Laundry detergent From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Laundry powder Laundry detergent, or washing

powder, is a substance that is a type of detergent (cleaning agent) that is added for cleaning laundry. In common usage, "detergen t" refers to mixtures of chemical compounds including alkylbenzenesulfonates, wh ich are similar to soap but are less affected by "hard water." In most household contexts, the term detergent refers to laundry detergent vs hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Most detergent is delivered in powdered form.[1] Contents [hide] • 1 History • 2 Chemistry of detergents • 3 Components o 3.1 Builders o 3.2 Bleach o 3.3 Enzymes o 3.4 Other ingredients • 4 Environmental concerns • 5 References • 6 External links [edit] History From ancient times, chemical additives were recognized for their ability to faci litate the mechanical washing with water. The Italians used a mix of sulfur and water with charcoal to clean cloth. Egyptians added ashes and silicates to softe n water. Soaps were the first detergents.[2] The detergent effects of certain sy nthetic surfactants were noted in Germany in 1917, in response to shortages of s oap during World War I. In the 1930s, commercially viable routes to fatty alcoho ls were developed, and these new materials were converted to their sulfate ester s, key ingredients in the commercially important German brand FEWA, produced by BASF, and Dreft, the US brand produced by Procter and Gamble. Such detergents we re mainly used in industry until after World War II. By then, new developments a nd the later conversion of aviation fuel plants to produce tetrapropylene, used in household detergents, caused a fast growth of domestic use in the late 1940s. [3] The use of enzymes for laundry was introduced in the early part of the 1900s by Otto Rohm. Only in the latter part of the century with the availability of therm ally robust bacterial enzymes did this technology become mainstream.[4] At the present time, soap has largely been displaced as the main cleaning agent in developed countries. Soap is, by weight, relatively ineffective, and it is hi ghly sensitive to deactivation by hard water. By the 1950s, soap had almost been completely replaced by branched alkylbenzenesulfonates, but these detergents we re found to be poorly biodegradable. Linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LABs), howev er, proved to be both highly effective in cleaning and more biodegradable than t he branched relatives. LABs remain the main detergents used domestically. Other detergents that have been developed include the linear alkylsulfonates and olefi nsulfonates, which also resist deactivation by hard water. Both remain specialty products, for example only an estimated 60 million kilograms of the sodium alky lsulfonates are produced annually.[5] During the early development of non-soap s urfactants as commercial cleaning products, the term syndet, short for synthetic detergent, was promoted to indicate the distinction from so-called natural soap s. [edit] Chemistry of detergents Main article: detergent Many kinds of molecules and ions can serve as high-efficiency surfactants. They are often classified according to the charge of the molecule or ion, the three m

ain classes being anionic, neutral, and cationic detergents. Anionic detergents are most commonly encountered for domestic laundry detergents. Detergents are io ns or molecules that contain both polar and nonpolar components. The polar compo nent allows the detergent to dissolve in the water, whereas the nonpolar portion solubilizes greasy ("hydrophobic") materials that are the usual target of the c leaning process. An estimated 6 billion kilograms of detergents are produced ann ually for domestic markets.[5] Three kinds of anionic detergents: branch alkylbenzenesulfonates, linear alkylbe nzenesulfonates, and a soap. [edit] Components Modern detergent formulations - the entire product vs just the surfactant - cont ain several components. Three main ingredients are builders (50% by weight, appr oximately), the alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactant (15%), and bleaches (7%).[5] [edit] Builders Builders are water softeners. These chemical compounds are agents that remove ca lcium ions by complexation or precipitation. Typical builders are sodium carbona te, complexation agents, soap, and zeolites. They function by sequestering or pr ecipitating the problematic ions. One of the most common builders is sodium trip hosphate, which is used on very large scale for this application. [edit] Bleach Main article: Bleach The main targets of bleaches are of vegetable origin include chlorophyll, anthoc yanin dyes, tannins, humic acids, and carotenoid pigments. Most bleaches in laun dry detergents are oxidizers, e.g., sodium perborate or sodium hypochlorite, In addition, other agents are added as "bleach activators", to enhance the effectiv eness of the bleaching agent; a popular one is tetraacetylethylenediamine. [edit] Enzymes Main article: Biological detergent Many laundry detergents contain enzymes. The amounts of enzyme can be up to abou t 2% by weight of the product. These agents are required to degrade recalcitrant stains composed of proteins, fats, or carbohydrates. Each type of stain require s a different type of enzyme, i.e., protease for proteins, lipases for greases, and amylases for carbohydrates. [edit] Other ingredients Many other ingredients are added depending on the specific application. Such add itives modify the foaming properties of the product by either stabilizing or cou nteracting foam. Other ingredients increase or decrease the viscosity of the sol ution, or solubilize other ingredients. Corrosion inhibitors counteract damage t o washing equipment. "Dye transfer inhibitors" prevent dyes from one article fro m colouring other items. "Antiredeposition agents" are used to prevent fine soil particles from reattaching to the product being cleaned. Carboxymethyl cellulos e is used for this purpose.[5] A number of ingredients affect aesthetic properties of the item to be cleaned or the detergent itself before or during use. These agents include optical brighte ners, fabric softeners, and colourants. A variety of perfumes are also component s of modern detergents, provided that they are compatible with the other compone nts and do not affect the colour of the cleaned item. The perfumes are typically a mixture of many compounds, a popular component being cyclohexyl salicylate, w hich is related to oil of wintergreen.[5] [edit] Environmental concerns Early in the introduction of sulfonate-based detergents, concerns were voiced ov er the low rates of biodegradation of the branched alkylbenzenesulfonates. This problem was addressed by the introduction of linear alkylbenzenesulfonates.[6] A more profound problem arises from the heavy use of sodium triphosphate, which can comprise up to 50% by weight of detergents. The discharge of soluble phospha tes into natural waters has led to problem with eutrophication of lakes and stre ams. The replacement of sodium triphosphate by zeolites offers some relief to th is problem.[5] With respect to the phosphate additives, between 1940 and 1970 "t

