GESTALT

Principles of Perceptual Organization

The Gestalt Theory: 1. The parts of a visual image may be considered, analyzed, and evaluated as distinct components. 2. The whole of a visual image is greater than the sum of its parts. Gestalt theory can be broken down into five principles: Proximity Similarity Continuance Closure Figure / Ground

proximity

objects or shapes that are close to one another appear to form groups

proximity

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Even if the shapes, sizes, and objects are radically different, they will appear as a group if they are close together

proximity

Even if the shapes, sizes, and objects are radically different, they will appear as a group if they are close together

proximity

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How the objects are grouped is very important

proximity
Proximity and grouping: The way we group letters words, sentences and paragraphs takes advantage of gestalt principles. Especially proximity and grouping. Proximity and grouping: The way we group letters words, sentences and paragraphs takes advantage of gestalt principles. Especially proximity and grouping.
How the objects are grouped is very important

similarity

objects that appear to be similar will be grouped in the viewer’s mind.

similarity

objects that appear to be similar will be grouped in the viewer’s mind.

similarity

sometimes there are multiple levels of grouping based on similarity. When there are groups within a group a hierarchy can occur.

similarity

sometimes there are multiple levels of grouping based on similarity. When there are groups within a group a hierarchy can occur.

similarity

sometimes there are multiple levels of grouping based on similarity. When there are groups within a group a hierarchy can occur.

continuance

Proximity and similarity can lead to the perception of continuation. Sensations are grouped into directional forms when the receiver reads motion implied by position.

continuance

A viewer is more likely to follow the direction of an established pattern than deviate from it

continuance

A viewer is more likely to follow the direction of an established pattern than deviate from it

continuance

A viewer is more likely to follow the direction of an established pattern than deviate from it

continuance

A viewer is more likely to follow the direction of an established pattern than deviate from it

closure

The mind seeks completion. Sensations are grouped into a complete visual form through the principles of similarity, proximity, and continuance.

closure

Why do we assume that the shapes under the triangle look like this?

closure

and not this? We seek the most predictable, stable solution often based on experience.

closure

The sense of what this objects is comes from the expectation of closure. It is supported here by good continuation.

closure

As with all gestalt effects, closure may be supported by knowledge of the world (the experience-based aspect of perception).

closure

The dress is perfectly apparent despite the fact that the shape is broken in so many places. It has an illusory contour.

closure

What is this?

closure

How about this?

closure

this?

closure

you must know by now!

closure

It is not difficult to tell what this is, despite the low resolution. But how much distortion makes it impossible to acheive closure?

closure

closure

closure

figure ground

Small shapes placed within a large one are more likely to appear on top rather than as a hole.

It is more likely that you’ll see the smaller black wedges as figures.

Size and placement alter the perception of figure ground.

figure ground

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Surroundedness. Areas which seem to be surrounded by others tend to be perceived more easily as figures.

figure ground

When figure ground cues or contrasts are evenly balanced it can lead to visual ambiguity (figure ground interchange). We can actually SWITCH from one interpretation to another, but only one at a time.

what is good gestalt?
When we first experience something, the perceptual field is disorganized. We impose order upon it. Good gestalt happens when a stimuli is perceived as stable, simple and predictable. What factors are manipulated to make something stable, simple and predictable? Proximity Similarity Continuance Closure Figure / Ground

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