‫ْ م ِم ء َ ة ط ِ ْ ِية‬ ِ ّ ‫أَحكَا ُ د َا ِ الْمرْأَ ِ ال ّبيع‬

islamic rules ON

MENSTRUATI ON AND POST-NATAL BLEEDING
by DR. ABU AMEENAH BILAL PHILIPS

Edited by Riaz Ansary
DAR AL FATAH PUBLICATIONS

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Copyright 1995 Dar Al Fatah

All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise—without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed in the United Arab Emirates Dar Al Fatah Printing, Publishing & Distribution Co. Llc. P.O.Box 23424, Sharjah Tel: (9716) 322308 / Fax: 322526 International Standard Book Number ( ISBN ): 9960-672-87-7

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Transliteration Legend Foreword CHAPTER ONE: The Evidence Hayd and Nifaas Istihaadah CHAPTER TWO: Aal ‘Uthaymeen’s Rulings Rulings on Purity and Prayer Rulings on Ramadaan Rulings on Hajj and ‘Umrah Rulings on Divorce CHAPTER THREE: Tahaarah I. Wudoo’ II. Ghusl III. Tayammum Hadeeth Index Bibliography 4 5

11 33

45 62 77 88

91 120 128 130 141

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TRANSLITERATION
Consonants

Á È Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ

’ b t th j h kh d th r z s sh s

Ö Ø Ù Ú Û Ý Þ ß á ã ä å æ í

d t th ‘ gh f q k l m n h w y

Vowels

ó õ ö

a u i

óÇ õæ öí

aa oo ee

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FOREWORD

I

t has been my intention, for some time now, to prepare a work concerning the Islamic rules on menstruation and post-natal bleeding for women, because I found questions on this subject constantly arising at the end of my lectures in different parts of the English speaking world. The many questions raised by Muslim women indicate that existing literature in English does not sufficiently address the related issues. Until very recently, there were no books dedicated solely to issues of feminine hygiene. This void is a direct result of the virtual absence of female scholars of Islamic law in the Muslim world today. There are certain basic rules governing female bleeding which are clearly defined by the Sunnah and the judicial explanations given by the Prophet’s wives and his companions. Compilations of these laws and rulings in English may be found in hadeeth compilations like Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Mishkat ul-Masabih, etc., as well as in good Fiqh books like Fiqh us-Sunnah by Shaykh Sayyid Saabiq, which does not restrict itself to the juristic opinions of a single school of Islamic
1 2 4

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The sayings, acts and approvals of Prophet Muhammad (ρ ) which have legal force. 2 Narrations containing the statements and actions of the Prophet (ρ ). 3 Applied Islamic law. 4 The Arabic original is in three volumes and the English translation by Jamal Zarabozo and Said Dabbas is to be in twelve volumes, five of which have been published to date by American Trust Publications in the USA and the International Islamic Publishing House in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
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legal thought. However, after reviewing Fiqh us-Sunnah, I realized that there were a number of hadeeth texts not included in the author’s presentation. Consequently, I decided to make a comprehensive compilation of the hadeeths related to female bleeding, thereby providing the reader with sufficient basic data to understand the basic rules regarding this subject. However, there are a number of issues related to female bleeding that are not covered in the basic texts. The deduction of laws concerning these issues and others not ruled upon by the earlier generations of scholars can only be made by those who have a thorough knowledge of the Sharee‘ah, its guiding principles and its goals. Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih Aal ‘Uthaymeen is well known in the Muslim world today as one of the leading scholars of Islamic Law. A number of his rulings have been compiled and published in Saudi Arabia over the past few years, among them a couple of booklets on female bleeding. Daarul-Birr Society in Dubai, with whom I am presently working, asked me to review a translation of a collection of Shaykh Aal ‘Uthaymeen’s rulings on female bleeding entitled Ithnaani wa Khamsoona Su’aalan ‘an Ahkaam ilHayd. This forty-nine page booklet is quite popular in the Arab world due to its concise coverage of the major problematic issues
5 6 7 8 9

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The Reliance of the Traveller is a recent English translation of Ahmad Naqeeb al-Misri’s legal compendium, ‘Umdat us-Saalik, which is according to the Shaafi‘ee school of law, and al-Hedaya is an old English translation of the major compilation of legal rulings based on the Hanafee school of law. 6 Vol. 1, pp. 69-74. 7 For example, the hadeeths concerning the penalty for engaging in sexual intercourse during menses, or taking a ghusl for each prayer in the case of prolonged blood-flow ( istihaadah ), etc. 8 Islamic law as revealed in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah. 9 Fifty-Two Questions on the Laws Concerning Menstruation.

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related to female hygiene and Islamic law. Unfortunately, I found the translation inadequate and unsuitable for publication. Consequently, I was obliged to undertake the project of retranslating the booklet. Upon completion of my retranslation of Shaykh Aal ‘Uthaymeen's “Fifty-two Questions” booklet, I realized that most of the hadeeths referred to by the author, directly or indirectly, were not quoted in their entirety and that there was a wealth of material not mentioned at all. It has always been my position that Muslims should be encouraged to gain their basic understanding of the religion from the Qur’aan and hadeeths, wherever possible. Consequently, I decided to provide the reader with a more comprehensive text by compiling and explaining the basic evidence for the rulings on female bleeding as the first chapter of my own book and to add the Shaykh’s rulings as its second chapter. In the course of my preparation of the Shaykh’s booklet for the second chapter of my book, I decided to make certain changes in order to make the material more readable and interesting. Primarily, I deleted repeated questions and answers. Although the compiler of the Arabic booklet stated that some questions and answers were repeated because there were subtle differences in both the questions and the Shaykh's answers which warranted their repetition, I chose not to repeat them but to combine them into a single question wherever possible. Consequently, the number of questions and answers dropped by eight, from the original fifty-two to forty-four. Some of the questions and answers have been rearranged to provide a more logical flow of ideas. Furthermore, wherever Shaykh Aal ‘Uthaymeen mentioned opinions of other scholars or schools of Islamic law which he considered inaccurate or weak, I relegated them to the footnotes, so as not to confuse the reader who has no academic background in Islamic law. It should also be noted that,

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where necessary, the wording in both the questions and the answers have been modified in their translation for clarity, because literal translations are often very misleading. In the second chapter of this work I have sought to present in English the essence of the Arabic original, and I pray that I have succeeded in doing so. Fifteen questions and answers from a recently published collection of Islamic rulings on women’s issues, Fataawaa al-Mar’ah, were also added to Chapter Two in order to widen the scope of this work and increase its benefit. Footnotes indicating the name of the scholar who made the ruling and the source (i.e. Fataawaa al-Mar’ah) were also added to distinguish between the rulings from Shaykh Ibn Aal ‘Uthaymeen’s booklet and those from Fataawaa al-Mar’ah. This book was also given to two Muslim female gynecologists and a number of Muslim women from different parts of the world for review and comment. Their suggestions and relevant information from medical texts have been included in the footnotes. I have referenced all of the hadeeths and Qur’aanic verses mentioned in the text, and the location of hadeeths in existing English translations were also added for the convenience of English readers. Furthermore, all of the hadeeths not found in the authentic collections of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim were checked for authenticity according to the monumental work of Shaykh NaasirudDeen al-Albaanee on the Sunan and other works. Since there are a number of references in the hadeeths and the Shaykh’s booklet to wudoo’ and ghusl, I thought it appropriate to mention some of the authentic narrations describing these methods of ritual purification as a third chapter to the book. This chapter is of particular importance to Muslim women due to the widespread ignorance among them today regarding some of the most basic religious matters.

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In closing, I ask Allaah to reward all who have contributed in putting this booklet in the hands of English readers, especially my wife, Sakeenah, who did the English editing, my typist, Raja Muhammad, and my department researcher, ‘Abdul-Majeed ‘Alee Hasan, who helped in the referencing of hadeeths. I ask Allaah to accept our sincere efforts to serve the religion of Islaam. Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips U.A.E. 7th July 1994

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CHAPTER ONE: The Evidence
HAYD, NIFAAS AND ISTIHAADAH

T

he Arabic term hayd literally means “flowing.” However, according to Islamic law it refers to the regular flow of blood from the vagina of a healthy woman that is not a result of childbirth or the breaking of the hymen. Thus, the term hayd corresponds to the English term “menstruation” or “menses”. Women should not feel sad or inconvenienced because of the restrictions and difficulties associated with menses, because Allaah destined it for them as a part of the trials of this life. {ÇáóÐì ÎóáóÞó ÇáãóæúÊó æÇáúÍóíóæÉó áöíÈúáõæóßõãú Ãóíøõßõãú ÃóÍúÓóäõ ÚóãóáÇð æåõæó ÇáúÚÒöíÒõ ÇáúÛóÝõæÑõ} “It is He who created death and life to determine by tests which one of you is the best in deeds, and He is the Almighty, the Forgiving.” Soorah al-Mulk (67):2 Allaah made menses an essential part of the life-giving process by which the female body is prepared for accepting and nurturing the fertilized human egg. Consequently, the Prophet (ρ ) emphasized to Muslim women that the trials of menses were a part of the divine destiny which every Muslim must believe in and accept as a pillar of faith. ‘Aa’ishah said, ÎóÑóÌúäóÇ áÇó äóÑóì ÅöáÇøó ÇáúÍóÌøó ÝóáóãøóÇ ßõäøóÇ ÈöÓóÑöÝó ÍöÖúÊõ ÝóÏóÎóáó Úóáóíøó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ ) æóÃóäóÇ ÃóÈúßöí. ÞóÇáó ((ãóÇ áóßö ¿ ÃóäõÝöÓúÊö ¿)) ÞõáúÊõ :äóÚóãú . ÞóÇáó (( Åöäøó åóÐóÇ ((. ÃóãúÑñ ßóÊóÈóåõ Çááøóåõ Úóáóì ÈóäóÇÊö ÂÏóãó

