; Widdig et al., 2000).
magaliTad, Crdilo-dasavleT bocvanaSi da namibiis mosazRvre raionebSi mcxovrebi kangis
tomis warmatebuli monadireebi nanadirevis
xorcs TavianTi tomis sxva, nadirobaSi naklebad
gawaful, wevrebs unawileben, Tumca, SeuZlebelia,
rom maTgan sapasuxod saTanado resursis miRebas
elodnen (Hawkes, 1993). am tipis dakvirvebebis
safuZvelze mkvlevrebi cdiloben, rom altruizmis asaxsnelad ufro farTo Teoriuli safuZveli
ipovon.
Tu davuSvebT, rom altruizms evoluciuri
safuZveli aqvs, MmaSin dgeba sakiTxi: ramdenad
SeuZlia altruistuli qcevis ganxorcielebaSi
arsebul individualur gansxvavebebs Tanamedrove
adamianis memkvidreobaze zemoqmedeba? gavixsenoT
me-12 TavSi ganxiluli zogierTi faqtori, romelic evoluciuri fsiqologiis specialistebis
Tanaxmad, adamianebis mier mewyvilis SerCevis
process warmarTavs. altruizmis Cveneuli ganxilva faqtorTa am CamonaTvalisTvis kidev erTi
faqtoris mimatebis saSualebas gvaZlevs.

saidan
viciT
qalebs altruisti mamakacebi ufro
moswonT
student gogonebs eqsperimentatoris da
cdis minawile mamakacis saubris videoCanawers aCvenebdnen, sadac es ukanaskneli
altruistuli qcevebis mimarT Tavis
damokidebulebas avlenda. Zalze altruistul situaciaSi is sxvebisTvis dax-

evoluciuri Teoriis terminebiT, am kvlevis


Sedegebi mowmobs, rom qalebi iseT mamakacebs
aniWeben upiratesobas, romlebsac TavianTi
resursebis STamomavlobis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofisTvis aqtiurad gamoyeneba SeuZliaT.
am TvalsazrisiT, Cven gvaqvs axali safuZveli
imisaTvis, rom altruizmi adamianis memkvidreobis nawilad CavTvaloT. kerZod, qalebi
Tvlian, rom kacebi, romlebic axorcieleben
altruistul qcevebs, ukeTesi mamebi iqnebian.

prosocialuri qcevis motivebi


wina qveTavSi vnaxeT, rom altruizms
sxvebisaTvis Tavganwirvis motivs _ Sinagani
safuZveli aqvs. axla altruizms prosocialuri
qcevis sxva motivebis konteqstSi ganvixilavT.
mkvlevari deniel batsoni (Daniel Batson, 1994)
miuTiTebs, rom arsebobs oTxi Zala, romelic
adamians sazogadoebrivad sasikeTo saqmis
keTebisken ubiZgebs:
altruizmi _ sxvebisaTvis sargeblobis
motanis motivis safuZvelze moqmedeba, rogoric
iyo, magaliTad, mZRolis qceva, romelmac sxva
adamianis sicocxle gadaarCina.
egoizmi _ prosocialuri qcevebis mxolod
sakuTari interesebidan gamomdinare ganxor-

cieleba. SesaZloa, vinmem ganaxorcielos daxmarebis qceva, magram mxolod im mizniT, rom raime
saCuqari miiRos sapasuxod (vTqvaT, fuli an
prizi, an, magaliTad, Txovnis Sesruleba).
koleqtivizmi _ prosocialuri qcevebis
ganxorcieleba garkveuli jgufis warmatebebis
misaRwevad. adamianebma, SesaZloa, ganaxorcielon
prosocialuri qcevebi, raTa gaaumjobeson
TavianTi ojaxis, saZmos an politikuri partiis
saarsebo pirobebi da a.S.
principizmi _ prosocialuri qcevis ganxorcieleba moraluri principebidan gamomdinare.
SesaZloa, vinme prosocialur qcevebs religiuri an sazogadoebrivi principebidan gamomdinare axorcielebdes.
Tqven SegiZliaT naxoT, rogor moqmedeben es
motivebi gansxvavebul situaciebSi.
Tumca, zemoT aRniSnuli motivebidan yvela
SeiZleba safuZvlad daedos sxva adamianebis
momsaxurebis qcevas. isini zogjer, SesaZloa,
winaaRmdegobaSic movidnen erTmaneTTan. magaliTad, warmoidgineT, rom unda gadawyvitoT, rogor
gaunawiloT raime deficituri resursi ramdenime
adamians. Tqven SeiZleba ase imsjeloT: me yovel
individs Tanabarad unda mivce~, vinaidan, samarTlianobis principis Tanaxmad, yovel adamians
Tanabari ufleba unda hqondes. axla warmoidgineT, rom saqmeSi sxva motivebi CaerTo da
Tqven romelime individs upiratesobas aniWebT
sxvebTan SedarebiT.

altruizmi da prosocialuri qceva

marebis gawevaze saubrobda da Semdeg sxvebze metad gariskvisTvis mzaobas gamoTqvamda.


naklebad altruistul; pirobebSi is saubrobda sakuTar interesebze da fiqrobda,
rom mosawyeni davalebis Sesruleba sxvisTvis daeTmo. am saubrebis Canaweris naxvis
Semdeg student gogonebs videoCanawerSi
nanaxi mamakacis sxvadasxva parametris _
fizikuri da seqsualuri mimzidvelobis,
socialuri misaRebobis da paemanze Sexvedris sasurvelobis _ mixedviT Sefasebas
sTxovdnen. miuxedavad imisa, rom orive
saxis CanawerSi Zalze msgavsi mamakacebi
monawileobdnen, qalebi ufro mimzidvelad
da sasurvelad im mamakacs miiCnevdnen,
romelic altruistuli qcevebis ganxorcielebaze Tanxmobas gamoxatavda (JensenCampbell et al.,1995).

747

saidan
viciT

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

empaTiam usamarTlobamde SeiZleba


migviyvanos

748

eqsperimentis monawileebs mTeli jgufisaTvis an jgufis ramdenime wevrisTvis


latariis bileTebis ganawilebas sTxovdnen. Tu bileTebi mTel jgufs daurigdeboda, TiToeul wevrs bileTebis Tanabari
raodenoba unda mieRo, anu gadawyveta
samarTliani unda yofiliyo.
eqsperimentis erT-erT variantSi monawileebi jgufis erT-erT wevris avtobiografias kiTxulobdnen, romelSic aRwerili iyo, Tu rogor miatova partniorma
misi avtori xangrZlivi romantikuli urTierTobebis Semdeg. ra gavlenas moaxdenda
es informacia bileTebis ganawilebaze?
rodesac eqsperimentis monawileebs sTxoves, warmoedginaT, Tu ras ganicdida es
adamiani, maT damatebiTi bileTebi misces
mitovebul individs. empaTia adamianTan
emociuri identifikacia samarTlianobis
principze maRla dadga (Batson et al., 1999).

deniel batsonma da misma kolegebma empaTiaaltruizmis hipoTezis saCveneblad kidev


ramdenime cda Caatares: rodesac Tqven TanaugrZnobT sxva adamians, es grZnoba altruistul
motivs aRviZebs da misi daxmarebisaken gibiZgebT.
zemoT aRweril eqsperimentSi uaxloesi altruistuli motivi ufro damajerebeli aRmoCnda,
vidre _ abstraqtuli samarTlianoba. amgvarad,
empaTiam, SesaZloa, iseTi altruistuli qcevebi
aRZras, rom individis keTildReoba jgufis
keTildReobaze maRla dadges (Batson et al.,1995).
Tqven SegiZliaT, dainaxoT, Tu ramdenad
mniSvnelovania, rom TiToeuli qceva mTliani
situaciis konteqstSi iqnas ganxiluli: is, rac,
erTi SexedviT, antisocialur qcevas hgavs,
magaliTad, samarTlianobis principis darRveva,
sxva, gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare,
SesaZloa, prosocialur qcevad ganixilebodes.
Mme-17 TavSi socialuri fsiqologiis gavlili
gakveTilebidan ukve viciT, Tu ramdenad Zlieradaa determinirebuli adamianebis qcevebi situaciuri faqtorebiT. iq Cven mxolod zedapi-

rulad SevexeT prosocialuri qcevis iZulebiT


xasiaTs. axla aRvwerT kvlevis klasikur programas, romelic naTlad gviCvenebs, Tu ramdenad
aris damokidebuli adamianebis mzadyofna
daxmarebisaTvis maTi unari, imoqmedon prosocialuri qcevis motivebis Sesabamisad arsebuli situaciis maxasiaTeblebze.

prosocialur qcevaze
situaciis gavlenebi
kvlevis es programa tragediiT daiwyo.
qvinsSi, niuiorkSi, sakuTari binebis fanjrebidan,
usafrTxod myofi 38 respeqtabeluri da
kanonmorCili moqalaqe naxevar saaTze meti xnis
ganmavlobaSi Tval-yurs adevnebda mkvlels,
romelic quCaSi samjer daesxa Tavs qals da
sasikvdilo Wrilobebi miayena mas. pirvelad
mkvleli xmaurma da binebSi uecrad anTebulma
sinaTlem daafrTxo, magram, amis miuxedavad,
igi mainc dabrunda da ganagrZo msxverplisTvis
Wrilobebis miyeneba. am Tavdasxmis ganmavlobaSiYprqtikulad arc erT adamians ar daurekavs
policiaSi; mxolod erTma maTganma dareka da
isic mxolod mas Semdeg, rac qali ukve mkvdari
iyo (Rosenthal, 1964). kiti jenovezes mkvlelobis
sagazeTo cnobam SeaZrwuna mTeli eri, romelsac
ar surda daejerebina, rom adamianebma msgavsi
apaTia da gulqvaoba gamoiCines.

magram iqneba ki samarTliani, rom am adamianebs


apaTiurebi da gulqvebi vuwodoT? iqneb, SesaZlebeli iyos maTi qcevis axsna situaciuri
Zalebis zemoqmedebiT? am kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad bib leiteinma da jon darleim (Bibb
Latane and John Darley, 1970) klasikuri kvlevebis
seria Caatares. MmaTi mizani imis Cvenebaa, rom
TviTmxilvelTa Careva _ sxvisTvis gaWirvebaSi
daxmarebis gawevisTvis mzaoba damokidebulia
imaze, Tu ramdenad sensitiurebi arian isini
situaciis maxasiaTeblebis mimarT. maT laboratoriaSi Seqmnes TviTmxilvelTa Carevis eqsperimentuli situacia.
suraTi

viciT
rodis exmarebian adamianebi sxvebs
eqsperimentSi kolejis studenti vaJebi
monawileobdnen. TiToeuli maTgani moaTavses satelefono kavSiriT aRWurvil
oTaxSi da daarwmunes, rom is telefoniT
esaubreboda mezobel oTaxSi myof sxva
(erT an met) students. pirad problemebze
saubris dros cdis pirebs telefonSi
esmodaT xmauri, romelic miuTiTebda
imaze, rom partniors epilefsiis Seteva
daewyo da moguduli xmiT iTxovda Svelas.
am Setevis~ dros cdis piri moklebuli
iyo sxva studentebTan dalaparakebis
SesaZleblobas da ar SeeZlo gaego, Tu
ra xdeboda da keTdeboda am sagangebo
mdgomareobaSi daxmarebis aRmosaCenad.
eqsperimentSi damokidebuli cvladi iyo
is dro, romelic dasWirdeboda cdis pirs
eqsperimentatorisTvis sagangebo situaciis Sesatyobineblad.
aRmoCnda, rom Carevis albaToba damokidebuli iyo TviTmxilvelTa im nagulisxmev odenobaze, romlebmac, cdis pirebis
azriT, gaiges Seqmnili situaciis Sesaxeb.
rac ufro meti adamianis CarTulobas
varaudobda cdis piri, miT ufro gvian
atyobinebda eqsperimentators, an sulac
gaCumebas arCevda. rogorc 18.2 suraTze

18.2

TviTmxilvelis Careva sagangebo


situaciis dros
rac ufro meti adamiania CarTuli mocemul
situaciaSi, miT naklebia SesaZlebloba, rom
romelime maTgani Caereva masSi. yvelaze swrafad TviTmxilvelebi reagireben ormonawilian
jgufebSi.

Cans, TiToeul orkacian situaciaSi Careva


saSualod 160 wamis ganmavlobaSi xorcieldeboda, magram 40%-ma imaTgan, visac
sjeroda, rom didi jgufis nawils warmoadgenda, Tavi ar Seiwuxa Seqmnili situaciis Sesaxeb eqsperimentatorisTvis
informaciis miwodebiT (Darley & Latane, 1968).

es pasuxismgeblobis difuziis Sedegia. rodesac erTze met adamians SeuZlia sagangebo


mdgomareobaSi myofi pirisTvis daxmarebis gaweva,
isini xSirad varaudoben, rom sxva daexmareba,
an unda daexmaros, TviTon ki ganze dgeba da ar
erTveba situaciaSi.

TviTmxilvelis Careva (Bystander intervention)


mzadyofna, daexmaro adamians, romelsac daxmareba sWirdeba.
pasuxismgeblobis difuzia (Diffusion of responsibility) _ sagangebo pirobebSi rac ufro didia
TviTmxilvelTa ricxvi, miT ufro naklebia
TiToeuli maTganis pasuxismgebloba daxmarebis
aRmoCenis TvalsazrisiT.

altruizmi da prosocialuri qceva

saidan

749

TviTmxilvelma unda gaacnobieros


situaciis sagangebooba
zemoT aRweril eqsperimentSi situacia iseTi
iyo, rom cdis pirebma araferi icodnen mimdinare
movlenebis Sesaxeb. Tumca, mraval cxovrebiseul
situaciaSi, rodesac adamianebi TavianTi yoveldRiuri saqmeebiT arian dakavebulni midian
samsaxurSi an Sexvedraze SesaZloa, verc ki
amCnevdnen, rom maT winaSe iseTi situaciaa, romelSic maT sxvebisTvis daxmarebis aRmoCena SeuZliaT.
erT-erT dramatul eqsperimentSi prinstonis
Teologiuri seminariis studentebi darwmunebulebi iyvnen, rom msmenelebi saTanadod Seafasebdnen maT qadagebas, romlis erT-erTi Tema
keTili samaritelis igavi iyo. SegaxsenebT, rom
igavi axali aRTqmis erT-erT personaJzea, romelmac gamonaxa dro gzaze dagdebuli daWrili
adamianis dasaxmareblad.

saidan

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

viciT

750

vin amCnevs sagangebo situacias


seminaristebs qadagebani sxvadasxva
SenobebSi unda waekiTxaT, romelTagan erTerTSi maT mokle instruqtaJi CautardaT.
SemTxveviTi SerCevis Sedegad, seminaristebis erT jgufs momzadebisTvis, faqtobrivad, araviTari dro ar hqonda da metic,
maT unda eCqaraT kidec, rom ar daegvianaT
qadagebis dawyeba. meore jgufs sakmao dro
hqondaT momzadebisTvis. mesame jgufis
wevrebma ki davaleba bevrad adre miiRes.
rodesac TiToeuli maTgani midioda daniSnulebis adgilisaken, xeivanSi, or Senobas Soris isini awydebodnen mamakacs,
romelic maT Tvalwin, mowyvetiT, xvelebiTa da kvnesiT ecemoda miwaze. amrigad,
seminaristebs, eZleodaT Sansi, realurad
ganexorcielebinaT is, ris Sesaxebac unda
eqadagaT. aRasrules ki maT es? imaTgan,
vinc Cqarobda, mxolod 10%-ma aRmouCina
daxmareba dacemuls. visac zustad sakmao
dro hqonda _ 45%-ma, xolo imaTgan, visac
saWiroze bevrad meti dro hqonda _ 63%-ma
ganaxorciela keTili samaritelis qcevis
analogiuri qceva (Darley & Batson, 1973).

ra Sefaseba SeiZleba mivceT dagvianebul~


seminaristebs? SesaZloa, isini imdenad iyvnen
sakuTari sazrunaviT dakavebulni, rom verc ki
SeZles sagangebo situaciis SemCneva. SesaZloa,
SeamCnies kidec, magram ver SeZles misi sagangeboobis Sefaseba. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Tqven
xedavT, rom daxmarebis qcevis ganxorcieleba
damokidebulia im droze, romelic situaciis
Sesafaseblad gaqvT.

TviTmxilvelebma movlenebi unda


Seafason, rogorc sagangebo
cxovrebaSi mravali situacia sakmaod bundovania. magaliTad, Tqven sulac ar gindaT,
rom Tavi uxerxul mdgomareobaSi CaigdoT da
xelovnuri sunTqva piridan-pirSi~ CautaroT
adamians, romelsac ubralod sZinavs. imis
gadasawyvetad, aris Tu ara esa Tu is situacia
sagangebo, Tqven, Cveulebriv, uyurebT sxva adamianebs da maT reaqciebs (Latane & Darley, 1970).
amasTan dakavSirebiT, Tqven, aseve, SegiZliaT,
gaixsenoT msjeloba informaciuli zegavlenis
Sesaxeb, romelzec me-17 TavSi visaubreT. CaufiqrdiT TviTmxilvelis mier moyolil ambavs,
romelic aRwers, Tu rogor eswreboda igi
leqcias, romelzec oratori waqcevis piras
iyo misuli:
oratori aRelvebuli iyo da misi metyveleba aSkarad neldeboda. es misi sityvis finalis gamokveTaa, Tu igi Zalas
kargavs? SesaZloa, mas dajdoma sWirdeba,
magram rogor SevTavazo mas es ise, rom
sityva ar Sevawyvetino? vaiTu, situacias
arasworad vafaseb da mere yvelam sulelad
CamTvalos? magram iqneb marTali var, is
gonebas kargavs da sityvis damTavrebamde
scenidan rom Camovardes? parteris skamebze
dacemisas is aucileblad daimtvreva. vicodi, rom es unda ameridebina, magram me
es ver SevZeli.
Tqven xedavT, Tu ramdenad Znelia imisTvisac
ki, vinc mtkiced flobs fsiqologiur codnas,
aiZulos sakuTari Tavi, imoqmedos iseT situaciaSi, romelsac, rogorc Cans, sxva aravin
afasebs sagangebo situaciad. da ai, rogor damTavrda es ambavi:

rogorc xedavT, gadawyvetileba Carevis Sesaxeb


garkveul windaxedulebas moiTxovs. asea Tu ise,
am mokle ambidanac naTlad Cans, Tu ramdenad
Znelia erTpirovnuli gadawyvetilebis miReba
da gansazRvra imisa, rom situacia sagangeboa.

TviTmxilveli pasuxismgeblobas unda


grZnobdes
Cven ukve aRvniSneT, rom Caurevlobis erTerT mniSvnelovan faqtors pasuxismgeblobis
difuzia warmoadgens. Tu Tqven daxmarebas
saWiroebT, yvelanairad unda ecadoT, garSemomyofebs daaZlevinoT winaaRmdegoba da sakuTar
Tavze aaRebinoT pasuxismgebloba. Tqven SegiZliaT pirdapir miuTiToT vinmeze da uTxraT _
me Tqveni daxmareba mWirdeba~. ganvixiloT ori
kvleva, romelic mkafiod gamoxatul danaSauls
exeba. pirvel kvlevaSi niuiorkelebi swrafi
kvebis restoranSi uyurebdnen, Tu rogor gamostaca mZarcvelma qals CanTa, rodesac is magididan dgeboda. meore kvlevaSi plaJze myofi
xalxi uyurebda qurds, romelmac pirsaxocze
dadebuli portatuli radio moipara, rogorc
ki patronma ramdenime wamiT yuradReba moaduna.

saidan
viciT
pasuxismgeblobis grZnobis aRZvra
TiToeul am eqsperimentSi msxverpli~
(eqsperimentatoris asistenti) danaSaulis
TviTmxilvelebs ekiTxeboda: gaqvT dro?~
an Tu SeiZleba, Cem dabrunebamde, cota
xniT yuradReba miaqcieT Cems CanTas (radios)~. pirveli interaqcia ar gulisxmobs

personalur pasuxismgeblobas da TviTmxilvelebic uazrod Sehyureben danaSauls, xolo isini, vinc daTanxmda msxverplis~ qonebisTvis yuradRebis miqcevas,
TiTqmis yvela CaerTo situaciaSi. isini
iTxovdnen Svelas, zogierTma gaqceuli
qurdic ki daiWira (Moriarty, 1975).

es eqsperimentebi migviTiTeben, rom daxmarebis


Txovnis aqti exmianeba adamianebis grZnobebs,
rac sxva adamianebsac rTavs situaciaSi da
safuZvlianad cvlis maT, xolo sul sxva movlenaa (da Secdoma iqneboda es apaTiurobad
CagveTvala) is, rom adamianebi xels ver uSlian
qurdobas. Mmcire davalebac ki _ xom ver mixedavdiT amas~ socialur-fsiqologiuri Zalebis gavleniT, maT situaciaSi rTavs da aqcevs
adamianad, romelsac uSualod moeTxoveba daxmarebis aRmoCena.
am qveTavSi Cven vsaubrobdiT prosocialur
qcevaze _ im garemoebebze, romlebSic adamianebi
erTmaneTs exmarebian. Cven vvaraudobT, rom
daxmarebis motivacia, SesaZloa, adamianis
genetikuri memkvidreobis nawilia. asea Tu ise,
adamianis buneba prosocialuri da antisocialuri impulsebis nazavs warmoadgens. momdevno
qveTavSi qcevis gansxvavebul saxes _ agresias _
SevexebiT, rac, SesaZloa, aseve adamianis genomSia
kodirebuli.

Sejameba
adamianebi axorcieleben prosocialur qcevebs, raTa sxva adamianebs daxmareba aRmouCinon.
isini altruistul qcevebs axorcieleben maSinac
ki, rodesac es maT pirad interesebs ar Tanxvdeba. evoluciuri Tvalsazrisi uSvebs, rom
adamianebi ojaxis wevrebis mimarT altruistulad genofondis SenarCunebis mizniT iqcevian;
altruizmi sxvaTa mimarT ki im daSvebiT aixsneba,
rom mis safuZvlad ormxrivobis molodini devs.
prosocialuri qcevebis sxva motivebia: egoizmi,
koleqtivizmi da principuloba. zogierT SemTxvevaSi am motivebs Soris, SesaZloa, arsebobdes
konfliqti. ramdenime situaciuri Zala moqmedebs
maSin, rodesac adamiani prosocialur qcevas
gansakuTrebul garemoebebSi axorcielebs. ada-

altruizmi da prosocialuri qceva

me videqi oratoris win da xelebi misken


mqonda gawvdili. is sruliad gaognebuli
damcqeroda zemodan. warmovidgine, ras
fiqrobdnen Cemi studentebi da kolegebi,
romlebic Tvalyurs adevnebdnen Cems
eqscentrul qcevas, imis molodinSi, Tu
rogor SemovaWdobdi mklavebs pativcemul
stumars, vidre is leqcias daamTavrebda.
swored am dros oratori sabolood modunda
da grZnobadakarguli dameca. Cven xmauriT
davcvivdiT pirveli rigis skamebze.

751

mianebi maSin ufro exmarebian sxvebs, rodesac


ar ganicdian pasuxismgeblobis difuzias, amCneven
sagangebo situaciis arsebobas, gansazRvraven
mas, rogorc aseTs da grZnoben am situaciaSi
sakuTar pasuxismgeblobas.

agresia
altruizmis cnebis Semosatanad, gagacaniT
amonaridebi sagazeTo statiebidan, romlebic
sxvadasxva gmirul aqtebs Seexeboda. samwuxarod,
gazeTebi, albaT, ufro met informacias gvawvdian
agresiis gamovlinebis Sesaxeb; adamianebis iseTi
qcevebis Sesaxeb, romelTac sxva adamianebisaTvis
fizikuri an fsiqologiuri zianis miyeneba sdevs
Tan. ai, mxolod ramdenime saTauri New York
Times~-is 2000 wlis 13 oqtombris nomridan:
iemenSi afeTqebam amerikeli mezRvaurebi
imsxverpla;

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

brbom israelis ori jariskaci mokla; vertmfrenebi Camogdebulia;

752

CeCneTis dedaqalaqSi 12-ze meti adamiani


yumbaram imsxverpla;
kolumbielma ajanyebulebma xelSi Caigdes
navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxnis aTi ucxoeli
TanamSromeli.
am mokle CamonaTvalidanac kargad Cans, Tu
ramdenad mravalferovania adamianebis mier
erTmaneTis mimarT gamovlenili agresia. amdenad,
TqvenTvis isic gasagebi unda iyos, Tu ratom
aqvs mniSvneloba fsiqologebisaTvis agresiis
mizezebis gagebas, ris saboloo mizans, cxadia,
sazogadoebaSi agresiis gamovlinebebis Semcireba
warmoadgens.

evoluciuri midgoma
prosocialuri qcevisadmi miZRvnil qveTavSi
Cven warmovaCineT evoluciis erT-erTi Tavsatexi:
ratom xdeba, rom adamianebi Tavs swiraven sxva
adamianebis keTildReobisaTvis? agresiuli
qcevis arseboba ki, ra Tqma unda, aseT kiTxvas
ar aRZravs. evoluciis Teoriis mixedviT,
cxovelebi agresiul qcevebs axorcieleben, raTa

sakuTari Tavi uzrunvelyon sawinaaRmdego sqesis


partnioriT da moipovon da daicvan is bunebrivi
resursebi, romlebic maTi da maTi STamomavlobis sicocxlis SenarCunebas uzrunvelyofs.
karl lorencis (Karl Lorenz, 1966) klasikur
naSromSi agresiis Sesaxeb~, dokumenturad aris
naCvenebi cxovelTa samyaroSi arsebuli agresiuli qcevebis mTeli mravalferovneba. lorenci, aseve, dokumenturad aRwers im meqanizmebs,
romlebic amcireben agresias: erT yorans
niskartis erTi dartymiT SeuZlia Tvali amougdos meores; mgels erTi kbeniT SeuZlia meores
sauRle venebi gadauRrRnas, magram aRar iarsebebda arc erTi yorani da arc erTi mgeli,
rom ar arsebobdes saimedo muxruWebi aseTi qcevebis asarideblad~ (gv. 240). lorencis TvalsazrisiT, swored es niSania, rac adamians mTeli
danarCeni cocxali samyarosagan ganasxvavebs. igi
amtkicebs, rom adamians msgavsi meqanizmebi
saTanadod ar aqvs ganviTarebuli. lorenci
fiqrobs, rom adamianSi aseTi amridebeli meqanizmebi imitom ar ganviTarda, rom adamianebs,
xelovnuri iaraRis gamoyenebamde, erTmaneTisTvis
didi zianis miyeneba ar SeeZloT. mas Semdeg, rac
gamoCnda iaraRi, lorencis mixedviT, adamiani,
rogorc saxeoba, iseT mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda
rogorc mtredi, romelsac, bunebis ironiiT,
yornis niskarti gamoeba~ (gv. 241).
agresiis Taobaze lorencis mosazrebebis sapasuxod Catarebuli kvlevebi am mosazrebebs
ori TvalsazrisiT ewinaaRmdegeba (Lore & Schultz,
1993). jer erTi, cxovelebis sxvadasxva saxeobebis
bunebriv pirobebSi warmoebuli kvlevebi cxadyofen, rom bevri maTgani iseTive saxiT axorcielebs agresias, rogorc adamiani. magaliTad,
iseTi, erTi SexedviT, uwyinari cxovelebic ki,
rogorebic Simpanzeebi arian, brbosaviT ikvrebian da ise klaven Tvistoms (Goodall, 1986). agresiis sxva biologiur saxeobebSi gamovlenac
ver aris sanugeSo adamianisaTvis Cven ubralod
gveCveneba, rom ukeTesebi varT, sinamdvileSi ki
evoluciuri wyvetebis arsebobaze Zalze cota
ram Tu miuTiTebs. meorec, gamokvlevebma aCvena,
rom adamians sakuTari agresiis Semakavebeli
ufro meti meqanizmi gaaCnia, vidre amas lorenci
agresia (Aggression) _ qceva, romelic sxva
individis fizikur an fsiqologiur dazianebas
iwvevs.

individualuri gansxvavebebi
ratom aris zogierTi individi ufro
agresiuli, vidre sxvebi? lorencis debulebaTa
konteqstSi TqvenTvis gasagebi xdeba, Tu ratom
aviTareben mkvlevrebi HhipoTezas, romlis
Tanaxmadac, agresiis individualur gamovlenaSi
mniSvnelovan rols genetikuri komponenti
asrulebs. cxadia, Tqvenc SegimCneviaT, rom
zogierTi adamiani naklebad agresiuli Cans,
vidre sxvebi. Cveulebriv, gavrcelebulia azri,
rom agresiuloba Tu Zaladobisaken midrekileba,
ojaxidan iwyeba. Tumca, verafers vityviT imis
Taobaze, agresia genetikis Sedegia Tu garemosi,

sanam specialuri gamokvlevebis Sedegebs ar


ganvixilavT.

saidan
viciT
genetikisa da garemos faqtorebis
roli agresiaSi
mravali im meTodis gamoyenebiT, romelic wina TavebSi aRvwereT, mkvlevrebma
miagnes pasuxs agresiaSi genetikuri faqtorebis rolis Taobaze. magaliTad, maT
Seadares identuri (monozigoturi) da
fraternaluri (dizigoturi) tyupebis
pirovnebebis agresiulobisadmi midrekileba; sxva SemTxvevaSi, maT Seafases bunebrivi da aRzrdis faqtorebis roli
ayvanil bavSvebSi. erT kvlevaSi gamoyenebul iqna statistikuri meTodi, romelsac
meta-analizi ewodeba, raTa moexdinaT
yvela im bunebrivi Tu aRzrdis faqtoris
rolis Sefaseba, romelic Seswavlil iqna
adre Catarebul 24 gamokvlevaSi (Miles &
Carey, 1997). (meta-analizi ufro srulad
me-16 TavSi aRvwereT). meta-analizma gamoavlina agresiaSi genetikuri faqtorebis
mdgradi da mniSvnelovani gadafarva, rogorc tyupebs, aseve, ayvanil bavSvebsa da
maT biologiur mSoblebs Soris. magaliTad, monozigoturi tyupebi myarad
aCveneben maRal korelacias agresiulo-

agresia

varaudobda. faqtobrivad, adamiani, Tavisi


socialuri garemoTi ganpirobebulobiT, agresiis gamovlenisas arCevans akeTebs. rogorc am
qveTavSi mogvianebiT vnaxavT, kulturebSi
calkec ki aris gamoyofili is garemoebebi,
romlebSic agresia ara Tu dasaSvebia, aramed _
zogjer aucilebelic ki. Cven vityodiT, rom es
kulturebi Tavad asruleben kritikul rols
imis gansazRvraSi, Tu ra zomiT unda gamoavlinos adamianma agresiis Sekavebis~ unari.
evoluciuri analizi adasturebs, rom gadarCenis tendencia saxeobebis umravlesobaSi Zaladobisadmi Tandayolil tendenciaSi gamovlindeba. Tumca, adamianisTvis, rogorc saxeobisTvis,
ar aqvs mniSvneloba, ramdenad metad Tu naklebad
avlenen sxva saxeobebi agresiis tendencias.
Semdeg agresiis gamovlenaSi arsebul individualur gansxvavebebs ganvixilavT.

753

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

basTan, dizigotur tyupebTan SedarebiT.


garemo ki agresiaze, Cveulebriv, axdens
mcire, magram gazomvad gavlenas.M

754

meta-analizi saSualebas gvaZlevs, davuSvaT,


rom sxvebTan SedarebiT, zogierT individs
agresiisadmi ufro meti midrekileba aqvs. M
mkvlevrebma, aseve, gaamaxviles yuradReba
tvinsa da hormonalur gansxvavebebze, romlebic,
SesaZloa, aseve, qmnidnen agresiuli qcevebisadmi
garkveul predispoziciebs. rogorc me-13 TavSi
vnaxeT, tvinis garkveuli struqturebi, rogoricaa amigdala da qerqis garkveuli ubnebi,
mniSvnelovan rols asruleben emociebis gamoxatvasa da regulirebaSi. rac Seexeba agresias,
aq mniSvnelovania, rom tvinis gamtari gzebi
efeqturad funqcionirebdnen da individs negatiuri emociebis gamoxatvaze kontrolis saSualebas aZlevdnen. Tuki, magaliTad, adamianebi
saTanado doneze ver axdenen amigdalas aqtivacias, maT, SesaZloa, ver aicilon negatiuri
emociebi, rac, Tavis mxriv, maT agresiul qcevebamde miiyvans (Davidson et al., 2000). yuradReba
gamaxvilda, agreTve, neirogadamcem serotoninze;
gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom serotononis arasaTanado donem, SesaZloa, gaauaresos tvinis SesaZleblobebi negatiuri emociebis gamoxatvisa da
impulsuri qcevis regulirebaSi (Enserink, 2000).
dabolos, kvlevebma cxadyo, rom agresiaSi
zogierTi individualuri gansxvaveba, SesaZloa,
stresze farul reaqciebs asaxavdes. magaliTad,
erT-erTi proeqti exeboda 7-dan 12 wlamde
bavSvebSi agresiul qcevebsa da stresul hormons
_ kortisols Soris kavSiris dadgenas: yvelaze
agresiul biWebs yvelaze metad faruli reaqciebi
hqondaT stresze (McBurnett et al., 2000). es Sedegebi
gviCvenebs, rom zogierTi individi, SesaZloa,
ar ganicdides fiziologiur stresul reaqciebs,
rac adamianebis umravlesobas dramatuli agresiuli qcevebis ganxorcielebisagan icavs: maTi
sxeuli, ubralod, ar reagirebs negatiuri qcevebisa da emociebis Sedegebze.
pirovnebis agresiis fsiqologiurma kvlevebma
agresiuli qcevebis kategoriebis diferenciaciis mniSvnelobaze miuTiTa: gansxvavebuli
pirovnuli profilis mqone adamianebi gansxvavebuli saxis agresias avlenen. erT-erTi mniSvnelovani midgoma erTmaneTisagan ganasxvavebs im-

pulsur agresias da instrumentul agresias


(Berkowitz,1993; Caprara et al., 1996). impulsuri agresia
situaciaze reaqciaa da emociiT aRiZvreba: adamianebi agresiuli aqtebiT reagireben emociurad
datvirTul momentSi. Tu Tqven avtokatastrofis
Semdeg gamarTul xelCarTul brZolas xedavT,
es impulsuri agresiis magaliTia. instrumentuli agresia mizanmimarTuli da kogniturad
gaazrebulia. aseT SemTxvevaSi adamianebi gegmaven
da fiqroben masze, raTa miaRwion garkveul
mizans. Tu xedavT, rom viRac asakovan qals
daesxa Tavs safulis wasarTmevad, es ukve instrumentuli agresiaa. gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom
adamianebi, romlebic agresiis gamovlenis am
ori tipiT gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisgan, pirovnuli Taviseburebebis gansxvavebuli klasterebiT xasiaTdebian (Caprara et al.,1996). magaliTad, individebi, romlebsac impulsuri agresiisadmi midrekileba daudasturdaT, zogadad,
SeiZleba daxasiaTdnen, rogorc maRali emociuri
mgrZnobelobis mqoneni. es niSnavs, rom isini
Zlier emociur reaqciebs iZlevian mTel rig
situaciebSi. amis sawinaaRmdegod, individebi,
romlebic instrumentuli agresiisken midrekiimpulsuri agresia (Impulsive aggression) _ emociebiT gamowveuli agresia, warmoqmnili gansakuTrebiT mwvave situaciebze sapasuxod.
instrumentuli agresia (Instrumental aggression) _
kogniturad dasabuTebuli da mizanmimarTuli
agresia, romelic warmoiqmneba winaswar mofiqrebulad, specifikuri miznebis misaRwevad.

ratom gamoiwvia Tqveni agresia konkretulad


am situaciam? Tqvens konfliqts am pirovnebasTan
didi xnis istoria aqvs, Tu es erTjeradi
urTierToba iyo? Tqven Zalian agresiulad iyaviT
ganwyobili raime konkretuli mizezis gamo,
Tu ubralod im momentSi iyaviT gaRizianebuli?
es mxolod mcire CamonaTvalia im kiTxvebisa,
romlebsac mkvlevrebi svamen agresiasa da
situacias Soris kavSiris kvlevisas. rodesac
studentebs vkiTxeT, Tu ras fiqrobdnen isini
sakuTar agresiul qcevebze, maT mravalgvari
pasuxebi mogvawodes, romelTac qvemoT gaecnobiT.

frustracia-agresiis hipoTeza
namdvilad mZime dRe iyo im dRes, bolo
registracia unda gamevlo kursze. verc
veravin vnaxe, rom damxmareboda. rodesac
meaTased miTxres: Tqven sxva kancelarias
unda mimarToT~, _ ise gavgiJdi, rom faqtobrivad kari gavamtvrie~.
lebiT gamoirCevian, SeiZleba daxasiaTdnen,
rogorc Zaladobis pozitiurad Sefasebis faqtoris mixedviT maRali maCveneblis mqoneni. am
individebs sjeraT, rom Zaladobis mravali
forma gamarTlebulia da ar ganicdian moralur
pasuxismgeblobas agresiuli qcevebis gamo. am
analizidan SegiZliaT iswavloT, rom yvela
tipis agresia ar aRiZvreba mis safuZvlad mdebare
msgavsi pirovnuli faqtorebiT.
adamianebis umravlesoba ar avlens midrekilebas agresiis erTi romelime tipis mimarT:
isini ar icvlebian mcire darRvevebis an Zaladobis mizandasaxuli aqtebis Semdeg. miuxedavad
amisa, zogierT situaciaSi Zalze damTmobma
adamianebmac ki SeiZleba ganaxorcielon agresiuli aqtebi. axla situaciis im tipebs ganvixilavT, romlebic xSirad qmnian agresiis
aRmZvrel pirobebs.

es ambavi erTi konkretuli magaliTia imisa,


rasac frustracia-agresiis hipoTezas uwodeben
(Dollard etal., 1939). am hipoTezis Tanaxmad, frustracias maSin aqvs adgili, rodesac adamianebs
xeli eSlebaT dasaxuli miznebis miRwevaSi.
frustraciis zrdis pirobebSi ki Zalze didia
agresiis gamovlenis albaToba. kavSiri frustraciasa da agresias Soris mravali empiriuli
cdiTaa dadasturebuli (Berkovitz, 1993,1998). magaliTad, bavSvebma, romelTa imedic ar gamarTlda
_ maT ar miecaT gansakuTrebiT mimzidveli
saTamaSoebiT TamaSis ufleba, agresia gamoavlines am saTamaSoebis mimarT, rogorc ki maTi
xelSi Cagdebis SesaZlebloba miecaT (Barker et
al., 1941). mecnierebma es hipoTeza gamoiyenes agresiis asaxsnelad rogorc pirovnul, ise _ socialur doneze.

saidan

SeecadeT, gamoZebnoT dro da gaixsenoT,


bolos rodis ganaxorcieleT agresiuli qceva.
SesaZloa, es ar iyo fizikuri agresia: Tqven,
SesaZloa, ubralod sityvierad SeuracxyaviT
vinme imisaTvis, rom masSi fsiqologiuri
distresi gamogewviaT. rogor SegiZliaT axsnaT,

viciT
agresia da ekonomika
Tqven, albaT, icnobT am istorias. kaci
samsaxuridan daiTxoves da is brundeba
ufrosis, romelmac daiTxova, da kidev
ramdenime TanamSromlis mosaklavad. ra-

agresia

situaciuri gavlenebi

755

saSualo raodenoba

suraTi

18.3

8
7

temperatura da agresia

suraTidan Cans Tavdasxmebis saSualo


raodenoba (sami saaTis ganmavlobaSi),
rogorc temperaturis Sedegi drois
imave periodSi (temperatura mocemulia
farengeitis skalaze). agresia mniSvnelovnad izrdeba 75 gradusidan (24C).