he amount of phosphates in city wastewater increased from 20,000 to 150,000 tons per year."[7] With the increase in phosphates, algal blooms grew splendidly on the excess phosphorus and consumed most of the oxygen in the waters, killing fis h and plants.[7] In 2004, the European Union introduced regulations to require biodegradability i n all detergents,[8] and intends to ban phosphates in domestic products from 201 3.[9] Australia began phasing out the use of phosphates in its detergents in 2011, wit h an all-out ban expected to take effect in 2014.[10] Pursuant to findings published in 2006 by the Shenkar College of Engineering and Design indicating that liquid detergents are "much more environment-friendly" t han powdered detergents, Israel's Ministry of the Environment began recommending that consumers prefer liquid detergent over powdered ones "for laundry which is not heavily stained."[11] [edit] References 1. ^ Handbook of Detergents, Part A, Editor-in-chief: Uri Zoller. Volume ed itor: Guy Broze, Marcel Dekker, NY: 1999. isbn 0-8247-1417-2 2. ^ A variety of agents were used in ancient times, and even (putrescent) urine for certain applications as well as saponins and ox bile. von Georgievics, Georg; Charles Thomas Colley Salter (1902) (Google books), The chemical technol ogy of textile fibres, Scott, Greenwood, p. 81, http://books.google.com/?id=OtxB AAAAIAAJ 3. ^ Spriggs, John (July 1975) (pdf), An economical analysis of the develop mente of substitutes with some illustrative examples and implications for the be ef industry, Staff paper series, University of Minnesota, pp. 34–37, http://agecon search.umn.edu/bitstream/123456789/22851/1/p75-14.pdf, retrieved 9 May 2008 4. ^ US 3451935, Roald, Arnvid S. & Nicolaas T. DE. Oude, "Granular enzymecontaining laundry composition", issued 24 June 1969 5. ^ a b c d e f Eduard Smulders, Wolfgang Rybinski, Eric Sung, Wilfried Rähs e, Josef Steber, Frederike Wiebel, Anette Nordskog, "Laundry Detergents" in Ullm ann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/ 14356007.a08_315.pub2 6. ^ Commoner, Barry (1971). The Closing Circle: Nature, Man, and Technolog y. New York, NY: Random House. ISBN 039442350X. 7. ^ a b Outwater, Alice (1996). Water: A Natural History. New York, NY: Ba sic Books. p. 155. ISBN 0-465-03780-1. 8. ^ "Detergents Guidance Document". Health and Safety Executive. http://ww w.detergents.gov.uk/detergents.asp?id=1647. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 9. ^ "Detergents Home Page". Health and Safety Executive. http://www.deterg ents.gov.uk/detergents_home.asp. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 10. ^ Barlass, Tim (12 June 2011). "Detergents to dump phosphates". The Sydn ey Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/environment/detergents-to-dump-phosphat es-20110611-1fxzm.html. Retrieved 15 June 2011. "He is now in discussions with a detergent industry group about retiring the P phosphate symbol once the full ba n starts in 2014." 11. ^ "Reducing Wastewater Salinity from Detergents". Ministry of the Enviro nment (Israel). http://www.sviva.gov.il/Enviroment/Static/Binaries/Articals/Dete rg~1_0.pdf. Retrieved 15 June 2011. A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants having "cleaning propert ies in dilute solutions."[1] In common usage, "detergent" refers to alkylbenzene sulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are less affected by hard water. In most household contexts, the term detergent by itself refers specifically to laundry detergent or dish detergent, as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Detergents are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents work because they are amphiphilic - partly hy drophilic (polar) and partly hydrophobic (non-polar). Their dual nature facilita tes the mixture of hydrophobic compounds (like oil and grease) with water. Becau se air is not hydrophillic, detergents are also foaming agents to varying degree s. Completely non-polar solvents known as degreasers can also remove hydrophobic contaminants, but lacking polar elements may not dissolve in water.