“We set out with the sole intention of performing Hajj and when we reached Sarif, my menses began. The Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) came to me while I was crying and asked, ‘What is the matter with you? Has your menses started?’ I replied, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘This is something which Allaah has destined for the daughters of Aadam.’ ” The Prophet’s companion, Ibn ‘Abbaas, was reported to have said, “Menstruation began with Eve after she came out of paradise.”
10 11 12

Beginning of Menses There is no evidence from the Qur’aan or the authentic traditions of Prophet Muhammad (ρ ) indicating the youngest age for menses to begin or the oldest age for it to continue, nor the length of the menses or the length of the period of purity between menses (tuhr). The basic Qur’aanic text regarding menses is:
13 14 15

æíóÓóÆúáõæäóßó Úóäö { ÇáúãóÍöíÖö Þõáú åõæ ÃóÐìð ÝÇóÚúÊóÒöáõæÇ ÇáäøöÓóÇÁó
10 11

A place six miles outside of Makkah. Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, pp. 177-8, no. 293 and Sahih Muslim, vol. 2, p. 607, no. 2791. 12 Collected by al-Haakim and Ibn al-Munthir and graded authentic (see Fat-h al-Baaree, vol. 1, p. 477). 13 The hadeeth attributed to ‘Aa’ishah, “When a young girl reaches nine years of age, she is a woman,” and collected by at-Tirmithee, al-Bayhaqee, Aboo Nu‘aym and ad-Daylamee is not authentic (See, Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel, vol. 1, p. 199, no. 185). 14 The statement attributed to ‘Aa’ishah, “When a woman reaches fifty years of age, she has passed the limit of menstruation.” and collected by Ahmad is also not authentic (See Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel, vol. 1, p. 200, no. 186). 15 See ash-Shawkaanee’s ad-Daraaree al-Mudeeyah, vol. 1, p. 67.

ÝöÜí ÇáúãóÍöíÜÖö æóáÇ ÊóÞúÑóÈõæåõäøó } ÍóÊøóìíóØúåõÑúäó
“They ask you concerning menstruation. Tell them that it is harmful, so they should avoid (sexual intercourse with) women during their menses. They should not come to them until they have become pure...” Soorah al-Baqarah (2):222 This verse only defines the law regarding sexual intercourse during menses without specifying age. Therefore, as long as the bleeding corresponds in nature to menstrual bleeding, it is to be considered menses. ‘Urwah ibn az-Zubayr reported that the Prophet (ρ ) said to Faatimah bint Abee Hubaysh, who was experiencing a prolonged blood-flow,

ÅöÐóÇ ßóÇäó Ïóãõ ÇáúÍóíúÖóÉö ÝóÅöäøóåõ (( ((. ÃóÓúæóÏõ íõÚúÑóÝõ
“When the blood of menses comes, it is dark and recognizable.”
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Formal Prayer Women are not allowed to make formal prayers (Salaah) in a state of menstruation. ‘Aa’ishah reported that the Prophet (ρ ) said, ÅöÐóÇ ÃóÞúÈóáóÊö ÇáúÍóíúÖóÉõ ÝóÏóÚöí ÇáÕøóáÇóÉó)) æóÅöÐóÇ ÃóÏúÈóÑóÊú ÝóÇÛúÓöáöí Úóäúßö ÇáÏøóãó ((.æóÕóáøöí
16

Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 78, no. 304 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 55, no. 263.

“Stop formal prayer when your menses begins. When it is finished, wash off the blood from your body and return to formal prayer.” However, menses does not restrict them from making supplications (du‘aa). It was the practice of the Prophet’s wife, Maymoonah, during her menses not to pray, but to sit on a mat beside the Prophet’s mosque. ‘Eed Prayers In the case of ‘Eed prayers, all women are enjoined to participate in the gathering, regardless of their condition. However, only those who are able to make formal prayer should join the ‘Eed prayer.
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Úóäú ÃóíøõæÈó Úóäú ÍóÝúÕóÉó ÞóÇáóÊú ßõäøóÇ äóãúäóÚõ ÚóæóÇÊöÞóäóÇ Ãóäú íóÎúÑõÌúäó Ýöí ÇáúÚöíÏóíúäö ÝóÞóÏöãóÊö ÇãúÑóÃóÉñ ÝóäóÒóáóÊú ÞóÕúÑó Èóäöí ÎóáóÝò ÝóÍóÏøóËóÊú Úóäú ÃõÎúÊöåóÇ æóßóÇäó ÒóæúÌõ ÃõÎúÊöåóÇ ÛóÒóÇ ãóÚó ÇáäøóÈöíøö Õóáøóì Çááøóåõ Úóáóíúåö æóÓóáøóãó ËöäúÊóíú ÚóÔóÑóÉó ÛóÒúæóÉð æóßóÇäóÊú ÃõÎúÊöí ãóÚóåõ Ýöí ÓöÊøò ÞóÇáóÊú ßõäøóÇ äõÏóÇæöí Çáúßóáúãóì æóäóÞõæãõ Úóáóì ÇáúãóÑúÖóì ÝóÓóÃóáóÊú ÃõÎúÊöí ÇáäøóÈöíøó (ρ ) ÃóÚóáóì ÅöÍúÏóÇäóÇ ÈóÃúÓñ ÅöÐóÇ áóãú íóßõäú áóåóÇ ÌöáúÈóÇÈñ Ãóäú áÇó ÊóÎúÑõÌó ÞóÇáó áöÊõáúÈöÓúåóÇ ÕóÇÍöÈóÊõåóÇ ãöäú ÌöáúÈóÇÈöåóÇ æóáúÊóÔúåóÏ ÇáúÎóíúÑó æóÏóÚúæóÉó ÇáúãõÓúáöãöíäó ÝóáóãøóÇ ÞóÏöãóÊú Ãõãøõ ÚóØöíøóÉó ÓóÃóáúÊõåóÇ ÃóÓóãöÚúÊö ÇáäøóÈöíøó (ρ ) ÞóÇáóÊú ÈöÃóÈöí äóÚóãú æóßóÇäóÊú áÇó ÊóÐúßõÑõåõ ÅöáÇøó ÞóÇáóÊú ÈöÃóÈöí ÓóãöÚúÊõåõ íóÞõæáõ (( íóÎúÑõÌõ ÇáúÚóæóÇÊöÞõ æóÐóæóÇÊõ ÇáúÎõÏõæÑö Ãóæö ÇáúÚóæóÇÊöÞõ ÐóæóÇÊõ ÇáúÎõÏõæÑö æóÇáúÍõíøóÖõ æóáúíóÔúåóÏúäó ÇáúÎóíúÑó æóÏóÚúæóÉó ((. ÇáúãõÄúãöäöíäó æóíóÚúÊóÒöáõ ÇáúÍõíøóÖõ ÇáúãõÕóáøóì
17 18

Sahih Al-Bukhari , vol. 1, p. 196, no. 327. Ibid., p. 197, no. 329.

Ayyoub related that Hafsah said: We used to forbid our young women from attending the ‘Eed prayers. However, a woman who came and stayed at the fort of the Khalaf tribe, told that her sister said, “We used to treat those wounded [in battle] and look after the patients, and once I asked the Prophet (ρ ), ‘Is there any harm if one of us stays at home [instead of attending the ‘Eed prayers] because she does not have an outer garment?’ He said, ‘She should cover herself by sharing the outer garment of her friend, share in the good and participate in the gathering of Muslims.’ ” When Umm ‘Ateeyah came, Hafsah asked her whether she had heard that from the Prophet (ρ ) herself. She replied, “Yes— may my father be sacrificed for him—I heard the Prophet (ρ ) say that the unmarried virgins, mature women and menstruating women should witness the good and the religious gathering of Muslims, but the menstruating women should keep away from the prayer-ground.” In Muslim countries where the ‘Eed prayer-grounds are surrounded by a wall, menstruating women may come inside the enclosure, but sit or stand behind the rows of praying women.
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Entering The Masjid Menstruating women are permitted to enter the masjid where there is a need.
21

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The narration also stated that her “husband took part in twelve battles along with the Prophet (ρ ) and her sister was in six of them along with her husband.” 20 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, pp. 192-3, no. 321. 21 The hadeeth attributed to ‘Aa’ishah in which she quoted the Prophet (ρ ) as saying, (( ÝóÅöäøöí áÇó ÃõÍöáøõ ÇáúãóÓúÌöÏó áöÍóÇÆöÖò æóáÇó ÌõäõÈ .)) “I do not permit a sexually defiled person (junub) or a menstruating woman to enter the masjid.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 57, no. 232) has been ruled inauthentic in Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel, vol. 1, p. 210-2, no. 193.