5
4
3
2
-5

15

25

35

45

55

65

75

85

95

99+

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

temperatura

756

tom unda CaiTvalos samsaxuridan daTxovna


mafrustrirebel garemoebad (arsebobis
wyaros dakargvasTan dakavSirebuli imedgacrueba), romelic agresiuli qcevis ganxorcielebamde migviyvans? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad mecnierTa jgufma Seiswavla urTierTmimarTeba san-franciskos
umuSevrebsa da im adamianebs Soris, romlebic fasdebodnen, rogorc sxvebisaTvis
saSiSni~. analizma mkvlevrebs saSualeba
misca, gaeerTianebinaT maCveneblebi da
ganesazRvraT, ra kavSiria umuSevrobis
maCveneblis zrdasa da Zaladobis zrdis
maCvenebels Soris. aRmoCnda, rom Zaladobis ricxvi umuSevrobis zrdis Sesabamisad izrdeboda, magram mxolod garkveul
donemde. Zaladobis raodenoba matulobs
maSin, rodesac umuSevrobis maCvenebeli
Zalze maRal zRvars aRwevs. ratom unda
xdebodes aseTi ram? mecnierebi Tvlian,
rom umuSevrad darCenis SiSi xels uwyobs
adamianebSi Zaladobis, frustraciiT determinirebuli tendenciis warmoqmnas
(Catalano et al., 1997).

es gamokvleva miuTiTebs, Tu rogor urTierTqmedeben individualuri da socialuri Zalebi,


ris Sedegadac Zaladobis jamur dones viRebT.
frustracia-agresiis hipoTeza (Frustration-aggression hipothesis) am hipoTezis Tanaxmad, frustracia Cndeba situaciebSi, romlebSic adamianebs
saSualeba ar eZlevaT, miaRwion TavianT miznebs; frustraciis aRZvra ki, Tavis mxriv, iwvevs
agresiis ganxorcielebis albaTobis zrdas.

Cven SegviZlia viwinaswarmetyveloT umuSevrobasTan dakavSirebul frustraciaze dafuZnebuli


agrsesiis garkveuli done, Tumca, rodesac adamianebi acnobiereben, rom maT mier gamoxatulma
agresiam, SesaZloa, avnos maT Semdgom dasaqmebas,
Zaladoba maSinve muxruWdeba. es, albaT, gamocdilic gaqvT yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. albaT,
Zalze bevria iseTi situacia, romelSic Tavs
sakmaod frustrirebulad grZnobT, rac sakmarisi
pirobaa agresiis gamosavlenad, magram Tavs
ikavebT, vinaidan acnobierebT, rom es xels
SegiSliT samomavlo gegmebis ganxorcielebaSi.
frustracias yovelTvis ar mohyveba agresia.
magaliTad, rodesac frustracia SemTxveviT aris
gamowveuli, vTqvaT, bavSvma dedas kabaze
SemTxveviT gadaasxa wveni adamianebi naklebad
avlenen agresias, vidre maSin, rodesac frustraciis gamomwvevi raime moqmedeba winaswarganzraxulia (Burnstein & Worchel, 1962). amave dros,
situaciebi, romlebic ar iwveven frustracias,
SesaZloa, iseT negatiur emociebs iwvevdnen,
rom safuZvlad daedon agresul qcevas. aseTi
situaciaa asaxuli qvemoT motanil kidev erT
studentur ambavSi.

temperatura da agresia
cxeli zafxuli iyo, Cems manqanaSi ki
kondicioneri gafuWda, Tanac im biWma gza
gadamiWra, mec gavekide da vecade gamesrisa~.
arsebobs kavSiri temperaturasa da agresias
Soris? ganvixiloT 18.3 suraTze asaxuli
monacemebi. es monacemebi im eqsperimentis Sedegebia, romelSic gamokvleuli iyo tempe-

Tu gavixsenebT, rom ase cudad sicxis gamo


vgrZnobdi Tavs~ da ar davaskvniT, rom imitom
viyavi cudad, rom im tipma lamis SemSala~ da
Tu es Cveni msjeloba WeSmaritia, maSin ratom
aCvenebs suraTi 18.3 TavdasxmaTa raodenobis
Semcirebas Zalian maRali temperaturis pirobebSi? adamianebi imdenad diskomfortulad
grZnoben Tavs, rom ufro metad cdiloben uxerxuli situaciebidan ganridebas, vidre CxubSi
CarTvas (Cohn & Rotton, 1997). qvemoT aRwerili
mesame studenturi ambavi gviCvenebs, Tu rogor
vlindeba mtruli ganwyobileba da rogor Zlierdeba is.

pirdapiri provokacia da eskalacia


biblioTekaSi vijeqi da vcdilobdi,
rame mainc gamekeTebina. viRac ori qali
Zalze xmamaRla saubrobda, riTac garSemomyofebs awuxebda. me vTxove maT, rom
cota xmadabla esaubraT, magram maT yuradReba ar momaqcies. 5 wuTis Semdeg isev
vTxove maT, rom xmadabla esaubraT, magram
maT xmas ufro auwies! maSin vuTxari, rom
isini tutucebi da gonebaClungebi iyvnen
da Tu axlave ar moketaven, biblioTekidan
movisvridi. aman imoqmeda~.
TqvenTvis aRmoCena ar iqneba, rom pirdapiri
provokacia agresiasA iwvevs, anu rodesac vinmes
qceva gabrazebT, an wonasworobas gakargvinebT
da Tanac, Tu Tqven fiqrobT, rom es ganzrax
xdeba, mosalodnelia, rom mas Tqven fizikuri,
an verbaluri agresiiT upasuxoT (Johnson & Rule,
1986). pirdapiri provikaciis efeqti Seesabameba
zogad mosazrebas imis Taobaze, rom situaciebs,
romlebic uaryofiT Sedegebs iwveven, SeuZliaT
agresiis gamovlenamde migviyvanon. aq winaswarganzraxulobas eniWeba gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba, vinaidan adamianebi naklebad arian
midrekilni ganzraxvis gareSe Sesrulebuli
moqmedebebis uaryofiTad Sefasebisken (gaixseneT,
Cven igive daskvna gavakeTeT frustraciis
Sesaxebac, rom is naklebad iwvevs agresias, Tu
ar aris winaswarganzraxuli qmedebis Sedegi).
Aam ambis meore damaxasiaTebeli niSani,
provokaciis garda, eskalaciaa: vinaidan provokaciaze reaqciam Sedegi ar gamoiRo, studentis
Semdgomi reaqciac ufro agresiuli gaxda.

agresia

raturis gavlena bolo ori wlis manZilze


mineapolisSi (minesotis Stati) momxdar Tavdasxmebze. diagramas 36617 aRricxuli Tavdasxmis
analizi udevs safuZvlad (Cohn & Rotton, 1997).
rogorc xedavT, arsebobs Zlieri kavSiri temperaturasa da Tavdasxmebis ganxorcielebas
Soris. Tumca, faqtobrivad, diagrama srulad
ar asaxavs arsebul suraTs: realurad agresia
ufro maRalia gvian saRamosa da adre diliT
(saRamos 9 saaTidan dilis 3 saaTamde).
riT SeiZleba iyos ganpirobebuli es garemoeba? am monacemebis axsna rogorc socialur,
ise _ fsiqologiur ZalebSi unda veZioT. socialur doneze, Tqven ukve mixvdiT, axsna efuZneba
im faqts, rom Tavdasxmebi ufro metad xorcieldeba maSin, rodesac adamianebi saxlis gareT
arian. Tbil amindSi adamianebi ufro metad
arian gareT da, Sesabamisad, ufro xSiradac
xdebian Tavdasxmis msxverplni. mniSvnelovania
isic, rom saRamos 9-dan dilis 3 saaTamde
adamianebi naklebad arian datvirTulni samuSaoTi Tu sxva sapasuxismgeblo saqmeebiT. da ufro
metic, am periodSi maT, SesaZloa, miiRon
alkoholuri sasmeli an raime sxva saSualeba,
rac Seasustebs TavdamsxmelisTvis winaaRmdegobis gawevis unars (Ito et al., 1996).
aseTi socialuri axsnebis Semdeg, aris ki
saWiro, rom fsiqologiac CavrToT saqmeSi? pasuxi dadebiTia. meore, Zalze mniSvnelovani
komponenti, romelsac SeuZlia axsnas 18.3 suraTze gamosaxuli monacemebi, imis garkvevaa,
Tu rogor axerxeben adamianebi sicxis daZlevas
da rogor axdenen sicxiT gamowveuli diskomfortis interpretirebas. gaixseneT me-13 TavSi
mocemuli msjeloba Sefasebebisa da emociebis
Sesaxeb. warmoidgineT, rom farengeitis skalaze
75 gradusian (24C) sicxeSi Tqven viRacas
esaubrebiT da grZnobT, rom gcxelaT da
diskomforts ganicdiT. vis an ras daukavSirebdiT Tqvens diskomforts, sicxes Tu Tanamosaubres? zustad im xarisxiT gamoxatavT mis
mimarT agresias, ra xarisxiTac gaakeTebT mcdar
daskvnas da diskomforts Tanamosaubres daukavSirebT, (Tqven, agreTve, SegiZliaT gaixsenoT
me-17 TavSi ganxiluli msjeloba atribuciis
fundamentaluri Secdomis Taobaze). ratom unda
hqondes mniSvneloba sicxes swored gvian saRamos
da adre diliT? dRis bolos, albaT, Znelad

757

saidan
viciT

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

eskalacia daJinebuli gaRizianebis


sapasuxod

758

erT-erT kvlevaSi cdis pirebs unda


gaenawilebinaT eqsperimentatoris mier
gamoyofili, davalebis SesrulebisTvis
saWiro saxsrebi, magram imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom erTma jgufma, romelic
eqsperimentatorTan winaswar iyo SeTanxmebuli, faqtobrivad, uari Tqva TanamSromlobaze. eqsperimentatorma Caiwera
namdvil cdis pirTa mcdelobebi, mieRwiaT
SeTanxmebisaTvis (molaparakeba ori oTaxis
damakavSirebeli satelefono xazis meSveobiT mimdinareobda). mcdeloba sityvieri
gancxadebiT (Cven es gvWirdeba!) daiwyo,
Semdeg gabrazebul moTxovnaSi (Zalian
maRizianebT!) gadaizarda, Tan mTel saubars
salanZRavi mimarTvebi (magaliTad, gonebaClungebi xarT, biWebo!) gasdevda. praqtikulad, jgufis winaaRmdegobis Sesabamisad
xdeboda agresiis eskalacia. eqsperimentatorebi Tvlian, rom adamianebma daiswavles eskalaciis scenari. mexsierebis
struqturaSi aisaxeba provokaciis gagrZelebasTan dakavSirebuli kulturaSi
kodirebuli normebi, romelTa Sesabamisadac adamianebi agresiulad reagireben
provokaciis gagrZelebaze (Mikolic et al., 1997).

iyeneben danaSaulis Casadenad. am tipis agresia


ganxilul unda iqnes, rogorc ufro farTo
kriminologiuri Teoriis komponenti.
Cven, metwilad, im garemoebebs SevexeT, romlebSic Cveulebrivi individebi, sakuTari TavisTvis moulodnelad, impulsur agresiul
aqtebs axorcieleben. momdevno qveTavSi davinaxavT, rom kulturuli gansxvavebebi zRudaven
rogorc individualur, ise _ kriminalur agresias.

kulturuli SezRudvebi
Cven ukve visaubreT imis Sesaxeb, rom agresiuli qceva adamianis evoluciuri memkvidreobis
nawils warmoadgens da rom garkveul situaciur
faqtorebs SeuZliaT am agresiuli midrekilebebis aRZvra. aseT viTarebaSic ki, sxvadasxva
tipis monacemebi mowmobs, rom individis mxridan
agresiulobis gamovlenis SesaZleblobebi SezRudulia kulturuli normebiTa da faseulobebiT (Segal et al., 1997). am mosazrebis dasadastureblad Cven Sors wasvla ar dagvWirdeba,
vinaidan ubralod SevadarebT SeerTebul Statebsa da sxva qveynebSi Cadenil mkvlelobis
faqtebs. amerikaSi 7-10-jer meti mkvleloba xdeba,
vidre evropis umetes qveynebSi (Lore & Schultz,
1993). ra faqtorebi ganapirobebs aseT did
gansxvavebebs mkvlelobaTa raodenobebs Soris?
Tu Tqven amerikis moqalaqe xarT, namdvilad
unda gainteresebdeT am kiTxvaze pasuxi.

me~-s konstruqtebi da agresiuli qceva


amCnevT, rom eskalaciis scenari frustraciasa
da agresias Soris urTierTmimarTebebsac exeba?
situaciis Secvlis uSedego sawyis mcdelobas,
rogorc Cans, frustraciis SegrZnebamde mivyavarT, rac kidev ufro zrdis intensiuri agresiis
gamovlenis albaTobas.
axla ki ganvixiloT sxva situaciuri Zalebi,
romlebmac, aseve, SeiZleba migviyvanos fizikuri
da verbaluri agresiis gamovlenamde. sayuradReboa is garemoeba, rom Cven mier moyvanili
yvela magaliTi ufro metad exeba impulsur da
ara _ instrumentul agresias. rogorc zemoT
ukve ganvmarteT, es ukanaskneli iseT garemoebebs
ufro exeba, rodesac adamianebi agresias dasaxuli miznebis miRwevisTvis iyeneben. magaliTad, rodesac mZarcvelebi fizikur Zalas

vidre agresiasa da kulturas Soris urTierTmimarTebebs SevexebodeT, kidev erTxel ganvixiloT pirovnebis me~-s kulturuli konstruqtebis nairsaxeobebi fsiqologia da cxovrebis~
furclebze. rogorc adre ganvmarteT, dasavluri
kulturebis umetesoba asaxavs me~-s damoukidebel konstruqtebs maSin, roca aRmosavluri
kulturebis umravlesoba _ me~-s urTierTdamokidebul (erTmaneTze damokidebul) konstruqtebs (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). ra Sedegebi aqvs am
gansxvavebebs agresiul qcevebTan mimarTebiT?
gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom, Tu adamiani Tavs
sakuTari kulturis sxva wevrebTan fundamenturad dakavSirebulad Tvlis, misgan naklebad
aris mosalodneli agresiuli reaqciebi

bolos da bolos, es xom sakuTari me~-s winaaRmdeg iqneba mimarTuli.

saidan
viciT
agresia iaponel da amerikel bavSvebSi

am eqsperimentma daadastura, rom iaponel


bavSvebs ukve gaSinagnebuli hqondaT urTierTdamokidebulebis (erTmaneTze damokidebuli)
kulturuli normebi: maT ukve gaSinagnebuli
hqondaT is sanqciebi, romelic sxva adamianebisaTvis zianis miyenebas mohyveba. amis sapirispirod, amerikeli bavSvebis qcevam daadastura
maTSi damoukidebeli me~-s arseboba, romelic
dacul unda iqnes sxvebis Tavdasxmisagan.
miuxedavad imisa, rom Cven ganvsazRvreT
mTavari kulturuli gansxvaveba damoukideblobasa da urTierTdamokidebulebas Soris, am
sferoSi ufro daxvewili gansxvavebebis gamoZebnac SesaZlebelia. magaliTad, riCard nisbetma
da misma kolegebma (Nisbett & Cohes, 1996) farTod
Seiswavles agresiasTan dakavSirebuli damokidebulebebi da qcevebi SeerTebuli Statebis
sxvadasxva regionebSi. erT-erTi mniSvnelovani

gansxvaveba, romelic aRmoCenil iqna am kvlevebis


Sedegad, isaa, rom samxreTelebis qceva e.w.
Rirsebis kulturiT regulirdeboda, romelSic
umciresi kamaTic ki reputaciisa da socialuri
statusis gamocdad iqceva~ (Cohen et al., 1996, gv.945).
Rirsebis kultura ar axdens yvela saxis agresiis
sanqcionirebas, daSvebulia agresiis mxolod
is saxeebi, romlebic sakuTrebis an pirovnuli
Rirsebis xelyofisagan dacvasTan arian dakavSirebulni (Cohen & Nisbett, 1994).

saidan
viciT
CrdiloelTa da samxreTelTa
reaqciebi Seuracxyofaze
kolejis student biWebs Crdiloelebs da samxreTelebs zomieri Seuracxyofis amtanobaze Cautares cda. vidre
cdis piri derefanSi midioda, mas eqsperimentatoris ndobiT aRWurvili piri ejaxeboda da Tan virisTavs~ uwodebda.
mkvlevrebma iwinaswarmetyveles, rom mxris
gakvrasa da sityvier Seuracxyofaze

agresia

kulturis zegavlenis erT-erTi saukeTeso magaliTia is, Tu rogor swavloben


erT da imave situaciebze reagirebas sxvadasxva kulturis warmomadgeneli bavSvebi.
skolamdeli asakis (saSualod 4.5 wlis)
iaponel da amerikel bavSvebs mokle moTxrobebi waukiTxes, romlebic Seicavda
konfliqtur dilemebs da Semdeg sTxoves,
TojinebiT gaeTamaSebinaT situaciebi da
eCvenebinaT, rogor damTavrdeboda es
wakiTxuli ambebi. magaliTad, bavSvebs unda
eCvenebinaT, Tu ra xdeba mas Semdeg, rac
ori bavSvi iwyebda kamaTs da xels hkravdnen
erTmaneTs. amerikelma bavSvebma agresiulobis ufro maRali xarisxi aCvenes orive
sazomis mixedviT: rogorc verbalur agresiaSi _ isini ufro xSirad ambobdnen:
mZulxar~, ise _ agresiul qcevebSic, rac
Tojinebis mier erTmaneTis xelis kvriTa
da cemiT gamoixateboda (Zahn-Wacsler et al.,
1996).

759

manZili, rodesac dcis pirebi


gzas uTmobdnen

Crdiloeli studentebi

samxreTeli studentebi

suraTi

18.4

110
100

Seuracxyofis efeqti
Crdiloelebsa da
samxreTelebSi

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
kontroli

Seuracxhyofa

eqsperimentuli jgufis Crdiloeli


da samxreTeli studentebi moaqcies
mcire Seuracxyofis situaciaSi. marTalia, Seuracxyofis gareSe samxreTelebi ufro Tavazianebi iyvnen, magram Seuracxyofis SemTxvevaSi isini
ufro naklebad uTmobdnen gzas
`yvinCilebis~ TamaSSi.

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

eqsperimentuli piroba

760

samxreTelebs ufro mZafri reaqciebi unda


hqonodaT, vidre Crdiloelebs. erT-erTi
sazomi, romelic mkvlevrebma gamoiyenes,
iyo TamaSi yvinCilebi~, romlis arsic
isaa, rom ori adamiani pirdapir uaxlovdeba
erTmaneTs, sanam erT-erTi ar gadauxvevs
gzidan. am SemTxvevaSi ndobiT aRWurvili
piri jiqur midioda cdis pirTan da
gazomil iqna is manZilebi, rodesac es
ukanasknelni uxvevdnen gzidan. rogorc
es 18.4 suraTidanac Cans, zomierma Seuracxyofam marTlac dramatuli zegavlena
moaxdina samxreTelTa qcevaze. Seuracxyofis gareSe isini, praqtikulad, ufro
Tavazianebi iyvnen, vidre Crdiloelebi
da Tavazianad uTmobdnen gzas, magram
rodesac maT mxars gahkravdnen, gacilebiT
gvian gadadiodnen gzidan (Cohen et al., 1996).

mravali adamiani aSS-Si iziarebs azrs, rom


samxreTuli kultura ufro Tavaziania, vidre
CrdiloeTis riCmondels ufro Tavisuflad
hkiTxavT gzas, vidre niu iorkels. am eqsperimentis Sedegebic aseTi Sexedulebebis gamoZaxilia im azriT, rom Seuracxyofis gareSe (sakontrolo jgufi) samxreTelebi ufro adre uTmobdnen gzas, vidre Crdiloelebi, magram
Tavazianoba gaqra Seuracxyofis SemTxvevaSi da
saqmeSi Rirsebis grZnoba CaerTo. ase rom,
damoukidebeli me~-s iseT dasavlur kulturaSic
ki, rogoric amerikis SeerTebuli Statebia,

samxreTeli mamakacebi ufro mwvaved reagireben,


rodesac saqme Rirsebas exeba, vidre Crdiloelebi (Nisbett & Cohen, 1996).

agresiuli qcevis normebi


aqamde migvaCnda, rom kulturebi, romlebic
damoukidebeli me~-s konstruqtebiT xasiaTdebian, ufro metad uwyoben xels agresiul
qcevas, magram es dakvirveba mainc ar xsnis im
gamsxvavebebs mkvlelobaTa raodenobaSi, razec
zemoT gvqonda saubari. evropuli kulturebi,
romlebSic mkvlelobebis raodenobebi bevrad
ufro naklebia, vidre aSS-Si, aseve, Sedian damoukidebeli me~-s mqone kulturebis gafarToebul wreSi. maS, ra damatebiTi kulturuli
faqtorebi erTveba am procesSi?
erT-erTi faqtori, romelic aSS-isTvis SeiZleba dadgindes, garemoSi arsebuli agresiuli
qcevebis modelebis xelmisawvdomobaa. me-7 TavSi
visaubreT imis Sesaxeb, rom bavSvebi Zalze
swrafad iTviseben agresiul qcevebs ufrosebisagan. magaliTad, rodesac bavSvebi ufrosebis
mier saTamaSo plastikuri Tojinebis cemis,
xelis kvris da fexiT Sedgomis magaliTebs
xedavdnen, Semdgom, Zalze didi sixSiriT,
TviTonac imeorebdnen maT, vidre sakontrolo
jgufis bavSvebi, romlebic ar eswrebodnen ufrosebis aseT agresiul gamovlinebebs (Bandura
et al., 1963). imave TavSi Cven, aseve, mivuTiTeT, rom
aSS-is televizia uzarmazari odenobiT pirdapir
saxlSi awvdis bavSvebs agresiuli qcevis mode-

sikis oaxakas Statis ori mimdebare soflis


magaliTi (Scott, 1992). erTi sofeli Zaladobrivia,
meore ki _ araZaladobrivi: pirvelSi mkvlelobebis raodenoba meoreze xuTjer metia.
soflebi erTmaneTisgan 1500 metriT arian
daSorebulni da Zalze gvanan erTmaneTs religiuri da ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT. ZaladobaSi
gansxvavebis erTaderTi dasaSvebi axsna isaa,
rom gansxvavebulia maTi kulturebis stabilurobis maxasiaTeblebi. ama Tu im gziT orive
kulturam miaRwia Zaladobis garkveul dones
da is stabiluri rCeba drois garkveul periodSi. es aris me-17 TavSi aRwerili normebis transmisiis (gadatanis) da prezervaciis (dacvis)
realur cxovrebaSi asaxuli magaliTi. analogiurad, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi, Tavisi
sakomunikacio saSualebebiT, erT Zalian did
soflad iqca, romelic icavs agresiuli qcevis
normebs.
am qveTavSi aRvwereT agresiis gamomwvevi
Zalebi dawyebuli genetikuridan da kulturuliT damTavrebuli, magram rCeba kidev erTi
mosazreba, romelsac jer ar SevxebivarT da
romlis Tanaxmadac, adamianebi zogjer agresiul
qcevas winaswarSeqmnili crurwmenebis gamo axorcieleben. isini, mxolod imitom, rom gansxvavebul eTnikur Tu rasobriv jgufebs ekuTvnian (anu iseT jgufebs, romlebsac uwodeben
sxvebs~), SesaZloa, agresiis msxverplni gaxdnen.
axla crurwmenebis Temas mivubrundebiT da
vaCvenebT, Tu saidan iReben isini saTaves da ra
unda gakeTdes maT Sesamcireblad, an aRmosafxvrelad.

Sejameba
evoluciuri analizi mowmobs, rom agresiuli
qcevisadmi adamianis midrekileba aRmocendeba
iseT SemTxvevaSi, rodesac maT unda daicvan
sakuTri Tavi da sakuTari STamomavloba. eqsperimentulma kvlevebma aCvena, rom agresiulobasTan
dakavSirebulia sxvadasxva biologiuri da
pirovnuli gansxvavebebi. rodesac adamianebi
ganicdian frustracias sakuTar miznebTan
dakavSirebiT, agresiis gamovlenis meti albaToba
Cndeba. garemos garkveul maxasiaTeblebs, magaliTad, temperaturas, agreTve, SeuZlia Secvalos
agresiulobis gamovlenis albaToba. adamianebi

agresia

lebs, riTac xels uwyobs Zaladobis imitacias


(Comestock & Sharrer, 1999). SesaZloa, swored aSSSia yvelaze TvalSi sacemi satelevizio Zaladoba. erT-erTma eqsperimentma daadastura, rom
amerikeli bavSvebi gacilebiT proteleviziurebi~ an televiziaze damokidebulni~ arian,
vidre germaneli bavSvebi (Smith & Schutte, 1982).
amdenad, aSS-Si agresiis Semcirebis erT-erT
gzad bavSvebis mkacri SezRudva da maTTvis
agresiis am modelebis rogorc televiziiT,
ise _ kinoSi xelmiuwvdomloba gvesaxeba.
ra Tqma unda, mravali bavSvisTvis agresiis
modeli yoveldRiur cxovrebaSic arsebobs.
bavSvebi, SesaZloa, agresiul qcevebs TavianT
yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi xedavdnen. me-7 TavSi
aRvniSneT, rom bavSvebi, romlebic xSirad
isjebian fizikurad, TviTonac xSirad iyeneben
agresias sxvebis qcevebis kontrolis mizniT.
bavSvebi, aseve, SesaZloa, xSirad xedavdnen
agresiul qcevebs sakuTar socialur wreSic.
magaliTad, erT-erTi eqsperimentis mizani iyo,
im bavSvebis monaTxrobebis Seswavla, romlebic
Seeswrnen los-anJelesis amboxebas, romelic
1992 wels rodnei kingis pirvel gasamarTlebas
mohyva (Farver & frosch, 1996). es bavSvebi (gansxvavebiT imaTgan, romlebic ar Seswrebian aRniSnul
movlenebs) Txrobisas iyenebdnen personaJebis
ufro mtrul aRwerebs, ufro agresiul sityvebs,
fizikurad gamoxatul agresiul xasiaTebs da
met moqmed pirebs, romlebic situaciis samarTavad, aseve, agresias mimarTavdnen.
aucilebelia aRvniSnoT, rom bavSvebi sasiamovno eqsperimentatorebis garemocvaSi ubralod
TamaSobdnen saTamaSoebiT, amboxebasTan dakavSirebuli agresiuli xatebi ki maT warmosaxvaSi
arsebobda. los-anJelesis amboxebas Zaladobis
niSnebi hqonda, magram is droSi SemosazRvruli
iyo. samwuxarod, SeerTebul StatebSi mravali
qalaqeli bavSvi izrdeba iseT garemoSi, romlisTvisac Zaladoba yoveldRiuri da qronikuli
movlenaa (Osofsky, 1997; Schwartz & Proctor, 2000).
mkvlevrebi jer mxolod iwyeben im Sedegebis
garkvevas bavSvebis fsiqikur janmrTelobasa da
agresiuli qcevebis gamovlenaze, rac maTTvis
Zaladobis scenebis Cvenebas moaqvs.
agresiuli qcevis kulturuli determinaciisadmi miZRvnil am qveTavs davamTavrebT
SeniSvniT, rom kulturuli normebi Zalze
adgilobrivi da stabiluria. ganvixiloT meq-

761

agresiiT pasuxoben maTze mimarTul pirdapir


agresias da maTi agresiuloba matulobs, rac
ufro nakleb efeqturia wina agresiuli qceva.
kulturaSi agresiuli qcevebis prevalireba
dakavSirebulia me~-s damoukidebel, an interdamokidebulebiT maxasiaTeblebTan. zogierTi
kultura, agreTve, iZleva agresiulobis misaRebi
formebis modelebs.

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

crurwmenebi

762

adamianisTvis damaxasiaTebeli yvela sisustidan arc erTs ar gaaCnia iseTi damangreveli


Zala, rogoric adamianis Rirsebasa da socialur
urTierTobebTan dakavSirebul winaswar- Seqmnil
crurwmenebs. crurwmenis arseboba imis maniSnebelia, rom damaxinjebulia socialuri realoba adamianebis gonebaSi Seqmnilia situacia, romelsac SeuZlia daamciros da gaanadguros sxva adamianebis cxovreba. crurwmena winaswardaswavlili damokidebulebaa samizne
obieqtis mimarT, romelic moicavs negatiur
grZnobebs (armowoneba, an SiSi) da negatiur
Sexedulebebs (stereotipebs), romlebic amarTleben arsebul damokidebulebebs da qceviT
ganzraxvebs _ acilebul, gakontrolebul, dominirebul an ganadgurebul iqnen isini, romlebic
mocemul samizne jgufs ganekuTvnebian. magaliTad, nacisti liderebi kanonebsac ki qmnidnen,
raTa ganemtkicebinaT TavianTi crurwmenebi, rom
ebraelebi dabali donis adamianebi iyvnen da
rom isini ariuli kulturis daRupvamde miyvanas
cdilobdnen. mcdari Sexeduleba kvalificirdeba, rogorc crurwmena, Tu is ewinaaRmdegeba
cvlilebas, misi simcdaris naTeli mtkicebulebebis arsebobis miuxedavad. magaliTad,
adamianebi avlenen crurwmenebs, rodesac amtkiceben, rom afro-amerikelebi yvelani zarmacrurwmena (Prejudice) winaswar daswavlili
damokidebuleba (attitude) samizne obieqtis mimarT, romelic moicavs negatiur grZnobebs
(armowoneba an SiSi), negatiur Sexedulebebs
(stereotipebs), romlebic amarTleben arsebul
damokidebulebebs da qceviT ganzraxvebs,
acilebul, kontrolirebul, dominirebul an
ganadgurebul iqnen isini, romlebic mocemul
samizne jgufs ganekuTvnebian.

cebi arian, miuxedavad imisa, rom maTi afroamerikeli kolegebi dauRalavad Sromoben.
crurwmenebi garkveuli filtris rols asruleben, romelic yovelTvis mijnavs adamianebs
sxva adamianebisagan da maT samizne jgufSi
aTavsebs erTxel ganxorcielebuli kategorizaciis Sesabamisad.
socialuri fsiqologia yovelTvis mniSvnelovan adgils uTmobs crurwmenebis Seswavlas,
vinaidan cdilobs, gaigos maTi sirTule, simyaris mizezebi da SeimuSaos maTi Secvlisa da
daZlevis strategiebi (Allport,1954; Dackitt, 1992;
Jones, 1997). gaixseneT pirveli Tavi, sadac aRniSnuli iyo, rom uzenaesi sasamarTlos 1954 wlis
gadawyvetileba sazogado saswavleblebSi segregaciis gauqmebasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic,
nawilobriv, eyrdnoboda socialuri fsiqolog
kenet klarkis (Kenneth Clark) mier sasamarTlosTvis wardgenil sakuTari kvlevebis Sedegebs
da romelic Savkanian bavSvebze gancalkevebuli
da araTanaswori swavlebis negatiur Sedegebs
asaxavda (Clark & Clark, 1947). am qveTavSi aRvwerT
im progress, romelsac socialurma fsiqologebma miaRwies crurwmenebis warmoSobisa da
maTi efeqtebis gagebaSi; aseve, SevexebiT maTi
Secvlis praqtikul mcdelobebs.

crurwmenis sawyisebi
erT-erTi samwuxaro WeSmariteba, romelic
crurwmenebis Seswavlam gamovlina, is simartivea,
romliTac adamianebi SeiZleba uaryofiTad

saidan
viciT
SemTxveviT arCeuli niSani iwvevs
jgufis solidarobas
holandiaSi Catarebuli eqsperimentebis
seriaSi cdis pirebi SemTxveviTad dayves
or jgufad: mwvaneebad da lurjebad. cdis
pirebs imis mixedviT, Tu romel jgufs
miakuTvnes, dauriges mwvane an lurji
kalmebi da sTxoves, eweraT, Sesabamisad,
mwvane an lurj qaRaldebze. eqsperimentatorebi jgufebis wevrebs mimarTavdnen
maTi jgufis feris Sesabamisi feris
saxeliT da miuxedavad imisa, rom feris
mixedviT gansazRvrul kategoriebs araviTari faruli fsiqologiuri mniSvneloba
ar gaaCndaT da jgufis wevrebis SerCevac
sruliad SemTxveviT moxda, isini sakuTar
jgufs ufro dadebiTad afasebdnen, vidre
meores. metic, mxolod da mxolod ferTa
gansxvavebaze dafuZnebuli es Sidajgufuri

mikerZoeba manamdec ki gamovlinda, sanam


cdis pirebi eqsperimentuli davalebis
Sesrulebas daiwyebdnen (Rabbie, 1981).
is, ramac Tavi iCina Tundac ferebis~ am
eqsperimentSi, socialuri kategorizaciis swraf
gamovlinebas warmoadgens.
mravali eqsperimenti Catarda im Sedegebis
Sesaswavlad, romelic iseT minimalur jgufebs
hqondaT, rogoric mwvaneebis~ da lurjebis~
SemTxvevaSi iyo (Tajfel, 1982; Tajfel & Billing, 1974).
gansxvavebuli jgufebis wevrebi Zalian xSirad
urTierTobas iwyeben, rogorc ucxoebi, magram
TiTqmis maSinve avlenen gasaocar erTsulovnebas swamT, rom maTi Sidajgufis wevrebi
yvelaze sasiamovno da kargad momuSave xalxia.
rodesac resursebis ganawilebis dro dgeba,
adamianebi yvelafers akeTeben, raTa araferi
uwiladon gare jgufis wevrebs. aseTi Sedegebi
Tavs iCens imis miuxedavad, rom gare jgufi
riskis qveS dgeba da miuxedavad imisa, rom Sida
da gare jgufebis zogierT wevrs, SesaZloa,
kargi urTierTobac hqondes erTmaneTTan (Park &
Rothbat, 1982; Quattrone, 1986).
Tu yvela am Zalas gamoviyenebT xelovnurad
Seqmnil jgufebSi, Tqven SegeZlebaT, daakvirdeT,
Tu rogor xorcieldeba crurwmenebi ase
daundobel realur cxovrebaSi. crurwmenebma
advilad SeiZleba migviyvanos rasizmamde
adamianis diskriminaciis formamde, romelic
dafuZnebulia kanis ferze an eTnikur warmoSobaze da seqsizmamde adamianis diskriminaciis
formamde, romelic dafuZnebulia sqesobriv
socialuri kategorizacia (Social categorization)
_ procesi, romlis meSveobiTac adamianebi sakuTari socialuri garemos organizebas axdenen,
miakuTvneben ra adamianebs sakuTar da sxvaTa
jgufebs.
Sida jgufebi (In-groups) jgufebi, romlebTanac
adamiani sakuTari Tavis identificirebas axdens.
gare jgufebi (Out-groups) jgufebi, romlebTanac adamianebi identifikacias ar axdenen.
Sidajgufuri mikerZoeba (In-group bias) sakuTari
jgufis gadafaseba sxvasTan SedarebiT.
rasizmi (Racism) adamianebis diskriminacia
maTi kanis feridan an eTnikuri warmomavlobidan gamomdinare
seqsizmi (Sexism) adamianebis diskriminacia
maTi sqesis gamo

crurwmenebi

ganawyon ucxo adamianebisadmi. socialuri kategorizacia aris procesi, romliTac adamianebi


sakuTari socialuri garemos organizebas
axdenen, miakuTvneben ra adamianebs sakuTar da
sxvaTa jgufebs. kategorizaciis yvelaze martivi
da yovlismomcveli formaa individis mier imis
gansazRvra, Tu vin aris misi msgavsi da vin _
ara. kategorizaciis es forma saTaves iRebs
dapirispirebidan, me ara me-s winaaRmdeg~ orientaciamde Cven isini-s winaaRmdeg~. adamianebi
socialur samyaros orad yofen: Sida jgufebad
jgufebi, romlebTanac adamiani sakuTari Tavis
identificirebas axdens da gare jgufebad
jgufebad, romlebTanac adamianebi identifikacias ar axdenen. am kognituri gansxvavebebis
Sedegia Sidajgufuri mikerZoeba sakuTari
jgufis gadafaseba sxvasTan SedarebiT (Jones,
1997). adamianebi, romlebic ganixilebian, rogorc
garejgufis wevrebi, ufro xSirad xdebian mtruli grZnobebisa da usamarTlo damokidebulebis
obieqtebi.
minimalurad SesamCnevi miniSnebac ki sakmarisia, rom gamowveul iqnes tendenciuroba da
crurwmenis Camoyalibeba maT mimarT, romlebic
garejgufs miekuTvnebian.

763

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

mkvlevrebs hqondaT hipoTeza, rom crurwmenebis mqone adamianebi ufro gulmodgined moekidebodnen swori~ rasobrivi
Sefasebebis gakeTebas. mkvlevrebma iwinaswarmetyveles, rom crurwmenebis mqone
studentebi ufro met dros dauTmobdnen
orazrovani saxeebis klasificirebas.
faqtobrivad, crurwmenebis mqone studentebma TiToeuli orazrovani suraTis
amocnobaze erTi wamiT meti dro daxarjes,
vidre maT, visac ar gaaCnda rasobrivi
crurwmenebi (Blascovich et al., 1997).

