You are on page 1of 72

Final Report

On the

Implementation of Image Processing Techniques for Target Detecting Robot using OpenCV

Project Supervisor
Dr. Haroon Attique Babri

Submitted By
Jahanzeb Nasir M. Usman Saeed M. Mohsin Butt M. Basit Shahab 05-Elect-37 05-Elect-35 05-Elect-40 05-Elect-294

Department Of Electrical Engineering University Of Engineering And Technology Lahore.

ABSTRACT
Digital Image Processing is one of the many fields that have seen large enhancements in recent years. Applications ranging from home security cameras to military grade search bots, cameras to ultra high resolution spectroscopes and what not are some of the application where DIP is used. The purpose of this project was dual- faceted: educational and also to devise some method other than what students normally use. MATLAB, with its two immensely popular toolboxes naming Data Acquisition Toolbox and Image Processing Toolbox is the conventional Image Processing tool being used now-a-days. We tried to use some other method and after a lot of research, we found another tool OpenCV. So, in the project we used OpenCV libraries and functions to perform the Image Processing. The following report begins with the most basic information about Image Processing System. The project consisted of three phases. First part was to design a base for the robot and the interesting part about the base, well actually about the robot is that it was completely made from wooden scales. The second part was to test the camera on PC and devise the algorithm for Image Processing. The Image Processing process includes capturing frames, detecting the object and then telling the robot where the object actually is. The final part was to design the complete circuitry for the robot and its interface with the PC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract..1 Table of Content....2 List of Figures....4 Acknowledgements....5 Dedication.......6 Project Overview7
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Basic Idea...7 Design Goals..7 Design Parameters for the Robot...7 Design Phases.8 1.4.1 Design of Robot structure....8 1.4.2 Image Processing..8 1.4.2 Control of the Robot..8 1.5 Report content....8

Design of Robotic Structure 10


2.1 Basic Design.10 2.2 Arm Design......11 2.3 Complete Robotic Structure Design.12 2.3.1 Rear Motor Assembly......12 2.3.2 Front Motor Assembly.13 2.3.3 Arm Motor Assembly......13 2.4 Changes made at the final moments13

Digital Image Processing14


3.1 Digital Image Processing..14 3.2 Image Processing Fundamentals.....14 3.2.1 CCD Camera15 3.2.1.1 Image Sensor in a CCD Camera..15 3.2.2 The video Norm...15 3.2.2.1 The Interlace process...16 3.2.3 Color Camera...16 3.2.3.1 Single chip color cameras.16 3.2.3.2 Three chip color cameras.17 2

3.3 What is Color?...........................................................................................17 3.4 Color management and Color transformation18 3.5 Color Spaces......18 3.5.1 RGB Color space18 3.5.2 Grayscale Color Space...19 3.5.2.1 Converting Color Image to Grayscale..19 3.5.3 CIEL*a*b* Color space.20 3.5.3.1 RGB and CMYK conversions to LAB.21 3.5.3.2 Range of L*a*b* coordinates....21 3.6 Steps involved in Digital Image Processing.21 3.6.1 Capture the image..21 3.6.2 Color space Transformation......21 3.6.3 Color extraction.....21 3.6.4 Identify an object of specific shape...22 3.7 MATLAB as Image Processing Tool....22 3.7.1 Capture the image.22 3.7.2 Color space Transformation..23 3.7.3 Color extraction.23 3.7.4 Identify an object of specific shape..23 3.8 Open CV as Image Processing Tool.....23 3.8.1 Capture the image.24 3.8.2 Color space Transformation.24 3.8.3 Color extraction24 3.8.4 Identify an object of specific shape.25

Open CV as Image Processing Tool..26


4.1 Introduction..26 4.2 Why Open CV..26 4.3 Integrating Open CV with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.026 4.3.1 Setting up the system PATH environmental variable.27 4.3.2 Specifying Directories in Visual C++ 6.0.27 4.3.3 Setting for new Projects in Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0.27 4.4 Important Data types and Functions Used ..27 4.4.1 IPL Image Data Structure.....28 4.4.2 cvCvtColor....30 4.4.3 Memory Storage...30 4.4.3.1 cvSeq Sequence....31 4.5 Accessing Image Elements....32 4.5.1Direct access using a pointer....33 4.6 Displaying Images.33 4.7 Video I/O....36 4.7.1 CvCapture...36 4.7.2 Capturing Frames....36 4.8 Circular Hough Transform.36 4.8.1 Parametric Representations..37 3

4.8.2 Accumulator.38 4.8.3 Circular Hough Transform Algorithm.39 4.8.4 CHT in OpenCV..40 4.9 The Ball detection and retrieval algorithm.41

Control System Design..46


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Introduction.46 Algorithm Consideration.46 Control Simulation...47 Control Code....49

Future Recommendations.50
6.1 Circular Hough Transform Hardware50 6.2 UART Interface51 6.3 Sobel Module51 6.4 Laplace Filtering52 6.5 Compact Module....52 6.6 Circle Module.52 6.7 Draw Module..52

Appendix A-Matlab Code...53 Appendix B-OpenCV Code.56 Appendix C-Datasheets...70 Refrences...