Úóäú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉó ÞóÇáóÊú : ÞóÇáó áöí ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ ) (( äóÇæöáöíäöí ÇáúÎõãúÑóÉó ãöäó ÇáúãóÓúÌöÏö .)) ÝóÞõáúÊõ : Åöäøöí ÍóÇÆöÖñ . ÝóÞóÇáó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ ) (( Åöäøó ÍóíúÖóÊóßö

((. áóíúÓóÊú Ýöí íóÏößö
‘Aa’ishah said: The Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) once told me to get his mat from the masjid and I said, “I am menstruating!” He replied, “Your menses is not on your hands.”
22

Touching And Reciting Qur’aan

22

Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 65, no. 261 and Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 175, no. 587.

Menstruating women are permitted to read and touch the Qur’aan. Ibraaheem an-Nakha‘ee said, “There is no harm in menstruating woman reciting a Qur’aanic verse.” Ibn ‘Abbaas ruled that there was no harm if a person who was junub recited the Qur’aan. Umm ‘Ateeyah reported that they were instructed to let the menstruating women come out for the ‘Eeds and say, “Allaahu akbar (Allaah is the greatest).” Ibn ‘Abbaas quoted Aboo Sufyaan
23 24 25 26

23

Although many scholars have prohibited menstruating women and people in a state of sexual defilement (junub) from reciting the Qur’aan or touching it, Imaam al-Bukhaaree took the position that there was no authentic evidence to support such a position and that it was in fact permitted. In support of his view he mentioned the positions of some of the early scholars who also permitted reciting and touching the Qur’aan in order to show that the prohibition of menstruating women from reciting the Qur’aan was not unanimous among scholars of the past. (Fat-h al-Baaree, vol. 1, p. 305). Ibn Taymeeyah said, “The prohibition of women from reading the Qur’aan has no basis in either the Qur’aan or the Sunnah. The statement attributed to the Prophet (ρ ), “The menstruating woman or person sexually defiled (junub) should not read anything of the Qur’aan.” is not authentic, according to the unanimous opinion of the hadeeth scholars. Undoubtedly, women used to menstruate during the Prophet’s era, and if recitation of the Qur’aan was prohibited as formal prayer was prohibited, the Prophet ( ρ ) would have explained it to his followers and his wives, and it would have been transmitted to us. Consequently, since no prohibition has been transmitted from the Prophet (ρ ), it is not permissible to declare it haraam (forbidden) while knowing that he did not prohibit it. And if he did not prohibit it, in spite of the many cases of menstruation during his time, it is obvious that it is not haraam (Majmoo‘ al-Fataawaa , vol. 26, p. 191). 24 A leading scholar among the students of the companions of the Prophet (ρ ) 25 It was also the opinion of Imaam Maalik (Fat-h al-Baaree, vol. 1, p. 305). 26 Imaam al-Bukhaaree quoted this anecdote to show that since menstruating women were instructed to mention Allaah’s names and attributes, they should also be allowed to read the Qur’aan, in which

as saying, “Heraclius asked for the letter from the Prophet (ρ ) and read it. It began: ‘In the name of Allaah, the Beneficent, the Most Merciful. O people of the scripture, let us come to a common principle between us, that we do not worship anyone [or anything] besides Allaah.’ ”
27 28

Fasting Menstruating women are exempted from fasting, regardless of whether they feel themselves weakened by it or not. Allaah has not permitted them to fast in His infinite wisdom, which the believers are required to accept unquestioningly.

Úóäú ÃóÈöí ÓóÚöíÏò ÇáúÎõÏúÑöíøö ÞóÇáó : ÞóÇáó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ) ((... ÃóáóíúÓó ÅöÐóÇ ÍóÇÖóÊú áóãú ÊõÕóáøö æóáóãú ((¿ÊóÕõãú
Aboo Sa‘eed al-Khudree quoted the Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) as saying, “...Is it not true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?”
29

Hajj Rites
Allaah’s names and attributes are also mentioned.. 27 Soorah Aal ‘Imraan (3): 64. 28 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 182, chapter 9. Imaam al-Bukhaaree mentioned this incident, which can be found in its entirety in the chapter on revelation, in order to prove that since the Prophet (ρ ) sent verses of the Qur’aan to the pagans, who were in a state of defilement, a menstruating woman should be able to read the Qur’aan. 29 Ibid., vol. 1, p. 181, no. 301, and Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, pp. 47-8, no. 142 (narrated by Ibn ‘Umar).

With regard to the rites of Hajj, menstruating women are allowed to perform all of them, with the exception of the formal prayers and the rite of walking around the Ka‘bah seven times (tawaaf). ‘Aa’ishah said: We set out with the sole intention of performing Hajj and when we reached Sarif, my menses began. The Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) came to me while I was crying and asked, “What is the matter with you? Has your menses started?” I replied, “Yes.” He said, Åöäøó åóÐóÇ ÃóãúÑñ ßóÊóÈóåõ Çááøóåõ Úóáóì ÈóäóÇÊö )) ÂÏóãó ÝóÇÞúÖöí ãóÇ íóÞúÖöí ÇáúÍóÇÌøõ ÛóíúÑó Ãóäú áÇó ((ÊóØõæÝöí ÈöÇáúÈóíúÊö “This is something which Allaah has destined for the daughters of Aadam. So do all the rites that the pilgrims do, except Tawaaf. ”
30 31 32

æ Úóäú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉó ÞóÇáóÊú áöÑóÓõæáö Çááøóåö (ρ ) íóÇ ÑóÓõæáó Çááøóåö ¡ Åöäøó ÕóÝöíøóÉó ÈöäúÊó Íõíóíøò ÞóÏú ÍóÇÖóÊú . ÞóÇáó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ ) (( áóÚóáøóåóÇ ÊóÍúÈöÓõäóÇ Ãóáóãú Êóßõäú ØóÇÝóÊú ãóÚóßõäøó ¿)) ÝóÞóÇáõæÇ : ((. Èóáóì . ÞóÇáó ((ÝóÇÎúÑõÌöí ‘Aa’ishah also related that she told the Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) that
Safeeyah bint Huyay began menstruating and he said, “Perhaps she will delay us. Did she make Tawaaf ?” We replied, “Yes.” He then told her to go ahead.
33

Divorce It is prohibited to pronounce divorce when a woman is on
30 31 32

A place six miles outside of Makkah. Walking around the Ka‘bah seven times. Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, pp. 177-8, no. 293 and Sahih Muslim, vol. 2, p. 607, no. 2791. 33 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 195, no. 325.

her menses. Instead, she must be in a period of purity (between menses) in which her husband has not had sexual relations with her. ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar reported that he had divorced his wife while she was menstruating and his father had asked the Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) about it. He replied,
34

áöíõÑóÇÌöÚúåóÇ Ëõãøó íõãúÓößúåóÇ ÍóÊøóì ÊóØúåõÑó )) Ëõãøó ÊóÍöíÖó ÝóÊóØúåõÑó ÝóÅöäú ÈóÏóÇ áóåõ Ãóäú íõØóáøöÞóåóÇ ÝóáúíõØóáøöÞúåóÇ ØóÇåöÑðÇ ÞóÈúáó Ãóäú íóãóÓøóåóÇ ÝóÊöáúßó ÇáúÚöÏøóÉõ ßóãóÇ ÃóãóÑó Çááøóåõ ((ÚóÒøó æóÌóáøó “Instruct your son to take her back and keep her until she is clean. Then he should wait until she menstruates and becomes clean again. If he then wishes to keep her, he may do so, and if he wishes to divorce her, he may do so without having sex with her. That is the period which Allaah prescribed for divorcing women.” The pronouncement of divorce during menses is still counted as one pronouncement. Yoonus ibn Jubayr asked Ibn ‘Umar, “Is the pronouncement of divorce counted if a person divorces his wife while she is in a state of menses?” He replied, “Why not? Was he helpless or foolish?” However, one who does so has committed a sin. When Ibn ‘Umar was asked about a person who divorces his wife while she is menstruating, he replied, “If he pronounced one or two divorces, Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ) would command him to take her back, allow her respite until she enters her second menses, allow her respite until she is purified, then divorce her without having sex with her. If he had pronounced three divorces, he would have
35 36

34 35

The second Caliph, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab. Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 7, p. 129, no. 178 and Sahih Muslim, vol. 2, p. 756, no. 3475. 36 Sahih Muslim, vol. 2, p. 757, no. 3484.

disobeyed his Lord’s command regarding divorce, but she would be irrevocably separated from him.”
37

Clothes Worn During Menses There is no requirement that women wear special garments during menses, as ‘Aa’ishah explained that many of them only had a single dress, which they used during and after menstruation. ‘Aa’ishah was quoted as saying, “None of us had more than a single garment and we used to wear it while menstruating.” However, it is permissible for women to set aside a particular dress to wear during menses, if they so desire. Umm Salamah said:

38

ÈóíúäóÇ ÃóäóÇ ãóÚó ÇáäøóÈöíøö (ρ ) ãõÖúØóÌöÚóÉñ Ýöí ÎóãöíáóÉò ÍöÖúÊõ ¡ ÝóÇäúÓóáóáúÊõ ÝóÃóÎóÐúÊõ ËöíóÇÈó ÍöíÖóÊöí ¡ ÝóÞóÇáó ((ÃóäõÝöÓúÊö¿ )) ÝóÞõáúÊõ : äóÚóãú . . ÝóÏóÚóÇäöí ÝóÇÖúØóÌóÚúÊõ ãóÚóåõ Ýöí ÇáúÎóãöíáóÉö While I was lying with the Prophet (ρ ) under a woolen blanket, my menses began. So I slipped away and put on my menses garment. The Prophet (ρ ) asked me, “Did your menses start?” I replied, “Yes.” He called me back and I slept with him under the same woolen blanket. Associating With Menstruating Women The menstruating woman is not considered defiled in such a way that she will defile objects or others whom she comes in contact
39

37 38 39

Ibid., p. 756, no. 3477. Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 185, no. 309. Ibid., p. 192, no. 320.

with, as in Judeo-Christian tradition. She is considered fundamentally clean as the Prophet (ρ ) said, ((. Åöäøó ÇáúãõÄúãöäó áÇó íóäúÌõÓõ )) “The believer can never become defiled.” “Anas ibn Maalik said: Among the Jews (in Madeenah), when a woman menstruated, they ejected her from the house, and they did not eat nor drink with her, nor did they associate with her in their houses, so the Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) was questioned about that practice. Allaah then revealed the verse: “They question you concerning menses. Tell them: It is an illness, so stay away from women during menses.” Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ) then said, ÌóÇãöÚõæåõäøó Ýöí ÇáúÈõíõæÊö æóÇÕúäóÚõæÇ ßõáøó)) ((ÔóíúÁò ÛóíúÑó ÇáäøößóÇÍö
40 41 42

“Associate with them in your houses and do everything except sexual intercourse.” The Jews then said, “This man does not want to leave anything we do without opposing it.” The Prophet (ρ ) himself demonstrated for his followers a total acceptance of contact with menstruating women. ‘Aa’ishah said: “I would eat flesh from a bone when I was menstruating, then hand it over to the Prophet (ρ ) and he would put his mouth where I
43

40

Jewish law regarding the menstruating woman is as follows: “19. When a woman has a discharge of blood which is her regular discharge from her body, she shall be in her impurity for seven days, and whoever touches her shall be unclean until the evening. 20. And everything upon which she lies during her impurity shall be unclean; everything also upon which she sits shall be unclean. 21. And whoever touches her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening.” (Leviticus 15:19-21.) 41 Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 203, no. 723. 42 Soorah al-Baqarah (2):222. See p. 13 for a variant translation. 43 Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, pp. 175-6, no. 592 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 64, no. 258.

had put my mouth; I would drink, then hand it over to him, and he would put his mouth at the place where I drank from.” She also said: “Allaah’s Messenger used to rest his head on my lap when I was menstruating, then recite the Qur’aan.” ‘Aa’ishah was further quoted as saying that she used to comb the hair of the Messenger of Allaah while she was menstruating and he was doing I‘tikaaf. He would extend his head into her room [which was adjoining the mosque] and she would comb his hair. He even used to fondle and lie with his menstruating wives in order to practically demonstrate to his followers what was permissible and to remove any doubts which they may have had regarding such practices. Maymoonah said, “The Prophet (ρ ) used to fondle and embrace his wives during their menses. They would wear a wrap up to mid-thigh or up to the knees.” ‘Aa’ishah was reported to have said, “The Messenger of Allah (ρ ) and I used to pass the night together with only a single piece of cloth on me, though I was menstruating profusely. If any blood got on his body or clothing, he would wash only the spot [of blood] and pray in the garment.”
44 45 46 47 48 49

44

Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 175, no. 590 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 65, no. 259. 45 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 179, no. 296 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 65, no. 260. 46 Seclusion in the mosque for the purpose of dedicating some days for the worshipping of Allaah. During seclusion, no sexual relations are permitted and one may not leave the mosque except in cases of dire need. 47 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, pp. 178-9, no. 295. 48 Ibid., p. 181, no. 300 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 66, no. 267. 49 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 67, no. 269 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 51, no. 241.

Sexual Intercourse During Menses The only act which is forbidden is sexual intercourse, as Allaah stated in the Qur’aan:
æóíóÓúÆóáõæäóßó Úóäö ÇáúãóÍöíúÖö Þõáú åõæó ÃóÐìð

{

}ÝóÇÚúÊóÒöáõæÇ ÇáäøöÓóÇÁó Ýöì ÇáúãóÍöíúÖö
“They question you concerning menses. Tell them: It is an illness, so stay away from women during menses.” Soorah al-Baqarah (2):222 Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ) further clarified this verse saying, “Associate with them in your houses and do everything except sexual intercourse.” The verse mentions the reason for the law along with the law, which, given human nature, is more likely to result in compliance with the prohibition. Menstruation is the process of shedding uterine tissue that the body had produced to receive a fertilized egg. Since the fertilized egg did not embed itself in the tissue, the body sloughs it off in order to prepare for the next cycle of ovulation. The woman’s reproductive system is not in a state of readiness for intercourse, because it is preoccupied with this process. Stimulation of her reproductive system by intercourse at this time can cause uterine congestion and increase the menstrual flow. The tissue of the vaginal walls is more susceptible at this time to flaking away from the abrasion of intercourse. An orgasm during menstruation may encourage a backward flow of menstrual blood through the fallopian tubes into the abdominal cavity, which could lead to endometriosis, the growth of uterine-lining tissue outside the
50

50

Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, pp. 175-6, no. 592 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 64, no. 258.

uterus, a condition associated with painful menses and anal bleeding. Intercourse at this time can be harmful to the man as well. Menstrual blood is a nutrient-rich medium for bacteria. If some of it enters the man’s urethra, it can result in an inflammation with gonorrhea-like symptoms. However, if someone does indulge out of weakness, he is required to atone by giving some money in charity to the poor.
51

Úóäö ÇÈúäö ÚóÈøóÇÓò Úóäö ÇáäøóÈöíøö (ρ ) Ýöí ÇáøóÐöí íóÃúÊöí ÇãúÑóÃóÊóåõ æóåöíó ÍóÇÆöÖñ ¡ ÞóÇáó (( íóÊóÕóÏøóÞõ ÈöÏöíäóÇÑò Ãóæú ((. äöÕúÝö ÏöíäóÇÑò Ibn ‘Abbaas reported that the Prophet (ρ ) said that a person who
had intercourse with his wife during her menses must give a dinar or half a dinar in charity. Ibn ‘Abbaas clarified that if sexual relations occurred in the beginning of the menses, the penalty was one dinar and if at the end of the menses, the penalty was half a dinar. Sexual intercourse does not become permissible until menstruation has ended and the woman has performed a ghusl or wudoo’ or has at least washed away the traces of blood from her private parts, as indicated by verse 222 of Soorah al-Baqarah:
52 53 54

51

See Principles of Gynaecology, p. 88, and Current Medical Treatment and Diagnosis 1982, p. 443. 52 A dinar is equivalent to 4.25 grams of gold. (See Bidaayah al-Mujtahid, vol. 2, p. 79. 53 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 66, no. 264, and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 51, no. 237. 54 Ibid., no. 265 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 51, no. 238.

æó áÇó ÊóÞúÑóÈõæåõäøó ÍóÊøóì íóØúåõÑúäó { ÝóÅöÐóÇ ÊóØøóåøóÑúäó ÝóÃúÊõæåõäøó ãöäú ÍóíËõ } ÃãóÑóßõãõ Çááøóåõ “...and do not approach them until they are clean; but when they have purified themselves, you may approach them in the way ordained by Allaah.” Ibn ‘Abbaas said that yat-hurna (they are clean) means from blood, while tattahharna (they have purified themselves) means with water. The opinion of the majority of scholars is that a complete ghusl is the only form of purification referred to here, but ‘Ataa’ ibn Abee Rabaah, Qataadah, al-Awzaa‘ee and Ibn Hazm all held the opinion that washing the private parts was the minimum requirement. Among their proofs is verse 108 of Soorah at-Tawbah:
55

áóãóÓúÌöÏñ ÃõõÓøöÓó Úóáóì ÇáøóÊøÞúæóì ãöäú Ãóæøóáö íóæãòò ÃóÍóÞøõ Ãóäú ÊóÞõæãó Ýöíåö Ýöíåö ÑöÌóÇáñ íõÍöÈøõæäó Ãóäú

{

}íóÊóØóåøóÑõæÇ æó Çááøóåõ íõÍöÈøõ ÇáúãõÊóØóåøöÑöíäó
“Certainly a masjid founded on piety is more deserving that you should stand in it; in it are men who love to be purified; and Allaah loves those who purify themselves.” The same verb, tatahhara, is used for purification in both verses. The circumstances of revelation indicate that the purification praised in the verse was the washing of the private parts with water after going to the bathroom. As for the version of the hadeeth of Ibn
56

55 56

See Ibn Katheer’s Tafseer al-Qur’aan al-‘Atheem, vol. 1, pp. 350-1 Reported by Aboo Daawood (Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 10, no. 44) and authenticated by al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 11, no. 24.