764

niSanze. Cven~ da isini~-s gansxvavebebis sawyisi


tendenciebi xSirad maSin Zlierdeba, rodesac
Cndeba STabeWdileba, rom resursebi SezRudulia
da is, SesaZloa, mxolod erT jgufs ergos.
faqtobrivad, adamiani, romelsac axasiaTebs
crurwmenebisadmi daqvemdebarebulobis maRali
xarisxi, ufro metad msjelobs imis Sesaxeb,
adamianebidan vin romel kategorias ekuTvnis.

saidan
viciT
crurwmena da rasobrivi xasiaTis
msjeloba
studentebis jgufs Sesavsebad misces
skala, romelic zomavda maT damokidebulebas afro-amerikelebis mimarT. maT
Sefasebebze dayrdnobiT, erTi jgufi klasificirda, rogorc crurwmenebis mqone,
meore ki _ rogorc crurwmenebis armqone.
Semdeg orive jgufis studentebs sTxoves,
daeTvalierebinaT fotoebis seria, romlebzec saxeebi iyo gamosaxuli da xmamaRla
daexarisxebinaT isini, rogorc TeTri~
an Savi~. zogierTi saxis klasificireba
Zalian advili iyo maSin, roca zogierTi
saxe Zalze gaurkvevlad gamoiyureboda.

es eqsperimenti aCvenebs, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovania crurwmenebis mqone adamianebisaTvis


sxva adamianebis klasificireba Cvenebad~ da
sxvebad~. bolo dros mkvlevrebma SeZles ufro
zustad aRenusxaT crurwmenebis arqona, rac
gamoixata imiT, rom aseTi adamianebi nakleb
yuradRebas aqceven adamianebs Soris gansxvavebebs (Phillips & Ziller, 1997). adamianebs, romlebsac
maRali qulebi aqvT universaluri orientaciis
skalaze, iseTi tipis debulebebze daTanxmebis
tendencia axasiaTebT, rogoricaa: rodesac
vinmes vxvdebi, vcdilob, ganvsazRvro msgavseba
Cemsa da mas Soris~ da uaryofen iseT debulebebs,
rogoricaa: _ bevri ramis Tqma SemiZlia adamianze, Tu vici, ra sqesisaa is~. amgvarad, zogierT adamians SeuZlia samyaros Sida da gare
jgufebad dayofis tendenciis daZleva.
Cven vnaxeT, Tu ramdenad swrafad mivyavarT
crurwmenebs adamianebis Cven~ da isini~ jgufebad dayofamde. axla ki vnaxoT, rogor erTvebian stereotipebi crurwmenebis funqcionirebaSi.

stereotipebis efeqtebi
Cven SegviZlia gamoviyenoT socialuri
kategorizaciis Zala mravali saxis crurwmenis
sawyisebis asaxsnelad. imisaTvis, rom avxsnaT
yoveldRiur cxovrebaze crurwmenebis gavlena,
Cven unda avxsnaT mexsierebis is struqturebi,
romlebic mniSvnelovnad amyareben maT, kerZod,
ki _ stereotipebi. stereotipebi warmoadgenen
stereotipebi (Stereotypes) _ adamianebis garkveul jgufebTan dakavSirebuli ganzogadebebi,
romlebic garkveul maxasiaTeblebs miaweren
mTel jgufs.

agdeben sxvebis, maTi stereotipebisTvis Seusabamo mosazrebebs.

saidan
viciT
arapopularuli stereotipi
Seusabamo informacia
ra xdeba maSin, rodesac Tqven iRebT
informacias, romlis nawilic amyarebs
Tqvens Sexedulebebs, meore nawili ki ewinaaRmdegeba mas? erT-erT kvlevaSi eqsperimentatorebma studentebi dayves or
_ homoseqsualizmis mimarT Zlieri da
susti crurwmenebis mqone _ jgufad. amis
Semdeg TiToeuli studenti TanmimdevrobiT kiTxulobda or mecnierul naSroms
homoseqsualizmis Sesaxeb. erT naSromSi
mocemuli iyo stereotipis Sesabamisi
daskvna, rom homoseqsualizmi unda Sefasdes
sqesTaSoris qcevebTan mimarTebaSi, meoreSi
ki stereotipis sawinaaRmdego daskvna,
rom homoseqsualizmi ar unda iqnes Sefasebuli sqesTaSoris qcevebTan mimarTebaSi.
rodesac orive jgufis studentebi afasebdnen orive naSromis mecnierul dones,
maT maRali Sefaseba misces im naSroms,
romelic, Sesabamisad, emTxveoda maT Sexedulebas. magaliTad, Zlieri crurwmenebis

crurwmenebi

adamianebis garkveul jgufebTan dakavSirebul


ganzogadebebs, romlebic garkveul maxasiaTeblebs miaweren mTel jgufs. ueWvelia, rom Tqven
stereotipebis farTo speqtrs icnobT. ra Sexedulebebi gaqvT kacebsa da qalebze, ebraelebze,
musulmanebsa da qristianebze, azielebze, afroamerikelebze, amerikis mkvidr mosaxleobaze,
laTinoamerikelebsa da kavkasielebze? ra gavlenas axdenen es Sexedulebebi am adamianebTan
Tqvens urTierTobebze? Tqveni Sexedulebebis
gamo Tavs aridebT xolme maTTan urTierTobas?
vinaidan stereotipebi ase Zlierad erTvebian
molodinebSi, isini xSirad uwyoben xels im
situaciebis warmoqmnas, romlebic me-17 TavSi
aRvwereT, rodesac adamianebi TviTon ageben
sakuTar socialur realobas. gaiTvaliswineT,
ra rols asruleben stereotipebi im SefasebiT
msjelobebSi, romlebic socialur garemoSi
raimes arsebobas~ exeba. adamianebi monacemebis
naklebobis~ sakuTari stereotipebidan gamomdinare, informaciiT Sevsebis tendenciiT xasiaTdebian: me ar vapireb hiroSisTan erTad manqanaSi
Cajdomas azielebi saSineli mZRolebi arian~.
aseve, adamianebs SeuZliaT (ara aqvs mniSneloba,
ician Tu ara) stereotipuli informaciis qceviTi dadasturebisaTvis gamoyeneba. magaliTad,
Tu Tqven asabuTebT, rom ebraelebi cudi
megobrebi arian, Tqven arasodes miscemT maT
SesaZleblobas, rom sawinaaRmdego dagimtkicon.Eamaze uaresi isaa, rom gaimyareben Tu ara
sakuTar mosazrebebs, adamianebi aRarafrad

765

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

mqone cdis pirebma meti mecnieruli Rirseba miaweres im naSroms, romelic ganamtkicebda sqesTaSoris stereotips. metic,
am ori naSromis wakiTxvis Semdeg, romlebic Ffaqtobrivad, mxolod abalansebdnen erTmaneTs, studentebma daadastures, rom maT ganumtkicdaT sakuTari
azris sisworis rwmena (Munro & Ditto, 1997).

766

es eqsperimenti gviCvenebs, rom mxolod


informacia ar amcirebs crurwmenebs: adamianebs
gaaCniaT midrekileba, mniSvneloba ar mianiWon
im informacias, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba maT
mTavar stereotipebs (Semdeg qveTavSi ganvixilavT
crurwmenebis Semcirebis ufro qmediT meTodebs).
neba mogveciT, gagaxsenoT stereotipebis sxva
efeqti, romelsac inteleqtis testirebis
ganxilvis dros SevexeT. gavixsenoT me-10 Tavi,
sadac inteleqtis koeficientebSi (IQ) rasobriv
gansxvavebebze vsaubrobdiT. aRniSnul TavSi Cven
mimovixileT faqtebi, romlebic amtkiceben, rom
stereotipul jgufebs axasiaTebT safrTxe,
romelsac klod stilma (Claude Steel) da misma
kolegebma stereotipuli safrTxe uwodes (Steel,
1997; Steel & Aronson, 1995, 1998). stereotipuli
safrTxe Cndeba MmaSin, rodesac adamianebi iseT
situaciebSi aRmoCndebian, romlebTanac dakavSirebulia stereotipis negatiuri aspeqtebi.
magaliTad, me-10 TavSi Cven davadastureT, rom
afro-amerikelebis mier unarebis testebis Sesruleba uaresdeba, rogorc ki uCndebaT eWvi, rom
testis Sedegebi Seesabameba Savkanianebis swavlis dabalunarianobis stereotipebs. es monacemebi imitom SegaxseneT, rom xazi gagvesva im
faqtorebisTvis, romlebic aZliereben uaryofiT
stereotipebs da im xerxebisTvis, romlebic
stereotipulad ganwyobili adamianebis cxovrebis deformacias iwveven.
darwmunebulic rom iyoT, rom Tqven ar
gagaCniaT crurwmenebi, mainc savaraudoa, rom
Tqvenc gaqvT Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi arsebuli stereotipebi. am stereotipebis codnam,
SesaZloa, aracnobier doneze maTi gamoyenebisaken gibiZgoT (Devine & Monteith, 1999). im
adamianebmac ki, romelTa Sexedulebebic Tavisufalia crurwmenebisgan, SesaZloa, mainc ganaxorcielon avtomaturi aqtebi, romlebic warsuli
da awmyo garemocvis mravali wyarodan miRebul

gaucnobierebel crurwmenebs gulisxmoben. SexedeT Tqvens megobrebs, isini xom igive eTnikur
jgufs ekuTvnian, romelsac Tqven? Tu asea, ratom?
Cven mivediT im savalalo daskvnamde, rom
crurwmenis Seqmna advilia, magram daZleva
Zneli. miuxedavad amisa, socialuri fsiqologiis
Camoyalibebis pirveli dReebidanve mecnierebi
ebrZvian MmaT.
axla mivubrundeT am mcdelobebis saukeTeso
magaliTebs.

crurwmenebis daZleva
socialur fsiqologiaSi erT-erTma klasikurma gamokvlevam aCvena, rom Cven~ jgufis
dapirispirebam isini~ jgufTan, SesaZloa,
seriozul mtrobamde migviyvanos. 1954 wlis
zafxulSi muzafer Serifma da misma kolegebma
(Muzafer Sheerif, 1961/1988) or jgufad dayofili
biWebi oklahomis Statis saxelmwifo parkSi
waiyvanes. jgufebs, pirobiTad, arwivebi~ da
Cxakunebi~ uwodes. TiToeuli jgufi TviTon
uvlida Tavis Tavs _ isini daexetebodnen, curavdnen, saWmels amzadebdnen da erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi araferi icodnen meore jgufis arsebobis
Sesaxeb. jgufebma erTmaneTi beisbolSi, fexburTsa da bagiris gadawevaSi Sejibrebis dros
gaicnes. aseT dasawyiss or jgufs Soris gamZvinvarebuli metoqeoba mohyva. dawves erTmaneTis
almebi, daarbies da gaZarcves sacxovrebeli
kotejebi da sakvebis gamo namdvili brZola
gaaCaRes. rogor unda Semcirebuliyo aseTi
mtroba?

saidan
viciT
erTmaneTze damokidebulebebis
aucilebloba
eqsperimentatorebma scades propagandistuli xerxi erT jgufs uqebdnen
meores. aman ar gaWra. amis Semdeg Seecadnen
jgufebisTvis iseTi garemo SeeqmnaT, romelic gamoricxavda Sejibrs. arc aman
imoqmeda. mtroba maSinac grZeldeboda,
rodesac jgufebi erTad uyurebdnen films.
bolos mkvlevrebma erTi ram moifiqres.
maT unda SeeqmnaT iseTi problemebi,

am eqsperimentma daadastura kontaqtis


hipoTeza, rom mtrul jgufebs Soris pirdapiri
kontaqti amcirebs crurwmenebs (Allport, 1954).
biWebs erTad yofnis garda sxva aRaraferi surdaT
da, piriqiT, eqsperimentma isic aCvena, rom
crurwmenebis dasaZlevad waxalisebul unda
iqnes adamianebis erTmaneTze damokidebuleba
da saerTo miznebi. erTi wuTiT dafiqrdiT,
rogor SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT es codna im
situaciebSi, romlebSic CarTulni xarT. magaliTad, warmoidgineT, rom Tqven dapirispirebuli TanamSromlebis xelmZRvaneli xarT. ras
moimoqmedebdiT am dapirispirebis aRmosafxvrelad?
mogvianebiT, socialurma fsiqologma eliot
aronsonma (Elliot Aronson) da misma kolegebma (1978)
Seadgines programa, romelic emyareboda aRwerili eqsperimentis Sedegebs da miznad
isaxavda texassa da kaliforniaSi axlad desegrerirebul skolebSi crurwmenebis aRmofxvras.
maT Seqmnes iseTi saswavlo programebi, romlis
pirobebSi mexuTe klasis moswavleebi swavlis
procesSi erTmaneTze iyvnen damokidebulni da
naklebad ejibrebodnen erTmaneTs saswavlo
masalis aTvisebaSi.
strategiaSi, romelic asawyobi suraTebis~
meTodis1 saxeliTaa cnobili, TiToeul bavSvs
mosamzadeblad eZleva mTeli masalis nawili,
romelic Semdeg man jgufis danarCen wevrebs
unda gaacnos. warmateba fasdeba mTeli jgufis
mier warmodgenili prezentaciis xarisxze
dayrdnobiT. amdenad, mniSvnelovani da faseulia
jgufis TiToeuli wevris wvlili.
aseTi asawyobi suraTebis meTodiT momuSave
klasebSi rasobrivi konfliqtebi Semcirda,
vinaidan manamde urTierTdapirispirebuli
TeTrkaniani, laTinosi da zangi studentebi
erTad iyvnen saerTo miznebiT gaerTianebul
1

Jigsaw technique.

jgufebSi (Aronson & Gonzales, 1988; Gonzales, 1983).


ganvixiloT erTi axalgazrda ymawvilis, karlosis SemTxveva. karloss ignorirebas ukeTebdnen imis gamo, rom misi mSobliuri ena ar iyo
inglisuri; mas daevala jgufSi, romelic jozef
pulitceris premiis mopovebas cdilobda, gansakuTrebuli rolis Sesruleba. gundis sxva
wevrebs unda moefiqrebinaT, rogor miewodebinaT
misTvis informacia, romlis prezentaciac unda

crurwmenebi

romelTa gadawyvetac SesaZlebeli iqneboda saerTo miznebis dasaxviTa da TanamSromlobiTi aqtivobiT. magaliTad, mkvlevrebma Seqmnes iseTi situacia, rom biWebs
xramidan tvirTi amoeTriaT. saerTo amocanis wyalobiT mtroba gaqra da, faqtobrivad, isini saukeTeso megobrebad iqcnen
jgufebis sazRvrebis~ darRvevis gareSe.

767

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

768

moexdina mas Semdgom. Tanagundelebis moTminebisa da gamamxnevebeli SeniSvnebis sapasuxod,


karloss maT mimarT Tbili grZnobebi gauCnda
da isic gaarkvia, rom premiis mopovebis ambavi
namdvili ar iyo. man saTanadod Seafasa rogorc
sakuTari Tavi, ise _ Tanagundelebi (Cven sixaruliT unda aRvniSnoT, rom karlosma texasSi
kolejis damTavrebis Semdeg swavla harvardis
iuridiul skolaSi gaagrZela).
miuxedavad imisa, rom crurwmenebTan dakavSirebuli, Cven mier moyvanili magaliTebis umravlesoba aSS-is farglebSia mopovebuli, faqtobrivad, yvela sazogadoeba ganasxvavebs Sida da
gare jgufebs. dabolos, am qveTavis sisrulisaTvis, crurwmenebis daZlevis sakiTxis TvalsazrisiT, Cven ganvixilavT eqsperiments, romelic sakiTxis internacionalur aspeqtebs exeba
da RirsSesaniSnavia Tavisi SedegebiT. Tomas
petigium (Thomas Pettigrew, 1997) Seiswavla daaxloebiT 4000 adamianis monacemi safrangeTSi,
niderlandebSi, inglissa da yofil dasavleT
germaniaSi, raTa Seemowmebina Serifis da misi
kolegebis mier aRweril kvlevaSi miRebuli
Sedegebi, gansakuTrebiT ki _ kontaqtis hipoTeza,
romelsac crurwmenebis Semcirebamde mivyavarT.

saidan
viciT
megobroba amcirebs crurwmenebs
yvela am qveyanaSi cdis pirebs sTxoves,
ganesazRvraT TavianTi damokidebuleba
garkveuli erovnuli umciresobebis mimarT
(magaliTad, ingliselebs ekiTxebodnen
indoelebis, xolo germanelebs _ Turqebis
Sesaxeb). maT, agreTve, sTxovdnen, miewodebinaT informacia im adamianebTan kontaqtebis tipis Sesaxeb, romlebic sxva
erebs, rasebs, religiebs, kulturebs an
socialur klasebs ekuTvnodnen; hyavdaT
Tu ara maT Soris megobrebi, mezoblebi
an TanamSromlebi. kvlevis Sedegebi sakmaod
dramatuli iyo. rodesac adamianebi am gare
jgufebis wevrebs axasiaTebdnen, rogorc
megobrebs, isini crurwmenebis SedarebiT
dabal dones avlendnen.

kulturaTaSorisi (kros-kulturuli) monacemebis gaTvaliswinebiT, am kvlevidan Zalze calsaxa daskvna gamomdinareobs: gare jgufis wevrTan
megobrobas crurwmenebis gaqrobamde mivyavarT.
ratomaa megobroba ase efeqturi? megobroba
adamianebs SesaZleblobas aZlevs, meti gaigon
gare jgufis wevrebis Sesaxeb, maTTan identifikaciac ki SeiZleba moaxdinon. megobrobam,
aseve, SesaZloa, deprovincializaciamdec migviyvanos: es niSnavs, rom, rodesac adamianebi mets
igeben gare jgufis normebis da Cveulebebis
Sesaxeb, isini nakleb provinciulebi~ xdebian
sakuTar Sida jgufSi mimdinare procesebis
koreqtulobasTan mimarTebaSic.
socialuri fsiqologia ar Tvlis, rom crurwmenebi xelis erTi mosmiT SeiZleba moispos,
magram is Tanmimdevrulad dgams nabijebs maTi
yvelaze mZime Sedegebis TandaTanobiTi aRmofxvrisaTvis TiToeul mcire SemTxvevaSic ki.
namdvilad Rirs, gamoZebnoT dro da daakvirdeT,
rogor SeZlebT Tqveni im crurwmenebis gamovlinebebis daregulirebas Tqven irgvliv, romlebsac an Tqven axvevT Tavze sxvebs, an, piriqiT,
sxvebisgan gixdebaT amis atana.

Sejameba
crurwmenebTan dakavSirebuli savalalo realoba isaa, rom Zalze minimaluri maniSnebelic
ki sakmarisia mavne tendenciebis CamoyalibebisaTvis.
kvlevebma cxadyo, rom socialuri kategorizacia
swrafad kravs ucxo adamianebs mWidrod
SekavSirebul jgufebad, romlebic Sida jgufebis
wevrebs ufro pozitiurad aRiqvamen, vidre _ gare
jgufebis wevrebs. stereotipebi zRudaven adamianis
mier realobis~ gancdas. Serifis eqsperimentma
dagvanaxa, rom crurwmenebi SeiZleba Semcirdes
im programebiT, romlebic xels uwyoben saerTo
kontaqtis hipoTeza (Cotact hipothesis) idea,
rom mtrul jgufebs Soris pirdapiri kontaqti
amcirebs crurwmenebs.
asawyobi suraTebis klasebi (Jegsaw classrooms)
saswavlo klasebi, romlebic iyeneben asawyobi
suraTebis saxeliT cnobil meTods, romelSic
yovel moswavles eZleva mTeli dasaswavli
masalis mxolod nawili, romelic Semdeg jgufis sxva wevrebs gadaecema.

fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi

internetis zedapiruli mimoxilvac sakmarisia, rom


davrwmundeT _ samyaro dapataravda. axla ukve bevri Cvengani amyarebs urTierTobas
ucxo adamianebTan eleqtronuli fostisa da Catis~ meSveobiT. aseTi urTierTobebi kidev ufro gafarTovdeba imis
Sesabamisad, rac ufro meti
adamiani aiTvisebs msoflio
qselis teqnologiebs. magaliTad, erT-erTi arasportuli
Tema, romelzec laparaki iyo
2000 wlis msoflio olimpiadaze, interneti iyo. olimpiuri sofeli, sadac sportsmenebi cxovrobdnen, kargad
iyo aRWurvili uaxlesi aparaturiT, raTa msoflios yvela
kuTxidan Camosul sportsmenebs
msoflio qselSi mogzaurobis
saSualeba hqonodaT. gazeTebi
iuwyebodnen, rom kubelma sportsmenebma, romelTac manamde ar
hqondaT internetTan urTierTobis gamocdileba, erTi
kviris ganmavlobaSi aamoqmedes
160-ze meti veb-gverdi (Jordan,
2000). erT-erTi kiTxva, romelsac XXI saukune namdvilad
svams fsiqologiis winaSe, isaa,
Tu rogor Seegua adgilobrivi
kulturebi msoflio qsels da,
piriqiT, ra gavlena moaxdena
adgilobrivma kulturebma
masze.
ganvixiloT, Tu ra gavlena
moaxdina internetma kuveitis
cxovrebaze (Wheeler, 1998). rogorc mraval sxva qveyanaSi,
kuveitSic interneti Tavdapirvelad akademiuri wreebisTvis gaxda xelmisawvdomi, ker-

Zod, kuveitis universitetis


TanamSromlebisTvis, Tumca,
Zalian mokle droSi is sayovelTaod xelmisawvdomi gaxda.
umravles SemTxvevaSi, kuveitelebic iseve iyeneben internets, rogorc mTel msoflioSi _ CatisTvis~: adamianebi
mas, ZiriTadad, salaybod~
mimarTaven da kuveitelebic
aRniSnaven, rom urTierTobebi
da romanebi kibersivrceSi aqvT.
da mainc, kuveitSi internetis
gamoyeneba TaviseburebiT xasiaTdeba, rac mas sxvebisgan
ganasxvavebs: bevri daZvreba
internetSi, magram cota Tu
aqveynebs raimes~. kuveitSi internetiT sakuTar Tavze informaciis gavrceleba potenciuri safrTxis Semcveli aqti
ufroa, vidre _ sakuTari Tavis
warmoCenis saSualeba. is aris
iaraRi Tqveni mtris winaaRmdeg
da instrumenti, raTa SenarCunebul iqnes dogmebisadmi
konformuloba da gaadvildes
yoveldRiuri
cxovrebis
marTva~ (Wheeler, 1998. gv. 365-366).
aseTi kulturuli SezRudvebis
pirobebSi Zneli warmosadgenia,
rom kuveitSi interneti sakuTari Tavis gamoxatvis saSualebad iqces, rogorc es mraval
sxva qveyanaSi moxda.
mkvlevrebma internetis gamoyenebis sxva mravali kulturuli gansxvavebac Seiswavles, magaliTad, veb-gverdebis
is maxasiaTeblebi, romlebsac
ama Tu im kulturebis warmomadgenlebi aniWeben upiratesobas. erTi da igive vebgverdi, SesaZloa, mTeli msof-

liosTvis misaRebi iyos,


magram kulturuli gansxvavebebi, SesaZloa, mainc
arsebobdes, Tu ramdenad
gasagebi an faseulia esa Tu
is veb gverdi (Sears et al., 2000).
magaliTad, bevr veb gverdze
informacia mocemulia marcxnidan marjvniv da zevidan
qveviT _ ise, rogorc kiTxuloben inglisur enaze, magram
Cinelebi an ebraelebi, SesaZloa, sirTuleebs waawydnen,
vinaidan maTi enebi informaciis sivrciTi ganlagebis
gansxvavebul wess iyeneben
(ODonnell,1994). sazogadod,
veb-gverdebis dizainerebma,
SesaZloa, aRmoaCinon, rom
maT sakuTari produqciis
internacionalizaciisaTvis~
socialuri mecnierebebis
daxmareba sWirdebaT. vebgverdi, romelic erTi
jgufis mowonebas imsaxurebs,
SesaZloa, uaryofil iqnes
meore jgufis mier, vTqvaT,
im moWarbebuli agresiulobis an sirTulis gamo, romelic adgilobriv normebs
ewinaaRmdegeba (Sears et al., 2000).
WeSmaritad kulturaTaSorisi
Rirebulebis mqone veb-gverdebis Sesaqmnelad, veb-dizainerebma informacia iseT
wignSi unda moiZion, rogoricaa fsiqologia da
cxovreba~. rogorc XXI saukunis moqalaqe, Tqven msoflios dapataravebis mowme
xarT. ra daskvnebs gaakeTebdiT amis Taobaze? ra
kiTxvebs dausvamdiT fsiqologebs?

crurwmenebi

samyaro pataravdeba

769

miznebis miRwevas. asawyobi suraTebis meTodi


amas saklaso oTaxebSi akeTebs. kvlevebi aCveneben,
rom gansxvavebuli jgufebis wevrTa damegobreba
crurwmenebis Semcirebas iwvevs.

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

konfliqtisa da mSvidobis
fsiqologia

770

bolo or qveTavSi vnaxeT, rom adamianis


cxovrebaSi agresiasa da crurwmenebs sakmaod
didi adgili ukavia, magram yvelaze momakvdinebeli maTi urTierTgadakveTaa. XXI saukuneSi
jer kidev arsebobs iseTi katastrofuli siZulvili, romelic religiuri, rasobrivi Tu
kulturuli crurwmenebis safuZvelze Cndeba.
ra SeiZleba gakeTdes am siZulvilis dasaZlevad?
fsiqologia da cxovrebis~ SesavalSi Cven fsiqologebi davaxasiaTeT, rogorc adamianebis
sakmaod optimisturi jgufi~, vinaidan maT swamT,
rom maTi Teoriebi da fsiqologiuri kvlevebis
Sedegebi, SesaZloa, gamoyenebul iqnes adamianis
cxovrebis gasaumjobeseblad. am wignis daskvniT
qveTavebSi gvsurs am optimisturi ganwyobilebis
SenarCuneba. miuxedavad imisa, rom im fsiqologiur
Zalebs SevexebiT, romlebsac damangreveli qceva
mosdevs, naTeli iqneba isic, rom arseboben iseTi
Zalebic, romlebsac xelewifebaT konstruqciuli
cvlilebebis safuZvlis Seqmna. Cveni saboloo
mizania, mivideT mSvidobis fsiqologiis ganxilvamde. es aris mravalmxrivi cda imisa, rom socialuri mecnierebebis mier dagrovili codna
gamoyenebul iqnes msoflioSi mSvidobis damyarebis da ganmtkicebis saqmeSi. swored es gaxlavT
optimizmis is pirveli nota, romliTac gvsurs
damTavrdes fsiqologiasTan Tqveni pirveli Sexeba.
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Cven viwyebT socialur
fsiqologiaSi yvelaze klasikuri kvlevis
ganxilvas, romelic stenli milgremma (Stanley
Milgram) Caatara, raTa Rrmad Cawvdomoda meore
msoflio omis saSinelebebis safuZvlebs.

avtoritetisadmi daqvemdebareba
ra aiZulebda aTasobiT nacists, damorCilebodnen hitleris brZanebebs da milionobiT
ebraeli gaegzavnaT gazis kamerebSi? gaaCndaT

maT moraluri normebi Tu ara? rogor unda


avxsnaT sxvadasxva kultebis mimdevarTa mzadyofna, ara marto sakuTari sicocxle xelyon,
aramed sxvebic Tan gaiyolon (Tema, romelic
Semdeg rubrikaSi fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi~
iqneba ganxiluli)? ra SeiZleba iTqvas piradad
Tqvenze? arsebobs garemoebebi, romelTa gavleniTac Tqven SeZlebdiT, damorCilebodiT sulier
liders, mogewamlaT adamianebi da Semdeg Tavi
mogeklaT? SegiZliaT, warmoidginoT Tavi im
asobiT udanaSaulo adamianis amoxocvis monawiled, rac amerikelma jariskacebma, zemdgom pirTa
brZanebiT, vietnamis sofel mai-laiSi ganaxorcieles (Hersh,1971; Opton, 1970, 1973)? Tqveni pasuxi,
Cveni pasuxis msgavsad, iqneba: ara! Tqven me vin
ggonivarT?!~ am qveTavis wakiTxvis Semdeg vimedovnebT, rom Tqven eWvi SegeparebaT da ityviT:
SesaZloa, danamdvilebiT ar vici~. moqmedi
socialuri Zalebis gavleniT, Tqvenc, SesaZloa,
igive gaakeToT, rasac sxva adamianebi akeTebdnen
igive situaciaSi, rac ar unda warmoudgenlad
da sazarlad geCvenebodeT maTi qceva Tqvenc
da im adamianebsac, romlebic im situaciaSi
uSualod ar imyofebian.
individis qcevaze socialuri Zalebis gavlenis gansakuTrebiT damarwmunebeli demonstrireba solomon aSis mowafem, stenli milgremma
ganaxorciela. milgremis kvlevam (1965, 1974) cxadyo, rom meore msoflio omis dros nacistebis
brma morCileba imdenad maTi dispoziciuri
maxasiaTeblebis (anu maTi gansakuTrebuli pirovnuli Tvisebebis an germanelebis erovnuli
xasiaTis) moqmedebis Sedegi ar iyo, ramdenadac
iseTi situaciuri Zalebis moqmedebisa, romelTac
nebismieri adamianis STanTqma SeeZlo. rogor
SeZlo man imis Cveneba, rasac arendtma borotebis banaluroba~ uwoda rodesac boroti
qmedebebi SeiZleba Cveulebrivma adamianebma
Caidinon, romlebic sulac ar arian ulmobelni
da ubralod gauazreblad, yovelgvari gansjis
gareSe asruleben sxvebis brZanebebs (Arendt,
1963,1971). morCilebis kvlevis milgremiseuli
programa erT-erTi yvelaze sakamaTo programaa,
vinaidan masSi wamoWrili sakiTxebi arsebiTad
ukavSirdeba yoveldRiuri cxovrebis realobasa
da eTikur problemebs (Miller,1986; Ross & Nisbett,
1991).

pirovnuli Taviseburebebisa da socialuri


maxasiaTeblebis erTmaneTisgan gamijvnis mizniT,
milgremma laboratoriuli eqsperimentebis mTeli
seria avtoritetisadmi damorCilebis 19 laboratoriuli eqsperimenti Caatara, romelSic 1000ze meti cdis piri monawileobda. milgremis
pirveli eqsperimentebi ielis universitetSi tardeboda niu heivensa da mis gareubnebSi mcxovreb
mamakacebze, romelTac eqsperimentSi monawileobisaTvis anazRaureba eZleodaT. mogvianebiT man damorCilebis kvlevis laboratoria
universitetidan brijportSi, koneqtikutis
StatSi gadaitana, sadac sagazeTo gancxadebebis
saSualebiT agrovebda eqsperimentSi monawileobis msurvelebs, mosaxleobis yvela fenis, orive
sqesis, asakiT, saqmianobiTa da ganaTlebis doniT
gansxvavebul adamianebs.
milgremis ZiriTadi eqsperimentuli paradigma
is iyo, rom cdis pirebi CarTulni iyvnen iseT
saqmianobaSi, romelic _ rogorc amaSi TviT
cdis pirebi iyvnen darwmunebulebi sxva adamianze sxvadasxva diapazonis eleqtroSokiT
zemoqmedebas iTvaliswinebda. es nebayoflobiT
SerCeuli xalxi darwmunebuli iyo, rom monawileobda mexsierebisa da daswavlis procesis
mecnierul kvlevaSi. isini daarwmunes, rom
kvlevis mizans warmoadgenda imis garkveva, Tu
rogor moqmedebs sasjeli mexsierebaze da rogor
gaumjobesdeboda daswavlis procesi Seqebisa da
dasjis saTanado TanafardobiT gamoyenebiT. cdis
pirebs, romelTac maswavleblis socialuri
roli mieniWaT, daSvebuli SecdomebisaTvis unda

daesajaT isini, romelTac moswavlis roli


hqondaT dakisrebuli. maT ganemartaT ZiriTadi
wesi, romliTac unda exelmZRvanelaT da romlis
mixedviT yoveli Secdomis Semdeg eleqtroSoki
unda gaeZlierebinaT, vidre ar miaRwevdnen
dasaswavli masalis uSecdomod gadmocemas. TeTr
xalaTSi gamowyobili eqsperimentatori sruli
kanonieri uflebamosilebiT aRWurvili piriviT
moqmedebda; is cdis pirebs acnobda wesebs, awesrigebda rolebis ganawilebas (mTeli seriozulobiT atarebda kenWisyrebs) da maswavleblebs
miTiTebebs aZlevda, rom kargad SeesrulebinaT
dakisrebuli davaleba, rogorc ki maT yoymans
an gansxvavebuli azris gamovlenis mcdelobas
amCnevda. damokidebuli cvladis _ eleqtroSokis
maqsimaluri maCvenebeli aparatze 450 volti iyo,
romlis miRwevac mcire, 1.5-voltiani bijebiT
xdeboda da romelsac maswavlebeli moswavlis
yoveli Secdomis sapasuxod umatebda, vidre is
ar Sewyvetda avtoritetis~ (e.i. eqsperimentatoris mimarT) damorCilebas da uars ar ityoda
davalebis Sesrulebaze.

cdis situacia
eqsperimenti ise iyo dagegmili, rom cdis
piri iZulebuli iyo daejerebina, rom igi
asrulebda ra brZanebebs tkivils ayenebda,
stanjavda da, SesaZloa, moekla kidec udanaSaulo
adamiani. TiToeul maswavlebels 45 voltis Zabvis
eleqtrodartyma miayenes, raTa mas warmodgena
hqonoda, Tu ra intensivobis tkivils iwvevda
igi. moswavle mSvidi, sasiamovno garegnobis,
gawonasworebuli manerebis mqone, ormoc-

konfliqtisa da mSvidobis fsiqologia

morCilebis paradigma

771

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

772

daaTiode wlis mamakaci iyo, romelic, sxvaTa


Soris, ambobda, rom guli awuxebda, magram fulis
gamo mzad iyo am proceduris gasavlelad. mas
gverdiT oTaxSi abamdnen eleqtroskamze~ da
maswavlebelTan Sida sakomunikacio qselis
meSveobiT urTierTobda. moswavles evaleboda
dawyvilebuli sityvebis damaxsovreba da
wyvilidan erT-erTi sityvis dasaxeleba, rogorc
ki gaigebda am wyvilis meore sityvas. moswavlem,
winaswar dadgenili ganrigis Sesabamisad, maleve
daiwyo Secdomebis daSveba da maswavlebelmac
ar daayovna eleqtroSokis gamoyeneba. msxverplis
protesti izrdeboda eleqtroSokis voltaJis
matebasTan erTad. 75 voltze man Civili da
buzRuni daiwyo. 150-ze eqsperimentSi monawileobaze uari ganacxada da ganTavisufleba
moiTxova. 180 voltze is yviroda, rom veRar
gauZlebs am tkivils. 300 voltze gahyviroda,
rom metis atana aRar SeuZlia da ganTavisuflebas iTxovda. bolos tiriliT laparakobda
Tavis avadmyof gulze da kioda. Tu maswavlebeli
yoymanobda, an uars acxadebda ufro maRali
eleqtroSokis miyenebaze, eqsperimentatori mas
eubneboda: eqsperimenti moiTxovs, rom Tqven
gaagrZeloT,~ an Tqven ar gaqvT arCevani, unda
gaagrZeloT~.
rogorc ukve xvdebiT, situacia cdis pirebisTvis Zalze stresuli iyo. cdis pirTa umetesoba protests gamoTqvamda da ganuwyvetliv
aRniSnavda, rom amis gagrZeleba aRar SeeZlo.
is, rom eqsperimentSi Seqmnilma situaciam cdis
pirebSi Zlieri protesti gamoiwvia, naTlad
Cans eqsperimentis angariSebidanac:
180-voltiani Sokis Semdeg: amdens ver
gauZlebs! me ar vapireb am kacis mokvlas. gesmiT,
yviris! is ver gauZlebs amas. rame rom daemarTos?... am kacs raime rom daemarTos, vin agebs
pasuxs?~ (eqsperimentatori Tanxmdeba pasuxismgeblobis aRebaze) maS, kargi~.
195-voltiani Sokis Semdeg: xom gesmiT
rogor yviris? magaria ra, ar vici~ (eqsperimentatori eubneba, rom aucilebelia gagrZeleba)
diax, me vici, ser, magram vfiqrob, eg azrze ar
aris, raSi gaeba. ukve 195 voltia~ (Milgram, 1965.
gv.67).
maSinac ki, rodesac moswavlis oTaxSi siCume
isadgurebda, maswavlebeli brZanebebs iZleoda,

ufro moematebinaT eleqtroSokis voltaJi da


daeWiraT TiTi Rilakze, romelsac ewera: saxifaToa. Zlieri Soki XXX (450 volti)~.

eleqtroSoki: ho Tu ara
eqsperimentis dawyebamde milgremma 40 fsiqiatrs mimarTa TxovniT, raTa ewinaswarmetyvelaT cdis pirTa qceva eqsperimentis
ganmavlobaSi. maT (eqsperimentis aRweraze
dayrdnobiT) iwinaswarmetyveles, rom cdis
pirebis umravlesoba ar acdeboda 150 volts,
4%-ze naklebi morCilebas gamoxatavda 300 voltamde da mxolod 0.1% gaagrZelebda zemoqmedebas
450 voltamde. prognozirebisas fsiqiatrebi
eyrdnobodnen mosazrebas, rom srul morCilebas
gamoavlendnen da maqsimalur eleqtroSoks
gamoiyenebdnen mxolod garkveuli maxasiaTeblebiT aranormaluri, sadisti adamianebi,
romlebsac siamovnebT sxvebisTvis tkivilis
miyeneba.
fsiqiatrebi aseT Sefasebebs afuZnebdnen
Sexedulebaze, rom aseTi aranormaluri qcevebis
ganmaxorcielebel adamianebs gaaCniaT gansakuTrebuli dispoziciuri maxasiaTeblebi, Tumca,
maT mxedvelobidan gamorCaT situaciis is
gansakuTrebuli Zala, romelsac cdis pirTa
umravlesobis azrovnebasa da qcevebze gavlenis
moxdena SeeZlo, vinaidan isini amoglejilni~
iqnen maTTvis Cveuli situaciidan. RirsSesaniSnavi da SemaSfoTebeli daskvna ki isaa, rom
es eqspertebi Secdnen: cdis pirTa umravlesoba
srulad daemorCila avtoritets. arc erTi cdis
piri ar SeCerebula 300 voltze nakleb Zabvaze.
moswavleebis mimarT 65%-ma gamoiyena maqsimaluri
eleqtroSoki 450 volti. miaqcieT yuradReba,
rom maTi umravlesoba sityvierad acxadebda
winaaRmdegobas, magram qceviT emorCileboda
avtoritets. msxverplis TvalsazrisiT, es
kritikuli sxvaobaa. marTlac, Tqven rom yofiliyaviT msxverplis adgilze, raime mniSvneloba
eqneboda imas, rom adamians ar undoda TqvenTvis
tkivilis moyeneba da sityvierad ewinaaRmdegeboda brZanebas, Tuki is, bolos da bolos,
daemorCileboda brZanebas da mogayenebdaT
eleqtroSokis ganmeorebad dartymebs?
milgremis eqsperimentis Sedegebi imdenad
moulodneli iyo, rom mkvlevrebs didi Sroma
dasWirdaT, raTa gamoericxaT maTi alternati-

saidan
viciT
morCileba realur cxovrebiseul
situaciaSi
mkvlevrebis jgufma, saavadmyofos situaciaSi damorCilebis Seswavlis mizniT,
Caatara Semdegi savele kvleva. meddas (cdis
piri) telefoniT daureka eqimma, romelsac
arasodes Sexvedria. eqimma mas davaleba misca
_ pacientisTvis garkveuli wamali mieca
ise, rom am wamals eqimis mosvlamde emoqmeda.