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 6.1 Title Page

Base Design .................10 Arm Design.......................11 Complete Robot Design................12 Image Processing System.................14 Interlace Process: two fields make a frame..........16 Image Produced by one chip camera............................17 Incoming light is divided into its basic components17 color images & their corresponding grayscale.....19 L*a*b* Color Space.................20 Input Image..42 Multiple Circle Detection42 Red Color Detection43 Blue Color Detection...43 Green Color Detection.44 Input Image to Function and Output Image.44 Control of DC Motor....47 Control of Stepper Motor47 Microcontroller Circuit...48 Power Supply Unit...48 Serial Port Circuit.....49 Block Diagram of System51

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank all our teachers who taught us at UET because it was just because of their efforts, we succeeded in achieving our goal. Special thanks to the advisor, Dr. Haroon Attique Babri for his indispensable advice at the most crucial steps of the project. Many thanks to Sir Fahad Zubair, for he was there whenever we needed him. He was very much helpful in the project and it would be a remiss if we dont mention that actually the whole project was his idea. We wish him Good luck for his future plans. Last, but not the least, we would like to thank Sir Asif Rehmat for his expertise and helping us set the direction of the project.

Sincerely, The Project Team.

vi

DEDICATION
We dedicate this project to our Parents and Teachers for it is just because of their prayers that we were able to complete our goals.

PROJECT OVERVIEW

1.1 Basic Idea The idea behind the project was to develop a robot that can assist in search and retrieval of a specified object. For that, we decided to set up a game plan for the robot where there will be balls of different colors and the robot will search and retrieve a ball of specific color. The searching part was done using a webcam that was interfaced to PC serially. The retrieval process start once the ball is found.

1.2 Design Goals Most of the robots that are being built now-a-days have metallic body. That makes the robot heavy and if not that, expensive and difficult to design. So the first goal was to come up with a new design and the idea that came up was to use only wooden scales. The goal was to make the robot strong enough to carry all the motors, battery and other stuff and on the other hand it should be lighter than the robots having metallic body. After processing the image on PC, the second goal was to establish a serial link between the robot and PC that will tell the robot when and where the ball actually is.

1.3 Design Parameters for the Robot At the kick-off meeting, we decided how the project would be approached. At this meeting, we decided several general design goals based on what has already been done on such kind of project. By reviewing the pros and cons of the previous attempts that were made to construct a robot with Image Processing capability, we finalized our design goals and started work on finalized design. The design goals of the robot were to reduce the cost and weight of the robot and to devise an optimized method for the arm that will pick up the ball. Specific design parameters are as follows: 2 degrees of freedom (1 for the arm, 1 for the gripper) One DC motor for rear movement. 8

One bipolar stepper motor for front movement. A single DC motor for both arm and gripper.

1.4 Design Phases The whole design was divided in three phases. 1. Design of Robotic Structure. 2. Image Processing. 3. Control of the robot.

1.4.1 Design of Robotic Structure The very first phase was to design the robotic structure. Like mentioned before, the structure was made using wooden scales.

1.4.2 Image Processing In this phase, we used a webcam to capture the image to the PC and then used different image processing techniques to find the ball in the image. The image processing tools used were OpenCV and MATLAB.

1.4.3 Control of the robot This final phase was to implement a control circuitry on the robot which was interfaced to the PC serially. After the ball is found, the PC sends a signal to the robot about the location of the ball and then the robot works accordingly.

1.5 Report Contents The report breakdown is outlined in the table of contents and list of figures. The report moves forward in exact order of design phases. The first part consists of the Robotic structure design. After that comes the Digital Image Processing chapter in which basic concepts of DIP are explained. Also, this chapter includes an overview of our methodology of performing Image Processing. Image Processing with the help of MATLAB is explained and the code for frame extraction, color space transformation and image segmentation is given in the appendix. After that the same procedure is explained

using OpenCV. Then comes the main chapter of Image Processing Using OpenCV in which the image processing process is explained step by step. After that the Design of Control System for the robot is explained. The appendices include code for Image Processing using MATLAB, Image Processing using OpenCV and code for the control circuit. The appendix also includes future recommendation for the project. The information presented in the appendices is a supplement to this report, intended to aid future designers who work on a similar robotic manipulator project (for example, use the programs for design optimization).