‘Abbaas which stipulates one-half dinar as the expiation for intercourse with one’s wife after her menses but before she has bathed, it is weak. The authentic version of the hadeeth, as reported by Aboo Daawood, does not mention this distinction. There are no authentic hadeeths indicating the necessity of a ghusl before sex with a woman who has stopped menstruating. However, a ghusl is best in this situation, as it is the most complete purification, and as doing so is the safest position in the difference of opinion on the issue.
57

The Ending Of Menstruation Menstruation often ends gradually, which causes women some doubt about its exact ending point. The Prophet (ρ ) instructed his wives how to determine the end of menses, and they in turn would teach the women. Some women used to send pads of cotton with traces of yellowish discharge to ‘Aa’ishah [for her verdict on whether their menses had ended or not], and she would say, . áÇó

ÊóÚúÌóáúäó ÍóÊøóì ÊóÑóíúäó ÇáúÞóÕøóÉó ÇáúÈóíúÖóÇÁó
59

“Do not be hasty. They have not ended until you see the white discharge. ” The daughter of Zayd ibn Thaabit was told that some women used to ask for candles at midnight to see if their menses had
58

57 58

See Aadaab al-Zafaaf, pp. 125-8 Al-Qassah al-Baydaa’ is defined as a whitish discharge from the womb at the end of menstruation. Imaam Maalik said, “I asked the women about it, only to find that it was something well known among them at the time of purity (See, Fat-h al-Baaree, vol. 1, p. 501). 59 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 190, chapter 21.

stopped. Zayd’s daughter scolded them and informed them that the wives of the Prophet’s companions never used to do that.
60

Bathing After Menstruation When menses have ended, women are obliged to take an Islamic bath (ghusl) in order to re-enter the spiritual state of purity (tahaarah) required for formal prayer. The use of perfume in the water is generally recommended. ‘Aa’ishah reported: Asmaa’ went to the Prophet (ρ ) and asked, “O Messenger of Allaah! How should we take a bath so we can be purified from menses?” He replied, ÊóÃúÎõÐõ ÓöÏúÑóåóÇ æóãóÇÁóåóÇ ÝóÊóæóÖøóÃõ ¡ )) Ëõãøó ÊóÛúÓöáõ ÑóÃúÓóåóÇ æóÊóÏúáõßõåõ ÍóÊøóì íóÈúáõÛó ÇáúãóÇÁõ ÃõÕõæáó ÔóÚúÑöåóÇ ¡ Ëõãøó ÊõÝöíÖõ Úóáóì ÌóÓóÏöåóÇ ¡ Ëõãøó ÊóÃúÎõÐõ ((. ÝöÑúÕóÊóåóÇ ¡ ÝóÊóØøóåøóÑõ ÈöåóÇ “She should prepare water mixed with lote-tree leaves, make wudoo’ and wash her head, rubbing the water into the roots of her hair, pour water over her whole body, then take a (musk-scented) piece of cloth (or cotton) and clean with it (three times).” She asked, “O Messenger of Allaah! How should she clean with it?” ‘Aa’ishah said, “I understood what the Prophet (ρ ) meant and said to her, ‘Wipe away the traces of blood.’ ”
61 62 63

60

Ibid. The reason for her disapproval is probably due to the fact that the women were checking at night when the whiteness of the cotton pad could not be clearly determined, which could cause them to begin formal prayer before it is permitted (Fat-h al-Baaree, vol. 1, p. 501). 61 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 81, no. 315. 62 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 187, no. 312 and Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 188, no. 649. 63 Ibid., p. 186, no. 311 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 81, no. 314.

Braids

The Prophet (ρ ) allowed women with braided hair to wash their heads without undoing the braids when taking a ghusl from sexual defilement and at the conclusion of menses. It is, however, recommended that she undo her braids and wash her head thoroughly when taking ghusl due to menses. ‘Aa’ishah said,
64 65

æóßõäúÊõ ÃóäóÇ ãöãøóäú Ãóåóáøó ÈöÚõãúÑóÉò ÝóÃóÏúÑóßóäöí íóæúãõ ÚóÑóÝóÉó æóÃóäóÇ ÍóÇÆöÖñ ÝóÔóßóæúÊõ Åöáóì ÇáäøóÈöíøö (ρ )¡ ÝóÞóÇáó (( ÏóÚöí ÚõãúÑóÊóßö æóÇäúÞõÖöí ÑóÃúÓóßö æóÇãúÊóÔöØöí æóÃóåöáøöí ÈöÍóÌøò .)) . ÝóÝóÚóáúÊõ “I was one of those who assumed ihraam for ‘Umrah. My menses began and continued until the day of ‘Arafat, so I complained to the Prophet (ρ ). He told me to postpone my ‘Umrah, undo my braids and comb my hair, and to assume ihraam for Hajj, and I did so.”
66

64

Umm Salamah asked: O Messenger of Allaah! I am a woman who keeps her hair in tight braids. Should I undo them when I bathe from sexual defilement? He replied, áÇó ¡ ÅöäøóãóÇ íóßúÝöíßö Ãóäú ÊóÍúËöíó Úóáóì ÑóÃúÓößö )) ËóáÇóËó ÍóËóíóÇÊò Ëõãøó ÊõÝöíÖöíäó Úóáóíúßö ÇáúãóÇÁó ((. ÝóÊóØúåõÑöíäó “It is enough for you to pour three handfuls of water over your head [and wring out your locks after every handful (Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 63, no. 252)] then pour water over all of your body and you will be purified.” [See Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 63, no. 251 and its authentication in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 48, no. 226]. See also Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 187, no. 643. 65 Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 187, no. 644.

Brownness Or Yellowness After Purification Once the end of menses has been accurately determined by the appearance of the white discharge or by the insertion of a piece of cotton, cloth, or tissue, and its removal without any traces of blood, subsequent discharges are not considered a part of menses. Umm ‘Ateeyah, who took an oath of allegiance with the Prophet (ρ ), said, “We did not consider brown and yellow discharges after purification as anything.”
67

Cleaning Garments It is sufficient for women to wash the blood which falls on their garments in order to make them clean enough to pray in, even if stains remain. Asmaa’ bint Abee Bakr related that a woman asked Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ), “O Messenger of Allaah! What should we do if blood falls on our clothes?” He replied, ÅöÐóÇ ÃóÕóÇÈó ËóæúÈó ÅöÍúÏóÇßõäøó ÇáÏøóãõ ãöäó )) ÇáúÍóíúÖóÉö ÝóáúÊóÞúÑõÕúåõ Ëõãøó áöÊóäúÖóÍúåõ ÈöãóÇÁò ((. Ëõãøó áöÊõÕóáøöí Ýöíåö
66

Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 188, no. 314. Imaams ash-Shaafi‘ee, Maalik and Aboo Haneefah ruled that it was recommended for her to undo the braids if water did not get to the roots of her hair during a ghusl for menses. Imaam Ahmad ruled that it was compulsory, based on the above-mentioned hadeeth. See Ibn al-Qayyim’s Tahtheeb as-Sunan, vol. 1, pp. 292-4. A number of leading scholars from Imaam Ahmad’s school of law, like Ibn Qudaamah, ruled that undoing the braids was recommended (See Fat-h alBaaree, vol. 1, p. 498). It should be noted that the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah was not a case of ghusl at the conclusion of menses, but merely the recommended ghusl for entering the state of ihraam. 67 Ibid., p. 194, no. 323 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 79, no. 307.

“If menstrual blood falls on your garment, you should take hold of the spot, rub it, and wash it with water and then pray in it.” ‘Aa’ishah also stated the following:

68

ãóÇ ßóÇäó áÅööÍúÏóÇäóÇ ÅöáÇøó ËóæúÈñ æóÇÍöÏñ ÊóÍöíÖõ Ýöíåö ¡ ÝóÅöÐóÇ ÃóÕóÇÈóåõ ÔóíúÁñ ãöäú Ïóãò ÞóÇáóÊú . ÈöÑöíÞöåóÇ ¡ ÝóÞóÕóÚóÊúåõ ÈöÙõÝúÑöåóÇ None of us had more than a single garment and we used to wear it while menstruating. Whenever it got soiled with blood, we used to apply saliva to the spot and scratch it with our nails.
69

Making Up Missed Prayers A special concession is given to menstruating women whereby prayers missed during the period of menstruation are not to be made up. Mu’aathah reported: A woman asked ‘Aa’ishah whether a menstruating woman should complete the prayers missed during the menses and she replied, ÃóÍóÑõæÑöíøóÉñ ÃóäúÊö¿ ßõäøóÇ äóÍöíÖõ ãóÚó ÇáäøóÈöíøö (ρ ) ÝóáÇó íóÃúãõÑõäóÇ Èöåö —Ãóæú ÞóÇáóÊú : ÝóáÇó

. äóÝúÚóáõåõ

68 69

Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 184, no. 305. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 185, no. 309.