Contents [hide] • 1 Chemical classification of detergents o 1.1 Anionic detergents o 1.2 Cationic detergents o 1.3 Non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents • 2 Major applications of detergents o 2.1 Laundry detergents o 2.2 Fuel additives o 2.3 Soapless soap • 3 See also • 4 References • 5 External links [edit] Chemical classification of detergents Detergents are classified into three broad groupings, depending on the electrica l charge of the surfactants. [edit] Anionic detergents Typical anionic detergents are alkylbenzenesulfonates. The alkylbenzene portion of these anions is lipophilic and the sulfonate is hydrophilic. Two varieties ha ve been popularized, those with branched alkyl groups and those with linear alky l groups. The former were largely phased out in economically advanced societies because they are poorly biodegradable.[2] An estimated 6 billion kilograms of an ionic detergents are produced annually for domestic markets. Bile acids, such as deoxycholic acid (DOC), are anionic detergents produced by t he liver to aid in digestion and absorption of fats and oils. Three kinds of anionic detergents: a branched sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, li near sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and a soap. [edit] Cationic detergents Cationic detergents are similar to the anionic ones, with a hydrophobic componen t, but instead of the anionic sulfonate group, the cationic surfactants have qua ternary ammonium as the polar end. The ammonium center is positively charged.[2] [edit] Non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents Non-ionic detergents are characterized by their uncharged, hydrophilic headgroup s. Typical non-ionic detergents are based on polyoxyethylene or a glycoside. Com mon examples of the former include Tween, Triton, and the Brij series. These mat erials are also known as ethoxylates or PEGylates). Glycosides have a sugar as t heir uncharged hydrophilic headgroup. Examples include octyl-thioglucoside and m altosides. HEGA and MEGA series detergents are similar, possessing a sugar alcoh ol as headgroup. Zwitterionic detergents possess a net zero charge arising from the presence of e qual numbers of +1 and -1 charged chemical groups. Examples include CHAPS. See surfactants for more applications. [edit] Major applications of detergents [edit] Laundry detergents Main article: laundry detergent One of the largest applications of detergents is for cleaning clothing. The form ulations are complex, reflecting the diverse demands of the application and the highly competitive consumer market. In general, laundry detergents contain water softeners, surfactants, bleach, enzymes, brighteners, fragrances, and many othe r agents. The formulation is strongly affected by the temperature of the cleanin g water and varies from country to country. [edit] Fuel additives Both carburetors and fuel injector components of Otto engines benefit from deter gents in the fuels to prevent fouling. Concentrations are about 300 ppm. Typical detergents are long chain amines and amides such as polyisobuteneamine and poly isobuteneamide/succinimide.[3] [edit] Soapless soap

Soapless soap refers to a soap free liquid cleanser with a slightly acidic pH.[4 ] Soapless soaps are used in an array of products. Borax based washing detergent [edit] See also Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate IUPAC name[hide] sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate Other names[hide] dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt, labs Identifiers CAS number [http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=25155-30-0, [68081-81-2 (mixture mainly C10-C16), 6841130-3 (mixture mainly C10-C13) 25155-30-0, [68081-81-2 (mixture mainly C10-C16), 68411- 30-3 (mixture mainly C10-C13)] Properties Molecular formula C18H29NaO3S Molar mass 348.48 g/mol Solubility in water 20% (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard sta te (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate is a series of organic compounds with the formula C12H25C6H4SO3Na. It is a colourless salt with useful properties as a surfactant . It is usually produced as a mixture of related sulfonates. It is a major compo nent of laundry detergent.[1] Contents [hide] • 1 Alkylbenzenesulfonates o 1.1 Production • 2 Environmental considerations • 3 References Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate IUPAC name[hide] sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate Other names[hide] dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt, labs Identifiers CAS number [http://www.commonchemistry.org/ChemicalDetail.aspx?ref=25155-30-0, [68081-81-2 (mixture mainly C10-C16), 6841130-3 (mixture mainly C10-C13) 25155-30-0, [68081-81-2 (mixture mainly C10-C16),

68411- 30-3 (mixture mainly C10-C13)] Properties Molecular formula C18H29NaO3S Molar mass 348.48 g/mol Solubility in water 20% (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard sta te (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate is a series of organic compounds with the formula C12H25C6H4SO3Na. It is a colourless salt with useful properties as a surfactant . It is usually produced as a mixture of related sulfonates. It is a major compo nent of laundry detergent.[1] Contents [hide] • 1 Alkylbenzenesulfonates o 1.1 Production • 2 Environmental considerations • 3 References [edit] Alkylbenzenesulfonates Most sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonates are a member of the linear alkylbenzenesulf onates, meaning that the dodecyl group (C12H25) is unbranched. This dodecyl chai n is attached at the 4-position of the benzenesulfonate group. Linear dodecyl-4benzenesulfonate anions can exist in six isomers (ignoring optical isomers), dep ending on the carbon of the dodecyl group that is attached to the benzene ring. The isomer shown to the right is 4-(5-dodecyl)benzenesulfonate (4 indicating the position of the benzene ring, 5 indicating the position on the dodecane chain). Branched isomers, e.g. those derived from tetramerized propylene, are also know n (see figure to left) but are not as widely used because they biodegrade too sl owly. A branched dodecylbenzenesulfonate, which has been phased out in developed count ries. Further complicating the description of the commercial materials, sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate is but one component of a mixture of compounds that feature var iable alkyl chain lengths aside from C12, mainly ranging from C10-C16. Dodecylbe nzenesulfonate is considered representative of the entire class of compounds, si nce the mean number of alkyl carbon atoms in the alkylbenzenesulfonates is 12. [edit] Production Billions of kilograms are produced annually. Given the large scale of the applic ation, the alkylbenzenesulfonates have been prepared by many methods.[2] In the most common route, benzene is alkylated by long chain monoalkenes (e.g. dodecene ) using hydrogen fluoride as a catalyst. The purified dodecylbenzenes (and relat ed derivatives) are then sulfonated with sulfur trioxide to give the sulfonic ac id. The sulfonic acid is subsequently neutralized with sodium hydroxide.[1] [edit] Environmental considerations The salt has an LD50 of 2.3 mg/liter for fish, about 4x more toxic than the bran ched tetrapropylenebenzenesulfonate. It is however biodegraded more rapidly. Oxi dative degradation initiates at the alkyl chain.[1] A foaming agent is a surfactant, which when present in small amounts, facilitate s the formation of a foam, or enhances its colloidal stability by inhibiting the coalescence of bubbles.[1]