eqimma daniSna 20 mg wamali, romelsac


astroteni erqva. wamlis yuTze gakeTebuli
warwera ityobineboda, rom astrotenis Cveulebrivi doza _ 5 mg, xolo maqsimaluri
doza 10 mg iyo.
SeeZlo Tu ara meddas pacientisTvis
wamlis gadaWarbebuli doza ucnobi piris
satelefono zaris Sedegad mieca maSin,
roca es dadgenil samedicino praqtikas
ewinaaRmdegeboda? rodesac es dilema 12
meddas aRuweres, 10-ma ganacxada, rom isini
ar daemorCilebodnen ucnobis zars. xolo
is, Tu rogor moiqcnen meddebi realurad,
sxva, axla ukve kargad cnobili ambavia.
rodesac meddebis sxva jgufi moxvda
analogiur situaciaSi, TiTqmis yvela
maTgani damorCilda. 22-dan 21-ma meddam
daiwyo pacientisTvis wamlis (sinamdvileSi, sruliad uvnebeli nivTierebis)
micema, vidre mkvlevarma eqimma ar SeaCera
isini (Hofling et al., 1966).

es Sedegebi miuTiTebs, rom Mmilgremis mier


miRebuli Sedegi ar SeiZleba mieweros eqsperimentis pirobebis maxasiaTeblebis moTxovnebze
cdis pirTa reagirebas.

ratom emorCilebian adamianebi


avtoritets
milgremis kvleva adasturebs, rom imis
gasarkvevad, Tu ratom emorCilebian adamianebi
avtoritets, saWiroa ufro detalurad ganvixiloT garkveul situaciebSi moqmedi fsiqologiuri Zalebi. me-17 TavSi vnaxeT, Tu ramdenad
xSirad zRudavs qcevas situaciuri Zalebi da
swored milgremis kvlevam warmoaCina am ZiriTadi principis naTeli magaliTi. milgremi da
sxva mkvlevrebi eqsperimentuli situaciis mTeli
rigi aspeqtebiT manipulirebas axdendnen, raTa
gamoekveTaT, rom damorCilebis efeqti ganpirobebulia ara pirovnuli, aramed situaciuri faqtorebiT. 18.5 suraTze asaxulia morCilebis doneebi gansxvavebul situaciebSi. magamoTxovniTi maxasiaTeblebi (Demand characteristics) _ eqsperimentuli situaciis maniSneblebi,
romlebic zemoqmedeben cdis pirebze da aniSneben maT, Tu ras elian maTgan.

konfliqtisa da mSvidobis fsiqologia

uli interpretaciis SesaZleblobebi. erTaderTi


gamosavali is iyo, rom daeSvaT, TiTqos cdis
pirebma realurad ar daijeres eqsperimentis
legenda~. SesaZloa, maT isic ki ar daijeres,
rom msxverpls namdvilad ayenebdnen tkivils.
amis gamosaricxad Catarda iseTi eqsperimenti,
romelSic damorCilebis efeqti realuri, swrafi
da uSualo iyo. kolejis studentebi Tvlidnen,
rom wvrTnidnen lekvs, romelzec yoveli Secdomis
Semdeg eleqtroSokiT zemoqmedebdnen. isini
realurad xedavdnen, rogor xteboda lekvi da
esmodaT misi wkmutuni yovelTvis, rodesac
Rilakze aWerdnen xels da aZlierebdnen dens
cxaurSi, romelzec lekvi idga. ramdeni adamiani
isurvebda lekvze eleqtroSokiT zemoqmedebisa
da misi wvalebis gagrZelebas? am realur situaciaSic ki studentebis samma meoTxedma eleqtroSokis maqsimaluri odenoba gamoiyena (Sheridan &
King, 1972).
cdis pirebis qcevis kidev erT alternatiul
axsnas warmoadgens is, rom eqsperimentis Sedegebze
gavlena moaxdina misi pirobebis moTxovniTma
maxasiaTeblebma. es moTxovniTi maxasiaTeblebi
eqsperimentuli situaciis maniSneblebia, romlebic zemoqmedebdnen cdis pirebze da aniSnebdnen,
Tu ras elian maTgan. davuSvaT, milgremis cdis
pirebi mixvdnen, rom misi eqsperimentis Sedegebi
bevrad ufro saintereso iqneboda, Tu isini ar
Sewyvetdnen eleqtroSokiT zemoqmedebas da
amitomac, agrZelebdnen TamaSs. Semdgomma kvlevebma
aCvena, rom avtoritetisadmi damorCileba sulac
ar ganicdis uCveulo eqsperimentuli pirobebis
gavlenas. is, SesaZloa, nebismier cxovrebiseul
situaciaSi moxdes.

773

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

liTad, morCileba sakmaod maRalia, rodesac


jer mewyvile iZleva morCilebis magaliTs, rodesac cdis piri moqmedebs, rogorc Sualeduri
rgoli im adamianebis damxmare, vinc uSualod
zemoqmedebs msxverplze, an rodesac msxverpli
(moswavle) fizikurad daSorebulia maswavleblisagan. morCileba sakmaod dabalia, rodesac
TviTon Mmoswavle iTxovs masze zemoqmedebas,
rodesac ori avtoritetiani piri iZleva urTierTsawinaaRmdego miTiTebebs, an TviT avtoritetia msxverpli. es Sedegebi miuTiTebs, rom
qcevaze zegavlenas axdens situacia da ara cdis
pirebs Soris individualuri gansxvavebebi.
ori mizezi, romlis gamoc adamianebi avlenen
morCilebas am situaciebSi, normatuli da informaciuli gavlenis wyaroebamde migviyvans, romelzec saubari iyo me-17 TavSi: _ adamianebs surT,
rom mowonebul iqnen (normatuli gavlena) da
iyvnen marTlebi (informaciuli zegavlena).
isini midrekilni arian moiqcnen ise, rogorc
sxvebi iqcevian, an iqceodnen ise, rom iyvnen
socialurad misaRebni da mosawonni. amasTan,
gaurkvevel, axal situaciebSi, magaliTad, am

774

eqsperimentis msgavs situaciebSi, adamianebi


endobian sxvebis miniSnebebs imis Taobaze, Tu
ra saxis qcevebia adekvaturi da swori. ufro
xSirad isini eqspertebs da sando pirebs endobian, romlebic karnaxoben maT, Tu rogor unda
moiqcnen. milgremis paradigmis mesame faqtori
isaa, rom, rogorc Cans, cdis pirebi ibneodnen,
vinaidan ar icodnen, rogor gamoexataT daumorCilebloba; arafers ambobdnen, radgan ujerebdnen avtoritets. maT rom hqonodaT situaciidan
pirdapiri, martivi gamosavali, magaliTad,
daeWiraT xeli Rilakze Sewyveta~, maSin, SesaZloa, naklebad gamoevlinaT morCileba (Ross,
1988). dabolos, am eqsperimentul situaciaSi
avtoritetisadmi damorCileba im gaSinagnebuli
Tvisebis nawilia, rasac bavSvebi gansxvavebul
situaciebSi swavloben usityvod daemorCilon avtoritets (Brown, 1986). es movlena maSin
emsaxureba sazogadoebas, rodesac avtoritetebi
legitimuri ZalauflebiT arian aRWurvilni da
imsaxureben morCilebas. problema ki isaa, rom
am wesma sakuTari Tavi amowura. avtoritetisadmi
brma morCileba niSnavs yvelanairi avtori-

suraTi

18.5

damorCileba
milgremis
eqsperimentebSi
grafiki asaxavs sustidan
Zlier damorCilebamde profilebs, milgremis eqsperimentebis gansxvavebul situaciebSi

fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi

eWvgareSea, bolo wlebSi


informaciam kultebis Sesaxeb
daipyro Cveni cnobiereba
sakulto jgufebis wevrebis im
eqstremaluri, auxsneli qcevebis gamo, romelTa Sesaxebac
vkiTxulobT, an romelTac vuyurebT masmediis saSualebiT.
1997 wlis martSi SeerTebul
StatebSi, sakuTari lideris
mier provocirebulma heiven
geits~-is 39 wevrma ritualuri
wesebis dacviT moikla Tavi;
daaxloebiT oci wliT adre,
gaianas junglebis dasaxlebaSi, 900-ze metma amerikelma
moqalaqem Caatara masobrivi
TviTmkvlelobis aqti maTi
qarizmatuli lideris Rirsi
jim jonsis daJinebuli moTxovniT. safrangeTSi, kanadasa
da SveicariaSi, mzis taZris
ordenis wevrebma, aseve, ritualuri wesiT moiswrafes
sicocxle. iaponiaSi ki seqta
aum Sin rikios~ wevrebma
tokios metroSi gazis gamoyenebiT mowamles mgzavrebi da,
aseve, dagegmili hqondaT masobrivi mkvlelobebis sxva aqciebi

maTi lideris miTiTebebis


Tanaxmad. am WeSmaritad tragikuli faqtebis miRma dgas
aTasobiT jgufi, romelic kvalificirdeba, rogorc kulti
da romlis wevrebic totalur
morCilebas ucxadeben am jgufebs da maT liderebs. wevrebi
emorCilebian nebismier brZanebas, rogoricaa, magaliTad,
ucnob partniorze daqorwineba
masobrivi qorwinebis ceremoniebis dros, maTxovroba, rekrutireba, xangrZlivi Sroma anazRaurebis gareSe, sakuTari qonebis jgufis sargeblobaSi
gadacema, an dauqorwineblobis
aRTqmis dadeba.
SegiZliaT aseTi ramis gakeTebis warmodgena? arsebobs
ki iseTi garemoebebi, romelTa
zegavleniTac miuerTdebodiT
kults da iqceodiT im komformizmis, daTmobis da totaluri
morCilebis pirad, rasac kulti
Tavs axvevs jgufis wevrebs?
cxadia, umravlesoba ityvis:
ara, araviTar SemTxvevaSi~, magram Cveni, rogorc fsiqologebis, amocanaa gavigoT, Tu

tetuli figurisadmi morCilebas ubralod


imitom, rom maT miewerebaT raime statusi, ganurCevlad imisa, marTebulia Tu ara maTi
moTxovnebi da brZanebebi.

milgremis eqsperimentebi da Tqven


ra mniSvneloba SeiZleba hqondes TqvenTvis
avtoritetisadmi damorCilebis am kvlevebs?
rogor moiqceviT Tqven, rodesac cxovrebis
manZilze msgavsi moraluri dilemebis winaSe
aRmoCndebiT? gamoZebneT dro da dafiqrdiT
avtoritetisadmi damorCilebis im situaciebze,
romlebic, SesaZloa, warmoiqmnas Tqvens yovel-

rogor axerxeben es jgufebi


da maTi liderebi aseT iZulebas da CavwvdeT im pirobebs, romelTa meSveobiTac
adamianebi mowyvladni xdebian da ujereben maTgan miRebul damarwmunebel informacias.
amrigad, ras warmoadgens
kulti? sakulto jgufebi
mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdebian
TavianTi aqtivobebiT, struqturiT, sididiT da ideologiiT, magram praqtikulad
yvela warmoadgens aratradiciul religiur jgufs,
romelic imarTeba avtoritaruli lideris mier da romelic aris jgufis ideologiis, doqtrinis erTaderTi sulieri wyaro da ZiriTadi mcveli (Kramer & Alsted,
1993; Singer, 1995; Zimbardo &
Andersen, 1993). aseTi lideri,
umetes SemTxvevaSi, qarizmatuli lideria, energiiTa
da TavdadebiTaa aRvsili da
xSirad pretenziasac acxadebs
RvTaebriv yovlisSemZleobaze, yovlismcodneobasa da

dRiur cxovrebaSi. moatyuebdiT myidvels, Tqvens


ufross xeli rom Seewyo TqvenTvis? an warmoidgineT, rom kongresis wevri xarT, miscemdiT
imas xmas, viszec partia migiTiTebdaT, Tu sakuTar sindiss mousmendiT?
milgremis mier Catarebuli, avtoritetisadmi
damorCilebis kvlevebi angrevs miTs imis Sesaxeb,
rom adamianebis codvis wyaro maT codvil
bunebaSia. romlebic gansxvavdebian kargi amiT
sulac ar gvinda adamianis bunebis damcireba,
magram gvinda, naTeli movfinoT imas, rom
normaluri, kargad moazrovne individic ki,
SesaZloa, potenciurad susti aRmoCndes Zlieri
situaciuri da socialuri Zalebis winaSe.

konfliqtisa da mSvidobis fsiqologia

ratom eziarebian adamianebi lults

775

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

776

ukvdavebazec ki. miuxedavad


calkeuli kultebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis gansxvavebebisa, saerTo maT Soris axlad miRebuli wevrebisTvis micemuli uxvi dapirebebi, maTze zemoqmedebis
wesi da jgufis iZulebiTi
Zalaa, romelic yoveli wevrisagan sakuTari nebisa da
kritikuli azrovnebis daTmobas iTxovs (Hassan, 1988; Langone, 1993).
maS, ratom surT adamianebs kultTan SeerTeba?
upirveles yovlisa, aravin
uerTdeba kults, rogorc
aseTs. adamianebi uerTdebian
saintereso jgufs, romelic
maT sakuTari moTxovni lebebis dakmayofilebas pirdeba. isini mxolod mogvianebiT aRiqmebian sakulto
jgufebad, mxolod maSin, rodesac cnobierdeba, rom es
aris cru, naklovani, saSiSi
gaerTianeba, an sulac is, rom
is ewinaaRmdegeba sazogadoebis mier aRiarebul ZiriTad
Rirebulebebs. kulti maSin
xdeba mimzidveli, rodesac
adamianis individualuri moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis dapirebas iZleva, ramdenadac es SeiZleba exebodes
saxeldaxelo megobrobas,

identurobas an cxovrebis mowyobas. socialuri marcxis


SemTxvevaSi kulti adamianebs
kompensaciasac hpirdeba izolirebulobisa da marcxis
SegrZnebis acilebiT. sakulto jgufi ufrTxildeba sakuTar samyaros, Tavis usafrTxoebas, wevrebis janmrTelobas, maT movla-patronobas
yvelaferi winaswar aris
gaTvlili da gakontrolebuli. sul ufro da ufro
garTulebad samyaroSi kultis liderebi wevrebs martiv
gadawyvetilebebs, bednierebisken, warmatebisaken da
xsnisaken mimavali gzis gakvalvas sTavazoben.
adamianebi kultis damarwmunebeli Zalis mimarT gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiareni
arian maSin, rodesac sacxovreblad gadadian axal qveyanaSi an qalaqSi, kargaven
samuSaos, amTavreben saswavleblebs, an idevnebian tradiciuli religiidan, rogorc Seuferebelni. kulti
mimzidvelia maTTvisac, vinc
Tavis samuSaos mosawyenad da
erTferovnad miiCnevs, visac
gafantuli da uSinaarso socialuri cxovreba aqvs da
visac rwmena aqvs dakarguli

dasasrul gvinda ramdenime sityva vTqvaT


gmirobaze. davuSvaT, Tqveni msgavsi adamianebis
umetesoba daemorCila raRac Zlier jgufur
Zalas. Cveni azriT, Tu Tqven SegwevT unari,
win aRudgeT amas, Tqveni qceva SeiZleba Sefasdes,
rogorc gmiroba. gmiri is pirovnebaa, romelsac
SeuZlia Segnebulad, sindisidan gamomdinare
moqmedeba maSin, roca danarCenebi konformizms
avlenen, an visac SeuZlia arCevani gaakeTos
maRalzneobrivi qcevis sasargeblod, rodesac
danarCenebi mdumared gadgebian ganze, raTa
borotebam Tavisuflad iboginos. SesaZloa, im
faqtma, rom Tqven iciT iseTi situaciuri Zalebis

sakuTari qveynis mTavrobis


mimarT.
miuxedavad imisa, rom masmedia masobrivi mkvlelobebisa da TviTmkvlelobebis
Sesaxeb avrcelebs cnobebs,
kultebis umravlesoba wynarad moqmedebs Tavisi miznebis
misaRwevad. Tuki isini TavianT danapirebs asruleben,
maT SeuZliaT Rirebuli
samsaxuri gauwion calkeul
adamianebs da SeZlon maTTvis
cxovrebiseuli vakuumis Sevseba, magram, rodesac isini
motyuebiT, iZulebiT da
ZaliT moqmedeben da amaxinjeben Tavisuflebis, damoukideblobis da kritikuli
azrovnebis ZiriTad faseulobebs, isini saSiSni xdebian rogorc sakuTari wevrebisaTvis, ise _
sazogadoebisTvisac. aqve marTebuli
iqneba erTi kiTxvis dasma: _
nuTu sazogadoebas ar SeuZlia adamianebi uzrunvelyos
yovelive imiT, rasac kultebi
hpirdebian, raTa es kultebi
ar warmoCndnen saintereso,
gansakuTrebuli stiliT
cxovrebad, romelsac ase eswrafvian adamianebi mTel
msoflioSi?

arsebobis Sesaxeb, romlebic SesaZlebels xdian


borotebis banalurobas~, gibiZgoT kidec gmiruli qcevisken.

genocidisa da omis
fsiqologia
jerjerobiT Cven mxolod is gavarkvieT, rom
adamians, rogorc saxeobas, gaaCnia garkveuli
midrekileba, daemorCilos avtoritets, magram
adamianis bunebis am damaxasiaTebeli niSnis
Sefasebis garda, albaT, axsnas saWiroebs isic,
Tu ratom xdeba, rom garkveul dros da garkveul

rolSi gamoyvana kulturuli Tu politikuri


ideologiis nawils warmoadgenda, romelsac
erTnairad iziarebdnen rogorc eris liderebi,
ise _ rigiTi moqalaqeebic.
jgufi, romelsac bralad daedo sazogadoebis sirTuleebis gamowveva, gamodis gantevebis vacis rolSi da xdeba mis mimarT Zaladobis
gamarTleba. Zaladobis calkeul incidentebs
msoflio samarTlianobaze fiqramde (Lerner, 1980),
anu im mosazrebamde mivyavarT, rom, vinaidan
Cven samarTlian samyaroSi vcxovrobT, daCagrulma xalxma raRac unda moimoqmedos, rom
Zaladobas Tavi daaRwios. ase magaliTad, nacisturi epoqis germanelebi mividnen im mosazrebamde, rom ebraelebi imsaxurebdnen Tavis
xvedrs im zianis gamo, rac maT germaniis saxelmwifos miayenes.

sawyisi wertili xSirad sazogadoebis wevrebis mZime cxovrebis pirobebSi, cud ekonomikur
mdgomareobaSi, politikur daRmavlobasa da sxva
msgavs faqtorebSi unda veZioT.
rogorc Cans, am mZime pirobebSi adamianebs
uZlierdebaT Sida da gare jgufebis gamijvnis
tendencia. aseT SemTxvevaSi, gare jgufi gamodis
gantevebis vacis rolSi da brali edeba sazogadoebaSi arsebul sirTuleebSi. arsebobs
mravali magaliTi imisa (Tundac nacisturi
germania), sadac sxva erebis gantevebis vacis
genocidi (Genocide) _ adamianebis erTi jgufis,
xSir SemTxvevaSi rasobrivis an eTnikuris,
sistemuri ganadgureba meoris mier

Zaladobas, agreTve, safuZvlad edeba sakuTari Tavis gamarTlebis survili misi


SeCereba niSnavs imis aRiarebas, rom misi wamowyeba, TavisTavad, mcdari iyo. metic, rodesac
esa Tu is reJimi Zaladobas mimarTavs, sxvaTa
dumili Tanxmobad, misi qmedebebis samarTlianobis aRiarebad aRiqmeba. aseT SemTxvevasTan gvqonda saqme im eTnikuri wmendiT~
gamowveul xocva-Jletisas, romelsac adgili
hqonda 1991 wels iugoslaviis daSlis Semdeg,
rodesac, miuxedavad masmediaSi farTo gaSuqebisa,
ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi msoflio Tanamegobroba araviTar zomebs ar iRebda.
ganvixiloT kambojis magaliTi (Hinton 1996).
situacia cxovrebis mZime pirobebma Seqmna: XX
saukunis 60-iani wlebis bolos qveyanaSi Seiqmna
mZime ekonomikuri viTareba, rasac daerTo dabombvebi, romlebsac aSS vietnamis winaaRmdeg
axorcielebda da mis mezobel kambojazec
aisaxeboda. axalma reJimma gantevebis vacis Zieba
daiwyo da isini iqcnen kidec ukiduresi Zaladobis samizned. komunistebma, romlebmac 1975
wels daipyres dedaqalaqi pnom peni, ipoves
ideologiuri mtrebi, romelTa ganadgurebac aucilebeli iyo, raTa aSenebuliyo axali sazogadoeba. yofili samxedro da politikuri liderebi
daapatimres da daxvrites. Semdgom, nel-nela
gafarTovda klasobrivi mtris~ cneba da moicva
maswavleblebi, studentebi, Cinovnikebi, profesionalebi, romlebic potenciur moRalateebad

konfliqtisa da mSvidobis fsiqologia

adgilas adamianTa erTi jgufi iwyebs adamianTa


meore jgufis sistematur ganadgurebas _
genocids. ratom aris, rom Zalze xSirad erTi
jgufi iwyebs oms, an axorcielebs naklebad
formalur agresias meore jgufis mimarT. am
qveTavSi Cven gavaanalizebT zogierT istoriul
da fsiqologiur Zalas, romelmac adamianis
modgma uaRresad organizebuli agresiis gziT
waiyvana.
fsiqologma irvin staubma (Ervin Staub, 1989,2000)
istoriidan cnobili genocidis SemTxvevebi
Seiswavla da SemogvTavaza im kulturuli da
fsiqologiuri Zalebis mimoxilva, romlebic
SesaZlebels xdian terors:

777

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

778

gamocxaddnen. imata mkvlelobaTa ricxvma, vinaidan


es emsaxureboda~ ideologiis ganmtkicebas da
mkafiod gansazRvruli miznis miRwevas qveyana
unda ganTavisuflebuliyo Sinauri mtrebisgan.
rogorc sxva mraval SemTxvevaSi, msoflio
Tanamegobroba arc am saqmeSi Careula.

mtris~ cneba da xati


Cven ukve vnaxeT, rom genocidis erT-erTi
mniSvnelovani momentia gantevebis vacis~ moZebna. igive moments SegviZlia genocidis
ganxorcielebis procesSic mivadevnoT Tvali,

suraTi

maSinac ki, rodesac mizad ar aris dasaxuli


jgufis totaluri ganadgureba. ganvixiloT
socialisturi sistemis rRvevis Semdeg yofil
aRmosavleT germaniaSi, nacionalur gamokiTxvebSi asaxuli, 15-dan 20 wlamde germaneli
axalgazrdebis sakmaod negatiuri ganwyobebi
polonelebisa da Turqebis mimarT. am ganwyobebis safuZveli, rogorc aRmoCnda, kulturuli
da ekonomikuri konkurenciis SiSi iyo (Watts,
1996), anu gaCnda eWvi, rom polonelebi da
Turqebi ikaveben samuSao adgilebs, riTac xels
uwyoben komunizmidan demokratiaze gadasvlis
process da Semosavlis gareSe toveben germanel
axalgazrdebs. ekonomikuri safrTxis aseTi aRqma
esadageba im models, romelic zemoT aRvwereT:
crurwmenebi da diskriminaciis ganxorcielebisadmi mzadyofna spontanurad ar xorcieldeba; is moiTxovs iseT socialur garemos,
romelic xels uwyobs rwmenas, rom mteri~
iTvisebs isedac mwir resursebs, es ki warmoSobs
safuZvels ZaladobisaTvis.
rodesac reJimi mters~ gantevebis vacis rols
moargebs, iwyeba misi dehumanizacia~. igi cdilobs, xalxi miiyvanos im azramde, rom mtris
arahumanuri jgufi saZulvelia da unda ganadgurdes. dehumanizaciis es procesi gansakuTrebiT
saSiSia omis warmoebis dros. kulturebis
umravlesoba individualur agresias ganixilavs,
rogorc danaSauls, saxelmwifoebi milionobiT
jariskacs avarjiSeben mkvlelobis CadenaSi.
saxelmwifo liderebis amocanaa aseTi saxis
mkvlelobebs saxe ucvalos da patriotul

18.6

ratom midian adamianebi omSi


rodesac saxelmwifos liderebi omis dawyebas
apireben, isini acnobiereben, rom amas, SesaZloa,
negatiuri Sedegebi mohyves. Tanamedrove omi,
meore msoflio omidan moyolebuli, aRar iTvaliswinebs mSvidobiani mosaxleobis dandobas.
es xdeba im mizniT, rom gatexon xalxis neba~.
maSinac ki, rodesac omi dasaxlebuli punqtebidan moSorebiT warmoebs, ise, rogorc es
sparseTis yuris omis dros xdeboda, mas mainc
mohyveba msxverpli orive mxridan. rogor unda
moaxdinos mTavrobam an sxva jgufebma imis
dasabuTeba, rom oms imdenad didi mniSvneloba
aqvs, rom gamarTlebulia aseTi msxverpli?
umetes SemTxvevaSi aseT kiTxvebze pasuxs istoriis gakveTilebze viRebT: qveynebi imitom
ibrZvian, rom (Cven ase viswavleT) daicvan Tavisi
teritoria, sakuTaro xalxi an Tavisi ekonomikuri
interesebi. am qveTavSi ganvixilavT im mniS-

vnelovan fsiqologiur faqtorebs, romlebsac


individi mihyavs gadawyvetilebamde miiRos
omSi monawileoba.
Cven SegviZlia davsvaT kiTxva: ratom swiraven
adamianebi Tavs samSoblos? SesaZloa, es
altruizmis ukiduresi gamovlineba iyos. gavixsenoT zemoT aRniSnuli, rom evoluciuri midgoma ojaxis wevrebis dacvas (anu genebis dacvas)
altruizmis mniSvnelovan safuZvelad miiCnevs.
zogierTi mkvlevari fiqrobs, rom adamianebs
ojaxsa~ da ers~ Soris kavSiri bavSvobidan
aqvT gaSinagnebuli (Stern, 1995). Cven vlaparakobT
Cvens deda-samSobloze~ an mama-samSobloze~
da varT misi Svilebi~. nuTu es kavSiri sakmarisia imis asaxsnelad, Tu ratom swiraven adamianebi Tavs samSoblos? nuTu adamianebi, romlebic omSi midian, ise axdenen socialuri
realobis konstruirebas~, rom sjeraT, samSoblos dacviT isini TavianT ojaxebs icaven? Tqven,
albaT, mixvdiT, ratom aris es kiTxvebi mniSvnelovani fsiqologebisaTvis.
omis fsiqologiuri faqtorebis Sesaxeb damatebiTi informaciis miReba im garemoebebis
SeswavliTaa SesaZlebeli, romlebmac 1992 wels
serbebi agresiuli aqtebis ganxorcielebisken
da bosniaSi omis dawyebisken waaqeza (White,1996).
rogorc Cans, serbebi SiSobdnen, rom 1991 wels,
iugoslaviis daSlis Semdeg, isini bosniaSi
devnil umciresobaSi aRmoCndebodnen. Cven ukve
vnaxeT, rom ganxeTqilebis dros umciresobis
aseT SiSs sakmao safuZveli aqvs. ai, britaneli
Jurnalistis mier Cawerili sityvebi, romelic
erT-erT bosniel serb policiels ekuTvnis
(Glenny, 1994; citirebulia, White, 1996, gv.111):
man daadastura dakvirvebebi, romlebic
me Tavadac gavakeTe yvela erovnebis adgilobriv mebrZolebTan saubrisas: is ar
iyo boroti adamiani. piriqiT, man ganmarta
kidec, rogor uWirda srola soflis meore
mxares, sadac yvela iqaur mcxovrebs
icnobda. magram es omi raRacnairad daatydaT Tavs da mas unda daecva Tavisi
saxli. kaci SeSfoTebuli da dabneuli
iyo movlenebiT, magram axla is mwvane
beretebs (musulmanebi) da ustaSebs (xorvatebi) sakuTari ojaxisTvis realur
safrTxed aRiqvamda.

konfliqtisa da mSvidobis fsiqologia

qmedebad aqcios (Harle, 2000; Keen, 1986). es masobrivi


socialuri zegavlena nawilobriv moicavs mowinaaRmdegis jariskacebis dehumanizaciasa daa
maT mtrad~ gadaqcevas. am dehumanizacias, mtris
cocxal ferebSi warmosaxviT, politikuri
ritorika da masmedia agvirgvinebs. rogorc veteranebi aRniSnaven, omSi yvelaze mniSvnelovani
iaraRi ki ara, aramed _ sazizRari mtris~ gaSinagnebuli xatia. amgvarad, omis dros axalgazrda
jariskacebi fsiqologiurad programirdebian
mkvlelebad swored im damaxinjebuli saxeebiT,
romelTac mTavroba mtris iarliys miawebebs.
xSir SemTxvevaSi es warmodgenebi ubralod
xelovnuri xatebi ki ar aris, aramed Rrma
mentaluri xatebia, romlebsac politikosebi
aRviveben masebSi maT dasarazmad da saomrad
gasaSvebad.
amis cocxali magaliTia is procesi, romelsac aSS ganuwyvetliv axorcielebda, rodesac
sadam huseins hitlers adarebda 1990 wlis sparseTis yureSi gaCaRebuli omis konteqstSi (Voss
et al., 1992). am kavSiris sazogadoebis gonebaSi
CabeWdviT prezident jorj buSs da sxva politikur liderebs saSualeba eZleodaT, brZolisaken moewodebinaT amerikelTa didi masebisaTvis. rodesac huseini~ hitlerad~ iqca, ufro
ioli gaxda msjeloba aqtiuri samxedro moqmedebebis dawyebis Sesaxeb.

779

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

Cven maT uflebas ar mivcemT, rom aq


musulmanuri saxelmwifo Seqmnan~, _ gulwrfelad ganacxada man. Tqven gesmiT, ra
undaT maT?~ _ vkiTxe me mas. ra Tqma
unda, me mesmis, Tqven ucxoelebs ki, rogor
ar gesmiT is, rom Cven aq ucxo religias
vebrZviT evropis gamo~.

780

am mosalodneli devnisTvis daswrebis gamo


serbebs eadvilebodaT sakuTri Tavis ucodvelebad warmodgena maSinac ki, rodesac agresiuli
moqmedebebis ganxorcieleba daiwyes. maTi fsiqologiuri Tvalsawieridan isini iyvnen ara
agresorebi, aramed _ msxverplebi. konfliqtis
gamwvavebasTan erTad, serbi liderebi, iseTebi,
rogoric slobodan miloSeviCi iyo, serb xalxSi
devnis manias~ aRvivebdnen, raTa ganemtkicebinaT
rwmena, rom maT samarTlianad wamoiwyes omi,
magram droTa ganmavlobaSi isini ubralo
mkvlelebad iqcnen, xeli mihyves eTnikur
wmendas~, raTa moeSorebinaT mdevrebi~. Cven
vnaxeT, rogori didi surviliT midiodnen
adamianebi omSi, raTa daecvaT sakuTari Tavi
realuri Tu warmosaxuli mtrebisgan, an im
mtrebisgan, romlebsac maTi liderebi qmnidnen.
daskvna, romelic SeiZleba gamovitanoT am
analizidan, sul mcire, dRevandeli dRisTvis,
isaa, rom saxelmwifoebi iSviaTad erTvebian
omSi gabatonebis an dapyrobis mizniT. rogorc
Cans, isini darwmunebulebi arian _ maSinac ki,
rodesac danarCeni msoflio maT agresorebs
uwodebs _ rom im mniSvnelovan interesebs
icaven, romlebic aucilebelia maTi gadarCenisa
da individualobis SenarCunebisaTvis. ra Tqma
unda, qveynebi milionobiT individebisagan
Sedgebian da maTma mniSvnelovanma nawilma
sakmarisad unda gaiSinagnos im safrTxis safasuri, romelsac warmoadgens survili samSoblos Seswiros sakuTari sicocxle. rac ar
unda obieqturad~ CaiTvalos omis dawyebis
mizezebi, nebismieri istoriuli analizis mixedviT, es mxolod individualuri Zalebis
urTierTqmedebaa, romelic ubiZgebs adamianebs,
medgrad daudgnen omis gansacdels.
amrigad, am qveTavSi ganvixileT ramdenime
gza, romlis meSveobiTac fsiqologiuri Zalebi
qmnian saTanado konteqsts omisaTvis da im saSinelebebisaTvis, romlebic amave konteqstSi
savsebiT mizanSewonilad gveCveneba. fsiqologia

da cxovrebis~ bolo qveTavSi mivubrundebiT


mSvidobis Semswavleli fsiqologebis mcdelobas _ gamoiyenon fsiqologiuri Zalebi
mSvidobiani Tanaarsebobis xelSewyobisaTvis.

mSvidobis fsiqologia
zemoT Catarebul analizs axla meore mxridan
SevxedoT da vnaxoT, rogor SegviZlia socialuri
fsiqologiis gamoyenebiT mSvidobis SenarCuneba.
fsiqologias unikaluri saSualebebi gaaCnia
im sakiTxebis Sesaswavlad, Tu rogor unda
gadaiWras nacionaluri Tu internacionaluri
disharmoniis problemebi. amerikis fsiqologTa
asociacias gaaCnia mSvidobis fsiqologiis ganyofileba. es ganyofileba muSaobs erebs, Temebsa
da ojaxebs Soris mSvidobis SenarCunebis
problemebze; is xels uwyobs kvlevebsa da ganaTlebas am sferoSi, saTanado gamocemebiT, romlebic Zaladobis mizezebs, damangreveli konfliqtebis Sedegebsa da maTTvis Tavis aridebis
gzebs exeba. Cven ganvixilavT or magaliTs, Tu
rogor SeuZlia fsiqologias am miznebis miRwevaSi daxmarebis gaweva.

liderobisa da mmarTvelobis formebis


analizi
zogierTi adreuli mecnieruli kvleva, romelsac axla mSvidobis fsiqologiis sferos
mivakuTvnebT, ganpirobebuli iyo istoriuli
movlenebiT, romelTa kulminacias meore msoflio omi warmoadgenda. socialuri fsiqologebi
cdilobdnen, Cawvdomodnen im kanonzomierebebs,
Tu rogor xdeboda zogierTi liderisa Tu
mmarTvelis amotivtiveba, romlebic esoden did
gavlenas axdendnen jgufebis qcevebze. ra
fsiqologiuri iZulebiT SeiZleba aixsnas germaniaSi adolf hitleris an italiaSi benito
musolinis gamoCena? es liderebi calkeul individebs faSisturi ideologiisadmi usityvo
erTgulebiT ganmsWvalul, morCil masad aqcevdnen. maTi avtoritaruli reJimebi safrTxes
uqmnida demokratiasa da mSvidobas. Tanamedrove
socialuri fsiqologia SiSis umZimesi gancdis,
crurwmenebisa da omis wlebSi ganviTarda.
mSvidobis fsiqologia (Peace psychology) atomuri omis prevenciisa da mSvidobis miRwevisadmi interdisciplinaruli midgoma.

jgufis dinamika (Group dynamics) im jgufuri


procesebis kvleva, romlebic cvlian individebis funqcionirebas.

jgufis aqtivobebSi. demokratiuli liderebis


rolSi isini xels uwyobdnen jgufis mier gadawyvetilebebis miRebas da jgufTan erTad gegmavdnen davalebebs. anarqiuli lideris rolSi
ki jgufs srul Tavisuflebas aniWebdnen da,
faqtobrivad, ar erTvebodnen mis aqtivobaSi.

saidan
viciT
liderobis stilis efeqtebi
eqsperimentis Sedegebma SesaZlebeli
gaxada mTeli rigi ganzogadebebis gakeTeba.
pirveli, avtokratulma liderebma gamoavlines jgufis wevrebze gavlenis Sereuli
efeqti, nawilobriv dadebiTi, nawilobriv
ki _ uaryofiTi. biWebi drodadro kargad
muSaobdnen mxolod maSin, rodesac lideri maT Tvalyurs adevnebda _ ise iqceodnen, rogorc namdvili bosebi~. maT
gansakuTrebiT axasiaTebdaT agresiulobis
maRali done. es biWebi 30-jer ufro met
mtrulobas avlendnen, vidre sxva stilis
liderobis SemTxvevaSi. isini iTxovdnen
met yuradRebas, metad anadgurebdnen qonebas da metad iyenebdnen sxvebs gantevebis vacad frustraciisa da gabrazebis dros.
ukeTesi Sedegebi arc anarqiuli liderebis jgufSi iyo. maTi Sedegebi arcTu
ise kargi aRmoCnda. maTi saqmianoba ar
iyo warmatebuli, produqtiuloba ki Zalze
dabali da uxarisxo iyo. vinaidan jgufs
araviTari struqtura ar hqonda, isini
ubralod uazrod moqmedebdnen, magram,
rodesac igive cdis pirebi demokratiuli
lideris gavlenis qveS eqceodnen, isini
Zalze stabilurad da maRali warmadobiT
Sromobdnen. biWebi avlendnen Zalze did
interess, motivacias da SemoqmedebiT
unars. rodesac wamoiWreboda ukmayofileba,
SesaZlebeli iyo misi Riad gamoxatva.
TiTqmis yvela biWma upiratesoba liderobis demokratiul stils mianiWa. am
stilma xeli Seuwyo jgufisadmi loialobas da megobrobis aRmocenebas. aseT
jgufebSi ufro meti iyo urTierTSeqeba,
megobruli SeniSvnebi, urTierTgaziareba
da mxiaruleba (Lewin,et al., 1939).

konfliqtisa da mSvidobis fsiqologia

adreuli socialuri fsiqologia yuradRebas


amaxvilebda faSisturi mentalitetis miRma
mdgomi avtoritaruli pirovnebis bunebaze (Adorno et al., 1950), propagandisa da damarwmunebeli
komunikaciis efeqtebze (Hovland et al., 1949) da
jgufis wevrebze, jgufuri atmosferosa da
liderobis stilebis gavlenebze (Levin et al., 1939).
socialuri fsiqologiis erT-erTi pioneri
kurt levini (Kurt Lewin) iyo, germaneli ltolvili fsiqologi, romelic nacisturi reJimis
mier ganxorcielebul devnas gamoeqca. levins
ar SeeZlo daxmareba, magram mas ainteresebda,
Tu ratom daemorCila misi eri ase totalurad
faSisturi diqtaturis avtoritarul tiranias.
is TviTon eswreboda aTiaTasian Sekrebebs, sadac
adamianebi fiurers RrialiT eficebodnen erTgulebas. es iyo SemaZrwunebeli nimuSi jgufis
im dinamikuri Zalebisa, romelic gardaqmnis
rogorc individis gonebasa da qcevebs, ise _
mis unars, gavlena miaxdinos masebze. levini
ikvlevda jgufis dinamikas saSualebebs, romlebiTac liderebi uSualod zemoqmedeben TavianT mimdevrebze da im meqanizmebsac, romlebiTac jgufuri procesebi cvlian individis
qcevas.
1939 wels levinma da misma kolegebma moifiqres da Caatares eqsperimenti, raTa SeeswavlaT
gansxvavebuli stilis liderebis gavlena jgufis funqcionirebaze. maT surdaT, gaerkviaT,
rodis arian adamianebi ufro bednierni da
produqtulni _ avtoritaruli Tu demokratiuli
liderobis pirobebSi. am miznis misaRwevad,
mkvlevrebma Seqmnes sami eqsperimentuli jgufi,
dauniSnes maT gansxvavebuli tipis liderebi
da akvirdebodnen am jgufebis aqtivobebs.
eqsperimentSi cdis pirebi 10 wlis biWebi (romlebic oTx patara jgufad gaaerTianes) iyvnen,
romlebic erTmaneTs skolis Semdeg xvdebodnen.
jgufis liderebis rolSi iyvnen mamakacebi,
romlebmac winaswar gaiares treiningi liderobis samive stilis Sesabamisi rolis SesrulebaSi, jgufebSi ki maTi rotacia xdeboda.
rodesac iqceodnen, rogorc avtokratuli
liderebi, isini sakuTar Tavze iRebdnen yvela
gadawyvetilebis miRebas da davalebebis ganawilebas ise, rom TviTon ar monawileobdnen

781

totalitaruli democidi

saerTaSoriso omi

demokratiuli

avtoritaruli

totalitaruli

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

XX saukuneSi daxocilTa raodenoba milionobiT

suraTi

18.7

reJimebis tipebi da democidi

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

totalitaruli reJimebi metad mimarTaven democids (genocidsa da masobrivi


mkvlelobebis sxva formebs). omis msxverplTa raodenobaTa Sedareba aCvenebs,
rom mTavrobebis gamo, mSvidobian dros, bevrad ufro meti adamiani iRupeba,
vidre omis dros.