“Are you a Haroorite? During the time of the Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) we did not make up missed prayers after menses, nor were we instructed to do so.” Making Up Missed Fasts Allaah in His infinite wisdom and mercy distinguished between fasting and formal prayers with regard to making them up when missed due to menstruation. The formal five prayers are a daily ongoing requirement while formal fasting is only required for one month out of every year. Making up missed days of fasting before the next obligatory fast is relatively easy, while making up missed prayers would constitute a major monthly burden. Consequently, Allaah only required menstruating women to make up their missed fasts. Mu‘aathah said, “I asked ‘Aa’ishah: ‘What is the reason why a woman who menstruates [during Ramadaan] completes her fasts, but not her formal prayers?’ She replied, ‘Are you a Haroorite?’ I said, ‘I am not a Haroorite, I am only curious.’ She said, ‘We were present in the Prophet’s era and were instructed
70 71 72

70

This term refers to those belonging to the Khawaarij (Seceders) sect, which was the first group to split off from the main body of Muslims. They were also called Harooreeyah (Haroorites) because the first group of them rebelled against Caliph ‘Alee at a place called Harooraa near Kufah. Khaarijites subsequently split into many subsects, but they all agreed on the principle of following the implications of the Qur’aanic texts and rejecting any hadeeths which contradicted their deduced implications (Fat-h alBaaree, vol. 1, p. 502). Consequently, they held, against the belief of the majority of the Muslims, that a menstruating woman should make up missed prayers after purification in the same way that she is required by the Qur’aanic text to make up missed days of fasting. 71 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 191, no. 318 , Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 190, no. 660 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 65, no. 262. 72 She is considered one of the major jurists among the students of the Prophet’s companions (taabi‘oon).

to complete our fasts, but we were not instructed to complete our prayers.’ ”
73

Post-Natal Bleeding
In the case of bleeding after childbirth, women are instructed to abandon formal prayer and fasting for a maximum period of forty days. Umm Salamah said, ßóÇäóÊö ÇáäøõÝóÓóÇÁõ Úóáóì ÚóåúÏö ÑóÓõæáö Çááøóåö (ρ ) ÊóÞúÚõÏõ ÈóÚúÏó äöÝóÇÓöåóÇ ÃóÑúÈóÚöíäó íóæúãðÇ Ãóæú ÃóÑúÈóÚöíäó áóíúáóÉð æóßõäøóÇ äóØúáöí Úóáóì æõÌõæåöäóÇ . ÇáúæóÑúÓó — ÊóÚúäöí ãöäó ÇáúßóáóÝö “Women experiencing post-natal bleeding would refrain from formal prayer for forty days or forty nights, and we used to rub our faces with an aromatic herb called wars to remove dark spots.”
74

Missed Prayers As in the case of prayers missed due to menstruation, women are not required to make up prayers missed due to post-natal bleeding, but they are enjoined to make up the days of missed fasts. Mussah al-Azdeeyah said: I performed Hajj and came to Umm Salamah and told her, “O Mother of the Believers! Samurah ibn Jundub is instructing women to make up prayers missed during their menstrual periods.” She replied, áÇó íóÞúÖöíäó ßóÇäóÊö ÇáúãóÑúÃóÉõ ãöäú äöÓóÇÁö ÇáäøóÈöíøö (ρ ) ÊóÞúÚõÏõ Ýöí ÇáäøöÝóÇÓö ÃóÑúÈóÚöíäó
73 74

Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 191, no. 662. Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 80, no. 311 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, pp. 62-3, no. 304.

áóíúáóÉð áÇó íóÃúãõÑõåóÇ ÇáäøóÈöíøõ (ρ ) ÈöÞóÖóÇÁö

. ÕóáÇóÉö ÇáäøöÝóÇÓö

“They should not do so. The wives of the Prophet (ρ ) used to abstain from formal prayer for forty days when bleeding after childbirth and the Prophet (ρ ) did not instruct them to make up the prayers missed during the period of bleeding.”
75

Minimum There are no authentic narrations to indicate minimum period of post-natal bleeding. Anas ibn Maalik said,

the

ßóÇäó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ ) æóÞøóÊó áöáäøõÝóÓóÇÁö ÃóÑúÈóÚöíäó íóæúãðÇ ÅöáÇøó Ãóäú ÊóÑóì ÇáØøõåúÑó ÞóÈúáó . Ðóáößó “Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ) set a time period of forty days for women bleeding after child-birth, except if they became pure before that time.”
76

Istihaadah (Bleeding between Menses)
75

77

Ibid., p. 80, no. 312, and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 63, no. 305. 76 Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol. 1, p. 350, no. 649, and authenticated in Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel, vol. 1, p. 223. 77 Abnormal uterine bleeding means either (1) excessive or prolonged bleeding during the normal time of flow (menorrhagia) or (2) any bleeding during the intermenstrual interval (metrorrhagia). This condition is usually due to local lesions, e.g. uterine myomas, adenomyosis, endometritis, etc. Postmenopausal vaginal bleeding that occurs 6 months or more following cessation of menstrual function may be due to local or systemic causes. (Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 1982, pp. 428 & 430.)

When bleeding occurs outside of its normal time frame, it is no longer considered as menses, and the woman experiencing it is considered ritually pure. She is required to fast and make formal prayers in spite of the blood flow. Úóäú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉó ÃóäøóåóÇ ÞóÇáóÊú : ÞóÇáóÊú ÝóÇØöãóÉõ ÈöäúÊõ ÃóÈöí ÍõÈóíúÔò áöÑóÓõæáö Çááøóåö (ρ ) : íóÇ ÑóÓõæáó Çááøóåö ¡ Åöäøöí áÇó ÃóØúåõÑõ ¡ ÃóÝóÃóÏóÚõ ÇáÕøóáÇóÉó ¿ ÝóÞóÇáó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ ) (( ÅöäøóãóÇ Ðóáößö ÚöÑúÞñ æóáóíúÓó ÈöÇáúÍóíúÖóÉö ¡ ÝóÅöÐóÇ ÃóÞúÈóáóÊö ÇáúÍóíúÖóÉõ ÝóÇÊúÑõßöí ÇáÕøóáÇóÉó ¡ ÝóÅöÐóÇ ÐóåóÈó ((. ÞóÏúÑõåóÇ ÝóÇÛúÓöáöí Úóäúßö ÇáÏøóãó æóÕóáøöí ‘Aa’ishah related: Faatimah bint Abee Hubaysh asked Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ), “O Messenger of Allaah, I do not become clean from menses. Should I abstain from formal prayers?” He replied, “No, [the bleeding] is from a blood vessel and not menses. So when the real menses begins, stop praying and when the period ends, wash the blood from your body and resume praying the formal prayers.” This is in contrast to Judeo-Christian tradition, which considers her unclean in the same way as the menstruating woman, and further requires her to make atonement for her state.
78 79

78 79

Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 183, no. 303. Jewish law regarding prolonged blood-flow is as follows: “25. If a woman has a discharge of blood for many days, not at the time of her impurity, or if she has a discharge beyond the time of her impurity, all the days of the discharge she shall continue in uncleanness; as in the days of her impurity, she shall be unclean. 26. Every bed on which she lies, all the days of her discharge, shall be to her as the bed of her impurity; and everything on which she sits shall be unclean, as in the uncleanness of her impurity. 27. And whoever touches these things shall be unclean, and shall wash his

Unnatural bleeding may occur as an extension of menses or may occur after menses has ended. Prolonged Bleeding 1. In the case of prolonged bleeding the Prophet (ρ ) instructed women to judge the beginning and ending of their periods according to the characteristics of the blood. ‘Urwah ibn az-Zubayr reported that the Prophet (ρ ) said to Faatimah bint Abee Hubaysh, who was experiencing a prolonged blood-flow,
80

Úóäú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉó Ãóäøó ÝóÇØöãóÉó ÈöäúÊó ÃóÈöí ÍõÈóíúÔò ßóÇäóÊú ÊõÓúÊóÍóÇÖõ ÝóÞóÇáó áóåóÇ ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ ) (( Åöäøó Ïóãó ÇáúÍóíúÖö Ïóãñ ÃóÓúæóÏõ íõÚúÑóÝõ ÝóÅöÐóÇ ßóÇäó Ðóáößó ÝóÃóãúÓößöí Úóäö ÇáÕøóáÇóÉö ((. ÝóÅöÐóÇ ßóÇäó ÇáúÂÎóÑõ ÝóÊóæóÖøóÆöí æóÕóáøöí “When the blood of menses comes, it is dark and recognizable. If it is that, stop formal prayer. If it is other than that, make wudoo’ and pray.”
81

clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening. 28. But if she is cleansed of her discharge, she shall count for herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean. 29. And on the eighth day she shall take two turtledoves or two young pigeons, and bring them to the priest, to the door of the tent of meeting. 30. And the priest shall offer one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering; and the priest shall make atonement for her before the Lord for her unclean discharge.” (Leviticus 15:25-30.) 80 Medically known as hypermenorrhea, menorrhagia (cyclic menstrual bleeding that is excessive in amount) Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 1982, p. 428. 81 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 78, no. 304 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 55, no. 263.