10

Design of Robotic Structure

2.1 Base Design


The first phase of the project was to design of the base and it was rather complex because we did not have any experience or knowledge of the mechanics involved. Mechanical design of a robot is an experience unlikely encountered by most Electrical engineering students. The robotic structure design alone developed into a complete project which pushed us to get some knowhow of basic mechanics involved. The design of the base is shown in Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1: Base Design 1

11 | P a g e

The base was designed keeping following factors in mind. The base should be rigid enough to hold the motors and other stuff aboard. The size of the base was designed so that it was large enough to accommodate everything that was needed on board. The front part was extended to accommodate the webcam.

2.2 Arm Design


The arm design was done keeping in mind that it has to be freely movable. The arm was supposed to come in action only when the target was in range. In all other cases the arm was raised above. The basic arm design is shown in figure 2.

Figure 2.2: Arm Design

12 | P a g e

2.3 Complete Robotic Structure Design


The complete robotic structure is shown in figure 2.3. The complete structure consists of all the motors for front, rear, and arm movement. The front part was extended so that camera can be accommodated.

Figure 2.3: Complete Robot Design

2.3.1 Rear Motor Assembly The rear motor is a simple 12 V DC motor placed on a bench on the rear of the robot. The shaft was made using a screw driver and the tires were custom made using tires available in market.

13 | P a g e

2.3.2 Front Motor assembly The Front motor is a unipolar stepper motor with step size of 7.5 degree. The motor was mounted on the wooden base. The front wheels turning capability is achieved using a rotary to linear motion gear system.

2.3.3 Arm Motor Assembly The arm motor is also placed on the base of the robot. It is a simple DC motor. The gears attached have a very large gear ratio which helps the arm to retain its position and also helps it to pick up large loads.

2.4 Changes made at the final moment


We had to do an important change in the arm at the final moment. The problem was that when the designed arm was tested in actual environment, it was unable to hold the ball. So we had to install some additional hardware for that. A door type arrangement was made. As we had already accommodated three motors onboard, so we had to devise an arrangement such that only one motor controls both the arm and the doors. The change made was that we add a pulley on the top of the robot and the doors were pulled out by elastic bands. The doors were pulled in by a wire which was pulled by the motor instead. So when the ball is in place and motor starts pulling up, the doors close first and then the arm is raised.

14 | P a g e

Digital Image Processing

3.1 Image Processing System


An image processing system consists of an illuminating source, an image sensor (webcam in our case) and interface between image sensor and PC. A simple diagrammatic representation of an Image processing system is shown in figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1: Image Processing System

The interface between the camera and PC does some very important things. First it converts the analog video data to digital data so that it can be understood by PC. Then there is a part of interface known as the frame grabber that grabs the frames at specific instants as they come from camera. After the frame grabber, the images are available in the drive and can be processed.

3.2 Image Processing Fundamentals


Image processing is a general term used to describe different techniques used in image manipulation. Most cameras produce images in form of spatially distributed intensity values of 15 | P a g e

electromagnetic radiations which can be digitized and stored in RAM. This helps in the processing of the image. Many image processing systems are used depending on the application used. They differ in their acquisition principle, speed, resolution, sensor system and range. Image sensors can be classified according to their sensitivity ranges. Electromagnetic sensors for gamma radiation, X-rays, visual spectrum, infrared spectrum and radio wave spectrum are available and are used in different applications.

3.2.1 CCD Came ras In a film camera, a photo sensitive film is moved in front of the lens, exposed to light, and then mechanically transposed to be stored in a film roll. A CCD camera on the other hand has no mechanical parts. Incoming light falls on a CCD (Charge Coupled Device) sensor which is actually a large number of light sensitive semiconductors which we call pixels.

3.2.1.1 Image Sensor in a CCD Camera Image sensor is the heart of a CCD camera. The physics behind the sensor is the inner photo effect. This means that the incoming photons produce electrons in the semi-conductor material, which are separated in the photo diode and are stored in a capacitor. This capacitor is connected to the surrounding electrical circuit via a MOS transistor, which acts like a light switch. If it opens, the charges will be collected by the capacitor (that explains the word integrated) and will be transported when the switch is closed.