Sodium laureth sulfate, or sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), is a detergent an d surfactant found in many personal care products (soaps, shampoos, toothpastes, etc.). It is an inexpensive and very effective foamer. Sodium lauryl sulfate (a lso known as sodium dodecyl sulfate or SDS) and ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) ar e commonly used alternatives to SLES in consumer products.[2] Also, a foaming agent is a material that will decompose to release a gas under c ertain conditions (typically high temperature), which can be used to turn a liqu id into a foam. For example, powdered titanium hydride is used as a foaming agen t in the production of metal foams, as it decomposes to form titanium and hydrog en gas at elevated temperatures. Zirconium(II) hydride is used for the same purp ose. Sodium dodecyl sulfate From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Sodium lauryl sulfate) Jump to: navigation, search Not to be confused with Sodium laureth sulfate. Sodium lauryl sulfate IUPAC name[hide] Sodium lauryl sulfate Other names[hide] Sodium monododecyl sulfate; Sodium lauryl sulfate; Sodium monolauryl sulfate; So dium dodecanesulfate; dodecyl alcohol, hydrogen sulfate, sodium salt; n-dodecyl sulfate sodium; Sulfuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt; Identifiers CAS number 151-21-3 ChemSpider 8677 DrugBank DB00815 ChEBI CHEBI:8984 ChEMBL CHEMBL23393 ATC code A06AG11 Jmol-3D images Image 1 SMILES [show] • InChI [show] Properties Molecular formula NaC12H25SO4 Molar mass 288.38 g mol−1

Density 1.01 g/cm³ Melting point 206 °C (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard sta te (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or NaDS), sodium laurilsulfate or sodium lauryl sulf ate (SLS) is an organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na). It is an an ionic surfactant used in many cleaning and hygiene products. The salt is of an o rganosulfate consisting of a 12 carbon tail attached to a sulfate group, giving the material the amphiphilic properties required of a detergent. Being derived f rom inexpensive coconut and palm oils, it is a common component of many domestic cleaning products. Contents [hide] • 1 Production • 2 Applications o 2.1 Laboratory applications o 2.2 Niche uses 2.2.1 Biocide 2.2.2 Medicinal applications • 3 Taste alteration • 4 Toxicology o 4.1 Non carcinogenicity o 4.2 Sensitivity o 4.3 Aphthous ulcers • 5 See also • 6 References [edit] Production SDS is synthesized by treating lauryl alcohol with sulfur trioxide gas, or oleum , or chlorosulfuric acid to produce hydrogen lauryl sulfate. The industrially pr acticed method typically uses sulfur trioxide gas. The resulting product is then neutralized through the addition of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. Laury l alcohol is in turn usually derived from either coconut or palm kernel oil by h ydrolysis, which liberates their fatty acids, followed by hydrogenation. Due to this synthesis method, commercially samples of SDS are often a mixture of other alkyl sulfates, dodecyl sulfate being the main component.[1] [edit] Applications SDS is mainly used in detergents for laundry and many cleaning applications.[2] SDS is a highly effective surfactant and is used in any task requiring the remov al of oily stains and residues. For example, it is found in higher concentration s with industrial products including engine degreasers, floor cleaners, and car wash soaps. It is found in toothpastes, shampoos, shaving foams, and bubble bath formulations in part for its thickening effect and its ability to create a lath er.[3] [edit] Laboratory applications Bottle of solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate for use in the laboratory. It can be used to aid in lysing cells during DNA extraction and for unraveling p roteins in SDS PAGE. Sodium lauryl sulfate, in science referred to as sodium dod ecyl sulfate (SDS) or Duponol, is commonly used in preparing proteins for electr ophoresis in the SDS PAGE technique.[4] This compound works by disrupting non co valent bonds in the proteins, denaturing them, and causing the molecules to lose their native shape (conformation).

 

 

 

 

 