782

marTvis demokratiulma stilma, jgufuri


atmosferos sxva formebTan SedarebiT, Tavisi
fsiqologiuri upiratesoba da bevrad maRali
produqtiuloba aCvena. demokratiuli stilis
liderebi jgufis wevrebSi ufro jansaR reaqciebs aRvivebdnen maSin, rodesac avtokratuli
liderebi ufro destruqciul individualur
reaqciebs iwvevdnen.
levinis mier sacdel klasebSi miRebuli
Sedegebi, rogorc Cans, Seesabameba realur cxovrebaSi arsebul viTarebas. ar unda dagvaviwydes
is daskvna, rom avtokratuli liderobis stils
mohyveba mtruli urTierTobebis zrda. msgavsi
magaliTebi Cven realur cxovrebaSic SegviZlia
vnaxoT. Sesabamisi tipis mTavrobebi iwveven
democids genocids da masobrivi mkvlelobebis
sxva formebs (Rummel,1994). Tu SexedavT 18.6
suraTs, dainaxavT, rom totalitaruli reJimebi,
rogoricaa komunisturi ruseTi da CineTi, pasuxismgeblebi arian uzarmazari raodenobiT
adamianebis ganadgurebaze. avtoritaruli mTavrobebi, rogoricaa aidi aminis reJimi ugandaSi,
naklebad sisxlismRvreli aRmoCnda. miuxedavad
imisa, rom demokratiul mTavrobebsac ver
vuwodebT mTlad ucodvelebs, mmarTvelobis es

forma mainc yvelaze nakleb sisxlismRvrelad


unda CaiTvalos. suraTi 18.6, aseve, gviCvenebs
omebSi daRupul adamianTa raodenobebs. yuradReba miaqcieT, rom avtoritarul da totalitarul reJimebSi mmarTvelobiT gamowveuli
sikvdilis aseTi raodenoba modis ara saomar
moqmedebebze, aramed masobrivi mkvlelobebis
sxva kampaniebze.
ideologiuri mosazrebebis miRma, rodesac
mmarTvelobis demokratiuli sistemebi Tavis
adgilzea, msoflios naklebi safiqrali aqvs,
rom mcirericxovani elitis mier ar iqnes gamoyenebuli Zala, rasac momakvdinebeli Sedegebi
SeiZleba mohyves.
Tumca, imasac unda mieqces yuradReba, rom
amiT sulac ar igulisxmeba, TiTqos demokratiuli reJimebi sxvebze iSviaTad erTvebian
omSi. Tumca, isic faqtia, rom erTi demokratia
iSviaTad eomeba meores (Maoz & Abdolali, 1989). kvlevebma daadastura, rom demokratiuli gamgeblobis
qveS myofi qveynebis moqalaqeni naklebad iwoneben Zalis gamoyenebas meore demokratiis
winaaRmdeg, mmarTvelobis sxva formebTan SedarebiT.

viciT

(mTeli qveyana). es codna Tqvenc unda miusadagoT


Tqvens cxovrebaSi arsebul mcire da did jgufebs.

sanqcionirebis roli saerTaSoriso


krizisebis gadawyvetaSi

wamaxalisebeli kontaqtebis roli


konfliqtebis gadawyvetaSi

cdis pirebma waikiTxes saerTaSoriso


krizisis aRwera, romelic modelirebul
iqna im krizisis mixedviT, romlis Sedegadac daiwyo omi sparseTis yureSi. erTi
eri SeiWra meore eris saxelmwifoSi, raTa
gadaeWra uranis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebuli konfliqti. aRweris erTi versia
(arapirdapiri, qveynis dasaxelebis gareSe)
Tavdamsxmel qveyanas demokratiul qveynad
axasiaTebda: SeWra Sefasebuli iyo, rogorc
`demokratiuli gadawyvetilebebis Sedegi,
romelic parlamentis wevrTa umravlesobam
(opoziciis CaTvliT) miiRo~. aseve, arapirdapiri meore versia Tavdamsxmel qveyanas
arademokratiuli reJimis mqoned axasiaTebda: `Tavdasxmis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba
miRebul iqna policiuri qveynis samxedro
diqtatoris mier, xalxis nebis gauTvaliswineblad~. cdis pirebs ori demokratiuli qveynidan aSS-dan da israelidan
sTxoves, mieTiTebinaT, Tu ramdenad
iwonebdnen Zalis gamoyenebas~ sazRvao
SeWras. vinaidan scenarebi, sxva danarCeni
maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT erTnairi iyo,
cdis pirebi Zalze uxalisod daeTanxmnen
Zalis gamoyenebis sanqcionirebas (aSS-is
an israelis mier) im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac
is demokratiuli qveynis winaaRmdeg unda
yofiliyo mimarTuli (Mintz & Geva, 1993).

dapirispirebis mravali saxeoba, romelic


konfliqtebsa da Zaladobas aZlevs dasabams,
sakmaod Zvelia. magaliTad, serbebs, romlebmac
omi awarmoes bosniaSi, gandevnis SiSi jer kidev
1389 wels kosovos velze Catarebuli brZolidan
mohyvebodaT. ra unda gakeTdes aseT SemTxvevaSi?
am problemisadmi mSvidobis fsiqologebis midgoma iseTivea, rogoric crurwmenebis sxva formebisadmi, romelic zemoT aRvwereT: adamianebi
unda gaerTiandnen, rac xels Seuwyobs urTierTndobis zrdas da saerTo miznebis dasaxvas.
magaliTad, aseTi midgoma dRes CrdiloeT
irlandiaSi gamoiyeneba. kaTolikebsa da protestantebs Soris urTierTobebis daTbobis
mizniT, 1989 wlidan didma britaneTma daiwyo
Temebis daaxloebis programis dafinanseba,
romlis mizania TemTaSorisi urTierTobebisa
da kooperaciis ganviTareba; ormxrivi urTierTgagebisa da gansxvavebuli kulturuli tradiciebisadmi pativiscemis zrda~ (Knox, 1994, gv. 600).
yvela Crdilo-irlandiur politikur gaerTianebas ar ukisria am programis Sesruleba, ramac
mkvlevrebs Sedarebis safuZvelze programis
efeqturobis Sefasebis saSualeba misca. es
Sefaseba miuTiTebs, rom aris mcire progresi.
oTxi wlis manZilze warmatebad unda CaiTvalos
im pirTa raodenobis Semcireba, romlebic
kaTolikebis mimarT gamoxatavdnen crurwmenebs
(Knox, 1994). CrdiloeT irlandiaSi mdgomareobis
gamosworebis kidev erTi mcdeloba skolis
moswavleebs exeba (Cairns et al., 1995). am dazaralebul raionebSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis umetesoba
dadis skolebSi, sadac umkacresi segregacia
xdeba religiuri mrwamsis mixedviT. asea Tu
ise, bolo oci wlis manZilze gaixsna skolebi,
sadac protestanti da kaTolike moswavleebi
erTad swavloben. am siaxlem ukve uzrunvelyo
mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi, romelTa gamoc
TemTaSorisi daaxloebis process ukve SeuZlia
politikuri Rirebulebebis Canacvleba. amdenad,
seriozuli daskvna _ rogorc TemTaSoris, aseve
calkeuli skolebis doneze romlis gakeTebac
SeiZleba, isaa, rom mTavrobebs SeuZliaT (da

rodesac demokratiul sazogadoebaSi cxovrobT, garkveulwilad, sxva demokratiuli sazogadoebebis imedi gaqvT da amdenad ufro giZneldebaT maT winaaRmdeg Zalis gamoyenebaze fiqri.
politikosebsac, aseve, uZneldebaT Zalis gamoyenebaze fiqri, vinaidan sakuTari moqalaqeebis
saxiT ar Seiqmnan opozicia.
saerTo daskvna, romelic liderobis formebTan dakavSirebuli cdebidan SegviZlia gamovitanoT, isaa, rom demokratia yvelaze kargad
muSaobs~. am daskvnamde im kvlevebze dayrdnobiT
mivediT, romlebic Caatares patara jgufebzec
(patara bavSvebis jgufi) da Zalian didzec

konfliqtisa da mSvidobis fsiqologia

saidan

783

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

784

unda gaakeTon kidec es) TavianTi SesaZleblobebis FfarTod gamoyeneba saerTo miznebis
miRwevisaTvis aucilebeli ormxrivi kontaqtebisaTvis pirobebis Sesaqmnelad.
axla mivubrundeT msoflios erT-erT mTavar
satkivars axlo aRmosavleTs raTa aRvweroT
israel-palestinis erToblivi samuSao Sexvedrebis is programa, romelic, SemoTavazebul iqna
fsiqolog herbert kelmanisa (Herbert Kelman, 1997,
1999) da misi kolegebis mier. ukve ramdenime
weliwadia, rac kelmani samuSao Sexvedrebze
iwvevs palestinelebsa da ebraelebs, sadac isini
regionSi arsebuli problemebis gadawyvetis
interaqtiul procesSi iyvnen CarTulni, iseTi
konfliqturi problemis CaTvliT, rogoricaa
okupirebul teritoriebze ebrauli dasaxlebebis
mSeneblobis sakiTxi. am procesSi monawileobis
aucilebeli piroba monawileTa xelSeuxeblobis
dacva da konfidencialoba da, aseve, Ria da
analitikuri diskusiebis Catarebis aucilebloba
iyo. garda amisa,Mmonawileebi darwmunebulebi
iyvnen, rom maTze araviTari zewola ar ganxorcieldeboda ama Tu im SeTanxmebis misaRwevad.
mesame mxaris warmomadgenlebi SexvedrebSi monawileobdnen, rogorc saubris fasilitatorebi,
magram ar Suamavlobdnen mxareebs Soris.
kelmanis jgufma es Sexvedrebi maSin wamoiwyo,
rodesac saerTod laparakic ki ar iyo israelpalestinis molaparakebebze. Sexvedrebze iseTi
garemo iyo Seqmnili, rom mxareebs uSualod,
pirispir Sexvedrebis saSualeba hqondaT, rac
urTierTgagebas uwyobda xels. metic, Sexvedrebis
dasrulebis Semdeg monawileebs saSualeba
hqondaT, SemuSavebuli Sexedulebebi ufro
farTod gamoeyenebinaT realur politikur
arenaze. faqtobrivad, kelmanma (1997) ganaxorciela is, rac oslos 1993 wlis samSvidobo
molaparakebebiT iyo gaTvaliswinebuli, Sexvedrebis ramdenime monawile uSualod CaerTo mSvidobis damyarebis procesSi.
jerjerobiT arc CrdiloeT irlandiasa da
arc axlo aRmosavleTSi ar Sewyvetila Zaladoba. orive regionSi arsebobs saomari suliskveTebiT ganmsWvaluli jgufebi TavianTi politikuri, ekonomikuri Tu religiuri gegmebiT,
rac xels uwyobs Zaladobasa da segregacias; es
ki, Tavis mxriv, ewinaaRmdegeba integraciasa da
mSvidobis damyarebis process, magram, miuxedavad
amisa, fsiqologiuri kvlevebis Sedegad mopove-

buli daskvnebis praqtikuli gamoyeneba xels


uwyobs mSvidobis damyarebis impulsebis gaZlierebas. es Sedegebi imdenad STambeWdavia, rom
fsiqologebi es Zalzed optimisturi jgufi~
_ kvlavac agrZeleben Tavis Zalisxmevas.

Sejameba
crurwmenebisa da marTvis resursebis kombinacias gamanadgurebeli Sedegebi moaqvs. morCilebis Seswavlis milgremiseul kvlevebs meore
msoflio omTan dakavSirebulma movlenebma misca
biZgi. am kvlevebma daamtkica, rom socialuri
Zalebi ufro metad iwveven avtoritetisadmi
morCilebas, vidre _ dispoziciuri Zalebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom milgremis cdis pirebis umetesoba sityvierad ewinaaRmdegeboda avtoritets,
qceviT isini mainc avlendnen misdami morCilebas. ekonomikuri krizisebis dros adamianebi
eZeben da pouloben jgufebs, romlebic gamodian
gantevebis vacis~ rolSi da romlebic, sabolood, masobrivi mkvlelobebis samizneebi
xdebian. liderebi xSirad cdiloben mtris
dehumanizacias. adamianebi, romlebic omSi
midian, xSirad amas realuri an warmosaxuli
safrTxis arsebobasTan dakavSirebuli Sexedulebebis safuZvelze akeTeben. mSvidobis Semswavleli fsiqologebi dainteresebulni arian im
individualuri da kulturuli Zalebis SeswavliT, romlebic aRviveben oms, an xels uwyoben
mSvidobis damyarebas. liderobis stilebisa da
marTvis formebis Seswavlam daadastura mosazreba, rom demokratiis gafarToeba msoflio
sazogadoebas sargeblobas moutans. farTo
nabijebi mSvidobisken gadadgmul unda iqnes im
programebis meSveobiT, romlebic xels uwyoben
didi xnis ganmavlobaSi dapirispirebul mxareTa
Soris urTierTobebsa da problemis gadaWras.

avtoris bolosityvaoba
Cven davasruleT mogzauroba, romelSic fsiqologia da cxovreba~ gvexmareboda. Tu dafiqrdebiT, imedi gvaqvs, naTlad warmoidgenT, Tu
ramdeni ram iswavleT am mogzaurobisas; da
mainc, Cven mxolod zedapirulad SevexeT im

rTul problemebs, romlebic fsiqologiiT


dainteresebul students elis win. vimedovnebT,
rom gayvebiT Tqvens interess da, metic, SesaZloa,
Tqveni wvlilic ki SeitanoT fsiqologiis ganviTarebaSi, rogorc mecnierma mkvlevarma an praqtikosma klinicistma, an kidev fsiqologiuri
codnis gamoyenebiT gadawyvitoT socialuri
da pirovnuli problemebi.
dramaturgi tom stopardi Segvaxsenebs, rom
saidanme gasvla sadme Sesvlasac niSnavs~. gvinda
virwmunoT, rom Tqveni cxovrebis momdevno
fazaSi Sesvlas yovelive isic gagiadvilebT,

rac am wignidan iswavleT. am axali mogzaurobis


dros, SesaZloa, Tqvenc STaberoT axali
sicocxle adamianebis miswrafebaTa fsiqologias
Tundac imiT, rom xeli SeuwyoT adamianebs
Soris urTierTobebisa da kavSirebis gaZlierebas.

sakvanZo
sakiTxebi

mkvlevrebma scades aexsnaT, Tu ratom axorcieleben adamianebi prosocialur, kerZod, altruistul qcevebs maSinac
ki, rodesac es maT interesebs ewinaaRmdegeba.
evoluciuri midgoma xazs
usvams memkvidreobas da
ormxrivobas.
adamianebi, aseve, imitom
axorcieleben prosocialur qcevebs, rom ikmayofileben sakuTar interess _ emsaxuron sazogadoebas da daicvan socialuri principebi.
mowmis Carevis kvlevebi
aCvenebs, rom situacia
mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs, safrTxis SemTxvevaSi aRmoCenili iqneba
Tu ara daxmareba.

agresia
evoluciuri TvalsazrisiT, agresiuli qcevebi

crurwmenebi
xSirad uneburma minimalurma maCveneblebmac ki
SeiZleba biZgi miscen crurwmenebs da sazogadoeba
daiyos Sida~ da gare~
jgufebad.
stereotipebi gavlenas axdenen adamianebis mier qcevebisa da, saerTod, informaciis Sefasebebze.
mkvlevrebma gamoavlines
crurwmenebis Secvlis faqtorebi iseTi situaciebis
SeqmniT, sadac gansxvavebuli jgufebis wevrebi TanamSromlobdnen saerTo miznebis misaRwevad.
kros-kulturuli kvlevebi,
aseve, miuTiTebs, rom megobroba mniSvnelovan rols
asrulebs crurwmenebis
daZlevaSi.

konfliqtisa da
mSvidobis fsiqologia
milgremis morCilebasTan
dakavSirebuli kvlevebi
imis mniSvnelovan sabuTs

sakvanZo sakiTxebi

altruizmi da
prosocialuri qceva

imitom xorcieldeba, rom


adamianebs surT gazardon
sakuTari genebis dacvis SesaZlebloba.
agresiaSi individualuri
gansxvavebebi dakavSirebulia
rogorc genetikur memkvidreobasTan, tvinis Hhormonalur funqcionirebasTan.
gansxvavebuli pirovnuli
maxasiaTeblebi saSualebas
gvaZlevs, viwinaswarmetyveloT impulsuri an instrumentuli agresiisadmi midrekilebebi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom arsebobs agresiuli qcevebis
Semakavebeli faqtorebi, situacia gansazRvravs adamianebis swraf agresiul reagirebas.
frustracias SeuZlia agresiamde migviyvanos; uSualo
gaRizianebam, SesaZloa, moaxdinos agresiis donis eskalacia.
gansxvavebul kulturebSi
agresiuli qcevis gansxvavebuli normebia fiqsirebuli, romlebic, nawilobriv, warmoadgenen me~-s kulturul Semadgenlebs.

785
785

Tavi 18 / socialuri pfsiqologia, sazogadoeba da kultura

iZleva, rom situaciuri


faqtorebis gavleniT Cveulebrivi adamianebi SeiZleba mividnen agresiis aqtebis sanqcionirebasa da
masSi monawileobamde.
crurwmenebis moqmedebis
msgavsma xangrZlivma procesebma SeiZleba migviyvanos masobriv mkvlelobebamde da genocidamde.
liderebi qmnian mtris
humanurobisgan daclil,
dehumanizirebul xatebs.
adamianebi Tavs swiraven
samSoblos TavianTi ojaxebisa da jgufebisaTvis,
saSiSroebisa da masTan dakavSirebuli SiSis pasuxad.
mSvidobis fsiqologebi eZeben gzebs, raTa Sewyviton

786
786

erebs Soris dapirispireba


da mtroba.
demokratiuli sazogadoebebi, sul mcire, ar amarTleben masobriv mkvlelobebs.
tradiciul mtrebs~ Soris
urTierTobebis xelSemwyobma
programebma, SesaZloa, mSvidobis miRwevis safuZvlebi
Seamzadon.

ZiriTadi cnebebi
agresia
altruizmi
mowmis Careva
kontaqtis hipoTeza
moTxovnadi maxasiaTeblebi
pasuxismgeblobis difuzia

frustracia agresiis
hipoTeza
genocidi
mSvidobis fsiqologia
crurwmena
prosocialuri qcevebi
rasizmi
ormxrivi altruizmi
jgufuri dinamika
impulsuri agresia
Sidajgufuri mikerZoeba
Sida jgufi
instrumentuli agresia
asawyobi suraTebis~
klasebi
gare jgufi
seqsizmi
socialuri kategorizacia
stereotipebi

absoluturi zRurbli (Absolute threshold) _ fizikuri


energiis is minimaluri raodenoba, romelic
saWiroa sensoruli gancdis warmosaqmnelad;
operacionalurad is ganisazRvreba, rogorc
gamRizianeblis done, romelzedac xdeba sensoruli signalis SemCneva SemTxvevaTa naxevarSi.
agorafobia (Agoraphobia) _ iseT xalxmraval adgilebSi an Ria sivrceSi yofnis ukiduresi SiSi,
saidanac gaqceva SeiZleba rTuli an samarcxvino
iyos.
agresia (Aggression) _ qceva, romelic sxva individis
fizikur an fsiqologiur dazianebas iwvevs.
adamianis qcevis genetika (Human behavior genetics)
mecniereba, romelic qcevisa da Tvisebebis
individualuri gansxvavebebis genetikur komponentebs Seiswavlis.
adgilis Teoria (Place theory) amtkicebs, rom sxvadasxva sixSiris toni qmnis aqtivaciis maqsimums
ZiriTadi membranis sxvadasxva adgilebSi, amis
Sedegad bgeriTi tonis simaRle SeiZleba kodirebuli iyos im adgilis mixedviT, romlis aqtivaciac moxda.
aversiuli Terapia (Aversion therapy) qceviTi Terapiis tipi, romelic gamoiyeneba saziano stimulebisaken midrekilebis mqone adamianebis
samkurnalod.
avtomaturi procesebi (Automatic processes) _ procesebi, romlebic ar moiTxoven yuradRebas, maTi
ganxorcieleba SesaZlebelia sxva moqmedebis
paralelurad.
avtonomiuri nervuli sistema (ans) (Autonomic nervous system - ANS) periferiuli nervuli sistemis
nawili, romelic akavSirebs centralur nervul
sistemas gluv da gulis kunTebTan da jirkvlebTan da aregulirebs sxeulis uneblie motorul
pasuxebs.
aiv (AIV) _ adamianis imunodeficitis virusi, romelic azianebs sisxlis TeTr ujredebs (limfocitebs), riTac asustebs organizmis imunur
sistemas; aiv infeqcia iwvevs Sidss.
akomodacia (Accommodation) _ procesi, romlis saSualebiTac wamwamovani kunTebi cvlianEBTvalis
brolis sisqes, rac saSualebas aZlevs, Secvalos fokusi axlo da Sori obieqtebisaTvis.
akomodacia (Accomodation) _ piaJes mixedviT, ukve
arsebuli kognituri struqturebis modificirebis an gadastruqturebis procesi, raTa
gaadvildes axali informaciis morgeba ukve

arsebulTan; akomodacia xorcieldeba asimilaciasTan erTad.


algoriTmi (Algorithm) _ Tanmimdevruli, safexureobrivi procedura, romlis saSualebiTac vpoulobT swor pasuxs konkretuli tipis problemis gadasaWrelad.
altruizmi (Altruizm) prosocialuri qcevebi, romlebsac adamiani Tavisi sakuTari usafrTxoebis
an interesebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe asrulebs.
alchaimeris daavadeba (Alzheimers disease) _ Tavis
tvinis qronikuli organuli sindromi, romelic
xasiaTdeba mexsierebis TandaTanobiTi daqveiTebiT inteleqtualuri unarebis SemcirebiT da
pirovnebis gasadavebiT.
amgznebi Sesavali~ (Excitatory inputs) informacia,
romelic neironSi aRwevs da iwvevs mis agznebas.
amigdala (Amygdala) _ limburi sistemis nawili,
romelic akontrolebs emocias, agresiasa da
emociuri mexsierebis formirebas.
analitikuri fsiqologia (Analytic pshycology) _ fsiqologiis mimarTuleba, romelic pirovnebas
ganixilavs, rogorc dinamikur balansSi myofi
kompensatoruli Sinagani Zalebis konstelacias.
anoreqsia (Anorexia nevrosa) _ kvebiTi aSliloba,
romlis drosac inidividi iwonis misi mosalodneli wonis 85%-ze naklebs, magram ganagrZobs
sakvebis miRebis kontrols, radgan Tavs Warbi
wonis mqoned aRiqvams.
anticipatoruli daZleva (Anticipatory coping)_ potenciurad saSiS movlenamde ganxorcielebuli
mcdelobebi, gadailaxos, Semcirdes, an asatani
gaxdes Seusabamoba aRqmul moTxovnebsa da xelT
arsebul resursebs Soris.
aracnobieri (Nonconscious) _ informacia, romelic,
Cveulebriv, xelmiuwvdomelia cnobierebisaTvis
an mexsierebisaTvis.
aracnobieri (Unconscious) _ fsiqikis sfero, sadac
inaxeba cnobierebidan gandevnili, represirebuli survilebi da primitiuli impulsebi.
aracnobieri daskvna (Unconscious inference) _ helmholcis termini, romelic gacnobierebis gareSe mimdinare aRqmas aRniSnavs.
arqetipi (Archetype) _ konkretuli gamocdilebisa
Tu obieqtis universaluri, Tandayolili, primitiuli da simboluri warmodgena.
asakis mixedviT diskriminacia (Ageism) _ crurwmena
asakovani adamianebis Sesaxeb. rasizmisa da

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leqsikoni

787

leqsikoni

788

seqsizmis msgavsi uaryofiTi stereotipi asakovani adamianebis mimarT.


asawyobi suraTebis klasebi (Jegsaw classrooms) saswavlo klasebi, romlebic iyeneben asawyobi suraTebis saxeliT cnobil meTods, romelSic yovel
moswavles eZleva mTeli dasaswavli masalis
mxolod nawili, romelic Semdeg jgufis sxva
wevrebs gadaecema.
asimilacia (Assimilation) _ piaJes mixedviT, procesi,
romlis drosac axali kognituri elementebi
ergeba Zvel elementebs an modificirdeba, raTa
ufro gamartivdes morgebis procesi; asimilacia
xorcieldeba akomodaciasTan erTad.
asociaciuri qerqi (Association cortex) qerqis nawili,
sadac umaRlesi nervuli procesebi xorcieldeba.
aqsoni (Axon) neironis wagrZelebuli boWko, romlis gaswvrivac nervuli impulsebi vrceldeba
somidan terminaluri balTisaken.
atribucia (Attribution) _ msjeloba Sedegebis mizezebis Sesaxeb.
atribuciis Teoria (Attribution theory) socialurkognituri Teoria, romelic aRwers informaciis
gamoyenebis gzebs, romelsac iyenebs socialuri
aRmqmeli mizezobrivi axsnisas.
atribuciis fundamenturi Secdoma (Fundamental attribution error) _ damkvirveblebis ormagi tendencia,
daakninon situaciuri faqtorebis roli da
gadaafason dispoziciuri faqtorebis roli
adamianis qcevaSi.
aRdgena (Retrieval) _ Senaxuli informaciis aRdgena,
amotana mexsierebidan.
aRzrdis stili (Parenting style) _ meTodi, romliTac
mSoblebi zrdian Svilebs; yvelaze efeqturad
iTvleba avtoritetuli stili, romelic Tanabrad
moiazrebs momTxovnobasa da gulisxmierebas.
aRmavali gadamuSaveba (Bottom-up processing) _ garemoSi xelmisawvdom sensorul informaciaze dafuZnebuli perceptuli analizi. analizis Sedegebi
aRmavali gziT SedarebiT abstraqtul reprezentaciebisken miemarTeba.
aRmoCenis etapi (Context of discovery) _ kvlevis sawyisi
faza, romlis ganmavlobaSic dakvirvebas, Sexedulebas, informacias da zogad codnas movlenis
axleburi xedvisaken mivyavarT.
aRmZvrelebi (Incentives) _ eqsternaluri stimulebi
an waxaliseba, romlebic warmoadgenen qcevis
mamotivireblebs miuxedavad imisa, rom isini
pirdapir ar ukavSirdebian biologiur moTxovnilebebs.
aRqma (Perception) _ procesebi, romlebic sensorul
xatSi awesrigeben informacias da am imformaciis,
rogorc samganzomilebiani garesinamdviliT
warmoqmnilis, gancdas uzrunvelyofen.
aRweriTi statistika (Descriptive statistics) _ statistikuri procedurebi, romlebic qulebs maTi
centraluri tendenciis, variabilobis da korelaciebis TvalsazrisiT ajamebs.

aSkara/TvalsaCino moZraoba (Apparent motion) _


moZraobis iluzia, rodesac erTi an meti wertilis uwyveti anTeba-Caqroba erT moZrav wertilad aRiqmeba. aSkara/TvalsaCino moZraobis umartivesi formaa fenomeni
badura (Retina) _ Tvalis ukan mdebare Sre, romelic
Seicavs fotoreceptorebs da gardaqmnis sinaTlis energias nervul reaqciaSi.
bavSvze mimarTuli metyveleba (Child-directed speech)
_ metyvelebis gansakuTrebuli forma, xazgasmiT
gamokveTili da maRali intonaciiT, romelsac
mozrdilebi Cvil da patara bavSvebTan saubrisas
iyeneben.
bazisuri done (Basic level) _ kategorizaciis done,
romelic yvelaze swrafad SeiZleba amovitanoT
mexsierebidan da gamoviyenoT yvelaze efeqturad.
bgeris siZliere (loudness) _ bgeris perceftuli
Tviseba, romelic gamoxatavs bgeriTi talRis
amplitudas; didi amplitudis bgeriTi talRa
saerTod ganicdeba rogorc xmamaRali, xolo
mcire amplitudis bgeriTi talRa ganicdeba
rogorc xmadabali.
bgeris tonis simaRle (Pitch) _ Tviseba, romelic
ZiriTadad ganisazRvreba bgeriTi talRis rxevis
sixSiriT.
biosamedicino Terapiebi (Biomedical therapies) _
fsiqologiuri aSlilobebis mkurnaloba, romelic cvlis tvinis funqcionirebas qimiuri an
fizikuri Carevis gziT, rogoricaa medikamentebiT
mkurnaloba, qirurgia an eleqtrokonvulsiuri
Terapia.
bioukukavSiri (Biofeedback) _ TviTregulaciis teqnika, romlis drosac individi aracnobieri biologiuri procesebis nebismier kontrols axorcielebs.
biofsiqosocialuri modeli (Biopsychosocial model) _
janmrTelobisa da avadmyofobis modeli, romlis
mixedviT, nervuli sistemis, imunuri sistemis,
qceviTi stilis, kognituri procesebisa da garemo
faqtorebis urTierTkavSirma SeiZleba adamiani
avad gaxdomis riskis winaSe daayenos.
bipolaruli aSliloba (Bipolar disorder) _ guneba-ganwyobilebis aSliloba, romelic xasiaTdeba
depresiisa da maniis periodebis monacvleobiT.
bihevioraluri analizi (Behavioral Anayisis): _ fsiqologiis ganxra, romelic yuradRebas daswavlisa da qcevis garemo determinantebze amaxvilebs.
biheviorizmi (Behaviorism) _ mecnieruli midgoma,
romelic fsiqologiis Seswavlas mxolod gazomvadi an dakvirvebadi qceviT farglavs.
bihevioristuli mimdinareoba (Behaviorists perspective)
_ am mimdinareobas ainteresebs dakvirvebadi qceva,
romelic obieqturad fiqsirdeba da dakvirvebadi
qcevis mimarTeba garemos stimulebTan.
blokireba (Blocking) fenomeni, romlis drosac
organizmi ar daiswavlis axal stimuls, radgan
axali stimuli warmodgenilia ukve arsebul
efeqtur signalTan erTad.

gamocdilebidan nimuSebis SerCevis meTodi (Experience-sampling method) _ eqsperimentuli meTodi, romelic exmareba mkvlevrebs cnobierebis tipuri
Sinaarsebis aRweraSi; cdis pirebs evalebaT
signalis miRebisTanave daafiqsiron TavianTi
azrebi da grZnobebi.
ganviTarebis asaki (Developmental age) qronologiuri
asaki, romlis drosac bavSvebis umravlesoba
amJRavnebs fizikuri Tu gonebrivi ganviTarebis
garkveul dones.
ganviTarebis fsiqologia (Developmental psychology) _
fsiqologiis dargi, romelic swavlobs fizikuri
da fsiqologiuri procesebis urTierTqmedebas
da ganviTarebis stadiebs mTeli cxovrebis manZilze ganviTarebis poziciidan.
ganmamtkicebeli (Reinforcer) SeiZleba iyos nebismieri
stimuli, romelic zrdis mocemuli reaqciis sixSiris albaTobas.
ganpirobebuli reaqcia _ (Conditioned response): reaqcia,
klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi, romelic aRmocendeba aqamde neitraluri stimulis safuZvelze.
es xdeba imis Sedegad, rom neitraluri stimuli
Sewyvilebulia ganupirobebel stimulTan.
ganpirobebuli stimuli (Conditioned stimulus) _ klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi, aqamde neitraluri
stimuli, romelic iwvevs ganpirobebul reaqcias.
ganupirobebeli reaqcia (Unconditioned response) _
klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi, ganupirobebli
stimulis mier gamowveuli reaqcia winaswari
varjiSisa an daswavlis gareSe
ganupirobebeli stimuli (Unconditioned stimulus): stimuli, klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi, romelic
iwvevs ganupirobebel reaqcias, pasuxs.
ganpirobebuloba (Conditioning) gzebi, romliTac
movlenebi, stimulebi da qceva asocirdeba erTmaneTTan.
garemos cvladebi (Environmental variables) garegani
zemoqmedeba qcevaze.
gare jgufebi (Out-groups) jgufebi, romlebTanac
adamianebi identifikacias ar axdenen.
gaupatiureba paemanze (Date rape) _ ewodeba iseT
situaciebs, rodesac individs nacnobi adamiani
aiZulebs sqesobrivi kavSiris damyarebas.
gemos aversiiT daswavla (Taste-aversion learning)
daswavlis biologiuri kanonzomiereba, romelSic organizmi swavlobs avadmyofobis gamomwvevi
sakvebisagan Tavis aridebas.
genderi (Gender) _ fsiqologiuri fenomeni, romelSic moiazreba mamakacebisa da qalebis sqesTan
dakavSirebuli daswavlili qcevebi da ganwyobebi.
genderuli identoba (Gender identity) _ individis mier
sakuTar TavSi qaluri an mamakacuri sawyisis
gancda. is gulisxmobs sakuTari sqesis miRebas
da gacnobierebas.
genderuli rolebi (Gender roles) _ qcevaTa da ganwyobaTa erToblioba, romelsac sazogadoeba ukavSirebs qalad an mamakacad yofnas da romelsac
Riad gamoxataven calkeuli individebi.

leqsikoni

brokas are (Brocas area) Tavis tvinis ubani, romelic


azrebs metyvelebasa da/an JestebSi gardaqmnis.
bodva (Delusions) _ cru an iracionaluri rwmena,
romelsac adgili aqvs sawinaaRmdegos naTlad
arsebobis pirobebSi.
brZola an gaqcevis reaqcia (Fight-or-flight response) _
Sinagan aqtivobaTa Tanmimdevroba, romelic amoqmeddeba, rodesac organizmi safrTxis winaSe aRmoCndeba; amzadebs sxeuls brZolisa da SetevisaTvis an usafrTxo adgilas gaqcevisaTvis. bolodroindeli monacemebis Tanaxmad, es reaqcia mxolod mamrobiTi sqesisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli.
bulimia (Bulimia nevrosa) _ kvebiTi aSliloba, romelic xasiaTdeba uzomo raodenobis sakvebis miRebiT, rasac Tan sdevs miRebuli kaloriebisagan
organizmis gawmendis RonisZiebebi.
buneba-aRzrdis dapirispireba (Nature-nurture controversy) _ kamaTi qcevisa da ganviTarebis gansazRvraSi Tandayolilisa (bunebis) da SeZenili
gamocdilebis (aRzrdis) fardobiTi mniSvnelovnebis Sesaxeb.
bunebrivi gadarCeva (Natural selection) darvinis Teoriis mixedviT, saxeobis zogierTi warmomadgenlis ukeTesi Segueba garemosadmi, saSualebas
aZlevs mas sxvasTan SedarebiT ufro warmatebulad gamravldes.
gaazrebis SesaZleblobis modeli (Elaboration likelihood model) darwmunebis Teoria, romelic gansazRvravs, Tu ramdenadaa SesaZlebeli, rom adamianebi TavianTi kognituri procesebis fokusirebas axdendnen Setyobinebis gasaazreblad da,
Sesabamisad, misdevdnen darwmunebis centralur
an periferiul procesebs.
gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba (Elaborative rehearsal) _
mexsierebis gazrdis meTodi, romliTac xdeba
dasamaxsovrebeli informaciis gamdidreba.
gadamuSavebis doneebis Teoria (Levels-of-processing
theory) _ am Teoriis mixedviT, rac ufro Rrma
doneze xdeba informaciis gadamuSaveba, miT ufro
ukeT daamaxsovrdeba igi adamians.
gadatana (Transference) procesi, rodesac fsiqoanalizis msvlelobisas pacienti Terapevtze
mimarTavs im grZnobebs, romelic Tavdapirvelad
warsuli emociuri konfliqtis centralur,
mniSvnelovan figuraze miemarTeboda.
gadatanis Sesabamisi gadamuSaveba (Transfer-approptiate
processing) _ Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac
mogoneba saukeTesoa, rodesac implicituri
kodirebis da implicituri aRdgenis procesebis
damTxveva xdeba.
gadawyvetilebisTvis Tavis arideba (aversia) (Decision aversion) _ gadawyvetilebis miRebisagan Tavis
aridebis tendencia; rac ufro rTulia gadawyvetilebis miReba, miT metia misgan ganridebis
albaToba.
gadawyvetilebis miReba (Decision making) _ alternativebs Soris arCevis procesi, SesaZlo variantebis seleqcia da uaryofa.