3.2.2 The Video Norm Real time systems are usually based on video norms, which mean that the image acquisition as well as the conversion of digital data into a video signal and vice versa have to conform to international standards. In Europe, this norm is defined by the Comite Consultaif International des Radiocommunications (CCIR); in the USA, the norm is called RS-170 Standard and was defined by the Electronics Industries Association (EIA). The PAL (Phase Alternation Line) and SECAM (Sequential Couleur a Memoire) color standards are based on

16 | P a g e

CCIR while the color system based on RS-170 is NTSC (National Television System Committee).

3.2.2.1 The Interlace Process Both norms require a process which is required for the image on the screen to by nonflickering. This is called the Interlace Process. The complete image (frame) is divided in two half images (fields). One consists of the odd lines and the other consists of even lines of the images. The interlace process is shown in figure 3.2

Figure 3.2: Interlace Process: two fields make a frame

3.2.3 Color Cameras Color cameras produce a color image which consists of three parts: Red, green and blue. By additive color mixture and intensity variations in the different parts, almost any color can be produced.

3.2.3.1 Single Chip Color cameras These cameras are less sophisticated. The incoming light gets separated into its red, green and blue parts by means of a strip or mosaic filter which is located directly on the CCD sensor. The image produced by these cameras is shown in figure 3.3. At readout time, the pixels of red, green and blue are transferred successively. Electronic switches divide the signal into primary colors. The three primary colors cannot be separated for individual image processing purpose and so they are normally used in entertainment electronics areas.

17 | P a g e

Figure 3.3: Image Produced by one chip camera a) Mosaic filte r b) Stripe filte r 3.2.3.2 Three chip color came ras These cameras use a separate CCD sensor for each of the three primary colors. Prisms in the optical path provide a separation of incoming light into its three components, which will be directed to the appropriate sensor. The data of three CCD sensors can be stored on RAM and can be processed separately. The process of color separation is shown in figure 3.4.

Figure 3.4: Incoming light is divided into its basic components

3.3 What Is Color?


Color is an experience. When light reflects off a colored object, the human eye senses color. Technically, the measure of the power, called the Power Spectral Density (PSD), carried 18 | P a g e

by each frequency or color in a light source (illuminant) and the colored object (colorant) combine to produce reflected light with a particular PSD. This light interacts with the three types of color-sensitive cones in the human eye to produce nerve impulses that the brain interprets as a specific color. Spectral color is useful for unambiguously describing a color, but it can be unwieldy for describing large numbers of colors. It is much more common to use a color space transformation that helps in getting device independent colors. In the case of RGB, the received images are device-dependent combinations of red, green, and blue light. For color systems such as XYZ and L*a*b* these images become device-independent and are modeled on aspects of the human visual system.

3.4 Color Management and Color Transformations


Color management is an essential part of the image acquisition, image processing, and image output workflow. Most cameras give images in RGB or YUV. So the color appearance and format of pixels change if we change the camera. So we use color transformation to transform the received color space in a known color space to make the received images device independent.

3.5 Color Spaces


Some important color spaces like RGB, Grayscale and LAB are described below. 3.5.1 RGB Color Space An RGB color space can be easily understood by thinking of it as "all possible colors" that can be made from three colorants for red, green and blue. Imagine, for example, shining three lights together onto a white wall: one red light, one green light, and one blue light, each with dimmer switches. If only the red light is on, the wall will look red. If only the green light is on, the wall will look green. If the red and green lights are on together, the wall will look yellow. Dim the red light some and the wall will become more of a yellow-green. Dim the green light instead, and the wall will become more orange. Bringing up the blue light a bit will cause the orange to become less saturated and more whitish. In all, each setting of the three dimmer switches will produce a different result, either in color or in brightness or both. 19 | P a g e

3.5.2 Grayscale Color Space A grayscale image is an image in which the value of each pixel is a single sample, that is, it carries only intensity information. Images of this sort, also known as black-and-white, are composed exclusively of shades of gray, varying from black at the weakest intensity to white at the strongest. Grayscale images are also called monochromatic, denoting the absence of any chromatic variation. 3.5.2.1 Conve rting Color image to Grayscale To convert any color to a grayscale representation of its luminance, first one must obtain the values of its red, green, and blue (RGB) primaries in linear intensity encoding. Then, add together 30% of the red value, 59% of the green value, and 11% of the blue value (these weights depend on the exact choice of the RGB primaries, but are typical). Regardless of the scale employed (0.0 to 1.0, 0 to 255, 0% to 100%, etc.), the resultant number is the desired linear luminance value. To convert a gray intensity value to RGB, simply set all the three primary color components red, green and blue to the gray value, correcting to a different gamma if necessary. Here is an example of color channel splitting of a full RGB color ima ge. The column at left shows the isolated color channels in natural colors, while at right there are their grayscale equivalences:

Figure 3.5: Color images and their corresponding grayscale versions 20 | P a g e

The reverse is also possible: to build a full color image from their separate grayscale channels. By mangling channels, offsetting, rotating and other manipulations, artistic effects can be achieved instead of accurately reproducing the original image. 3.5.3 CIE L*a*b* Color Space CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) is the most complete color space specified by the International Commission on Illumination (Commission Internationale d'Eclairage, hence its CIE initials). It describes all the colors visible to the human eye and was created to serve as a device independent model to be used as a reference. The LAB color space is shown in figure 3.6. Unlike the RGB and CMYK color models (which model the output of physical device), LAB color is designed to approximate human vision. It aspires to perceptual uniformity, and its L component closely matches human perception of lightness. It can thus be used to make accurate color balance corrections by modifying output curves in a and b components, or to adjust the lightness contrast using the L component.

Figure 3.6: L*a*b* Color Space

The three coordinates of CIELAB represent the lightness of the color (L* = 0 yields black and L* = 100 indicates diffuse white; white may be higher), its position between red/magenta and 21 | P a g e

green (a*, negative values indicate green while positive values indicate magenta) and its position between yellow and blue (b*, negative values indicate blue and positive values indicate yellow).

3.5.3.1 RGB and CM YK conversions to LAB There are no simple formulas for conversion between RGB or CMYK values and L*a*b*, because the RGB and CMYK color models are device dependent. The RGB or CMYK values first need to be transformed to a specific absolute color space, such as sRGB. This adjustment will be device dependent, but the resulting data from the transform will be device independent, allowing data to be transformed into L*a*b*.

3.5.3.2 Range of L*a*b* coordinates As mentioned previously, the L* coordinate ranges from 0 to 100. The possible range of a* and b* coordinates depends on the color space that one is converting from. For example, when converting from sRGB, the a* coordinate range is [-0.86, 0.98], and the b* coordinate range is [-1.07, 0.94].

3.6 Steps Involved in Digital Image Processing


The following steps were involved in the image processing.

3.6.1 Capture the image The camera gives a video feed at 15fps. The first step is to get a frame from that video feed and store the image in the hard disk.

3.6.2 Color space transformation The frame captured is in a color space that is device dependant. So to get a color representation of the image that is device independent, we transform the color space.

3.6.3 Color extraction After the transformation, we search the image for some specific color; extract the image after replacing that specific color with white and the remaining frame with black color and save the resulting image as an intermediate image. 22 | P a g e

3.6.4 Identify an object of specific shape After this, we find the boundaries of all the remaining objects in white and find out of the shape of the boundary. This will tell us what the robot is looking at.

3.7 MATLAB as Image Processing Tool


MATLAB has two versatile toolbox used in image processing system. These are Image Acquisition Toolbox and Image Processing Toolbox. In order to perform the image processing, we proceed as follows.

3.7.1 Capture the image We will use MATLABs Image Acquisition toolbox for getting the cameras video feed. Type imaqhinfo in command window to see this

This tells us what video adapter is attached to the PC. We will use this video adapter to get the video feed. Any webcam you connect is accessed through this adaptor. Now the main part 1) Connect your we bcam to the computer. vid = videoinput(winvideo, 1, RGB24_320240); This command will create an instance of the webcam video feed. Notice that winvideo is the name of the adapter installed. The resolution is also specified in the command. 2) Open Previe w window to vie w video at runtime preview (vid); This will open a window and you will be able to view the video feed of the webcam in real time. 3) Capture data = getsnapshot (vid); 23 | P a g e

This command will store the image of that instant into the variable data in a matrix of 320X240.

3.7.2 Color space transformation The image captured from the camera is in RGB color space. We convert it in L*a*b* color space. We use two function of image processing toolbox to perform this.

cform = makecform ('srgb2lab'); lab_fabric = applycform (fabric, cform);

The complete code for this step is given in Appendix B. 3.7.3 Color extraction In this step, we have an image that is transformed to L*a*b* color space. Each color marker now has an a* and a b* value. You can classify each pixel in the actual image by calculating the Euclidean distance between that pixel and each color marker. The smallest distance will tell you that the pixel most closely matches that color marker. For example, if the distance between a pixel and the red color marker is the smallest, then the pixel would be labeled as a red pixel. The complete code for this step is given in Appendix B.

3.7.4 Identify an object of specific shape After the last step, we start the identification of a specific object. We convert the image to grayscale and then threshold it. Then the boundaries of the objects are calculated. Then an object of a specific shape can be found using a shape metric. The complete code for this step is given in Appendix B.