This new negative charge is significantly greater than the original charge of th at protein. The electrostatic repulsion that is created by binding of SDS causes proteins to unfold into a rod like shape thereby eliminating differences in sha pe as a factor for separation in the gel. Sodium lauryl sulfate is probably the most researched anionic surfactant compound. Like all detergent surfactants (inc luding soaps), sodium lauryl sulfate removes oils from the skin, and can cause s kin and eye irritation. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) in pure water a t 25°C is 0.0082 M,[5] and the aggregation number at this concentration is usually considered to be about 62.[6] The micelle ionization fraction (α) is round 0.3 ( or 30%).[7] Aqueous solutions of SDS re lso popul r for dispersing (or suspend ing) n notubes. [edit] Niche uses [edit] Biocide SDS represent potenti lly effective topic l microbicide, which c n lso inhibi t nd possibly prevent infection by v rious enveloped nd non-enveloped viruses such s the Herpes simplex viruses, HIV, nd the Semliki Forest Virus.[8][9] [edit] Medicin l pplic tions In medicine, sodium l uryl sulf te is used rect lly s l x tive in enem s, nd s n excipient on some dissolv ble spirins nd other fiber ther py c plets. [edit] T ste lter tion Sodium l uryl sulf te diminishes perception of sweetness,[10] n effect commonly observed fter recent use of toothp ste cont ining this ingredient.[11] [edit] Toxicology [edit] Non-c rcinogenicity SDS is not c rcinogenic when either pplied directly to skin or consumed.[12] A review of the scientific liter ture st ted "SLS [SDS] w s neg tive in n Ames (b cteri l mut tion) test, gene mut tion nd sister chrom tid exch nge test in m mm li n cells, s well s in n in vivo micronucleus ss y in mice. The neg tiv e results from in vitro nd in vivo studies indic te SDS does not inter ct with DNA."[13] [edit] Sensitivity It h s been shown to irrit te the skin of the f ce with prolonged nd const nt e xposure (more th n n hour) in young dults.[14] SDS m y worsen skin problems in individu ls with chronic skin hypersensitivity, with some people being ffected more th n others.[15][16][17] In nim l studies SDS ppe rs to c use skin nd e ye irrit tion.[13] [edit] Aphthous ulcers A prelimin ry study suggested SDS in toothp ste c used the recurrence of phthou s ulcers, commonly referred to in some countries s c nker sores or white sores. [18] The prelimin ry study "showed st tistic lly signific nt decre se in the n umber of phthous ulcers from 14.3 fter using the SLS-cont ining dentifrice to 5.1 ulcers fter brushing with the SLS-free dentifrice."[18] A clinic l study co mp ring the incidence of recurrent phthous ulcers during the use of dentifrices with nd without sodium l uryl sulf te supported the findings of n e rlier ind ependent study which suggest th t use of n SLS-free dentifrice should be consid ered for individu ls who suffer from recurrent phthous ulcers.[19] A clinic l d ouble-blind crossover study found sodium l uryl sulf te h d signific ntly high er frequency of phthous ulcers th n both coco midopropyl bet ine or detergent -free p ste, on 30 p tients with frequent occurrences of recurrent phthous ulce rs.[20] The clinic l double-blind crossover study suggests use of n SLS-free to othp ste for p tients with recurrent phthous ulcers would reduce recurrence.[20 ] A double-blind crossover tri l comp ring toothp stes with nd without SLS foun d th t it h d no signific nt effect on ulcer p tterns.[21] Other studies indic t e concerns for bout SLS in toothp ste.[22] [edit] See lso • Ammonium l uryl sulf te • Sodium myreth sulf te [edit] References 1. ^ Europe n Ph rm copoei : Sodium l urilsulf te

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2. ^ Edu rd Smulders, Wolfg ng Rybinski, Eric Sung, Wilfried Rähse, Josef Ste ber, Frederike Wiebel, Anette Nordskog, "L undry Detergents" in Ullm nn’s Encyclop edi of Industri l Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007. 08 _315.pub2 3. ^ Household Products D t b se of products cont ining sodium l uryl sulf te 4. ^ The cronym exp nds to "sodium dodecyl sulf te-poly cryl mide gel elec trophoresis. 5. ^ P. Mukerjee nd K. J. Mysels, "Critic l Micelle Concentr tion of Aqueo us Surf ct nt Systems", NSRDS-NBS 36, US. Government Printing Office, W shington ,.D.C., 197 1. 6. ^ N.J. Turro. A. Yekt , J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 5951 7. ^ B rney L. B les, Luis Messin , Arwen Vid l, Mirosl v Peric, nd Ot cir o R ngel N scimento (1998). "Precision Rel tive Aggreg tion Number Determin tion s of SDS Micelles Using Spin Probe. A Model of Micelle Surf ce Hydr tion". J. Phys. Chem. B 102 (50): 10347–10358. doi:10.1021/jp983364 . 8. ^ Piret J, Désorme ux A, Bergeron MG. (2002). "Sodium l uryl sulf te, mi crobicide effective g inst enveloped nd nonenveloped viruses.". Curr Drug T rg ets 3 (1): 17–30. doi:10.2174/1389450023348037. PMID 11899262. 9. ^ Piret J, L mont gne J, Bestm n-Smith J, Roy S, Gourde P, Désorme ux A, O m r RF, Juhász J, Bergeron MG. (2000). "In vitro nd in vivo ev lu tions of sodium l uryl sulf te nd dextr n sulf te s microbicides g inst herpes simplex nd h um n immunodeficiency viruses.". J Clin Microbiol 38 (1): 110–9. PMC 86033. PMID 1 0618073. http://www.pubmedcentr l.nih.gov/ rticlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez& rti d=86033. 10. ^ Ad ms, Mich el J. Ch r cteriz tion nd Me surement of Fl vor Compounds : Subst nces Th t Modify the Perception of Sweetness. ACS Public tions, 1985, p. 11-25. Abstr ct online t http://pubs. cs.org/doi/ bs/10.1021/bk-1985-0289.ch002 11. ^ Cl rk, Josh. "Why does or nge juice t ste b d fter you brush your tee th?" Discovery He lth. http://he lth.howstuffworks.com/wellness/be uty-hygiene/o r nge-juice-toothp ste.htm 12. ^ CIR public tion (1983). "Fin l Report on the S fety Assessment of Sodi um L uryl Sulf te nd Ammonium L uryl Sulf te". Intern tion l Journ l of Toxicol ogy 2 (7): 127–181. doi:10.3109/10915818309142005.. 13. ^ b NICNAS - Sodium L uryl Sulf te 14. ^ M rr kchi S, M ib ch HI (2006). "Sodium l uryl sulf te-induced irrit t ion in the hum n f ce: region l nd ge-rel ted differences". Skin Ph rm col Phy siol 19 (3): 177–80. doi:10.1159/000093112. PMID 16679819. 15. ^ Agner T (1991). "Susceptibility of topic derm titis p tients to irrit nt derm titis c used by sodium l uryl sulph te". Act Derm. Venereol. 71 (4): 2 96–300. PMID 1681644. 16. ^ N ssif A, Ch n SC, Storrs FJ, H nifin JM (November 1994). "Abnorm l sk in irrit ncy in topic derm titis nd in topy without derm titis". Arch Derm to l 130 (11): 1402–7. doi:10.1001/ rchderm.130.11.1402. PMID 7979441. 17. ^ Löffler H, Effendy I (M y 1999). "Skin susceptibility of topic individu ls". Cont ct Derm. 40 (5): 239–42. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1999.tb06056.x. PMID 1 0344477. 18. ^ b Herlofson BB, B rkvoll P (October 1994). "Sodium l uryl sulf te n d recurrent phthous ulcers. A prelimin ry study". Act Odontol. Sc nd. 52 (5): 257–9. doi:10.3109/00016359409029036. PMID 7825393. 19. ^ Ch hine L, Sempson N, W goner C (December 1997). "The effect of sodium l uryl sulf te on recurrent phthous ulcers: clinic l study". Compend Contin Educ Dent 18 (12): 1238–40. PMID 9656847. 20. ^ b Herlofson BB, B rkvoll P (June 1996). "The effect of two toothp st e detergents on the frequency of recurrent phthous ulcers". Act Odontol. Sc nd . 54 (3): 150–3. doi:10.3109/00016359609003515. PMID 8811135. 21. ^ He ly CM, P terson M, Joyston-Bech l S, Willi ms DM, Thornhill MH (199 9 J n). "The effect of sodium l uryl sulf te-free dentifrice on p tients with recurrent or l ulcer tion". Or l Dis. 5 (1): 39–43. doi:10.1111/j.1601-0825.1999.t b00062.x. PMID 10218040.