789

leqsikoni

790

genetika (Genetics) mecniereba winaprebisgan miRebuli fizikuri da fsiqologiuri Tvisebebis memkvidreobiTobis Sesaxeb.
geni (Genes) memkvidreobiTobis fizikuri erTeuli;
qromosomebis patara ubani, romelic pasuxismgebelia Tvisebebis gadacemaze.
generalizebuli SfoTviTi aSliloba (Generalized
anxiety disorder) _ SfoTviTi aSliloba, rodesac
individi ganicdis SfoTvas an nerviulobs
specifikuri safrTxis an safrTxis momatni obieqtis ararsebobis pirobebSi, sul mcire, eqvsi
Tvis manZilze.
genotipi (Genotype) organizmis genetikuri struqtura, romelsac is mSoblebisagan memkvidreobiT
iRebs.
geStalt-Terapia (Gestalt therapy) Terapia, romelic
mimarTulia pirovnebis gamTlianebis mizniT
gonebisa da sxeulis gaerTianebaze.
geStaltfsiqologia (Gestalt psychology) _ fsiqologiuri skola, romelic amtkicebs, rom fsiqologiuri fenomenis gageba mxolod maSin aris
SesaZlebeli, Tu mas organizebul, struqturul
mTlianobad miviCnevT da ar davanawevrebT
primitiul, martiv, perceptul elementebad.
glia (Glia) ujredi, romelic akavSirebs neironebs
da aCqarebs nervul gadacemas, aSorebs dazianebul da daRupul neironebs, da xels uSlis
sisxlSi arsebul toqsiur substanciebs, SeaRwion tvinSi.
gonebrivi asaki (Mental age) _ bines inteleqtis etalonis mixedviT aris asaki, rodesac bavSvis
inteleqtualuri aqtivoba gamoxatulia im
saSualo asakiT, romelSic normaluri bavSvebi
aRweven gansazRvrul qulas.
gonebrivi CamorCeniloba (Mental retardation) _ rodesac
individebis IQ-s qulebi meryeobs 70-75-mde
intervalSi an masze naklebia; aseve, rodesac
SezRudulia cxovrebiseuli amocanebis gadasaWreli adaptaciuri Cvevebis SemuSavebis unari.
guneba-ganwyobilebis aSliloba (Mood disorder) _
guneba-ganwyobilebis darRveva, rogoricaa Rrma,
depresia an maniasTan adgilmonacvle depresia.
daboloebis efeqti (Recency effect) _ mwkrivis bolo
wevrebis ukeT daxsomeba.
dadebiTi ganmtkiceba (Positive reinforcement) qcevas
mohyveba sasargeblo stimuli, rac zrdis qcevis
sixSiris albaTobas.
dadebiTi damsjeli (Positive Punisment) qcevas mohyveba aversiuli stimuli, romelic amcirebs qcevis albaTobas.
dazianeba (Damage) tvinis qsovilis daSaveba.
daTanxmeba (Compliance) _ komunikaciis wyaros pirdapiri moTxovnebis Sesabamisad qcevis Secvla.
dakvirvebadi sizmrebi (Lucid dreaming) _ Teoria,
romlis Tanaxmadac, sizmris xedvis procesis
cnobieri aRqma daswavladi unaria, romelic
iZleva sizmris mimarTulebisa da Sinaarsis
kontrolis saSualebas.

damatebiTi cvladi (Confounding variable) _ cvladi,


romelic monawilis qcevaze zemoqmedebs eqsperimentatoris mier Semotanili damoukidebeli
cvladis garda.
damkvirveblis tendenciuroba (Observer bias) _ realobis damaxinjeba, romelic damkvirveblis pirovnuli motivebisa da molodinebisagan momdinareobs.
damokidebuleba (Attitude) adamianebis, sagnebisa da
movlenebis mimarT SefasebiTi reagirebis daswavlili, SedarebiT myari tendencia.
damokidebuli cvladi (Dependent variable) _ nebismieri
cvladi, eqsperimentul garemoSi, romlis mniSvneloba erTi an meti damoukidebeli cvladis
cvlilebis Sedegia.
damoukidebeli me-s gageba (Independent construals of
self) _ me-s konceptualizacia, rogorc individisa,
romlis qceva, upirveles yovlisa, organizebulia adamianis sakuTar da ara sxvebis, azrebTan, grZnobebTan da qmedebebTan mimarTebaSi.
damoukidebeli cvladi (Independent variable) _ stimulis piroba, eqsperimentul garemoSi, romelic
sxva nebismieri cvladisagan damoukideblad
icvleba.
damsjeli (Punisher) nebismieri stimuli, romelic
amcirebs reaqciis sixSires.
darwmuneba (Persuasion) damokidebulebebis Secvlis
mizanmimarTuli mcdelobebi.
dasabuTebis etapi (Context of justification) _ kvlevis is
fazaa, romelSic hipoTezis SemowmebisaTvis faqtebia saWiro.
dasawyisis efeqti (Primacy effect) _ mwkrivis pirveli
wevrebis ukeT daxsomeba.
daskvna (Inference) _ xarveziani informaciis Sevseba
arsebuli mtkicebulebebis an rwmenis da Teoriis
safuZvelze.
daskvniTi statistika (Inferential statistics) _ statistikuri procedurebi, romlebic mkvlevars saSualebas aZlevs gansazRvros, adasturebs mis hipoTzas Sedegi, Tu is mxolod SemTxveviTaa miRebuli.
daswavla (Learning) _ gamocdilebaze damyarebuli
procesi, romlis drosac SedarebiT mudmivad
icvleba qceva an qceviTi potenciali.
daswavla-gamovlenis gansxvaveba (Learning-Performance
distinction) _ gansxvaveba imisa, Tu ra iyo daswavlili da ra gamomJRavnda qcevaSi.
daswavlili umweoba (Learned helplessness) _ zianis
momtani stimulis arsebobis pirobebSi reaqciis
ar qonis zogadi paterni, romelic xSirad Tan
erTvis mdgomareobas, rodesac individi ganicdis
araSemTxveviTi, gardauvali uaryofiTi stimulis
zemoqmedebas.
daswavlis biologiuri iZuleba (Biological constraints
on learning) nebismieri limiti organizmis daswavlis SesaZleblobaze, romelic gansazRvrulia
erTi saxeobis individebis memkvidruli sensorul-kognituri unarebiT.

dispoziciuri cvladebi (Dispozitional variables) _


organizmis cvladi, anu qcevis Sinagani determinanti, romelic adamianebSi Cndeba.
distaluri stimuli (Distal stimulus) _ proqsimaluri
stimulisagan, anu baduraze optikuri gamosaxulebisagan gansxvavebiT,
aRqmis procesSi
samyaroSi mocemuli fizikuri sagani.
diqotomiuri mosmena (Dichotic listening) - eqsperimentuli meTodi, rodesac gansxvavebuli audialuri
stimuli miewodeba TiToeul yurs.
dnm (dezoqsiribonukleinis mJava) (DNA deoxyribonucleic acid) _ genetikuri informaciis gadacemis
fizikuri baza.
dRis Zilianoba (Daytime sleepiness) _ moWarbebuli
Zilianoba dRis aqtivobebis dros; Zilis darRvevis centrebSi misul pacientTa ZiriTadi Civili.
ego (Ego) _ pirovnebis aspeqti, romelic monawileobs TviTdacvaSi da mimarTavs instinqtur
ltolvebsa da impulsebs Sesabamis arxebSi.
egos dacvis meqanizmebi (Ego defence mechanisms) _
fsiqikuri strategiebi (cnobieri an aracnobieri),
romlebsac ego iyenebs cxovrebis normaluri
mimdinareobisas gancdili konfliqtebisagan
TavdacvisaTvis.
egocentrizmi (egocentrism) _ kognituri ganviTarebis
winaoperaciul stadiaze patar bavSvis mier sxva
adamianis Tvalsazrisis gaziarebis unaris
arqona.
evoluciuri mimdinareoba (Evolutionary perspective) _
fsiqologiis midgoma, romelic xazs usvams qceviTi da mentaluri adapaturobis mniSvnelovnebas im varaudis safuZvelze, rom fsiqikuri
unarebi milionobiT wlis ganmavlobaSi viTardeboda, raTa konkretul adaptur miznebs momsaxureboda.
evristika (Heuristics) _ kognituri strategia an
`praqtikuli meTodi~, romelic xSirad gamoiyeneba rogorc Semoklebuli gza rTuli amocanis
gadasaWrelad.
ekologiuri optikis Teoria (Theory of ecological optics) _ aRqmis Teoria, romelic xazs usvams sastimulo informaciis mravalferovnebas da
aRqmas garemos aqtiur gamokvlevad miiCnevs.
eleqtroencefalograma (eeg) (Electroencephalogram EEG) tvinis eleqtruli aqtivobis registracia.
eleqtrokonvulsiuri Terapia (ekT) (Electroconvulsive
therapy ECT) _ eleqtrokonvulsiuli Sokis
gamoyeneba Rrma depresiis warmatebulad samkurnalod.
emocia (Emotion) cvlilebaTa rTuli paterni,
romelic moicavs fiziologiur agznebas, grZnobebs, kognitur procesebsa da qcevas; warmoadgens
pasuxs situaciaze, romelic pirovnulad mniSvnelovnad aris aRqmuli.
emociis kognituri Sefasebis Teoria (Cognitive appraisal theory of emotion) _ am Teoriis mixedviT, emociis gancda warmoadgens fiziologiuri agzne-

leqsikoni

daRi (Stigma) _ individze an jgufze adamianebis


uaryofiTi reaqcia garkveuli savaraudo arasrulfasovnebis an gansxvavebulobis gamo, rac
damamcireblad moqmedebs maTze.
daRmavali gadamuSaveba (Top-down processing) _ perceptuli procesebi, rodesac adamianis warsuli
gamocdileba, codna, molodinebi, motivacia da
konteqsti gavlenas axdens aRqmuli obieqtis
interpretaciasa da klasifikaciaze.
dacvisa da zrunvis reaqcia (Tend-and-befriend response)
_ stresorze reaqcia, romelic, savaraudoT, tipuria mdedrobiTi sqesisaTvis. stresorebi ubiZgeben mdedrs, daicvas Svilebi da SeuerTdes
socialur jgufebs mowyvladobis Sesamcireblad.
daZleva (Coping) _ im garegan da Sinagan moTxovnebTan gamklavebis procesi, romelic aRiqmeba,
rogorc safrTxis, an muqaris Semcveli, an
dauZleveli.
dajgufeba (Chunking) _ informaciis calkeul wevrTa
dajgufebis procesi msgavsebis an sxva maorganizebeli principis safuZvelze.
deduqciuri azrovneba (Deductive reasoning) azrovnebis forma, romelic ori an meti wanamZRvridan
logikuri daskvnis gakeTebis unars gulisxmobs.
deklaraciuli mexsiereba (Declarative memory) _
mimarTulia faqtebisa da movlenebis daxsomebaze.
dendritebi (Dendrites) neironis datotvili morCebi,
romlebic Semosul informacias mimRebloben.
determinizmi (Determinism) _ es doqtrina gulisxmobs,
rom yvela movlena _ fizikuri, fsiqikuri da
qceviTi _ ganpirobebulia konkretuli mizezebiT,
romelTa dadgena SesaZlebelia.
diapazoni (Range) _ ganawilebaSi yvelaze maRal da
yvelaze dabal qulebs Soris sxvaoba, variabilobis martivi sazomi.
didi tvini tvinis nawili, romelic umaRles
kognitur da emociur funqciebs aregulirebs.
diskriminaciuli stimuli (Discriminative Punishment)
stimuli, romelic moaswavebs ganmtkicebas,
radgan konkretuli qceva dadebiTad iyo ganmtkicebuli.
disociaciuri amnezia (Dissociative amnesia) _ mniSvnelovani pirovnuli gamocdilebis gaxsenebis
unaris arqona, romlis mizezia fsiqologiuri
faqtorebi, yovelgvari organuli disfunqciis
arsebobis gareSe.
disociaciuri aSliloba (Dissociative disorder) _ pirovnuli aSliloba, romelsac axasiaTebs identurobis, mexsierebisa da cnobierebis integraciis
darRveva.
disociaciuri identobis aSliloba (dia) (Dissociative identity disorder DID) _ disociaciuri fsiqikuri
aSliloba, rodesac erT individSi arsebobs ori
an meti calkeuli pirovneba; warsulSi cnobili
iyo, rogorc Sedgenili (multiple) pirovnuli
aSliloba.

791

leqsikoni

792

bisa da kognituri Sefasebis erTobliv Sedegs.


kognituri Sefaseba emsaxureba imas, Tu rogor
moxdeba gaurkveveli, orazrovani Sinagani
mdgomareobis `etiketireba~.
emociuri inteleqti (Emotional intelligence) _ inteleqtis tipi, romelSic Sedis Semdegi unarebi:
emociaTa zusti da Sesatyvisi aRqma, gageba da
gamoxatva; azrovnebis gasaadvileblad emociebis
gamoyeneba; emociis gageba da analizi; emociuri
codnis efeqturad gamoyeneba da sakuTari
emociebis regulireba rogorc emociuri, ise
inteleqtualuri zrdis xelSesawyobad.
engrama (Engram) _ mexsierebis fizikuri kvali tvinSi.
endokrinuli sistema (Endocrine system) jirkvlebis
qseli, romlebic gamoimuSaveben da sisxlSi
gamoyofen hormonebs.
enis Seqmnis unari (language-making capacity) _ Tandayolili saxelmZRvanelo principebi, romlebsac bavSvebis iyeneben enis Seswavlis amocanis
Sesrulebisas.
epizoduri mexsiereba (Episodic memories) _ xangrZlivi
mexsiereba avtobiografiuli xasiaTis movlenebisTvis da im konteqstisTvis, sadac es movlenebi
xdeba.
erogenuli zonebi (erogeneous zones) _ ares kanis zedapiris adgilebi, romlebic gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiareni arian gaRizianebisadmi da warmoSoben
erotiul da seqsualur SegrZnebebs.
estrogeni (Estrogen) qalTa sasqeso hormoni, romelic sakvercxeebSi gamomuSavdeba da pasuxismgebelia ovulaciis procesze, aseve qalebis
reproduqciuli struqturebis ganviTarebasa da
meoradi sasqeso niSnebis Camoyalibebaze.
etiologia (Etiology) _ aSlilobis ganviTarebis
mizezebi an masTan dakavSirebuli faqtorebi.
efeqtis kanoni (Law of effect) aris daswavlis ZiriTadi
kanoni, romelis mixedviTac stimulis Zala,
gamoavlinos reaqcia, Zlierdeba, rodesac reaqcias mohyveba jildo da sustdeba, rodesac mas
ar mohyveba jildo.
eqsperimentuli meTodi (experimental method) _ kvlevis
meTodi, romelic damoukidebeli cvladiT
manipulacias gulisxmobs, raTa dadgindes misi
efeqti damokidebul cvladze.
eqspresiuli metyveleba (Lenguage production) is,
rasac adamianebi amboben, aniSneben an weren; am
Sinaarsebis gadmocemis procesi.
validoba (validity) _ testi zustad imas zomavs,
ris gazomvasac apirebda.
validoba kriteriumis mixedviT (Criterion valigity) _
xarisxi, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba gansazRvruli
kriteriumis mixedviT miRebuli testis Sedegebi
Sesafasebeli maxasiaTeblis zogierT sxva kriteriums.
variabilobis sazomebi (Measures of variability) _
statistikebi, rogorebicaa diapazoni, an standartuli gadaxra, romelic aCvenebs, ramdenad
mWidrodaa ganlagebuli qulebi ganawilebaSi.

veberis kanoni (Webers law) _ sxvaobis zRurblis


sidide standartuli gamRizianeblis intensivobis proporciulia.
vizualuri qerqi (visual cortex) _ kefis wilis nawili,
romelSic xdeba vizualuri informaciis gadamuSaveba.
zalpis principi (volley principle) _ esaa sixSiris
Teoriis ganvrcoba, romelic amtkicebs, rom,
roca bgeriTi talRis sixSire aRemateba im sixSires, romliTac calkeul neirons SeuZlia
ganmuxtva, ramdenime neironi ganimuxteba erTad,
rogorc jgufi, Semosuli bgeris tonis simaRlis
Sesatyvisi sixSiriT.
zigota (zygote) _ erTi ujredi, romelic warmoiqmneba spermatozoidis mier kvercxujredis ganayofierebis Sedegad.
zogadi adaptaciuri sindromi (General adaptation syndrome - GAS) _ araspecifikur adaptaciur fiziologiur meqanizmTa paterni, romelic vlindeba
TiTqmis yovelgvari seriozuli stresoris xangrZlivi muqaris sapasuxod.
Tavisufali asociacia (Free association) Terapiuli
meTodi, rodesac pacienti uwyvetad, gaazrebis
gareSe saubrobs sakuTar azrebze, survilebze,
fizikur SegrZnebebsa da warmodgenebze.
Talamusi (Thalamus) Tavis tvinis nawili, romelic
sensorul informacias gadascems didi tvinis
qerqs.
Tematuri apercepciis testi _ Tat (Thematic Apperception Test TAT) _ proeqciuli testi, romelSic
individs garkveuli TanmimdevrobiT waredgineba
suraTebi (romlebic mravalgvari interpretaciis
SesaZleblobas iZleva) da moeTxoveba TiToeuli
maTganis mixedviT moTxrobis mofiqreba.
Teoria (Theory) _ cnebaTa organizebuli wyeba, romelic movlenas an movlenaTa erTobliobas xsnis.
Tvalebis swrafi moZraoba (Rapid eye movement REM)
_ im fazis qceviTi gamovlineba, romlis drosac
mZinare adamiani sizmrismagvar gonebriv aqtivobas
axorcielebs.
TvalsaCino validoba (face validity) _ xarisxi, Tu
ramdenad aris testis amocanebi uSualod dakavSirebuli gasazom cvladTan.
TviTangariSi (self-report measures) _ adamianis mier
sakuTar Tavze dakvirvebis Sedegad miRebuli
monacemebi.
TviTaqtualizacia (Self-actualization) _ pirovnebis
fsiqologiis cneba, romelic exeba adamianis
mudmiv swrafvas sakuTari potencialis realizaciisaken da Tandayolili niWisa da unarebis
ganviTarebisaken.
TviTaRqmis Teoria (Self-perception theory) _ mosazreba,
romlis Tanaxmadac, adamianebi sakuTar Tavs
akvirdebian, raTa gamokveTon TavianTi qcevebis
mizezebi. adamianebi cdiloben, gaerkvnen sakuTar
Sinagan mdgomareobebSi imaze dakvirvebiT, Tu
rogor iqcevian mocemul situaciaSi.

insomnia (Insomnia) _ normalurad daZinebis


qronikuli uunaroba; simptomebSi Sedis sirTuleebi daZinebisas, xSiri gaRviZeba, gaRviZebis
Semdeg CaZinebis unaris arqona, diliT adre
gaRviZeba.
inteleqti (Intelligence) _ gamocdilebidan sargeblis
miRebisa da garemos Sesaxeb mocemuli informaciis farglebis garRvevis zogadi unari.
inteleqtis koeficienti (IQ) _ indeqsi, romelic
miRebulia inteleqtis standartizebuli testebidan; pirvelad IQ gamoiTvleboda individis
gonebrivi asakis qronologiur asakze gayofiT
da Semdeg 100-ze gamravlebiT; amJamad pirdapir
gamoiTvleba, rogorc IQ testis qula.
instinqti (Instinct) _ winaswar daprogramebuli tendencia, romelsac arsebiTi mniSvneloba aqvs
saxeobis gadarCenisaTvis.
instinqturi swrafva (Instinctual drift) _ daswavlili
qcevis tendencia, droTa ganmavlobaSi instinqtur qmedebaSi gadavides.
instrumentuli agresia (Instrumental aggression) _
kogniturad dasabuTebuli da mizanmimarTuli
agresia, romelic warmoiqmneba winaswar mofiqrebulad, specifikuri miznebis misaRwevad.
internalizacia (Internalization) _ vigotskis mixedviT,
bavSvebis mier socialuri konteqstidan codnis
Sesrutvis, aTvisebis procesi.
interneironi _ tvinis neironi, romelic informacias sensorulidan sxva inter- an motorul
neironebs gadascems.
interferencia (Interference) _ mexsierebis fenomeni,
romelic maSin xdeba, rodesac mogonebis mimniSneblebi ver miuTiTeben efeqturad erT konkretul movlenaze.
intimuroba (intimacy) _ meore adamianisadmi srulad
_ emociurad, seqsualurad da moralurad _
mindobis unari.
informaciuli gavlena (Informational influence) jgufis
efeqti, romelic warmoiSoba individis survilis
safuZvelze, iyos koreqtuli, swori da icodes,
rogor unda moiqces mocemul situaciaSi.
ionuri arxebi
(Ion channels) nervuli ujredis
membranis nawilebi, romlebic ionTa SerCeviT
ganvladobas uzrunvelyofen.
kaTarzisi (Catharsis) Zlieri, magram, rogorc wesi,
gandevnili emociebis gamoxatvis procesi.
kanis SegrZnebebi (Cutaneous senses) _ wnevis, siTbosa
da sicivis SegrZnebebi.
kargad yofna (Wellness) _ optimaluri janmrTeloba,
romelic aerTianebs fizikur, inteleqtualur,
emociur, sulier, socialur da garemos sxvadasxva sferoSi sruli da aqtiuri funqcionirebis unars.
karibWis kontrolis Teoria (Gate-control theory) _
tkivilis Semcireba, romelic xdeba maSin, roca
zurgis tvinis garkveuli ujredebi moqmedebs
rogorc kari, uSlis xels tkivilis gavrcelebas

leqsikoni

TviTmxilvelis Careva (Bystander intervention) mzadyofna, daexmaro adamians, romelsac daxmareba


sWirdeba.
TviTuunaroba (self-handicapping) _ warumateblobis
molodinis SemTxvevaSi iseTi qceviTi reaqciebisa
da qcevis axsnis ganviTarebis procesi, romlebic
minimumde daiyvans unarebis deficits, rogorc
warumateblobis SesaZlebel mizezs.
TviTefeqturoba (Self-efficacy) _ rwmenebis (mosazrebebis) erToblioba, rom adamians SeuZlia adekvaturad moqceva konkretul situaciaSi.
TviTqmnadi winaswarmetyveleba (Self-filfilling prophecy)
_ zogierTi momavali qcevis an movlenis Sesaxeb
winaswarmetyveleba, romelic dRevandel urTierTobebs molodinis Sesabamisad cvlis.
TviTSefaseba (Self-esteem) _ me-s mimarT ganzogadebuli SefasebiTi damokidebuleba, romelic
gavlenas axdens rogorc guneba-ganwyobilebaze,
ise qcevaze da romelic Zlier zemoqmedebs
individualuri da socialuri qcevebis speqtrze.
TviTcnobiereba (Self-awareness) _ cnobierebis umaRlesi done, pirovnulad gancdili movlenebis
avtobiografiuli xasiaTis Semecneba.
Txemis wili tvinis ubani Sublis wilis ukan da
lateraluri napralis zemoT; Seicavs somatosensorul qerqs.
identifikacia da cnoba (Identification and recognition) _
perceptuli xatisaTvis azris micemis gzebi.
idi (Id) _ pirovnebis primitiuli, aracnobieri nawili, romelic iracionalurad funqcionirebs
da impulsurad moqmedebs siamovnebis misaRwevad.
ierks-dodsonis kanoni (Yerkes-Dodson law) _ korelacia amocanis Sesrulebasa da agznebis optimalur dones Soris.
iluzia (Illusion) _ stimulis paternis gancda,
romelic aSkarad mcdaria, Tumca, igives ganicdian sxva adamianebic igive perceptul garemoSi.
imploziuri Terapia (Implosion therapy) bihevioraluri Terapiuli teqnika, romelic miznad
isaxavs stimulTan asocirebuli SfoTvis Semcirebas, rac klientisTvis warmosaxviTi SemaSinebeli stimulis wardgeniT xorcieldeba.
imprintingi (Imprinting) _ daswavlis primitiuli
forma, rodesac axalSobili cxoveli ukan misdevs da ejaWveba pirvelive moZrav obieqts, romelsac xedavs an romlis xmac esmis.
impulsuri agresia (Impulsive aggression) _ emociebiT
gamowveuli agresia, warmoqmnili gansakuTrebiT
mwvave situaciebze sapasuxod.
induqciuri azrovneba (Inductive reasoning) azrovnebis
forma, romelic misawvdom mtkicebulebaze da
warsul gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT garkveuli
albaTobiT daskvnis gakeTebas gulisxmobs.
insaituri Terapia (Insight Therapy) teqnika, romliTac Terapevts pacienti mihyavs im kavSiris
danaxvisken, aRmoCenisken anu insaitisken, romelic
awmyoSi arsebul simptomebsa da warsul gamocdilebas Soris arsebobs.

793

leqsikoni

794

da misi zogierTi signalis blokirebas axdens;


zogierTs ki agzavnis Tavis tvinSi.
kenon-bardis emociis Teoria (Cannon-Bard theory on
emotion) _ am Teoriis mixedviT, emociuri stimuli
iwvevs or erTdroul reaqcias _ agznebasa da
emociis gancdas, romlebic erTmaneTs ar ganapirobeben.
kefis wili (Parietal lobe) tvinis yvelaze ufro ukana
nawili; moicavs pirvelad mxedvelobiT qerqs.
kvlevis Semdgomi interviu (Debriefing) _ mkvlevari
maqsimalur informacias miawodebs kvlevis Sesaxeb da ar gauSvebs monawiles, sanam ar darwmundeba, rom is aRelvebuli, dabneuli, an
damorcxvebuli ar aris.
kinesTetikuri SegrZneba (Kinesthetic sense) _ informacia Cveni sxeulisa da misi nawilebis moZraobisa da mdgomareobis Sesaxeb.
klasikuri ganpirobebuloba (Classical Conditioning)
daswavlis tipi, romelSic qceva (ganpirobebuli
reaqcia) gamowveulia stimuliT (ganpirobebuli
stimuli), romelic, Tavis mxriv, ganmtkicebulia
biologiurad mniSvnelovan stimulTan asociaciis gamo (ganupirobebeli stimuli).
klienti (Client) termini gamoiyeneba im pirovnebis
aRsaniSnad, romlis mimarTac xorcieldeba Terapiuli RonisZiebebi. mas iyeneben specialistebi,
romlebic fsiqologiur aSlilobebs `cxovrebiseul problemebad~ miiCneven da ara fsiqikur daavadebad.
klientze centrirebuli Terapia (Client centered therapy)
mkurnalobisadmi humanisturi midgoma, romelic xazs usvams pirovnebis jansaR fsiqologiur
zrdas; efuZneba mosazrebas, rom yvela adamiani
xasiaTdeba TviTaqtualizaciis umTavresi tendenciiT.
klinikuri depresiuli aSliloba (Major depressive
disorder) _ guneba-ganwyobilebis aSliloba, romelic xasiaTdeba droSi ganfenili daTrgunulobis intensiuri grZnobiT bipolaruli depresiis maniakaluri fazis gareSe.
klinikuri ekologia (Clinical ecology) fsiqologiis
dargi, romelic iseT aSlilobebs, rogoricaa
SfoTviTi aSliloba da depresia, garemoSi arsebul gamRizianeblebs ukavSirebs.
klinikuri socialuri muSaki (Clinical social worker)
specialuri programiT momzadebuli fsiqikuri
janmrTelobis profesionali, romelic adamianTa
problemebs socialur konteqstSi ganixilavs.
klinikuri fsiqologi (Clinical psychologist) pirovneba,
romelsac miRebuli aqvs doqtoris xarisxi
fsiqologiaSi da specializirdeba fsiqologiuri problemebis Sefasebasa da mkurnalobaSi.
kognitur-bihevioraluri modifikacia (Cognitive behavior modification) _ Terapiuli midgoma, romelic
aerTianebs motivaciasa da qcevaze azrebisa da
ganwyobebis gavlenaze kognitur aqcents da,
meore mxriv, qcevis modifikaciisas pirobiTi
ganmtkicebis bihevioralur aqcents.

kognituri ganviTareba (cognitive development) _ Semecnebis procesis ganviTareba, romelic moicavs


warmosaxvas, aRqmas, azrovnebasa da amocanis
gadawyvetas.
kognituri disonansi (Cognitive dissonance) Teoria,
romlis mixedviTac, araTavsebadi kognituri elementebis mier Seqmnili daZabulobis gamomwvevi
efeqtebi adamianebs ubiZgeben, moaxdinon aseTi
daZabulobis Semcireba.
kognituri Terapia (Cognitive therapy) fsiqoTerapiuli mkurnalobis forma, romliTac cdiloben
problemuri grZnobebisa da qcevebis Secvlas,
mniSvnelovani cxovrebiseuli movlenebisadmi
klientis damokidebulebis SecvliT.
kognituri mecniereba (Cognitive science) informaciis
gadamuSavebis procesebisa da sistemebis kvlevis
interdisciplinaruli sfero.
kognituri mimdinareoba (Cognitive perspective) _ fsiqologiis mimdinareoba, romelic aqcents akeTebs
adamianis azrovnebis da codnis SeZenis procesebze, rogoricaa; yuradReba, azrovneba, damaxsovreba, molodini, problemis gadaWra, fantazia
da cnobiereba.
kognituri procesebi (Cognitive processes) iseTi
umaRlesi fsiqikuri procesebi, rogoricaa: aRqma,
mexsiereba, metyveleba, problemis gadawyveta
da abstraqtuli azrovneba.
kognituri ruka (Cognitive map) fizikuri sivrcis
gonebrivi reprezentacia.
kognituri fsiqologia (Cognitive Psychology) mecniereba, romelic Seiswavlis umaRles fsiqikur procesebs yuradRebas, enis gamoyenebas,
aRqmas, problemis gadaWras da azrovnebas.
kognituri Sefaseba (Cognitive appraisal) _ emociebTan
mimarTebaSi procesi, romlis meSveobiTac fiziologiuri agzneba gaiazreba im konkretul garemoebaTa mixedviT, romelSic is iyo gancdili.
agreTve, stresoris amocnoba da Sefaseba, raTa
dadgindes safrTxis sidide da misi daZlevisaTvis saWiro resursebi da Sesatyvisi daZlevis
strategiebi.
kodireba (Encoding) _ procesi, romlis saSualebiTac
mexsierebaSi formirdeba mentaluri reprezentaciebi.
kodirebis specifikuroba (Encoding specificity) _ es principi gulisxmobs, rom aRdgenili informaciis
raodenoba matulobs, Tu daxsomebis da aRdgenis
procesSi erTi da igive mimniSneblebi moqmedeben.
kovariaciis principi (Covariation principle) Teoria,
romelic amtkicebs, rom adamianebi qcevisa da
misi mizezis dakavSirebas axdenen principiT: Tu
arsebobs es mizezi, maSin iarsebebs qcevac da,
piriqiT, Tu ar arsebobs es mizezi, ar iarsebebs
qcevac.
koleqtiuri aracnobieri (Collective unconscious) _
individis aracnobieris nawili, romelic Tandayolilia, evoluciuradaa Camoyalibebuli da
saerToa saxeobis yvela warmomadgenlisaTvis.

kristalizebuli inteleqti (Cristallized intelligence) _


inteleqtis aspeqti, romelSic Sedis pirovnebis
ukve SeZenili codna da am codnis gamoyenebagazrdis unari; izomeba leqsikuri maragis, ariTmetikuli da zogadi informirebulobis testebiT.
kulturuli mimdinareoba (Cultural perspective) _ aqcents
qcevis mizezebis da Sedegebis kros-kulturul
sxvaobaze akeTebs.
libido (Libido) _ fsiqikuri energia, romelic mimarTavs individs yvela tipis SegrZnebiTi, gansakuTrebiT ki, seqsualuri siamovnebisaken.
limburi sistema (Limbic system) Tavis tvinis regioni,
romelic aregulirebs emociur qcevas, ZiriTad
motivaciur survilebs da mexsierebas, aseve
mTavar fiziologiur funqciebs.
lokokina (Cochlea) _ smenis ZiriTadi organo; siTxiT
gavsebuli spiralurad daxveuli mili, romelic
moTavsebulia Sida yurSi.
longituduri meTodi (longitudinal design) _ kvlevis
meTodi, romlis drosac erTsa da imaive cdis
pirebze warmoebs ganmeorebiTi dakvirveba droTa
ganmavlobaSi, zogjer mravali wlis manZilze.
ltolva (Drive) _ Sinagani mdgomareoba, romelic
aRmocendeba wonasworobis darRvevisas cxovelis
fiziologiuri moTxovnilebis sapasuxod.
magnitur-rezonansuli tomografia (MRI) tvinis
suraTebis Seqmnis meTodi, romelic magnitur
velebsa da radiotalRebs iyenebs.
maniakaluri epizodi (Manic episode) _ bipolaruli
aSlilobis komponenti, romelic xasiaTdeba
ukiduresi aRfrTovanebisa da usazRvro eiforiis
periodebiT, grandiozulobis grZnobebiTa da
azrebiT, sakmarisi mizezis da realuri pirovnuli
SesaZleblobebis ararsebobis pirobebSi.
mediana (Median) _ qula, romlis zemoT da qvemoT
Tanabari raodenobiT qulebia moTavsebuli,
centraluri tendenciis sazomi.
meditacia (Meditation) _ cnobierebis Secvlis forma,
romelic mowodebulia TviTcnobierebis Semcirebis saSualebiT sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb codnisa
da TviTSegrZnebis gaumjobesebisaTvis.
memkvidreobiToba (Heredity) niSan-Tvisebebis biologiuri gadacema mSoblebidan STamomavlobaze.
memkvidreobiTobis Sefaseba (Heritability estimate) _ mocemuli Tvisebis an qcevis memkvidreobiTobis xarisxis statistikuri Sefaseba dadgenili im
individTa mixedviT, romlebic icvlebian maTi
genetikuri msgavsebis xarisxiT.
menarqe (Menarche) _ menstrualuri ciklis dawyeba.
me-s koncefcia (Self-concept) _ adamianis unarebis da
atributebis Sesaxeb misi fsiqikuri modeli.
meta-analizi (Meta-analysis) _ hipoTezebis Semowmebeli
statiskituri meTodi, romelic iZleva formaluri
meqanizms mravali sxvadasxvagvari eqsperimentis
monacemebSi zogadi daskvnebis gamosavlenad.
metamexsiereba (Metamemory) _ implicituri an
eqsplicituri codna mexsierebis unarebis da

leqsikoni

komorbidi (Comorbidity) _ erTdroulad erTze meti


aSliloba.
komforti kontaqtisas (Contact comfort) _ dedasTan
an sxva mzrunvelTan Cvilis fizikuri siaxlovidan momdinare komforti.
konvergencia (Convergence) _ saganze fiqsaciisas Tvalebi, SigniT, erTmaneTisken Sebruneba.
konservacia (Conservation) _ piaJes mixedviT, gaazreba
imisa, rom, Tu araferi emateba an araferi akldeba,
sagnis fizikuri Tvisebebi ar icvleba maSinac ki,
rodesac icvleba misi garegnuli saxe.
konsistentobis paradoqsi (Consistency pradox) _
movlena, romlis drosac pirovnebis Sefasebebi
sxvadasxva dros da gansxvavebuli damkvirveblebis mier konsistenturia, maSin, rodesac
adamianis qcevis Sefasebebi sxvadasxva situaciebSi
ar aris konsistenturi.
kontaqtis hipoTeza (Cotact hipothesis) idea, rom mtrul
jgufebs Soris pirdapiri kontaqti amcirebs
crurwmenebs.
konteqstualuri gamokveTa (Contextual distinctiveness) _
Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac mwkrivis adgilmdebareobis efeqtze SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos konteqstma da gamokveTilma warsulma
gamocdilebam.
kontrgadatana (Countertransference) situacia, rodesac
fsiqoanalitikoss pirovnuli grZnobebi uCndeba
pacientis mimarT, radgan pacients sakuTar cxovrebaSi arsebuli mniSvnelovani adamianis msgavsad
aRiqvams.
kontrganpirobeba (Counterconditioning) Terapiuli
teqnika, romliTac xdeba gamomuSavebuli axali
reaqciiT araadapturi reaqciis Canacvleba.
kontrolirebadi procesebi (Controlled processes) _
procesebi, romlebic moiTxoven yuradRebas; xSirad rTulia erTdroulad erTze meti kontrolirebadi procesis erTd ganxorcieleba.
kontrolis procedurebi (Control procedures) _ meTodebi,
romelTa saSualebiTac eqsperimentatori cdilobs
mudmivi hqondes yvela cvladi da piroba, garda
ganzrax Semotanili damoukidebeli cvladisa.
konformuloba (Conformity) adamianebis tendencia,
moergon referentuli jgufis sxva wevrebis
qcevebs, ganwyobebsa da Rirebulebebs.
konceptualuri mtkicebuleba (Consensual validation) _
realobaze cnobieri Sexedulebebis urTierTmiRebaa.
korelaciis koeficienti (r) (Correlation coefficient) _
statistika, romelic or cvlads Soris kavSiris
xarisxs aCvenebs.
korelaciis meTodi (Correlational method) _ gansazRvravs, Tu ra zomiTaa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli
ori cvladi.
korZiani sxeuli (Corpus callosum) nervul boWkoTa
erToblioba, romelic tvinis or hemisferos akavSirebs.
kreatuloba (Creativity) garemosTvis adekvaturi da
axali ideebisa da produqtebis generirebis unari.