3.8 OpenCV as Image Processing Tool


OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision) is a library of programming functions mainly aimed at real time computer vision. OpenCV is becoming a very good tool in image processing applications as it has libraries that help in different applications like Object Identification, Segmentation and Recognition, Motion Tracking etc. 24 | P a g e

3.8.1 Capture the image In order to capture the image from the camera, we first create an instance of type CvCapture* that will be used to get image from any device attached. We write CV_CAP_ANY to tell that frame is to be captured from any device that is connected.

CvCapture* capture = cvCaptureFromCAM ( CV_CAP_ANY ); After that, we retrieve the frame using cvRetrieveFrame and store in a variable of type IplImage*.

IplImage* frame=cvRetrieveFrame(capture);

After that the frame is ready to be processed.

3.8.2 Color space transformation OpenCV is quite versatile in providing all the different functionalities in simple MATLAB like format for example to convert RGB image to LAB color space, simply use a command CV_RGB2LAB and we get the result.

3.8.3 Color extraction In order to extract colors using OpenCV, we make use of a simple fact that all the RGB images consists of 3 different channels naming Red, Green and Blue channel. So we use a simple condition based upon the color we need to extract. The factor 29 is random and is dependent on the device used. For example, for extraction of red color, which is the third channel in the image, the condition is somewhat like this,

if(((data[i*step+j*channels+2]) > (29+data[i*step+j*channels])) && ((data[i*step+j*channels+2]) > (29+data[i*step+j*channels+1]))) datar[i*stepr+j*channelsr]=255; else datar[i*stepr+j*channelsr]=0; 25 | P a g e

3.8.4 Identify an object of specific shape After the last step, we start the identification of a specific object. In this step, we use a technique named Hough Transform to detect an object of circular shape. In OpenCV we use Hough Gradient Method to detect circles.

26 | P a g e

OpenCV as Image Processing Tool

4.1 Introduction
The Intel Open Source Computer Vision Library, or just OpenCV, is a library of image processing and computer vision algorithms. Its open source so anybody can contribute to it. OpenCV utilizes Intels Image Processing Library (IPL), which is a set of low- level image processing functions. OpenCV uses DirectX, which is a set of APIs developed by Microsoft for creating multimedia applications and games. OpenCV is portable and very efficient. It is implemented in C/C++.

4.2 Why OpenCV


The Open CV Library is a way of establishing an open source vision community that will make better use of up-to-date opportunities to apply computer vision in the growing PC environment. The software provides a set of image processing functions as well as image and pattern analysis functions. The functions are optimized for Intel architecture processors and are particularly effective in taking advantage of Intel MMX technology. OpenCV is quickly gaining popularity for developing real-time computer vision applications. Some examples of applications include face recognizers, object recognizers, and motion trackers, just to name a few. The library has especially gained popularity in the computer vision research community. It allows researchers to get demos or research projects up and running quickly, and take advantage of the large collection of algorithms that are already available.

4.3 Integrating OpenCV with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0


The OpenCV software runs on personal Computers that are Intel architecture based and running Microsoft Windows. First of all DirectX 9.0 SDK and OpenCV Libraries must be installed in the PC. The OpenCV integrating procedure with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 is given below.

27 | P a g e

4.3.1. Setting Up the System PATH Environme ntal Variable Add the path of the OpenCV bin folder C:\ProgramFiles\OpenCV\bin in the Environment variables tab in System properties. Restart the computer for the PATH variable to be updated.

4.3.2. Specifying Directories in Visual C++ 6.0 Visual C++ 6.0 must be able to find files such as include, source, executable, and library files. We need to go in and manually tell the IDE where to find the ones it needs. Start Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0. Goto tools > options > Directories tab. You can switch to ot her file types such as library files by clicking the arrow under Show directories for. In Show directories for include files tab add the following paths. C:\ProgramFiles\OpenCV\cv\include C:\ProgramFiles\OpenCV\cxcore\include C:\ProgramFiles\OpenCV\otherlibs\highgui C:\Program Files\Microsoft DirectX SDK (November 2008)\Include In Show directories for Executable files tab add the following paths. C:\ProgramFiles\OpenCV\bin In Show directories for Library files tab add the following paths. C:\ProgramFiles\OpenCV\lib C:\Program Files\Microsoft DirectX SDK (November 2008)\lib\x86

4.3.3. Settings for New Project in Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 Whenever a new project is created goto Project Settings Links tab. Under Object/library Modules add the following libraries cv.lib cxcore.lib srmbase.lib highgui.lib

4.4 Important Data types and Functions Used


There are a few fundamental types OpenCV Operates on, and a several helper data types that are introduced to make OpenCV API more simple and uniform. Some of the fundamental data types and functions are discussed below:

28 | P a g e

4.4.1 IplImage Data Structure OpenCV makes it relatively easy to load images. OpenCV uses an IplImage data structure to represent an image internally. The cvLoadImage function to assign the image to an IplImage pointer. The exact definition of the IplImage structure is shown in

typedef struct _IplImage { int nSize; int ID; int nChannels; int alphaChannel; int depth; char colorModel[4]; char channelSeq[4]; int dataOrder; int origin; int align; int width; int height; struct _IplROI* roi; struct _IplImage* maskROI; void* imageId; struct _IplTileInfo* tileInfo; int imageSize; char* imageData; int widthStep; int BorderMode[4]; int BorderConst[4]; char* imageDataOrigin; } IplImage;

29 | P a g e

After the ubiquitous width and height, depth and nChannels are the next most crucial. The depth variable takes one of a set of values defined in ipl.h, which are (unfortunately) not exactly the values we encountered when looking at matrices. This is because for images we tend to deal with the depth and the number of channels separately (whereas in the matrix routines we tended to refer to them simultaneously). The possible depths are listed below. OpenCV image types Macro IPL_DEPTH_8U IPL_DEPTH_8S IPL_DEPTH_16S IPL_DEPTH_32S IPL_DEPTH_32F IPL_DEPTH_64F Image pixel type Unsigned 8-bit integer (8u) Signed 8-bit integer (8s) Signed 16-bit integer (16s) Signed 32-bit integer (32s) 32-bit floating-point single-precision (32f) 64-bit floating-point double-precision (64f)

The possible values for nChannels are 1, 2, 3, or 4.

The parameter widthStep contains the number of bytes between points in the same column and successive rows. The variable width is not sufficient to calculate the distance because each row may be aligned with a certain number of bytes to achieve faster processing of the image; hence there may be some gaps between the end of ith row and the start of (i + 1) row. The parameter imageData contains a pointer to the first row of image data Finally there is the practical and important region of interest (ROI), which is actually an instance of another IPL/IPP structure, IplROI. The idea behind the ROI is that, once it is set, functions that would normally operate on the entire image will instead act only on the subset of the image indicated by the ROI. All OpenCV functions will use ROI if set.

30 | P a g e

4.4.2 cvCvtColor The complementary function is cvCvtColor(), which converts from one color space (number of channels) to another while expecting the data type to be the same. The structure of cvCvtColor is,

void cvCvtColor( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, int code );

For example to convert RGB image to Grayscale, we use,

cvCvtColor(input, gray, CV_RGB2GRAY);

The conversions used in the project are to convert RGB image extracted to Grayscale image or to convert it to CIE L*a*b* color space.

CV_RGB2GRAY CV_RGB2Lab

4.4.3 Memory Storage OpenCV uses an entity called memory storage as its method of handling memory allocation for dynamic objects. Memory storages are linked lists of memory blocks that allow for fast allocation and de-allocation of continuous sets of blocks. OpenCV functions that require the ability to allocate memory as part of their normal functionality will require access to a memory storage from which to get the memory they require (typically this includes any function whose output is of variable size). Memory storages are handled with the following four routines: CvMemStorage* cvCreateMemStorage( int block_size = 0 31 | P a g e

); void cvReleaseMemStorage( CvMemStorage** storage ); To create a memory storage, the function cvCreateMemStorage() is used. This function takes as an argument a block size, which gives the size of memory blocks inside the store. If this argument is set to 0 then the default block size (64kB) will be used. The function returns a pointer to a new memory store.

The cvReleaseMemStorage() function takes a pointer to a valid memory storage and then de-allocates the storage. This essentially equivalent to the OpenCV de-allocations of images, matrices, and other structures 4.4.3.1cvSeq Sequence One kind of object that can be stored inside memory storage is a sequence. Sequences are themselves linked lists of other structures. OpenCV can make sequences out of many different kinds of objects. In this sense you can think of the sequence as something similar to the generic container classes (or container class templates) that exist in various other programming languages. The sequence construct in OpenCV is actually a de-queue, so it is very fast for random access and for additions and deletions from either end but a little slow for adding and deleting objects in the middle. The sequence structure itself (see Example 8-1) has some important elements that you should be aware of. The first, and one you will use often, is total. The total number of points or objects in the sequence. The next four important elements are pointers to other sequences: h_prev, h_next, v_prev, and v_next. These four pointers are part of what are called CV_TREE_NODE_FIELDS; they are used not to indicate elements inside of the sequence but rather to connect different sequences to one another. Other objects in the OpenCV universe also contain these tree node fields. Internal organization of CvSeq sequence structure is written below. typedef struct CvSeq { int flags; // miscellaneous flags int header_size; // size of sequence header 32 | P a g e