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22. ^ Should toothp stes fo m? Sodium l uryl sulf te-in focus. Ammonium l uryl sulf te From Wikipedi , the free encyclopedi Jump to: n vig tion, se rch Ammonium l uryl sulf te IUPAC n me[hide] Ammonium dodecyl sulf te Other n mes[hide] • Sulfuric cid, monododecyl ester, mmonium s lt • Ammonium dodecyl sulf te Identifiers CAS number 2235-54-3 PubChem 16700 ChemSpider 15835 UNII Q7AO2R1M0B Jmol-3D im ges Im ge 1 SMILES [show] • InChI [show] Properties Molecul r formul C12H29NO4S Mol r m ss 283.43 g/mol (wh t is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, d t te ( t 25 °C, 100 kP ) Infobox references

toothp ste detergent

re given for m teri ls in their st nd rd st

Ammonium l uryl sulf te (ALS) is the common n me for mmonium dodecyl sulf te (C H3(CH2)10CH2OSO3NH4). The dodecyl signifies the presence of 12-member c rbon c h in in the molecul r b ckbone which llows the molecule to bond with non-pol r portions of molecules while the highly pol r sulf te he d llows the molecule to bond with pol r molecules such s w ter. ALS is cl ssified s n lkyl sulf te nd is n nionic surf ct nt found prim rily in sh mpoos nd body-w sh s fo m ing gent.[1] L uryl sulf tes re very high-fo m surf ct nts th t disrupt the su rf ce tension of w ter by forming micelles round the pol r w ter molecules. Contents [hide] • 1 Action in solution • 2 S fety

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[edit] Action in solution Ammonium l uryl sulf te, like ny other surf ct nt, m kes good b se for cle ns ers bec use of the w y it disrupts the hydrogen bonding in w ter. Hydrogen bondi ng is the prim ry contributor to the high surf ce tension of w ter. In solution, the l uryl sulf te nions nd the mmonium c tions sep r te. The former lign t hemselves into wh t is known s micelle, in which the ions form sphere, with the pol r he ds (the sulf te) on the surf ce of the sphere nd the nonpol r hyd rophobic t ils pointing inw rds tow rds the center. The w ter molecules round t he micelle rr nge themselves round the pol r he ds, but this disrupts their hy drogen bonding with the w ter surrounding them. The over ll effect of h ving the se micelles in n queous (w ter) environment is th t the w ter becomes more bl e to penetr te things like cloth fibers or h ir, nd lso becomes more re dily v il ble to dissolve nything coming off the substr te. [edit] S fety In high concentr tions this molecule m y c use severe irrit tion to eyes nd ski n. Inh l tion m y c use irrit tion to the respir tory system. Ingestion m y c us e irrit tion.[2] In 1983 report by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review, sh mpoos cont ining up to 31 % ALS registered 6 he lth compl ints out of 6.8 million units sold. These compl ints included two of sc lp itch, two llergic re ctions, one h ir d m ge nd one compl int of eye irrit tion.[3][4] The CIR report concluded th t both sodium nd mmonium l uryl sulf te “ ppe r to b e s fe in formul tions designed for discontinuous, brief use followed by thoroug h rinsing from the surf ce of the skin. In products intended for prolonged use, concentr tions should not exceed 1%.” The Hum n nd Environment l Risk Assessment (HERA) project performed thorough investig tion of ll lkyl sulf tes, s such the results they found pply direct ly to ALS. Most lkyl sulf tes exhibit low cute or l toxicity, no toxicity thro ugh exposure to the skin, concentr tion dependent skin irrit tion, nd concentr tion dependent eye-irrit tion. They do not sensitize the skin nd did not ppe r to be c rcinogenic in two ye r study on r ts. The report found th t longer c rbon ch ins (16-18) were less irrit ting to the skin th n ch ins of 12-15 c rbon s in length. In ddition, concentr tions below 1% were essenti lly non-irrit tin g while concentr tions gre ter th n 10% produced moder te to strong irrit tion o f the skin.[5] [edit] Occup tion l exposure The CDC h s reported on occup tions which were routinely exposed to ALS between 1981 nd 1983. During this time, the occup tion with the highest number of worke rs exposed w s registered nurses, followed closely by funer l directors.[6] [edit] Environment The HERA project lso conducted n environment l review of lkyl sulf tes th t f ound ll lkyl sulf tes re re dily biodegr d ble nd st nd rd w stew ter tre tm ent oper tions removed 96-99.96% of short-ch in (12-14 c rbons) lkyl sulf tes. Even in n erobic conditions t le st 80% of the origin l volume is biodegr ded fter 15 d ys with 90% degr d tion fter 4 weeks.[7] [edit] See lso • Sodium l uryl sulf te • Sodium l ureth sulf te [edit] References 1. ^ "Household Products D t b se – Ammonium L uryl Sulf te". http://househol dproducts.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/household/br nds?tbl=chem&id=5&query=Ammonium+L ur yl+Sulf te. Retrieved 2007-01-25. 2. ^ "MSDS for mmonium l uryl sulf te". Archived from the origin l on 2006 -12-07. http://web. rchive.org/web/20061207111343/http://www.chemistrystore.com/ Chemic lMSDS/Ammonium+L uryl+Sulf te.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-25.