795

leqsikoni

796

mexsierebis efeqturi strategiebis Sesaxeb. mexsierebis Semecneba.


mecnieruli meTodi (Scientific method) _ monacemTa Segrovebisa da interpretaciis procedurebis erToblioba, romlis saSualebiTac minimumamdea
dayvanili Secdomis wyaro da sando daskvnebia
miRebuli.
mexsiereba (Memory) _ informaciis kodirebis, Senaxvisa da aRdgenis fsiqikuri unari.
mexsierebis eqsplicituri gamoyeneba (Explicit uses of
memoty) _ cnobieri Zalisxmeva mexsierebidan
informaciis aRdgenisa.
mexsierebis implicituri gamoyeneba (Umplicit uses of
memory) _ kodirebis da aRdgenis procesebis gaucnobiereblad informaciis daxsomeba da aRdgena.
migebis norma (Reciprociti norm) _ molodini, rom
gaweuli samsaxuri dagibrundeba. Tu erTi adamiani
meores raimes ukeTebs, meoremac raime unda
gaukeTos sapasuxod.
midrekileba-stresis hipoTeza (Diathesis-stress hypothesis) _ hipoTeza zogierTi aSlilobis mizezis
Sesaxeb, rogoricaa Sizofrenia, romlis mixedviTac, individSi genetikuri faqtorebi qmnian
garkveuli aSlilobisadmi midrekilebas, magram
garemo pirobebidan momdinare stresulma faqtorebma biZgi unda misces am potencias, raTa
gamovlindes.
mizniT marTuli seleqcia (Goal-directed selection) _
gansazRvravs imas, Tu adamianebi ratom irCeven
Semomavali sensoruli informaciis raRac nawils
Semdegi gadamuSavebisaTvis. SerCeva adamianis
miznebidan gamomdinare xdeba.
miRwevis moTxovnileba (Need for achievement n Ach) _
savaraudod, adamianis ZiriTadi moTxovnileba _
miznis miRwevisaken swrafvis moTxovnileba,
romelic qmnis adamianis azrebisa da qcevebis
farTo speqtris motivaciur safuZvels.
miCveva (Addiction) _ mdgomareoba, rodesac organizmi
iTxovs narkotiks, raTa funqcionireba SeZlos,
mis aryofnaze yovelgvari fizikuri da fsiqologiuri reaqciebis gareSe; xSirad Tan sdevs
tolerantobasa da damokidebuleba.
mijaWvuloba (Attachment) _ emociuri urTierToba
bavSvsa da masze regularulad mzrunvel mozrdils Soris.
mnemonikuri xerxebi (Mnemonics) _ strategiebi an
saSualebebi, romlebic xels uwyoben faqtebis
grZeli mwkrivis aRbeWdvas nacnob da adre
aRbeWdil informaciasTan dakavSirebis gziT.
mogrZo tvini (Medulla) tvinis Reros ubani, romelic akontrolebs sunTqvas, sifxizles da guliscemas.
mogoneba (Recall) _ aRdgenis meTodi, romlis drosac
individs moeTxoveba adre miwodebuli informaciis reproduqcia.
mogonebis mimniSneblebi (Retrieval cues) _ Signidan an
garedan momdinare stimulebi, romlebic gvexmarebian mexsierebaSi garkveuli informaciis moZebnaSi.

modelireba monawileobis meSveobiT (Participant


modeling) Terapiuli teqnika, rodesac Terapevti
uCvenebs sasurvel qcevas da klients mxardamWeri
waxalisebiT exmareba modelis mier ganxorcielebuli qcevis gameorebaSi.
moTxovniTi maxasiaTeblebi (Demand characteristics) _
eqsperimentuli situaciis maniSneblebi, romlebic zemoqmedeben cdis pirebze da aniSneben
maT, Tu ras elian maTgan.
moTxovnilebebis ierarqia (Hierarchi of needs) _ maslous Sexeduleba, rom bazisuri adamianuri
motivebi qmnis ierarqias da, rom moTxovnileba
ierarqiis TiToeul doneze garkveuli intensiobiT unda dakmayofildes, romlis Sedegadac
SesaZlebeli iqneba miaRwio momdevno dones. es
moTxovnilebebi progresirdeba bazisuri biologiuri moTxovnilebebidan transcedenturobisaken.
molodinis efeqti (Expentancy effects) _ Sedegi, romelic maSin Cndeba, roca mkvlevari Zalauneburad
mianiSnebs monawileebs, ra tipis qcevas moelis
maTgan, riTic mosalodnel reaqcias iRebs.
momwifeba (Maturation) _ ganviTarebis ganmavlobaSi
memkvidreobis uwyveti gavlena; saxeobebisTvis
damaxasiaTebeli, asakTan dakavSirebuli fizikuri da qceviTi cvlilebebi.
molodinis Teoria (Expectancy theory) _ samuSo motivaciis Teoria, romlis mixedviT, muSaki motivirebulia maSin, roca elis, rom misi Zalisxmeva
da samuSos Sesruleba sasurvel Sedegs gamoiRebs.
moraluroba (Morality) _ rwmenaTa da faseulobaTa
sistema, romelic iZleva garantias, rom individi
Seasrulebs Tavis valdebulebas sazogadoebis
sxva wevrebis winaSe da moiqceva ise, rom winaaRmdegobaSi ar movides sxvaTa uflebebTan da
interesebTan.
mosvenebis potenciali neironis Sida areSi arsebuli ujreduli siTxis polarizacia, romelic
uzrunvelyofs moqmedebis potencialis warmoqmnis unars.
motivacia (Motivation) _ fizikuri da fsiqikuri
aqtivobebis dawyebis, mimarTulebis micemis da
marTvis procesi; moicavs meqanizmebs, romlebic
CarTulia erTi aqtivobisaTvis meoresTan SedarebiT upiratesobis miniWebaSi da energiasa da
mdgradobas sZens reaqciebs.
motoruli neironi (Motor neurons) _ neironi, romelic
informacias centraluri nervuli sistemidan
kunTebisken da jirkvlebisken atarebs.
motoruli qerqi (Motor cortex) didi tvinis qerqis
ubani, romelic akontrolebs sxeulis nebiT
moZraobebs.
moCvenebiTi moZraoba (Induced motion) _ iluzia, rodesac moZrav aTvliT sistemaSi uZravi wertili
moZravad gveCveneba, Tavad aTvlis sistema ki _
uZravad.

nevrotuli aSliloba (Neurotic disorder) _ fsiqikuri


aSliloba, romlis drosac pirovnebas ar aReniSneba Tavis tvinis paTologiebi da ar avlens moWarbebul, mkveTrad gamoxatul iracionalur
azrovnebas an ar arRvevs qcevis ZiriTad normebs,
Tumca, ganicdis subieqtur distress. es kategoria
gadmotanilia DSM-III-dan.
neiromecniereba (Neuroscience) moZRvreba nervuli
sistemisa da qcevaze misi gavlenis Sesaxeb.
neiromodulatori
(Neuromodulator) substancia,
romelic cvlis an amodulirebs postsinafsuri
neironis aqtivobas.
neironi (Neuron) nervuli sistemis ujredi,
romelic specializebulia miiRos, gadaamuSavos
da/an gadasces informacia sxva ujredebs.
neirotransmiterebi (Neurotransmitters) qimiuri mesenjerebi, romlebic neironebidan gamoiyofa, gaivlis sinafss, aRwevs meore neirons da mis stimulacias iwvevs.
niSani (Trait) _ myari pirovnuli Tvisebebi an atributebi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen qcevaze gansxvavebul situaciebSi.
normaluri mrudi (Normal curve) _ simetriuli mrudi,
romelic mravali fsiqologiuri Tvisebis amsaxveli qulebis ganawilebas aCvenebs, saSualebas
aZlevs mkvlevrebs imsjelon, ramdenad araCveulebrivia movlena, an Sedegi.
normatuli gavlena (Normative influence) _ jgufis
efeqti, romelic warmoiSoba individis survilis
safuZvelze, iyos jgufis mier mowonebuli,
miRebuli da aRiarebuli.
normatiuli kvleva (Normative investigation) _ gulisxmobs gansazRvruli asakisa Tu ganviTarebis
safexurisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebis
aRweras.
normebi (Norms) _ standartizirebulia individebis
didi jgufebis gazomvis safuZvelze. normebi
saWiroa imisaTvis, rom SevadaroT individisa
da ama Tu im gansazRvruli jgufis normebi.
normis kristalizacia (Norm cristalization) jgufis
wevrebis molodinebis Tanxvedra erToblivi
msjelobis an aqtivobis pirobebSi.
nocicefturi tkivili (Nociceptive pain) _ gamowveulia
mavne zemoqmedebis mqone eqsternaluri stimuliT; kanSi arsebuli specializebuli nervuli
daboloebebi agzavnian tkivilis Sesaxeb Setyobinebas kanidan zurgis tvinis gavliT Tavis tvinSi.
nuSisebri kompleqsi (Amygdala) limburi sistemis
nawili, romelic akontrolebs emocias, agresiasa
da emociuri mexsierebis formirebas.
obieqtTa mudmivoba (object permanence) _ mixvedra
imisa, rom sagnebi arseboben individis mier maTi
gacnobierebisa da individis moqmedebisgan damoukideblad; Cvilobis asakis mniSvnelovani kognituri SenaZeni.
obieqt-urTierTobis Teoria (Object relation theory)
fsiqoanalitikuri Teoria, romelic momdinareobs melani kleinis mosazrebidan imis Sesaxeb,

leqsikoni

moqmedebis potenciali nervuli impulsi, romelic neironSi warmoiqmneba, aqsonis gaswvriv


vrceldeba da iwvevs sinafsSi neirotransmiterebis gamoTavisuflebas.
msmenelis gaTvaliswineba (Audience design) _ konkretul auditoriaze gaTvlili Sinaarsiis formirebis procesi.
msjeloba (Reasoning) _ azrovnebis procesi, rodesac
vaskvniT faqtebis erTobliobaze dayrdnobiT;
mocemul mizanze an obieqtze mimarTuli azrovnebis procesi.
msjeloba (Judjment) _ procesi, romlis saSualebiTac adamianebi ayalibeben mosazrebebs, akeTeben
daskvnebs da axdenen adamianebis an movlenebis
kritikul Sefasebas xelmisawvdom masalaze
dayrdnobiT; fsiqikuri aqtivobis Sedegi.
muSa mexsiereba (Working memory) _ mexsierebis unari,
romelic gamoiyeneba, rogorc iseTi amocanebis
Tanmxlebi, rogoricaa mizezobrioba da metyveleba. Sedgeba fonologiuri yulfis, sivrciTvizualuri matricisa da centraluri aRmasruleblisagan.
mSvidobis fsiqologia (Peace psychology) atomuri
omis prevenciisa da mSvidobis miRwevisadmi interdisciplinaruli midgoma.
mSoblebis mier dadgenili qcevis wesebi (Parenting
practices) _ konkretuli aRmzrdelobiTi qceva,
romelic konkretuli aRmzrdelobiTi miznebis
Sesabamisad yalibdeba.
mSobliuri zrunva da wvlili (Parental investment) _
dro da energia, romelic unda daxarjon mSoblebma TavianTi STamomavlobis aRsazrdelad.
moZraoba adamianis potencialis ganviTarebisTvis
(Human-potential movement) _ Terapiuli moZraoba,
romelic moicavs yvela im meTods da praqtikul
saqmianobas, romelic xels uwyobs saSualo
adamianis potencialis gamovlenas, misi ufro
srulad gamoyenebisa da pirovnuli gamocdilebis
mniSvnelovnad gamdidrebisa da gamravalferovnebis mizniT.
mxedvelobis qerqi (Visual cortex) kefis wilis
nawili, sadac mxedvelobiTi informaciis gadamuSaveba mimdinareobs.
naTxemi (Cerebellum) Tavis tvinis nawili, romelic
ukavSirdeba tvinis Reros da akontrolebs motorul koordinacias, pozas da wonasworobas, aseve
sxeulis moZraobis kontrolis daswavlis unars.
narkolefsia (Narcolepsy) _ Zilis darRveva, romelic
xasiaTdeba dRis ganmavlobaSi daZinebis dauZleveli moTxovnilebiT
narCeni (rezidualuri) stresis paterni (Residual
stress pattern) _ qronokuli sindromi, romelSic
posttravmuli emociuri reaqciebi grZeldeba
xangrZlivi drois manZilze.
nevropatiuri tkivili (Neuropathic pain) _ gamowveulia
nervebis aranormaluri an zedmetad aqtiuri
funqcionirebiT; is nervebis dazianebis an daavadebis mizezia.

797

leqsikoni

798

rom samyaros Cveneuli gancdis `samSeneblo


agurebs~ siyvarulisa da siZulvilis obieqtebTan _ Cveni cxovrebis mniSvnelovan adamianebTan _ urTierToba qmnis.
obsesiur-kompulsuri aSliloba (Obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD) _ fsiqikuri aSliloba, romelic
xasiaTdeba obsesiebiT, anu akviatebuli, ganmeorebadi azrebiT, warmodgenebiT an impulsebiT,
romelic meordeba da ewinaaRmdegeba gandevnis
mcdelobebs da kompulsiebiT, anu ganmeorebadi,
mizanmimarTuli moqmedebebiT, romelic garkveuli wesebis mixedviT an ritualebis saxiT xorcieldeba.
odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba (Just noticeable difference _ JND)
_ umciresi gansxvaveba or SegrZnebas Soris, romlebic SeiZleba miCneul iqnen gansxvavebulebad.
orazrovani gamosaxuleba (Ambiguity) _ perceptuli
obieqti, romelsac SeiZleba erTze meti interpretacia hqondes.
organizaciis fsiqologi (Organizational psychologist)
_ aregulirebs adamianuri urTierTobebis sxvadasxava aspeqtebs, rogoricaa TanamSromelTa
Soris informaciis gacvla, momsaxure personalis socialuri da kulturuli adaptacia,
marTvis stili da unarebi, samuSaosadmi an/da
organizaciisadmi damokidebuleba da erTguleba,
samuSaoTi kmayofileba, stresi da gadawva/
gamofitva da, aseve, mTlianad cxovrebis xarisxi
samuSaoze.
organizmis cvladebi (Organizamic variables) _ organizmis qcevis Sinagani determinanti.
orientaciis/mimarTulebis konstantoba (Orientation
constancy) _ samyaroSi sagnebis realuri mimarTulebis aRqmis unari, retinaluri gamosaxulebis
mimarTulebis cvlilebis miuxedavad.
ormagad brma kontroli (Double-blind control) _ eqsperimentuli teqnika, romelic saSualebas gvaZlevs
Tavidan aviciloT eqsperimentatoris molodinis
efeqti imiT, rom arc asistentma da arc monawileebma ar ician, romel pirobaSi moxvdnen isini.
ormxrivi (reciprokuli) altruizmi (Reciprocal
altruizm) idea, romlis Tanaxmadac adamianebi
altruistul qcevebs axorcieleben imitom, rom
sxvebis mxridanac maT mimarT altruistuli
qcevebis ganxorcielebas moelian.
operantruli ganpirobebuloba (Operant conditioning)
_ daswavlis forma, romelSic reaqciis albaToba icvleba Sedegebis mixedviT.
operantulobis Caqroba (Operant extinction) rodesac
qceva aRar moaswavebs aranair Sedegs, igi
brundeba gamovlenis im sixSireze, romelzec
iyo operantul ganpirobebulobamde.
operantuli qceva (Operant Behavior) _ organizmis
gamovlena, romelic xasiaTdeba dakvirvebadobiT
im gavlenis mixedviT, rasac igi garemoze axdens.
operaciuli gansazRvreba
(Operational definition) _
axdens cvladis an pirobis definicias konkretuli operaciebis an procedurebis terminebiT.

optikuri nervi (Optic nerve) _ gangliozuri ujredebis aqsonebi, romlebic atareben informacias
Tvalidan tvinisaken.
paTofsiqologia (Abnormal psychology) _ fsiqologiuri kvlevis sfero, romelic fokusirdeba
gonebis, guneba-ganwyobilebisa da qcevis
individualuri paTologiebis bunebis Secnobaze.
panikuri aSliloba (Panic disorder) _ SfoTviTi aSliloba, rodesac individi ganicdis moulodnel
mwvave panikur Setevebs, rac intensiuri daZabulobis, SiSisa an saSinelebis grZnobiT iwyeba.
paraleluri procesebi (Parallel processes) _ ori an
meti fsiqikuri procesi, romelic erTdroulad
mimdinareobs.
paraleluri formebi (Parallel forms) _ testis sxvadasxva versiis gamoyeneba testis sandoobis
Sesafaseblad; formebis Secvla amcirebs pirdapiri gamoyenebis, damaxsovrebis efeqts an
individis survils, gamoavlinos konsistenturoba erTi da igive amocanis mimarT.
parasimpaTikuri sistema (Parasympathetic division)
avtonomiuri nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic
yoveldRiur funqciebs asrulebs da inaxavs
sxeulis energias.
pasuxismgeblobis difuzia (Diffusion of responsibility)
_ sagangebo pirobebSi rac ufro didia TviTmxilvelTa ricxvi, miT ufro naklebia TiToeuli
maTganis pasuxismgebloba daxmarebis aRmoCenis
TvalsazrisiT.
pasuxis sistematuri Secdoma (Response bias) _ sistematuri tendencia, romelic Sedegia arasensoruli xasiaTis faqtorebis zemoqmedebisa damkvirvebelze da ganapirobebs garkveuli gziT
reagirebas.
pacienti (Patient) termini gamoiyeneba im pirovnebis
aRsaniSnad, romlis mimarTac xorcieldeba Terapiuli RonisZiebebi. mas iyeneben specialistebi, romlebic fsiqologiuri problemebis mkurnalobas biosamedicino kuTxiT udgebian.
periferiuli nervuli sistema (pns) (Peripherical nervius
system - PNS) nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic
spinaluri da kranialuri nervebisagan Sedgeba,
romelTa meSveobiTac xorcieldeba kavSiri cnssa da sensorul receptorebs, kunTebsa da jirkvlebs Soris.
perceptuli konstantoba (Perceptual constancy) _ sagnis
xatis ucvlelad darCena, retinaluri gamosaxulebis cvlilebis miuxedavad.
perceptuli organizacia (Perceptual organization) _
procesebi, romlebic sensorul informacias
aerTianeben, raTa aRqmas miscen TvalsaCino saxe
vizualur velSi.
pirveladi ganmamtkicebeli (Primary reinforcers) _ biologiurad gansazRvruli ganmamtkicebeli, rogoricaa: saWmeli da wyali.
pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeli (Conditioned reinforcers)
klasikuri ganpirobebulobis mixedviT aris
yofili neitraluri stimuli, romelic ganmamtkiceblad iqca.

problemis gadawyveta (Problem solving) _ azrovnebis


procesi, romelic mimarTulia konkretuli problemis gadawyvetaze, romelic sawyisi momentidan
miznis miRwevamde mimdinareobs mTeli rigi
fsiqikuri operaciebis saSualebiT.
problemuri situacia (Problem space) _ elementebi,
romlebic qmnian problemas: sawyisi mdgomareoba
_ arasruli informacia an pirovnebisaTvis
aradamakmayofilebeli pirobebi; mizani _ informacia an mdgomareoba, romelsac eswrafvis adamiani; operaciebis erToblioba _ pirovnebis mier
sawyisi mdgomareobidan sasurvel miznamde
misaRwevad gavlili safexurebi.
proeqciuli testi (Projective tests) _ pirovnebis
Sefasebis meTodi, romelSic individs uCveneben
orazrovani/abstraqtuli stimulebis erTobliobas da sTxoven maTi mniSvnelobis interpretacias; iTvleba, rom individis pasuxebi avlens
mis Sinagan grZnobebs, motivebsa da konfliqtebs.
prosocialuri qcevebi (Prosocial behaviors) _ qcevebi,
romlebic sxva adamianebis daxmarebis mizniT
sruldeba.
prototipi (Prototype) _ kategoriis yvelaze reprezentaciuli magaliTi.
profesiuli gamofitva _ sindromi, gulisxmobs
emociur gamofitvas, depersonalizacias da pirovnuli realizaciis Semcirebas, romelsac
xSirad ganicdian isini, romlebic Zlieri stresis
pirobebSi muSaoben.
proqsimaluri stimuli (Proximal stimulus) _ distaluri stimulisagan anu samyaroSi fizikuri sagnisagan gansxvavebiT, baduraze miRebuli optikuri gamosaxuleba.
proceduruli mexsiereba (Procedural memory) _ mimarTulia imaze, Tu rogor unda Sesruldes
moqmedeba; rogor, ra gziT unda moxdes perceptuli, kognituri da motoruli Cvevebis SeZena
da gamoyeneba.
pubertati (puberty) _ sqesobrivi momwifebis miRweva.
misi maCvenebeli gogonebTan aris menarqe (pirveli
menstruacia), xolo biWebTan _ cocxali spermis
warmoebisa da eakulaciis unari.
racionalur-emociuri Terapia (reT) (Rational-emotive therapy RET) pirovnebis Secvlis yovlismomcveli sistema, romelic im iracionaluri
azrebis tranformacias efuZneba, romelic iwvevs
arasasurvel, Zlieri emociuri muxtis mqone iseT
reaqcia, rogoricaa Zlieri SfoTva.
reversiis Teoria (Reversal theory) _ Teoria, romelic
xsnis adamianis motivacias erTi metamotivaciuri
mgomareobidan meore, sapirispiro mdgomareobaSi
reversiis (gadasvlis) terminebiT.
rekonstruqciuli mexsiereba (Reconstructive memory)
_ mexsierebis konkretuli reprezentaciebis
ararsebobis pirobebSi Senaxuli codnis zogad
tipebze dayrdnobiT informaciis erTad ganlagebis procesi.
relaqsaciuri reaqcia _ mdgomareoba, rodesac mcirdeba kunTebis daZabuloba, Tavis tvinis qerqis

leqsikoni

pirobiTi ganmamtkiceblebis marTva (Contingency


menegement) zogadi mkurnalobis strategia,
romelic gulisxmobs qcevis Secvlas Tanmimdevruli cvlilebis saSualebiT.
pirobiTi ganmtkiceba (Reinforcement contingency) _ myari
kavSiri reaqciasa da garemos im cvlilebebs
Soris, romlebsac es reaqcia iwvevs.
pirovneba (Personality) _ individis unikaluri fsiqologiuri Tvisebebi, romlebic droTa ganmavlobaSi gavlenas axdens damaxasiaTebeli qceviTi
(rogorc Ria, ise faruli) paternebis speqtrze
gansxvavebul situaciebSi.
pirovnebis tipebi (Personality types) _ pirovnuli
maxasiaTeblebis calkeuli paternebi, romlebic
gamoiyeneba adamianebis kategoriebisadmi mikuTvnebisaTvis; ara xarisxobrivi, aramed Tvisebrivi
gansxvavebebi, romlebic adamianebis gansasxvaveblad ixmareba.
pirovnebis fsiqodinamikuri Teoriebi (Psychodynamic
personality theories) _ pirovnebis Teoriebi, romlebic
iziareben daSvebas, rom pirovnebis formireba
da misi qcevis motivireba xdeba Zlieri Sinagani
Zalebis mier.
pirovnuli aSliloba (Personality disorder) _ aRqmis,
azrovnebisa da qcevis qronikuli, xisti, araadapturi paterni, romelic seriozulad auaresebs individis funqcionirebis SesaZleblobas
socialur da sxva garemoSi.
placebo efeqti (Placebo effect) _ maSin Cndeba, roca
eqsperimentis monawileebi eqsperimentuli manipulaciis Carevis gareSe icvlian qcevas.
placebo Terapia (Placebo therapy) _ nebismieri specifikuri klinikuri procedurisgan damoukidebeli
Terapia, romelic iwvevs klients mdgomareobis
gaumjobesebas.
placebo kontroli (Placebo control) _ eqsperimentuli
pirobaa, rodesac Careva ar xdeba da im SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba, roca placebo efeqtis
saSiSroeba Cndeba.
populacia (Population) _ individTa sruli erToblioba, romelzec, eqsperimentul SerCevaze
dayrdnobiT, generalizacia keTdeba.
posttravmuli stresis aSliloba ((Posttraumatic stress
disorder - PTSD) _ SfoTviTi aSliloba, romelic
xasiaTdeba matravmirebeli movlenis mudmivad
ganmeorebadi gancdiT _ Semawuxebeli mogonebebis, sizmrebis, halucinaciebis da disociaciuri
`gamonaTebebis~ saxiT; viTardeba gaupatiurebis,
sicocxlisaTvis saSiSi movlenebis, Zlieri
dasaxiCrebis, an bunebrivi katastrofebis pasuxad.
praimingi (Priming) _ implicituri mexsierebis Sefasebisas upiratesoba, romelic adre gagonil
sityvas, an nanax situacias eniWeba.
prefrontaluri lobotomia (Prefrontal lobotomy) _
operacia, romlis drosac iWreba Tavis tvinis
Sublis wilebisa da diencefalonis SemaerTebeli nervuli boWkoebi, gansakuTrebiT, TalamusTan da hipoTalamusTan ganlagebuli boWkoebi;
fsiqoqirurgiis yvelaze cnobili forma.

799

leqsikoni

800

aqtivoba (Cortical activity), guliscema da sisxlis


wneva, neldeba sunTqva.
reprezentatuli SerCeva (Representative sample) _ SerCeva populaciis reprezentatulia, Tu is imeorebs populaciis zogad maxasiaTeblebs, rogorebicaa, magaliTad, sqesi, asaki da sxva.
reprezentaciuli evristika (Representativeness heuristic) kognituri strategia, romelic miakuTvnebs
obieqts garkveul kategorias, am kategoriisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ramdenime niSnis
safuZvelze.
represia anu gandevna (Repression) _ ZiriTadi dacvis
meqanizmi, romliTac mtkivneuli an danaSaulis
gancdis gamomwvevi azrebi, grZnobebi an mogonebebi ganidevneba cnobierebidan.
retikuluri formacia tvinis Reros ubani, romelic gansazRvravs Tavis tvinis mzaobas, miiRos
sensoruli informacia da pasuxismgebelia
cnobierebis SenarCunebasa da gamofxizlebaze.
retinaluri disparati (Retinal disparity) _ Tvalebis
baduraze gamosaxulebebis horizontalur poziciebs Soris Seusabamoba.
refleqsi (Reflex) _ specifikuri stimuliT gamowveuli dauswavleli pasuxi, romelsac biologiuri mniSvneloba aqvs organizmisaTvis.
refraqteruli periodi (Refractory period) mosvenebis
periodi, romlis ganmavlobaSic axali nervuli
impulsi ver warmoiqmneba aqsonis segmentSi.
receptoruli veli (Receptive field) _ adgili mxedvelobiT velSi, saidanac mocemuli gangliozuri
ujredi iRebs informacias.
reciprokuli determinizmi (Reciprocal determinism) _
albert banduras socialuri daswavlis Teoriis
cneba, romelic ukavSirdeba mosazrebas, rom
individs, mis qcevas da garemos stimulebs Soris
arsebobs rTuli reciprokuli urTierTqmedeba
da rom TiToeuli am komponentebidan moqmedebs
sxvebze.
rigSi adgilmdebareobis efeqti (Serial position effect)
_ mexsierebidan informaciis aRdgenis procesis
maxasiaTebeli, rodesac mwkrivis dasawyisi da
bolo wevrebis ukeT mogoneba xdeba, vidre
mwkrivis Sua wevrebisa.
ritualuri mkurnaloba (Ritual healing) ceremonia,
romelic mkurnalobis process gansakuTrebul
emociurobasa da mniSvnelobas sZens.
rwmenis efeqti (Elief-bias effect) situacia, romelsac
pirovnebis codna, ganwyoba, Rirebulebebi amaxinjebs da romelic cvlis azrovnebis process,
aiZulebs mas miiRos mcdari argumentebi.
sakuTari Tavisadmi mikerZoeba (Self-serving bias) _
atribuciul mikerZoebaTa klasi, rodesac adamianebi cdiloben, Tavis damsaxurebad CaTvalon
warmateba, xolo warumateblobisaTvis pasuxismgebloba sxvebs gadaabralon.
samarTlianobis Teoria (Equity theory) _ samuSao
motivaciis kognituri Teoria, romlis mixedviT,
muSaki motivirebulia TanamSromlebTan samar-

Tliani an Tanasworuflebiani urTierTobis


SenarCunebaze; agreTve, am Teoriis mixedviT,
samarTliania is urTierTobebi, rodesac monawileTa danaxarji maTi Semosavlis proporciulia.
sampirobiani albaToba (Three Term Coningency) meqanizmi, romliTac organizmi swavlobs, rom konkretuli stimulis SemTxvevaSi misi qceva gavlenas moaxdens garemoze.
sando gansxvaveba (Signifficant difference) _ eqsperimentul jgufebs an pirobebs Soris sxvaoba,
romlis SemTxveviT moxdenis albaToba naklebia,
vidre miRebuli sandoobis done; fsiqologiaSi
aseT doned iyeneben 100-dan 5-ze nakleb albaTobas,
anu p<0.05.
sandooba (Reliability) _ xarisxi, romliTac testi
msgavs Sedegebs iZleva yoveli gamoyenebisas,
instrumentis gamoyenebiT miRebuli qulebis
stabiluroba da Sesabamisoba.
sasqeso qromosoma (Sex chrolosomes) qromosomebi,
sadac Tavmoyrilia mamrobiTi Tu mdedrobiTi
Tvisebebis matarebeli genebi.
safeTqlis wili (Temporal lobe) tvinis ubani, romelic lateraluri napralis qvemoTaa moTavsebuli; Seicavs smenis qerqs.
sayrdeni Teoriebi (Foundational theories) _ sawyisi
struqturebi, romliTac isini cdiloben samyarosTan urTierTobiT miRebuli gamocdilebis
axsnas.
saSualo (Mean) _ qulaTa ariTmetikuli saSualo,
centraluri tendenciis yvelaze xSirad
gamoyenebuli maCvenebeli.
sawinaaRmdego procesebis Teoriis (Opponent-process theory) Tanaxmad, nebismieri feris SegrZneba
miiReba sami sistemisagan, romelTagan TiToeuli
Seicavs or `oponentur~ elements (wiTeli mwvanis
sapirispirod, lurji yviTlis sapirispirod da
Savi TeTris sapirispirod).
seleqciuri optimizacia kompensaciiT (Selective optimization with compensation) _ warmatebuli daberebis
strategia, romlis saSualebiTac adamiani maqsimalurad zrdis SenaZens da amcirebs asakTan
dakavSirebul danakargs.
seleqciuri socialuri urTierTobebis Teoria
(Selective social interaction theory) _ mosazreba, romlis
mixedviTac, asakis matebasTan erTad adamianebi
ufro seleqciurebi (SerCeviTni) xdebian im
socialuri partniorebis arCevisas, vinc maT
emociur moTxovnilebebs akmayofilebs.
semantikuri mexsiereba (Semantic memories) _ genetikuri, kategoriuli mexsiereba, rogoricaa sityvebis mniSvnelobebi da cnebebi.
sensoruli adaptacia (Sensory adaptation) _ movlena,
roca receptoruli ujredebi kargaven TavianT
Zalas, moaxdinon reagireba garkveuli periodis
ganmavlobaSi ucvlel gamRizinebelze; is iZleva
ufro swrafi reagirebis saSualebas informaciis axal wyaroze.

ronidan meoreze informaciis gadacemis procesi


sinafsuri napralis gaswvriv.
sistematuri desensitizacia (Systematic desensitization)
bihevioraluri Terapiuli teqnika, rodesac
relaqsirebul mdgomareobaSi SemaSinebel stimulTan SexvedriT klients aswavlian SfoTvis
ganviTarebis Sewyvetas.
situaciaSi daZirva (Flooding) fobiebisTvis gankuTvnili Terapia, rodesac klients, misi TanxmobiT, waredgineba misTvis maqsimalurad SemaSinebeli stimuli.
situaciuri cvladebi (Situational variables) garegani
zemoqmedeba qcevaze.
sixSireTa ganawileba (Frequency distribution) _ imis
Sejameba, Tu ramdenad xSirad Cndeba TiTeuli
qula monacemTa mwkrivSi.
sixSiris Teoria (Frequency theory) _ amtkicebs, rom
toni warmoqmnis im siCqaris rxevas ZiriTad
membranaSi, romelic ekvivalenturia misi sixSirisa, amis Sedegad, bgeriTi tonis simaRle SeiZleba kodirebuli iyos nervuli reaqciis
sixSiriT.
smeniTi qerqi (Auditory cortex) _ safeTqlis wilis
are, romelic iRebs da amuSavebs smeniT informacias.
smenis nervi (Auditory nerve) _ atarebs impulss
lokokinidan tvinSi mdebare lokokinis birTvebSi.
soma (Soma) neironis ujredis sxeuli, romelic
birTvsa da citoplazmas Seicavs.
somatosensoruli qerqi (Somatosensory sortex) Txemis
wilis nawili, sadac sxeulis sxvadasxva ubnebidan miRebuli sensoruli informacia muSavdeba.
somaturi nervuli sistema (Somatic nervous system)
periferiuli nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic
akavSirebs centralur nervul sistemas kansa
da ConCxis kunTebTan.
socializacia (Socialization) _ cxovrebis manZilze
mimdinare procesi, romlis saSualebiTac individis qcevis paternebi, Rirebulebebi, standartebi, unarebi, ganwyobebi iseT formas iReben,
romelic misaRebi iqneba mocemuli sazogadoebisTvis.
socialuri aRqma/percepcia (Social perception) procesebi, romelTa safuZvelzec adamianebi igeben
an aRiqvamen TavianT an sxvebis pirovnul
atributebs.
socialuri ganviTareba (Social development) _ gza,
romliTac icvleba individis socialuri urTierTobebi da molodinebi cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi.
socialuri daswavlis Teoria (Social learning theory) _
daswavlis Teoria, romelic xazs usvams dakvirvebisa da sxvebis mier ganxorcielebuli qcevis
mibaZvis mniSvnelobas.
socialuri daswavlis Terapia (Social-learning therapy)
mkurnalobis forma, rodesac klienti uyurebs,

leqsikoni

sensoruli neironi (Sensory neurons) neironi,


romelic sensoruli receptorebidan informacias centraluri nervuli sistemisken atarebs.
sensoruli receptorebi (Sensory receptors) _ specializirebuli ujredebi; isini gadaaqceven fizikur signalebs ujredis signalebad, romlebic
Semdeg gadamuSavdeba nervuli sistemis mier.
sensoruli fiziologia (Sensory physiology) _
Seiswavlis fizikuri movlenebis nervul movlenebad gadaqcevis biologiur meqanizmebs.
seriuli procesebi (Serial processes) _ ori an meti
fsiqikuri procesi, romelic Tanmimdevrulad,
erTmaneTis Semdeg mimdinareobs.
seti (Set) _ stimulis aRqmis da masze garkveuli
saxiT reagirebis droebiTi mzaoba.
seqsualuri agzneba (Sexual arousal) _ aRgznebisa da
daZabulobis motivaciuri mdgomareoba, romelic
aRmocendeba erotikul stimulebze fiziologiuri da kognituri reaqciebiT.
seqsualuri qcevis scenarebi (Sexual scripts) _ seqsualuri pasuxismgeblobis socialurad daswavlili programa.
sibrZne (Wisdom) _ mdidari cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebidan momdinare kompetenturoba cxovrebis
fundamentur sferoebSi.
signalis SemCnevis Teoria (Signal detection theory _
SDT) aris statistikuri midgoma pasuxis sistematuri Secdomisadmi, romelmac saSualeba misca
eqsperimentators, ganesazRvra da ganecalkevebina
sensoruli procesebisa da individis faqtoris
roli erTmaneTisagan.
sididis konstantoba (Size constancy)_ sagnis realuri
sididis aRqma, misi retinaluri gamosaxulebebis
cvlilebis miuxedavad.
sizmrebis analizi (Dream analysis) sizmrebis
fsiqoanalituri interpretacia, riTac xdeba
pacientis aracnobieri motivebisa da konfliqtebis wvdoma.
sizmris muSaoba (Dream work) _ froidiseul sizmrebis analizSi procesi, romliTac Sinagani
cenzura sizmris farul Sinaarss xilul Sinaarsad gardaqmnis.
sikaSkaSe (Brightness) _ feris Tviseba, romelic gulisxmobs sinaTlis intensivobas.
simaZRre (Saturation) _ feris Tviseba, romelic gamoxatavs imas, Tu ramdenad wmindaa feri.
simorcxve (Shyness) _ individis diskomforti da\an
Sekaveba iseT interpersonalur situaciebSi,
romlebic xels uSlis interpersonaluri an
profesiuli miznebis miRwevas.
simpaTikuri sistema (Sympathetic division) avtonomiuri nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic sagangaSo situaciaSi energiis mobilizacias axorcielebs.
sinafsi (Synapse) or neirons Soris arsebuli
naprali.
sinafsuri gadacema (Synaptic transmission) erTi nei-

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802

Tu rogor iRebs modeli waxalisebas sasurveli


qcevis ganxorcielebisaTvis.
socialuri inteleqti (Social intelligence) _ pirovnebis
Teoria, romelic exeba im gamocdilebas, romelic adamianebs SemoaqvT cxovrebiseuli amocanebis sakuTar gancdaSi.
socialuri kategorizacia (Social categorization) _ procesi, romlis meSveobiTac adamianebi sakuTari
socialuri garemos organizebas axdenen, miakuTvneben ra adamianebs sakuTar da sxvaTa jgufebs.
socialuri mxardaWera (Social support) _ sxva adamianebis mier pirovnebisTvis stresTan gamklavebis mizniT gaweuli materialuri, socio-emociuri da informaciuli mxardaWera.
socialuri normebi (Social norms) _ molodinebi,
romlebic jgufs gaaCnia Tavisi wevrebis mimarT
maTi qcevebisa da ganwyobebis sasurvelobasTan
da SesabamisobasTan dakavSirebiT.
socialuri rolebi (Social roles) qcevis socialurad
gansazRvruli paternebi, romlebsac moelian
pirovnebisgan, romelic mocemul garemoSi an
jgufSi funqcionirebs.
socialuri fsiqologia (Social psychology) _ fsiqologiis dargi, romelic Seiswavlis socialuri
cvladebis gavlenas individis qcevebze, damokidebulebebze (attitudes), aRqmebsa da motivebze;
is, agreTve, Seiswavlis jgufebs da jgufTaSoris
fenomenebs.
socialuri fobia (Social phobia) _ mdgradi da iracionaluri SiSi, romelic warmoiqmneba iseTi
sazogadoebrivi situaciis winaswar warmodgenisas, romelSic individi sxvaTa dakvirvebis
obieqti SeiZleba gaxdes.
sociobiologia (Sociobiology) mecniereba, romelic
Seiswavlis adamianTa da cxovelTa socialur
sistemebs da socialuri qcevis evoluciur
safuZvlebs.
specifikuri fobiebi (Specific phobias) _ fobiebi,
romlebic Tavs iCenen specifikuri tipis obieqtebze an situaciebze reaqciis saxiT.
spontanuri aRdgena (Spontaneous recovery): Camqrali
ganpirobebuli reaqciis xelaxali gamovlena
garkveuli periodis Semdeg.
spontanuri remisiis efeqti (Spontaneous-remission effect) _ fsiqikuri problemebis mqone zogierT
pacientTa da klientTa, romelsac esaWiroveba
fsiqoTerapia, mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba yovelgvari profesiuli Carevis gareSe; bazisuri kriteriumi, romliTac unda Sefasdes Terapiebis
Sedegianoba.
standartizacia (standardization) _ testSi, interviuSi
an eqsperimentSi monawilisadmi mopyrobis an
monacemebis dafiqsirebis unificirebuli procedura.
standartuli gadaxra (Standard deviation SD) _ qulaTa
wyebis saSualo sxvaoba maTi saSualodan, variabilobis sazomi.