2. Where it is difficult to determine by the characteristics of the blood, women were instructed to estimate the period of menses according to their normal pattern. ‘Aa’ishah reported that Umm Habeebah asked Allaah’s Messenger (ρ ) about prolonged blood-flow and the Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) replied,
82 83

ÇãúßõËöí ÞóÏúÑó ãóÇ ßóÇäóÊú ÊóÍúÈöÓõßö ÍóíúÖóÊõßö

((. Ëõãøó ÇÛúÊóÓöáöí æóÕóáøöí
84

))

“Stop praying for as long as your menses used to prevent you, then bathe yourself and begin formal prayers.” ‘Adee ibn Thaabit also quoted his grandfather as saying that the Prophet (ρ ) said, regarding the woman having prolonged bloodflow, ÊóÏóÚõ ÇáÕøóáÇóÉó ÃóíøóÇãó ÃóÞúÑóÇÆöåóÇ Ëõãøó )) ÊóÛúÊóÓöáõ æóÊõÕóáøöí æóÇáúæõÖõæÁõ ÚöäúÏó ßõáøö ((. ÕóáÇóÉò “She should stop praying during her menstrual period; then she should take a bath and pray by making wudoo’ for every prayer.” 3. If a woman has no established pattern for menses, she assumes that it is six or seven days.
85 86

Úóäú ÍóãúäóÉó ÈöäúÊö ÌóÍúÔò ÞóÇáóÊú : ßõäúÊõ ÃõÓúÊóÍóÇÖõ ÍóíúÖóÉð ßóËöíÑóÉð ÔóÏöíÏóÉð ¡
82 Sister-in-law of the Prophet ( 83 ‘Aa’ishah went on to remark

that she saw Umm Habeebah’s wash-tub full of blood. 84 Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 190, no. 658. 85 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 76, no. 297 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 60, no .286. 86 Medically referred to as menometrorrhagia (uterine bleeding that is totally irregular in frequency and duration of episodes and excessive in amount.) Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 1982, p. 428.

ρ ) and wife of ‘Abdur-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf.

ÝóÃóÊóíúÊõ ÑóÓõæáó Çááøóåö (ρ ) ÃóÓúÊóÝúÊöíåö æóÃõÎúÈöÑõåõ ¡ ÝóæóÌóÏúÊõåõ Ýöí ÈóíúÊö ÃõÎúÊöí ÒóíúäóÈó ÈöäúÊö ÌóÍúÔò ¡ ÝóÞõáúÊõ : íóÇ ÑóÓõæáó Çááøóåö ¡ Åöäøöí ÇãúÑóÃóÉñ ÃõÓúÊóÍóÇÖõ ÍóíúÖóÉð ßóËöíÑóÉð ÔóÏöíÏóÉð ¡ ÝóãóÇ ÊóÑóì ÝöíåóÇ ¿ ÞóÏú ãóäóÚóÊúäöí ÇáÕøóáÇóÉó æóÇáÕøóæúãó . ÝóÞóÇáó (( ÃóäúÚóÊõ áóßö ÇáúßõÑúÓõÝó ÝóÅöäøóåõ íõÐúåöÈõ ÇáÏøóãó .)) ÞóÇáóÊú : åõæó ÃóßúËóÑõ ãöäú Ðóáößó . ÞóÇáó (( ÝóÇÊøóÎöÐöí ËóæúÈðÇ .)) ÝóÞóÇáóÊú : åõæó ÃóßúËóÑõ ãöäú Ðóáößó ¡ ÅöäøóãóÇ ÃóËõÌøõ ËóÌøðÇ . ÞóÇáó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ ) (( ÓóÂãõÑõßö ÈöÃóãúÑóíúäö ÃóíøóåõãóÇ ÝóÚóáúÊö ÃóÌúÒóÃó Úóäúßö ãöäó ÇáúÂÎóÑö æóÅöäú ÞóæöíÊö ÚóáóíúåöãóÇ ÝóÃóäúÊö ÃóÚúáóãõ .)) ÞóÇáó áóåóÇ (( ÅöäøóãóÇ åóÐöåö ÑóßúÖóÉñ ãöäú ÑóßóÖóÇÊö ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäö ¡ ÝóÊóÍóíøóÖöí ÓöÊøóÉó ÃóíøóÇãò Ãóæú ÓóÈúÚóÉó ÃóíøóÇãò Ýöí Úöáúãö Çááøóåö ¡ Ëõãøó ÇÛúÊóÓöáöí ÍóÊøóì ÅöÐóÇ ÑóÃóíúÊö Ãóäøóßö ÞóÏú ØóåõÑúÊö æóÇÓúÊóäúÞóÃúÊö ¡ ÝóÕóáøöí ËóáÇóËðÇ æóÚöÔúÑöíäó áóíúáóÉð Ãóæú ÃóÑúÈóÚðÇ æóÚöÔúÑöíäó áóíúáóÉð æóÃóíøóÇãóåóÇ æóÕõæãöí ¡ ÝóÅöäøó Ðóáößó íóÌúÒöíßö ¡ æóßóÐóáößó ÝóÇÝúÚóáöí Ýöí ßõáøö ÔóåúÑò ßóãóÇ ÊóÍöíÖõ ÇáäøöÓóÇÁõ æóßóãóÇ íóØúåõÑúäó ãöíÞóÇÊõ ÍóíúÖöåöäøó æóØõåúÑöåöäøó . æóÅöäú ÞóæöíÊö Úóáóì Ãóäú ÊõÄóÎøöÑöí ÇáÙøõåúÑó æóÊõÚóÌøöáöí ÇáúÚóÕúÑó ÝóÊóÛúÊóÓöáöíäó æóÊóÌúãóÚöíäó Èóíúäó ÇáÕøóáÇóÊóíúäö ÇáÙøõåúÑö æóÇáúÚóÕúÑö æóÊõÄóÎøöÑöíäó ÇáúãóÛúÑöÈó æóÊõÚóÌøöáöíäó ÇáúÚöÔóÇÁó Ëõãøó ÊóÛúÊóÓöáöíäó æóÊóÌúãóÚöíäó Èóíúäó ÇáÕøóáÇóÊóíúäö ¡ ÝóÇÝúÚóáöí ¡ æóÊóÛúÊóÓöáöíäó ãóÚó ÇáúÝóÌúÑö ÝóÇÝúÚóáöí ¡ æóÕõæãöí Åöäú ÞóÏöÑúÊö Úóáóì Ðóáößó . ((. æóåóÐóÇ ÃóÚúÌóÈõ ÇáúÃóãúÑóíúäö Åöáóíøó Hamnah bint Jahsh said, “I used to bleed profusely and con-tinually, so I went to the Prophet (ρ ) to inform him and seek his judgement. When I found him at my sister Zaynab’s, I said: O Messenger of

Allaah! I have a strong, prolonged flow of blood, which has prevented me from fasting and formal prayer. What should I do? He replied, “Use cotton and it will stop the blood.” I said, “It is greater than that.” He then said, “Then wrap a napkin,” and I said, “It is greater than that.” He said, “Then use a piece of cloth under the napkin.” I said, “It is greater than even that. My blood gushes.” He said, “I will instruct you to do two things; you will be rewarded for whichever one you do. You know best which one you are able to do. This is only a kick from Satan, so consider yourself on your menses for six or seven days known to Allaah, then take a ghusl until you have cleaned yourself and pray and fast for twenty-four or twenty-three days and that will be sufficient for you. Do that every month according to periods in which women menstruate and are pure. If you are able to, advance the ‘Asr prayer and delay Thuhr prayer by bathing when you are pure and combining the Thuhr prayer and ‘Asr prayer. Then advance the ‘Ishaa prayer and delay the Maghrib prayer by taking another bath and
87 88 89 90 91

87

Mid-afternoon prayer, made after the length of the shadow of an object equals its height until immediately before sunset. 88 Mid-day prayer, which may be done anytime after the sun begins to decline from its zenith until the length of the shadow of an object equals its height. 89 All hadeeths which mention joining salaahs due to prolonged bleeding prescribe it in this fashion, known as al-jam‘ as-suwaree in Arabic, i.e. “apparent joining”. The Hambalee math-hab, which is the most accommodating on issues of joining salaahs, permits a sick person as well as those suffering from istihaadah or incontinence to join the two afternoon salaahs or the two evening salaahs at either the earlier or the later time. (See Fiqh us-Sunnah, vol. 2, p. 118.) 90 Night prayer, made from about an hour after sunset until midway between sunset and dawn. 91 Sunset prayer, made immediately after sunset until the redness leaves the sky.

combining the Maghrib prayer and ‘Ishaa prayer. Then take a separate bath for the Fajr prayer, and fast if you are able to do it. That is the more beloved of the two ways to me.”
92 93