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• • • •

3 4 5 6

Occup tion l exposure Environment See lso References

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3. ^ "Chemic l Inform tion Sheet – Ammonium L uryl Sulf te" (pdf). http://www .nicn s.gov. u/Public tions/Inform tion_Sheets/Existing_Chemic l_Inform tion_She ets/ECIS_ALS_PDF.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-25. 4. ^ "Fin l Report on the S fety Assessment of Sodium L uryl Sulf te nd Am monium L uryl Sulf te". JACT, CIR public tion 2 (7): pp. 127–81. 1983. 5. ^ "Hum n nd Environement l Risk Assessment – He lth Risks of Alkyl Sulf t es" (PDF). http://www.her project.com/files/3-HH-04-%20HERA%20AS%20HH%20web%20wd .pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-25. 6. ^ "N tion l Exposure Survey (1981-1983)". http://www.cdc.gov/noes/noes4/ m2632sco.html. Retrieved 2007-01-25. 7. ^ "Hum n nd Environment l Risk Assessment for Alkyl Sulph tes" (PDF). h ttp://www.her project.com/files/3-E-04-HERA%20AS%20Env%20web%20wd.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-25. Hindust n Unilever From Wikipedi , the free encyclopedi Jump to: n vig tion, se rch This rticle needs ddition l cit tions for verific tion. Ple se help im prove this rticle by dding cit tions to reli ble sources. Unsourced m teri l m y be ch llenged nd removed. (September 2010) Hindust n Unilever Ltd Type Public comp ny BSE: 500696 Industry Founded 1933 He dqu rters Key people ctor) F st Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Mumb i, Indi

H rish M nw ni (Ch irm n), Nitin P r njpe (CEO nd M n ging Dire

Products Home & Person l C re, Food & Bever ges Revenue 19,987.14 crore (US$4.46 billion) (2010-2011) [1] Net income 2,305.97 crore (US$514.23 million) Employees Over 65,000 direct & indirect employees P rent Unilever Plc (52%) Website www.hul.co.in Hindust n Unilever Limited (HUL) (BSE: 500696) is Indi s l rgest f st moving co nsumer goods comp ny owned by the Europe n comp ny Unilever. The Anglo-Dutch com p ny Unilever owns 52% m jority st ke. HUL w s formed in 1933 s Lever Brothers Indi Limited nd c me into being in 19 56 s Hindust n Lever Limited through merger of Lever Brothers, Hindust n V n sp ti Mfg. Co. Ltd. nd United Tr ders Ltd. It is he dqu rtered in Mumb i, Indi nd h s n employee strength of over 15,000 employees nd contributes to indire ct employment of over 52,000 people. The comp ny w s ren med in June 2007 s “Hind ust n Unilever Limited”. Hindust n Unilever s distribution covers over 1 million ret il outlets cross In di directly nd its products re v il ble in over 6.3 million outlets in the c ountry, ne rly 80% of ll ret il outlets in Indi . The comp ny cl ims th t two o ut of three Indi ns use its m ny home nd person l c re products, food nd bever ges.[2] Contents

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1 Br nds 2 Le dership 3 Other w rds 4 Rese rch f cilities 5 Community services 6 Direct Selling Division 7 Controversy 7.1 Mercury pollution 7.2 Skin lightening cre ms 7.3 Triclos n 8 See lso 9 Notes 10 Extern l links