stereotipebi (Stereotypes) _ adamianebis garkveul


jgufebTan dakavSirebuli ganzogadebebi, romlebic garkveul maxasiaTeblebs miaweren mTel
jgufs.
stereotipuri muqara (Stereotype threat)_ safrTxe, rom
dadasturebuli iqneba garkveuli jgufis mimarT
arsebuli negatiuri stereotipi.
stimuliT gamowveuli yuradRebis mipyroba (Stimulus-driven capture) _ gansazRvravs imas, Tu adamianebi
ratom irCeven sensoruli Semomavali informaciis raRac nawils Semdegi gadamuSavebisaTvis;
xdeba maSin, rodesac stimulebis niSnebi (sagnebi
garemoSi) avtomaturad ipyroben yuradRebas,
adamianis kerZo miznebisgan damoukideblad.
stimulis generalizeba (Stimulus generalization) _ ganpirobebuli stimulis avtomaturi ganvrcoba yvela im msgavs stimulze, romelic ar yofila
Sewyvilebuli ganupirobebel stimulTan.
stimulis diskriminacia (Stimulus discrimination) _
ganpirobebulobis procesi, romlis drosac organizmi swavlobs imas, rom gansxvavebulad
upasuxos gamRizianebels (stimuls), romelic
ganpirobebuli stimulisagan raime ganzomilebiT
gansxvavdeba.
stresi (Stress) _ specifikuri da araspecifikuri
reaqciebis paterni, ganxorcielebuli organizmis
mier mastimulirebeli obieqtis mimarT, romelic
arRvevs mis wonasworobas, gamocdas uwyobs, an
aRemateba misi daZlevis unars.
stresis Semamsubuqebeli cvladebi (Stress moderator
variables) _ cvladebi, romlebic cvlian mimarTebas
stresorsa da mocemuli tipis stresul reaqcias
Soris.
stresori (Stressor) _ Sinagani an garegani movlena
an stimuli, romelic iwvevs stress.
struqturalizmi (Srtucturalism) _ swavleba fsiqikisa
da qcevis Sesaxeb, sadac fsiqikuri gamocdileba
gaigeba, rogorc martivi elementebis an movlenebis kombinacia.
sul an arafris kanoni (All-or-none law) moqmedebis
potencialis zoma ar aris stimulaciis intensivobaze damokidebuli garkveuli zRurblis
Semdeg.
superego (Superego) _ pirovnebis aspeqti, romelic
warmoadgens sazogadoebrivi Rirebulebebis,
standartebisa da moralis internalizacias.
sqemebi (Schemas) _ obieqtebis, xalxis, an situaciis
Sesaxeb konceptualuri CarCoebi, an codnis
`klasterebi~, codnis erTeulebi, romlebic moicaven garemos struqturebis Sesaxeb ganzogadebebs.
sqemebi (Schemes) _ piaJes termini im kognituri struqturebis aRsaniSnad, romelic viTardeba bavSvis
mier samyaros interpretirebasa da garemosadmi
adaptaciasTan erTad.
sqesobrivi gansxvavebebi (Sex differences) _ biologiuri safuZvlis mqone maxasiaTeblebi, romlebic

garemomcveli socialuri urTierTobis nawilisa;


imis aRiareba, rom adamianis qceva gansazRvrulia, damokidebulia da didwilad organizebulia imiT, Tu ras aRiqvams moqmedi piri sxvebis
azrebad, grZnobebad da moqmedebebad.
fantomuri kiduris fenomeni (Phantom limb phenomenon) _ mwvave da qronikuli tkivilis SegrZneba
im kidurSi, romelic amputirebulia.
fardobiTi moZraobis paralaqsi (Relative motion parallax) _ siRrmeze informaciis wyaro, rodesac
damkvirveblidan sagnebis fardobiTi daSoreba
gansazRvravs Sesabamisi retinaluri gamosaxulebebis moZraobis odenobas da mimarTulebas.
faruli Sinaarsi (Latent content) _ froidiseul
sizmrebis analizSi sizmris dafaruli azri.
fenotipi (Phenotype) organizmis xiluli niSanTvisebebi, romlebic misi genotipisa da garemos
urTierTqmedebis Sedegad yalibdeba.
feris toni (Hue) _ feris Tviseba, romelic gulisxmobs sinaTlis feris Tvisobriv gancdas.
feris konstantoba (Lightness constancy) _ ganaTebis
xarisxis cvalebad pirobebSi obieqtebis siTeTris, siruxis an siSavis ucvlelad aRqmis
tendencia.
feromenebi (Pheromones) _ qimiuri signalebi, romelsac gamohyofen organizmebi mocemuli saxeobis
sxva wevrebTan urTierTobis dasamyareblad;
xSirad funqcionireben, rogorc distanturi
seqsualuri mimzidvelebi.
figura (Figure)- fonisagan gansxvavebuli, sagnismagvari win wamoweuli are vizualur velSi.
fizikuri ganviTareba (Physical development) _ Casaxvidan mTeli cxovrebis manZilze mimdinare sxeulebrivi cvlilebebi, momwifeba da zrda.
fiziologiuri damokidebuleba (Psysiological dependence) _ procesi, rodesac organizmi eCveva da
damokidebuli xdeba mocemul nivTierebaze
fiqsacia (Fixation) _ mdgomareoba, rodesac adamiani
rCeba mijaWvuli iseT obieqtebsa Tu moqmedebebze,
romlebic fsiqoseqsualuri ganviTarebis adreul safexurs ufro Seesabameba.
fiqsirebuli intervalis cxrili (Fixed-interval schedule) ganmamtkicebelTa cxrili, romelSic
ganmamtkicebeli miewodeba fiqsirebuli drois
gasvlidan pirvelive sapasuxo reaqciisas.
fluiduri inteleqti (Fluid intelligence) _ inteleqtis
aspeqti, romelic moicavs rTuli mimarTebebis
danaxvisa da problemebis gadaWris unars.
fobia (Phobia) _ specifikuri obieqtis, aqtivobis an
situaciis mdgradi da iracionaluri SiSi,
romelic moWarbebulobiTa da umizezobiT xasiaTdeba; romelic realobas safrTxis momtanad
aRaqmevinebs adamians.
fonemebi (Phonemes) _ metyvelebis minimaluri erTeuli nebismier enaSi, romelic azrobriv gasxvavebas qmnis eqspresiuli da impresiuli metyvelebisas; r da l ori gansxvavebuli fonemaa

leqsikoni

mamrobiT sqess ganasxvavebs mdedrobiTi sqesisgan.


sxeulis xati (Body image) _ sakuTari sxeulis garegnobis subieqturi aRqma.
sxvaobis zRurbli (Difference threshold) _ umciresi
fizikuri gansxvaveba or gamRizianebels Soris,
romelic jer kidev SeiZleba gacnobierdes, rogorc gansxvavebulebi; sxvaobis zRurbli operacionalurad ganisazRvreba rogorc wertili,
romelzec gamRizianeblebi arian gacnobierebuli, rogorc gansxvavebulni SemTxvevaTa naxevarSi.
tembri (Timbre) _ smeniTi SegrZnebis Tviseba, romelic
asaxavs bgeriTi talRis sirTules.
terminaluri balTa (Terminal buttons) bolqvismagvari struqtura aqsonis bolos, romelic
neirotransmiteriT savse buStukebs Seicavs.
test-retestuli sandooba (Test-retest reliability) _ erTi
da igive cdis pirze erTi da igive testis sxvadasxva dros Catarebis Sedegad miRebul qulebs
Soris arsebuli korelaciis sazomi.
testosteroni (Testosterone) mamakacTa sasqeso hormoni, romelic saTesleebSi gamomuSavdeba da
astimulirebs spermis produqcias; aseve pasuxismgebelia mamakacTa meoradi sasqeso niSan-Tvisebebis Camoyalibebaze.
tvinis Rero (Brain stem) Tavis tvinis struqtura,
romelic aregulirebs sxeulis ZiriTad sasicocxlo funqciebs.
tkivili (Pain) _ organizmis reaqcia mavne zemoqmedebis mqone gamRizianeblebis stimulaciaze,
romelic aris sakmaod intensiuri, raTa gamoiwvios qsovilis dazianeba an Seuqmnas mas safrTxe.
tolerantoba (Tolerance) _ situacia, romelic nivTierebis xangrZlivi gamoyenebis Sedegad iqmneba,
rodesac igive efeqtis misaRwevad individs ufro
da ufri meti doza sWirdeba.
transformacia (Transduction) _ Seiswavlis erTi formis fizikuri energiis gardaqmnas meore formad;
magaliTad, sinaTlis transformirebas nervul
impulsebad.
triqromatuli Teoriis (Trichromatic theory) Tanaxmad,
arsebobs feris SemgrZnebi receptorebis sami
tipi, romlebic warmoqmnian pirveladi ferebis
_ wiTlis, mwvanis da lurji ferebis SegrZnebas.
uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba (Negative reinforcement) qcevas
mohyveba aversiuli stimulis Camocileba, rac
zrdis am qcevis sixSiris albaTobas.
uaryofiT damsjeli (Negative Punishment) qcevas
mohyveba sasurveli stimulis Camocileba, riTac
mcirdeba am qcevis albaToba.
upirobo dadebiTi ganwyoba (Unconditional positive regard) _ individis sruli siyvaruli da mimRebloba
sxva adamianis mier, magaliTad bavSvisa mSoblis
mier, yvelanairi pirobis gareSe.
urTierTdamokidebuli me-s gageba (Interdependent
construals of self) _ me-s konceptualizacia, rogorc

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inglisurSi da qarTulSi, Tumca, erTi fonemis


sxvadasxva variantia iaponurSi.
foni (Ground) _ sivrce vizualur velSi, romelzedac figura devs.
formis konstantoba (Shape constancy) _ sagnebis realuri formis aRqmis unari retinaluri gamosaxulebis zomebis cvlilebis miuxedavad.
forma (Frame) arCevanis gansakuTrebuli aRwera.
gadawyvetilebis miRebaze da arCevanis gakeTebaze
gavlenas axdens arCevanis formulireba, misi
ama Tu im kuTxiT warmodgena.
formaluri Sefaseba (Formal assessment) _ sistematuri
procedurebi da gazomvebi, romelic gavarjiSebuli profesionalebis mier gamoiyeneba individebis funqcionirebis, unarebis, qcevebis (Cvevebis) an fsiqikuri mdgomareobis Sesaswavlad.
fotoreceptorebi (photoreceptors) _ baduraze mdebare
sinaTlisadmi mgrZnobiare receptoruli ujredebi.
frustracia agresiis hipoTeza (Frustration aggression hipothesis) am hipoTezis Tanaxmad, frustracia
Cndeba situaciebSi, romlebSic adamianebs saSualeba ar eZlevaT, miaRwion TavianT miznebs;
frustraciis aRZvra ki, Tavis mxriv, iwvevs
agresiis ganxorcielebis albaTobis zrdas.
fsiqiatri (Psychiatrist) pirovneba, romelsac aqvs
medicinis doqtoris xarisxi da doqtoranturis
dasrulebis Semdeg gavlili aqvs specializacia
fsiqikur da emociur aSlilobebSi. fsiqologiuri aSlilobebis samkurnalod fsiqiatrs
SeuZlia medikamentebis daniSvna.
fsiqikuri ganwyoba (Mental set) _ axali problemis
dasaZlevad wina problemis daZlevis stilis,
saSualebis gamoyenebis tendencia.
fsiqikuri determinizmi (Psychic determinism) _ daSveba, rom fsiqikuri da qceviTi reaqciebi gansazRvrulia adrindeli gamocdilebiT.
fsiqoanalizi (Psychoanalysis) fsiqodinamikuri
Terapia, romelic Seqmna froidma; es aris intesiuri da droSi gaxangrZlivebuli teqnika,
romelic mowodebulia nevrotuli da mSfoTvare
individebis aracnobieri motivebisa da konfliqtebis gamosakvlevad.
fsiqoanalitikosi (Psychoanalyst) _ pirovneba, romelsac aqvs medicinis an filosofiur mecnierebaTa
doqtoris xarisxi da romelic doqtoranturaSi
specializirdeboda fsiqikuri aSlilobebis gagebisa da mkurnalobisadmi froidiseul midgomaSi.
fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebi (Psychoactive drugs) _ qimiuri naerTebi, romelic cnobieri aRqmis droebiTi SecvliT zegavlenas axdens mentalur procesebsa da qcevaze.
fsiqobiografia (Psychobiography) _ fsiqologiuri
(gansakuTrebiT pirovnebis) Teoriis gamoyeneba
individis cxovrebiseuli mimarTulebis aRwerisa
da axsnisaTvis.

fsiqoTerapia (Psychotherapy) _ TerapiaTa jgufidan


nebismieri, romelic gamoiyeneba fsiqologiuri
aSlilobebis samkurnalod da fokusirebulia
konkretul aSlilobasTan dakavSirebuli araswori qcevis, azrebis, aRqmebisa da emociebis
Secvlaze.
fsiqologia (Psychology) _ individebis qcevis da
fsiqikuri procesebis mecnieruli Seswavla.
fsiqologiuri damokidebuleba (Psychological dependence) _ narkotikis fsiqologiuri saWiroeba an
survili.
fsiqologiuri diagnozi (Psychological diagnosis) _
fsiqologiuri paTologiisTvis dakvirvebuli
qcevis paternis klasificirebisa da kategorizaciis Sedegad micemuli iarliyi garkveuli
diagnostikuri sistemis farglebSi.
fsiqologiuri Sefaseba (Psychological assessment) _
individTa unarebis, qcevisa da pirovnuli maxasiaTeblebis Sesafasebelad arsebuli gansazRvruli procedurebi.
fsiqolog-konsultanti (Counseling psychologist) _ fsiqologi, romelic specializirdeba iseT sferoebSi, rogoricaa: profesiis arCeva, saskolo
problemebi, narkotikebis moxmareba da ojaxuri
konfliqti.
fsiqometria (Psychometrics) _ fsiqologiis dargi,
romelic gonebrivi SesaZleblobebis testirebaSi
specializirdeba.
fsiqometruli funqcia (Psychometric function) _ grafiki, romelic asaxavs gamRizianeblis SemCnevaTa
procents (vertikalur RerZze) gamRizianeblis
TiToeuli intensivobisaTvis (horizontalur
RerZze).
fsiqoneiroimunlogia (Psychoneuroimmunology) kvlevis dargi, romelic swavlobs interaqcias iseT
fiziologiur procesebs Soris, rogoricaa
reaqcia stresze da imunuri sistemis funqcionireba.
fsiqopaTologiuri funqcionireba (Psychopatological
functioning) _ darRvevebi emociur, qceviT an
azrovnebis procesebSi, rasac Tan sdevs pirovnuli distresi an mniSvnelovani miznebis miRwevis SesaZleblobebis blokireba.
fsiqosomaturi darRvevebi (Psychosomatic disorders) _
fizikuri darRvevebi, romlebic mZafrdeba, an
imTaviTve miewereba xangrZliv moqmed stress
Tu sxva fsiqologiur mizezebs, an Zlierdeba
maTi zegavleniT.
fsiqosocialuri stadiebi (Psychosocial stages) _ erik
eriksonis SemoTavazebuli ganviTarebis Tanmimdevrul stadiebi, romelic fokusirdeba sakuTar
Tavsa da sxvebze individis orientaciaze; es
stadiebi moicavs pirovnebis ganviTarebis sqesobriv da socialur aspeqtebs da individisa da
socialuri garemos urTierTqmedebis Sedegad
warmoqmnil socialur konfliqtebs.
fsiqoturi aSliloba (Psychotic disorder) _ mwvave
fsiqikuri aSliloba, rodesac uaresdeba indi-

da reaqciebi, romlebsac akvirdebian da iweren,


eqskluziuri an TviTangariSiT aRwerili qceva.
qcevis modifikacia (Behavior modification) daswavlis
principebis meToduri gamoyeneba sasurveli qcevis sixSiris gazrdis an arasasurveli qcevis
sixSiris Semcirebis mizniT.
qcevis monacemebi (Behavioral data) _ organizmis qcevis
da im pirobebis aRwera, romlebSic es qceva
mimdinareobs, an icvleba.
RvTismsaxuri, konsultanti (Pastoral counselor) religiuri fenis warmomadgeneli, romelic specializirdeba fsiqologiuri aSlilobebis mkurnalobaSi da xSirad sulierebaze zrunvas problemaTa praqtikul gadawyvetasTan aerTianebs.
Ruzis evristika (Anchoring Heuristics) zogierTi
movlenis an Sedegis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb msjelobisas misi sawyisi mniSvnelobis gadafaseba
an verSefaseba.
ynosvis bolqvi (Olfactory bulb) _ centri, sadac ynosvis receptorebi agzavnian TavianT signalebs,
romelic ganlagebulia zustad Tavis tvinis
qerqis Sublis wilis qveviT.
yuradReba (Attention) _ xelmisawvdomi perceptuli
informaciis romelime nawilze cnobierebis
fokusireba.
yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba (Preattentive processing)
_ sensoruli informaciis gadamuSaveba, romelic
yuradRebas specifikur obieqtze mimarTavs.
Samanizmi (Shamanizm) spiritualuri tradicia,
romelic moiazrebs mkurnalobas da sulier
samyarosTan kontaqts.
SegrZneba (Sensation) _ procesi, roca sensoruli
receptoris gaRizianeba dasabams aZlevs nervul
impulsebs, rac iwvevs sxeulis SigniT Tu gareT
arsebuli pirobebis gancdas, maT gacnobierebas.
Semavsebeli ferebi (Complementary colours) _ ferebi,
romlebic mdebareoben erTmaneTis mopirdapire
mxars ferTa wreze; roca aditurad erevian
erTmaneTs qmnian TeTri sinaTlis SegrZnebas.
Semakavebeli `Sesavali~ (Inhibitory inputs) Semosuli
informacia, romelic neirons ubrZanebs, ar
ganimuxtos.
Semecneba (Cognition) codnis SeZenis procesi,
romelic moicavs yuradRebis miqcevas, gaxsenebas,
azrovnebas; aseve, gulisxmobs procesebis Sinaarss: cnebebs da STabeWdilebebs.
Senaxva (Storage) _ kodirebuli informaciis Sekaveba
garkveuli drois manZilze.
SerCeva (Sample) _ populaciis nawili, romelic
eqsperimentSi monawileobisaTvis gadaarCies.
SesaZlebeli me-ebi (Possible selves) _ idealuri meebi, rogoric adamians surs gaxdes, me-ebi, rogorebic adamians SeuZlia gaxdes da me-ebi,
rogoradac gaxdomis adamians eSinia; me-s kognituri aRqmis komponentebi.
Seuracxadoba (Insanity) _ samarTlebrivi (ara klinikuri) aRniSvna im mdgomareobisa, romlis

leqsikoni

vidis mier realobis aRqma, rac vlindeba


azrovnebis, emociebisa da aRqmis sferoSi warmoqmnil sirTuleebSi; aRar gamoiyeneba, rogorc
diagnostikuri kategoria DSM-III-is Semdeg.
fsiqofizika (psychophysics) _ mecniereba fizikuri
stimulaciisa da fsiqologiuri SegrZnebis Sesatyvisobis Sesaxeb.
fsiqofarmakologia (Psychopharmacology) fsiqologiis dargi, romelic swavlobs qcevaze medikamentebis moqmedebas.
fsiqoqirurgia (Psychosurgery) _ fsiqologiuri
aSlilobis Semsubuqebis an aRkveTis mizniT tvinis qsovilze ganxorcielebuli qirurgiuli
procedurebi.
funqcionaluri rigidoba (Functional fixedness) sagnis
tradiciuli xedvis Secvlis da axali funqciis
danaxvis da misi efeqturad gamoyenebis uunaroba.
funqcionalizmi (Functionalism) _ swavleba, romelic
fokusirdeba organizmis garemosTan urTierTqmedebis dros fsiqikisa da qcevis funqciebze.
funqciuri magnitur-rezonansuli tomografia
(FMRI - Functional MRI) meTodi, romelic aerTianebs PET skanisa da mrt-s upiratesobebs da
aRricxavs tvinSi sisxlis mimoqcevis magnitur
cvlilebebs.
qerqi (Cerebral cortex) didi tvinis gare zedapiri.
qmnadoba (Generativity) _ sakuTari Tavis garda, ojaxis, samsaxuris, sazogadoebis Tu momavali
Taobebis interesebisTvis moRvaweobas da maTze
zrunvas gulisxmobs. rogorc wesi, qmnadoba
Zalze mniSvnelovani aspeqtia 30-40 wels miRweuli adamianis ganviTarebis procesSi.
qronikuli stresi (Chronic stress) _ agznebis xangrZlivi mdgomareoba, romlis drosac individi
aRiqvams, rom misadmi wayenebuli moTxovnebi
aRemateba Sinagan da garegan resursebs, romlebsac igi flobs am movlenebTan dasapirispireblad.
qronologiuri asaki (Chronological age) _ individis
dabadebidan gasuli Tveebis an wlebis raodenoba.
qceva (Behavior) _ is moqmedebebi, romlis saSualebiTac organizmi garemos ergeba.
qceviTi dadastureba (Behavioral confirmation) procesi,
romlis meSveobiTac adamianebi iqcevian sxvebis
specifiurad mosalodneli reaqciebis Sesabamisad da Semdeg am reaqciebs iyeneben TavianTi
Sexedulebebis dasadastureblad.
qceviTi Terapia (Behavior therapy) ixileT qcevis
modifikacia.
qceviTi repeticia (Behaviotal rehearsal) procedura,
romelic mowodebulia ZiriTadi unar-Cvevebis
gamomuSavebisTvis da ganmtkicebisTvis; rodesac
CarTulia socialuri unar-Cvevebis gavarjiSebis
programaSi, igulisxmeba, rom klienti gonebaSi
imeorebs sasurveli qcevis Tanmimdevrobas.
qcevis gazomva (Behavioral measures) _ garegani qcevebi

805

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806

drosac individi ganixileba, rogorc iuridiulad Seuracxadi an araqmediTi,


arakompetenturi.
SeZena (Acquisition) _ klasikuri ganpirobebulobis
eqsperimentis stadia, romlis drosac ganpirobebuli reaqcia pirvlad aris gamowveuli ganpirobebuli stimuliT.
Sidsi (AIDS) _ SeZenili imunodeficitis sindromis
abreviatura, sindromi gamowveulia virusiT,
romelic azianebs imunur sistemas da asustebs
organizmis unars, SeebrZolos infeqcias.
Sida jgufebi (In-groups) jgufebi, romlebTanac
adamiani sakuTari Tavis identificirebas axdens.
Sidajgufuri mikerZoeba (In-group bias) sakuTari
jgufis gadafaseba sxvasTan SedarebiT.
Sizofreniuli aSliloba (Schizophrenic disorder) _
fsiqopaTologiis mwvave forma, romelic xasiaTdeba integrirebuli pirovnuli funqcionirebis rRveviT, realobidan gasvliT, emociuri
gaukuRmarTebebiTa da azrovnebis darRveviT.
Sinagani SeTanxmebuloba (Internal consistency) _ sandoobis sazomi. testis sxvadasxva nawilebis,
rogoricaa kenti da luwi punqtebi, gamoyenebis
Sedegad miRebuli msgavsebis xarisxi.
SiSi (Fear) _ racionaluri reaqcia obieqturad
identificirebul garegan safrTxeze, ramac
SeiZleba aiZulos adamiani, rom gaiqces an
gadavides Setevaze Tavdacvis mizniT.
Sublis wili (Frontal lobe) tvinis ubani, romelic
gverdiTi napralis zemoT da centraluri Raris
winaa moTavsebuli; monawileobs motorul
kontrolSi da kognitiur qmedebebSi.
SuaSi gaxleCvis sandooba (Split-half consistency) _ testis ekvivalenturi naxevrebis SesrulebaSi miRebuli qulebis Sedareba.
SfoTva (Anxiety) _ intensiuri emociuri reaqcia,
gamowveuli winarecnobieri aRqmiT imisa, rom
represirebuli konfliqti apirebs cnobierebaSi
amosvlas.
SfoTviTi aSlilobebi (Anxiety disorder) _ fsiqikuri
aSlilobebi, romelic xasiaTdeba fsiqologiuri
agznebiT, daZabulobis grZnobiT da TvalsaCino
mizezis gareSe warmoqmnili intensiuri daZabulobiT.
Caqroba (Extinction) _ ganpirobebulobaSi, ganupirobebeli stimulis an ganmamtkiceblis ar- arsebobis Sedegad ganpirobebuli asociaciis Sesusteba.
cvalebadi intervalis cxrili (Vaiable-interval schedule) ganmamtkicebelTa cxrili, romelSic ganmamtkicebeli miewodeba pirvelive pasuxisas
cvaldi periodis gavlis Semdeg, romlis saSualoc winaswar gansazRvrulia.
cdis pirTa SigniT sqema (Within subjects design) _
kvlevis sqema, sadac TiToeuli cdis piri sakuTari Tavis kontrolia. cdis piris eqsperimentul
pirobaSi qceva SeiZleba SevadaroT missave qcevas am pirobamde, an mis Semdeg.

cdis pirTa Soris sqema (Between subjects design) _


cdis pirebs SemTxveviTad anawileben eqsperimentul da sakontrolo pirobebSi.
centraluri nervuli sistema (cns) (Central nervius
system - CNS) nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic
Tavisa da zurgis tvinisagan Sedgeba.
centracia (Centration) _ kognituri ganviTarebis
winaoperaciuli stadiis dasawyisisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli azrovnebis paterni, romelic xasiaTdeba bavSvis mier erTdroulad ori perceptuli faqtoris gaTvaliswinebis unaris arqoniT.
cvladi (Variable) _ nebismieri faqtori, romelic
raodenobrivad an Tvisebrivad icvleba
cirkaduli ritmi (Circadian rhythm) _ organizmis aqtivobis Sinagani saaTiT determinirebuli mdgradi paterni, romelic, Cveulebisamebr, 24 an 25
saaTs grZeldeba.
cnebebi (Concepts) _ sagnebis, an ideebis, saxeobebis,
an kategoriebis mentaluri reprezentaciebi.
cnoba (Recognition) _ aRdgenis meTodi, romlis drosac
individs moeTxoveba imis gacnobiereba, rom
raRac movlena swored isaa, romelic Tqven adre
aRiqviT (gaigoneT, an dainaxeT).
cnobiereba (Consciousness) _ Sinagani movlenebisa
da garemos pirobebis cnobierad aRqmis mdgomareoba (gacnobiereba).
gacnobierebuli kontroli (Perceived control) _
pirovnebis rwmena, rom SeuZlia movlenis, an
gancdis msvlelobis, an Sedegebis Secvla; xSirad
sasargebloa stresorebTan gamklavebisas.
crurwmena (Prejudice) winaswar daswavlili damokidebuleba (attitude) samizne obieqtis mimarT,
romelic moicavs negatiur grZnobebs (armowoneba
an SiSi), negatiur Sexedulebebs (stereotipebs),
romlebic amarTleben arsebul damokidebulebebs da qceviT ganzraxvebs, acilebul, kontrolirebul, dominirebul an ganadgurebul iqnen
isini, romlebic mocemul samizne jgufs ganekuTvnebian.
cxovelTa kognicia (Animal cognition) cxovelebis
kognituri SesaZleblobebi; mkvlevrebi eZeben
kognituri unarebis ganviTarebas sxvadsxva
saxeobebSi, saxeobebis ierarqiis mixedviT adamianamde.
cxovrebiseuli cvlilebis erTeulebi (Life-change
units - LCUs) _ stresis gamokvlevebSi gamoyenebuli stresis donis sazomi, romelsac iwvevs
drois mocemul monakveTSi gancdili sxvadasxva
tipis cvlileba.
Zili Tvalebis swrafi moZraobis gareSe (Non-REM
anu NREM Sleep) _ periodi, rodesac mZinare adamianTan ar fiqsirdeba Tvalebis swrafi moZraoba;
xasiaTdeba REM ZilTan SedarebiT naklebi sizmrisebri aqtivobiT.
Zilis apnoe (Sleep apnea) _ zeda sasunTq gzebTan
dakavSirebuli Zilis darRveva, rac aiZulebs
adamians, rom Zilis dros sunTqva Sewyvitos.

janmrTelobis xelSewyoba (Health promotion) _ zogadi


strategiebisa da konkretuli taqtikis ganviTareba, romelic miznad isaxavs adamianTa avad
gaxdomis riskis gamoricxvas, an Semcirebas.
jgufis dinamika (Group dynamics) im jgufuri procesebis kvleva, romlebic cvlian individebis
funqcionirebas.
jgufuri azrovneba (Groupthink) gadawyvetilebis
mimRebi jgufis tendencia, gafiltros arasasurveli monacemebi ise, rom miRweul iqnes konsensusi, gansakuTrebiT maSin, Tu is lideris
Tvalsazriss Seesabameba.
jgufuri polarizacia (Group polarization) jgufis
tendencia, miiRos iseTi gadawyvetileba, romelic
aris ufro eqstremaluri, vidre is gadawyvetilebebi, romlebsac cal-calke miiRebdnen imave
jgufis wevrebi.
jems-langes emociis Teoria (Jame-Lange theory of emotion) _ emociis periferiuli ukukavSiris Teoria,
romlis Tanaxmad, gamRizianebeli iwvevs qceviT
reaqcias, romelic agzavnis sxvadasxva sensorul
da motorul ukukavSirs Tavis tvinSi da am
gziT qmnis specifikuri emociis grZnobas.
jvaredini Seswavlis meTodi (Cross-sectional design) _
kvlevis meTodi, romelic gulisxmobs sxvadasxva
asakis adamianTa jgufebze dakvirvebasa da
erTmaneTTan Sedarebas.
halucinacia (Hallucinations) _ mcdari aRqma, romelic
Cndeba obieqturi gamRizianeblis ararsebobis
pirobebSi.
hemisferoebi (Cerebral hemispheres) didi tvinis ori
naxevari, romlebic korZiani sxeuliTaa dakavSirebuli.
hiperregularizacia (Overregularization) _ gramatikuli
Secdoma, romelic, Cveulebriv, vlindeba adreuli enobrivi ganviTarebis dros da romlis
drosac enis wesebi imdenad farTod gamoiyeneba,
rom xdeba araswori lingvisturi formebis
warmoeba.
hipnobiluroba (Hypnotizability) _ aCvenebs, Tu ra
xarisxiT eqvemdebareba mocemuli individi
standartul hipnotur STagonebas.
hipnozi (Hypnosis) _ cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareoba, romelic xasiaTdeba Rrma modunebiT
(relaqsaciiT), STagonebisadmi mimReblobiT da
aRqmis, mexsierebis, motivaciisa da TviTkontrolis cvlilebebiT.
hipoTalamusi (Hypothalamus) tvinis struqtura,
romelic aregulirebs motivaciur qcevas (rogoricaa kveba da daleva) da homeostazs.
hipoTeza (Hypothesis) _ Semowmebadi debuleba mizezebsa da Sedegebs Soris mimarTebis Taobaze,
xSirad is gamoxatulia winaswarmetyvelebis
formiT, konkretul pirobas gansazRvruli Sedegi moyveba.
hipokampi (Hippocampus) limburi sistemis nawili,
romelic konkretuli mexsierebis CamoyalibebaSi
monawileobs.

leqsikoni

ZiriTadi membrana (Basilar membrane) _ mdebareobs


lokokinaSi, roca is modis moZraobaSi, iwvevs
bewviani ujredebis stimulirebas (aRizinaebs
maT), romlebic warmoqmnian smeniTi gaRizianebis
nervul efeqtebs.
warmatebuli miaxloebebis mixedviT Seipingi
(Shaiping by successive approximations) qceviTi meTodi,
romelic ganamtkicebs im reaqciebs, romlebic
warmatebulad uaxlovdebian da maqsimalurad
axlos arian sasurvel reaqciasTan.
wesebi (Rules) garkveul situaciaSi garkveuli
saxiT moqcevis moTxovnebi.
winaaRmdegoba (Resistance) fsiqoanalizis msvlelobisas pacients ar surs, an ar SeuZlia garkveul
mosazrebebze, survilebsa Tu gamocdilebaze
saubari.
winarecnobieri mexsiereba (Preconscious memories) _
mexsiereba, romelic mocemul momentSi ar aris
cnobieri, magram cnobierdeba aucileblobis
SemTxvevaSi.
wonasworobis SegrZneba (vestibular sense) (TNR) informacias gvawvdis Cveni sxeulis orientaciis Sesaxeb sivrceSi.
xangrZlivi mexsiereba (Long-term memory) _ daxsomebis procesi, romelic uzrunvelyofs informaciis Senaxvas da Semdgom, nebismier dros mis
aRdgenas.
xelmisawvdomobis evristika (Availability heuristic) _
daskvna, romelic efuZneba mexsierebaSi Tavisuflad xelmisawvdom informacias.
xidi (Pons) tvinis Reros ubani, romelic akavSirebs zurgisa da Tavis tvins, aseve Tavis tvinis
sxvadasxva nawilebs.
xiluli (manifestirebuli) Sinaarsi (Manifest content) _ froidiseul sizmrebis analizSi sizmris
Sinaarsis zedapiruli mxare, romelic mowodebulia sizmris realuri mniSvnelobis SesaniRbad.
xmamaRla fiqris oqmebi (Think-aloud protocols) _ angariSi, romelic iqmneba Tavad cdis pirTa mier
da aRweren mentalur procesebsa da strategiebs,
romelTac isini mimarTaven davalebis Sesrulebisas.
xuTfaqtoriani modeli (Five-factor model) _ pirovnebis
yovlismomcveli aRweriTi sistema, romelic
asaxavs urTierTobas zogad niSnebs, Teoriul
cnebebsa da pirovnebis skalebs Soris; araformalurad ewodeba didi xuTeuli.
janmrTeloba (Health) _ sxeulisa da gonebis zogadi
mdgomareoba, romelic aRiwereba simtkicisa da
energiulobis terminebiT. es ar aris ubralod
daavadebis an dazianebis ararseboba.
janmrTelobis fsiqologia (Health psychology) _
fsiqologiis dargi, romelic mowodebulia imis
dasadgenad, Tu rogor inarCuneben adamianebi
janmrTelobas, ratom xdebian isini avad da
rogor reagireben avadmyofobaze.

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hipofizi (Pituity gland) moTavsebulia tvinSi, gamoimuSavebs zrdis hormonebs da gavlenas axdens
sxva endokrinuli jirkvlebis mier hormonebis
sekreciaze.
homeostazi (Homeostasis) _ sxeulis Sinagani mdgomareobis mudmivoba an wonasworoba.
hormonebi (Hormons) qimiuri mesenjerebi, romlebic
gamomuSavdeba endokrinuli jirkvlebis mier,
aregulireben metabolizms da gavlenas axdenen
sxulis zrdaze, xasiaTsa da sasqeso niSanTvisebebze.
huazo (Hozho) _ navajos (Navajo) kulturaSi
arsebuli cneba, romelic niSnavs harmonias, sulier simSvides, saTnoebas, idealur ojaxur
urTierTobebs, mSvenierebas xelovnebasa da xelobaSi da sxeulisa da sulis sijansaRes.
humanisturi mimdinareoba (Humanistic perspective) _
fsiqologiuri modeli, romelic aqcents individis fenomenur samyaroze, racionaluri arCevanis gakeTebisa da maqsimaluri potencialis
ganviTarebis Tandayolil unarze akeTebs.
A-B-A sqemaSi cdis pirebi jer xvdebian safuZvlis
pirobaSi (A), Semdeg eqsperimentul CarevaSi (B),
xolo Semdeg ubrundebian safuZvlis pirobas.
A tipis qceviTi paterni (Type A behavior pattern) _
qcevisa da emociebis rTuli paterni, romelic
moicavs gadaWarbebulad gamoxatul Sejibrs,

808

agresias, mouTmenlobasa da mtrul damokidebulebas. mtruli damokidebuleba zrdis gulis


koronarul daavadebaTa risks.
B tipis qceviTi paterni (Type B behavior pattern) _AA
tipis qceviT paternTan SedarebiT, qcevisa da
emociaTa naklebad konkurenciuli, naklebad
agresiuli da naklebad mtruli paterni.
C tipis qceviTi paterni (Type C behavior pattern) _
qcevaTa erToblioba, romelic saSualebas
gvaZlevs viwinaswarmetyveloT, romel individebs
aqvT kiboTi daavadebis meti albaToba, an visTan
ufro swrafad ganviTardeba es avadmyofoba. es
qceviTi paterni gulisxmobs pasiur Seguebas
da TavSewirvas.
EQ IQ-s oreuli _ emociuri inteleqti.
g _ spirmenis mixedviT, zogadi inteleqtis faqtori,
romelic safuZvlad udevs yovelgvar inteleqtualur aqtivobas.
PET-skani tvinis suraTebi, romlebic sxvadasxva
kognitiuri Tu qceviTi aqtivobis dros cocxali
tvinis aqtivobas uCveneben ujredebis mier STanTqmuli radioaqtivobis dafiqsirebis meSveobiT.
fenomeni (Phi phenomenon) _ aSkara/TvalsaCino
moZraobis umartivesi forma, moZraobis iluzia,
rodesac erTi an meti uZravi sinaTle, romelic
uwyvetad qreba da inTeba, erT moZrav sinaTled
aRiqmeba.

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