Ghusl: A woman experiencing prolonged blood flow may take a bath prior to every compulsory prayer. Úóäú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉó ÒóæúÌö ÇáäøóÈöíøö (ρ ) Ãóäøó Ãõãøó ÍóÈöíÈóÉó ÈöäúÊó ÌóÍúÔò ÎóÊóäóÉó ÑóÓõæáö Çááøóåö (ρ ) æóÊóÍúÊó ÚóÈúÏö ÇáÑøóÍúãóäö Èúäö ÚóæúÝò ÇÓúÊõÍöíÖóÊú ÓóÈúÚó Óöäöíäó ¡ ÝóÇÓúÊóÝúÊóÊú ÑóÓõæáó Çááøóåö (ρ ) Ýöí Ðóáößó ¡ ÝóÞóÇáó ÑóÓõæáõ Çááøóåö (ρ ) (( Åöäøó åóÐöåö áóíúÓóÊú ÈöÇáúÍóíúÖóÉö æóáóßöäú åóÐóÇ ÚöÑúÞñ ÝóÇÛúÊóÓöáöí æóÕóáøöí))...ÞóÇáóÊú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉõ : ÝóÃóãóÑóåóÇ ÈöÇáúÛõÓúáö áößõáøö ÕóáÇóÉò . ÞóÇáóÊú ÚóÇÆöÔóÉõ : ÝóßóÇäóÊú ÊóÛúÊóÓöáõ Ýöí ãöÑúßóäò Ýöí ÍõÌúÑóÉö ÃõÎúÊöåóÇ ÒóíúäóÈó ÈöäúÊö ÌóÍúÔò ÍóÊøóì ÊóÚúáõæó . ÍõãúÑóÉõ ÇáÏøóãö ÇáúãóÇÁó The Prophet’s wife ‘Aa’ishah said, “Umm Habeebah bint Jahsh had continual “menstrual” bleeding for seven years and she asked Allaah’s Messenger concerning it. Allaah’s Messenger said, ‘This is not menstruation but only a vein; so you should take a bath and pray formal prayers.’” ‘Aa’ishah said, “(He instructed her to take a bath for every prayer [so]) she used to take a bath (for every
94

92 Dawn prayer, made anytime after the beginning of dawn until sunrise. 93 Authentically collected by Aboo Daawood (Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1,

pp. 72-3, no. 287), at-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah and authenticated in Irwaa’ alGhaleel, vol. 1, pp. 202-3, no. 188. 94 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 74, no. 292 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 58, no. 275.

prayer) in a wash-tub in the home of her sister, Zaynab bint Jahsh, and the redness of her blood was prominent in the water.” She may, instead, combine two compulsory prayers with a single bath and make wudoo’ for voluntary prayers. ‘Aa’ishah said,
95 96

Ãóäøó ÓóåúáóÉó ÈöäúÊó Óõåóíúáò ÇÓúÊõÍöíÖóÊú ¡ ÝóÃóÊóÊö ÇáäøóÈöíøó (ρ ) ¡ ÝóÃóãóÑóåóÇ Ãóäú ÊóÛúÊóÓöáó ÚöäúÏó ßõáøö ÕóáÇóÉò ¡ ÝóáóãøóÇ ÌóåóÏóåóÇ Ðóáößó ÃóãóÑóåóÇ Ãóäú ÊóÌúãóÚó Èóíúäó ÇáÙøõåúÑö æóÇáúÚóÕúÑö ÈöÛõÓúáò æóÇáúãóÛúÑöÈö æóÇáúÚöÔóÇÁö ÈöÛõÓúáò æóÊóÛúÊóÓöáó . áöáÕøõÈúÍö “Sahlah bint Suhayl had a prolonged blood-flow and she came to the Prophet (ρ ) and asked him about it. He commanded her to take a bath for every prayer. However, when this became difficult for her, he instructed her to take one bath and combine the Thuhr prayer and ‘Asr prayer ([by] advancing the ‘Asr prayer and delaying Thuhr prayer), take another bath and combine the Maghrib prayer and ‘Ishaa prayer ([by] advancing the ‘Ishaa prayer and delaying the
97

95

Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 195, no. 324 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 74, no. 290. 96 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 195, no. 324, Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 189, no. 655 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 73, no. 288. Note: ‘Ikrimah said, “The Prophet (ρ ) instructed Umm Habeebah bint Jahsh, who was suffering from prolonged blood-flow, to abstain from prayer during her menstrual period; then she should bathe and pray. If anything occurs (to nullify her wudoo’) she should make wudoo’ and pray.” See Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 79, no. 305. This was also the view of Rabee‘ah and Imaam Maalik ibn Anas. 97 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 74, no. 294 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 59, no. 281.

Maghrib prayer), and take a separate bath for the Fajr prayer.” Asmaa’ bint ‘Umays also reported that she informed the Messenger of Allaah (ρ ) about Faatimah bint Abee Hubaysh, who had a prolonged blood-flow and had abandoned formal prayer. Allaah’s messenger (ρ) said,
98

99

ÓõÈúÍóÇäó Çááøóåö Åöäøó åóÐóÇ ãöäó ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäö )) áöÊóÌúáöÓú Ýöí ãöÑúßóäò ÝóÅöÐóÇ ÑóÃóÊú ÕõÝúÑóÉð ÝóæúÞó ÇáúãóÇÁö ÝóáúÊóÛúÊóÓöáú áöáÙøõåúÑö æóÇáúÚóÕúÑö ÛõÓúáÇð æóÇÍöÏðÇ æóÊóÛúÊóÓöáú áöáúãóÛúÑöÈö æóÇáúÚöÔóÇÁö ÛõÓúáÇð æóÇÍöÏðÇ æóÊóÛúÊóÓöáú áöáúÝóÌúÑö ÛõÓúáÇð æóÇÍöÏðÇ ((. æóÊóÊóæóÖøóÃú ÝöíãóÇ Èóíúäó Ðóáößó “Subhaanallaah (Glory be to Allaah)! This comes from the devil. She should sit in a tub, and when she sees yellowness on top of the water, she should take a bath once for the noon and afternoon prayers, another bath for the sunset and night prayers, and another for the dawn prayer, and in between times she should make wudoo’ (ablutions).”
100

Wudoo’: The minimum required of a Muslim woman in this state is that she take a bath when her menses reaches its approximated end and make wudoo’ for every formal prayer. ‘Aa’ishah said: Faatimah bint Abee Hubaysh came to the Prophet (ρ ) and informed him of her condition. He said,

98 99

Ibid. Ibid., p. 75, no. 295 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 59, no. 282. 100 Ibid., pp. 75-6, no. 296 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 59, no. 283.

Ëõãøó ÇÛúÊóÓöáöí Ëõãøó ÊóæóÖøóÆöí áößõáøö

((. ÕóáÇóÉò æóÕóáøöí
101

))

“Take a bath, then perform wudoo’ for every formal prayer and pray.” ‘Adee ibn Thaabit also quoted his grandfather as saying that the Prophet (ρ ) said, regarding the woman having prolonged bloodflow, “She should stop praying during her menstrual period; then she should take a bath and pray by making wudoo’ for every prayer.” ‘Aa’ishah was also quoted as saying concerning a woman experiencing prolonged blood-flow, “She should take a bath, then make wudoo’ (for each prayer) until her next menstrual period.”
102 103

Sexual Intercourse Sexual intercourse is permitted with women experiencing bleeding outside of menses, according to the practice of the companions of the Prophet (ρ ). ‘Ikrimah said, “Umm Habeebah had a prolonged blood-flow and her husband used to have sexual relations with her.” He also quoted Hamnah bint Jahsh as saying that her husband used to have sexual relations with her during the period in which she had a prolonged blood-flow.
104 105

I‘tikaaf
101

106

Ibid., p. 76, no. 298 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 60, no. 287. 102 Ibid., vol. 1, p. 76, no. 297 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 60, no. 286. 103 Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 1, p. 76, no. 299 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 60, no. 288. 104 Ibid., p. 80, no. 309 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 62, no. 302. 105 Ibid., no. 310 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol. 1, p. 62, no. 303.

It is also permissible for women having prolonged bleeding outside of menses to be secluded in the mosque. The Prophet’s wife ‘Aa’ishah said, Ãóäøó ÇáäøóÈöíøó (ρ ) ÇÚúÊóßóÝó ãóÚóåõ ÈóÚúÖõ äöÓóÇÆöåö æóåöíó ãõÓúÊóÍóÇÖóÉñ ÊóÑóì ÇáÏøóãó . ÝóÑõÈøóãóÇ æóÖóÚóÊö ÇáØøóÓúÊó ÊóÍúÊóåóÇ ãöäó ÇáÏøóãö “Once one of the Prophet’s wives did i‘tikaaf along with him while she was bleeding between periods. She used to see blood and put a dish under her while she prayed [to prevent the blood from soiling the floor of the mosque].”
107 108

106

I‘tikaaf literally means to stick to something, whether good or evil, and to block out everything else. Islamically, it refers to seclusion in the mosque with the intention of becoming closer to Allaah. The Prophet (ρ ) used to seclude himself for the last ten days of Ramadaan and in the year that he died, he secluded himself for twenty days (See, Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 3, p. 145, no. 260). One year, he also secluded himself during the last ten days of Shawwaal, instead of Ramadaan (See, Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 3, p. 144, no. 257). It is also possible to seclude oneself without fasting. Prophet Muhammad (ρ ) instructed ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab to seclude himself for one night since he had made a vow to do so (See Sahih Al-Bukhari , vol. 3, pp. 144-5, no. 258). 107 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 3, p. 184, no. 306 108 Ibid., p. 185, no. 307 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 2, p. 683, no. 2470.

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