Br nds Wheel Detergent d in rur l Nep l re . HUL is the m rket le der in Indi n consumer products with presence in over 20 co nsumer c tegories such s so ps, te , detergents nd sh mpoos mongst others wit h over 700 million Indi n consumers using its products. Sixteen of HUL’s br nds fe tured in the ACNielsen Br nd Equity list of 100 Most Trusted Br nds Annu l Surv ey (2008).[3] According to Br nd Equity, HUL h s the l rgest number of br nds in the Most Trusted Br nds List. It h s consistently h d the l rgest number of br nds in the Top 50, nd in the Top 10 (with 4 br nds). The comp ny h s distribution ch nnel of 6.3 million outlets nd owns 35 m jor Indi n br nds.[4] Its br nds include Kw lity W ll s ice cre m, Knorr soups & me l m kers, Lifebuoy, Lux, Pe rs, Breeze, Liril, Rexon , H m m nd Moti so ps, Pur eit w ter purifier, Lipton te , Brooke Bond (3 Roses, T j M h l, T z , Red L be l) te , Bru coffee, Pepsodent nd Close Up toothp ste nd brushes, nd Surf, Rin nd Wheel l undry detergents, Kiss n squ shes nd j ms, Ann purn s lt nd tt , Pond s t lcs nd cre ms, V seline lotions, F ir nd Lovely cre ms, L kmé be uty products, Cle r, Clinic Plus, Clinic All Cle r, Sunsilk nd Dove sh mpoos, Vim d ishw sh, Al ble ch, Domex disinfect nt, Modern Bre d, Axe deospr ys nd Comfort f bric softeners. Le dership HUL h s produced m ny business le ders for corpor te Indi ; one of these, H rish M nw ni,[5] h s become member of Unilever s Executive (UEx). HUL s le dership-building potenti l w s recognized when it w s r nked 4th in the Hewitt Glob l Le dership Survey 2007 with only GE, P&G nd Noki r nking he d of HUL in the bility to produce le ders with such regul rity.[6][7][8] Other w rds HUL is one of the country s l rgest exporters; it h s been recognised s Golde n Super St r Tr ding House by the Government of Indi .[2] In 2007, Hindust n Unilever w s r ted s the most respected comp ny in Indi for the p st 25 ye rs by Businessworld, one of Indi ’s le ding business m g zines.[9] The r ting w s b sed on compil tion of the m g zine s nnu l survey of Indi ’s most reputed comp nies over the p st 25 ye rs. HUL w s one of the eight Indi n comp nies to be fe tured on the Forbes list of W orld’s Most Reputed comp nies in 2007.[10] HUL is the most innov tive comp ny in Indi by Forbes list nd 6th in the top 10 list of most innov tive comp nies in the world. [11] HUL w s r nked 39th in The Br nd Trust Report (2011) published by Trust Rese rch Advisory. F ir nd Lovely cre ms lso w s listed in the s me report. Rese rch f cilities The Hindust n Unilever Rese rch Centre (HURC) w s set up in 1967 in Mumb i, nd Unilever Rese rch Indi in B ng lore in 1997. St ff t these centres developed m ny innov tions in products nd m nuf cturing processes. In 2006, the comp ny s rese rch f cilities were brought together t single site in B ng lore.[12]

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[hide] • • • • • • • o o o • • •

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Community services HUL lso renders services to the community, focusing on he lth & hygiene educ ti on, empowerment of women, nd w ter m n gement. It is lso involved in educ tion nd reh bilit tion of underprivileged children, c re for the destitute nd HIVpositive, nd rur l development. HUL h s lso responded to n tion l c l mities, for inst nce with relief nd reh bilit tion fter the 2004 tsun mi c used dev st tion in South Indi .[2] Project Sh kti - A Soci l Initi tive[13] In 2001, the comp ny emb rked on progr mme c lled Sh kti, through which it cre tes micro-enterprises for rur l women. The m jor objective of this initi ve s whole rem ins to cre te livelihood opportunities for underprivileged rur l wom en. The progr mme is bro dly divided into three components: • Sh kti V ni Progr mme This model recruites vill ge women s s les persons c lled sh kti mm nd tr in s them to communic te nd sell HUL products in vill ges. The ide is to be ble to re ch those vill ges which do not h ve good ro d connectivity nd where the p enetr tion of medi is lso poor. Sh kti V ni lso includes w reness progr mmes on he lth nd hygiene, educ tion, etc.Sh kti V ni now covers 15 st tes in Indi with over 45,000 women entrepreneurs in 135,000 vill ges. • Sh kti Entrepreneur • ISh kti Direct Selling Division HUL lso runs Hindust n Unilever Network (HULN), direct selling business rm. Under HULN, he lth products re m rketed by Ayush Ther py in coll bor tion with Ary V idy Ph rm cy, Coimb tore; be uty products by Avi nce; home products by L ever Home; nd m le grooming by D.I.Y. There re lso premium products for be ut y s lons nd others. Controversy Mercury pollution In 2001 thermometer f ctory in Kod ik n l run by Hindust n Unilever w s ccuse d of dumping gl ss cont min ted with mercury in municip l dumps, or selling it o n to scr p merch nts un ble to de l with it ppropri tely.[14][15][16] Skin lightening cre ms Hindust n Unilever s "F ir nd Lovely" is the le ding skin-lightening cre m for women in Indi .[17] The comp ny w s forced to withdr w television dvertisements for the product in 2007. Advertisements depicted depressed, d rk-complexioned w omen, who h d been ignored by employers nd men, suddenly finding new boyfriends nd gl morous c reers fter the cre m h d lightened their skin.[18] In 2008 Hin dust n Unilever m de former Miss World Priy nk Chopr br nd mb ss dor for Po nd s,[19] nd she then ppe red in mini-series of television commerci ls for nother skin lightening product, White Be uty, longside S if Ali Kh n nd Neh D hupi ; these dvertisements were widely criticized for perpetu ting r cism.[20] Triclos n Sever l c demic p pers h ve pointed out the firm s continued use of the ntib c teri l gent Triclos n ( Active B ) in Indi bec use it is under review by the A meric n Food nd Drug Administr tion (FDA).[21]

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