CvSeq* h_prev; // previous sequence CvSeq* h_next; // next sequence CvSeq* v_prev; // 2nd previous sequence CvSeq* v_next // 2nd next sequence int total; // total number of elements int elem_size; // size of sequence element in byte char* block_max; // maximal bound of the last block char* ptr; // current write pointer int delta_elems; // how many elements allocated // when the sequence grows CvMemStorage* storage; // where the sequence is stored CvSeqBlock* free_blocks; // free blocks list CvSeqBlock* first; // pointer to the first sequence block }

A sequence is created like this: CvSeq* yourvariable = cvCreateSeq(int seq_flags, int header_size, int elem_size, CvMemStorage* storage. Individual elements in a sequence can be accessed with char* cvGetSeqElem( seq, index ). A sequence can be used as a stack with functions like push and pop. char* cvSeqPush( CvSeq* seq, void* element = NULL) char* cvSeqPop( CvSeq* seq, void* element = NULL) to see the total elements in a sequences seq->total

4.5 Accessing Image Elements.


Assume that you need to access the -th channel of the pixel at the i- th row and j-th column. The row index i is in the range [0, height-1]. The column index j is in the range [0, width-1] . The channel index is in the range [0 ,nchannels 1].

33 | P a g e

4.5.1Direct access using a pointer: (Simplified and efficient access under limiting assumptions)
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

For a single-channel byte image: IplImage* img = cvCreateImage(cvSize(640,480),IPL_DEPTH_8U,1); int height int width int step = img->height; = img->width; = img->widthStep/sizeof(uchar);

uchar* data = (uchar *)img->imageData; data[i*step+j] = 111; For a multi-channel byte image: IplImage* img = cvCreateImage(cvSize(640,480),IPL_DEPTH_8U,3); int height int width int step = img->height; = img->width; = img->widthStep/sizeof(uchar);

int channels = img->nChannels; uchar* data = (uchar *)img->imageData; data[i*step+j*channels+k] = 111; For a multi-channel float image (assuming a 4-byte alignment): IplImage* img = cvCreateImage(cvSize(640,480),IPL_DEPTH_32F,3); int height int width int step = img->height; = img->width; = img->widthStep/sizeof(float);

int channels = img->nChannels; float * data = (float *)img->imageData; data[i*step+j*channels+k] = 111;

4.6 Displaying Images


OpenCV provides utilities for reading from a wide array of image file types as well as from video and cameras. These utilities are part of a toolkit called HighGUI, which is included in the OpenCV package. We will use some of these utilities to create a simple program that opens an image and displays it on the screen. See Example 2-1. 34 | P a g e

#include highgui.h int main( int argc, char** argv ) { IplImage* img = cvLoadImage( argv[1] ); cvNamedWindow( Example1, CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE ); cvShowImage( Example1, img ); cvWaitKey(0); cvReleaseImage( &img ); cvDestroyWindow( Example1 ); } When compiled and run from the command line with a single argument, this program loads an image into memory and displays it on the screen. It then waits until the user presses a key, at which time it closes the window and exits. Lets go through the program line by line and take a moment to understand what each command is doing.

IplImage* img = cvLoadImage( argv[1] );

This line loads the image.* The function cvLoadImage() is a high- level routine that determines The file format to be loaded based on the file name; it also automatically allocates the memory needed for the image data structure. Note that cvLoadImage() can read a wide variety of image formats, including BMP, DIB, JPEG, JPE, PNG, PBM, PGM, PPM, SR, RAS, and TIFF. A pointer to an allocated image data structure is then returned. This structure, called IplImage, is the OpenCV construct with which you will deal the most. OpenCV uses this structure to handle all kinds of images: single-channel, multichannel, integer-valued, floating-point-valued, et cetera. We use the pointer that cvLoadImage() returns to manipulate the image and the image data. cvNamedWindow( Example1, CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE );

Another high- level function, cvNamedWindow(), opens a window on the screen that can contain and display an image. This function, provided by the HighGUI library, also assigns 35 | P a g e

a name to the window (in this case, Example1). Future HighGUI calls that interact with this window will refer to it by this name. The second argument to cvNamedWindow() defines window properties. It may be set either to 0 (the default value) or to CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE. In the former case, the size of the window will be the same regardless of the image size, and the image will be scaled to fit within the window. In the latter case, the window will expand or contract automatically when an image is loaded so as to accommodate the images true size. cvShowImage( Example1, img );

Whenever we have an image in the form of an IplImage* pointer, we can display it in an existing window with cvShowImage(). The cvShowImage() function requires that a named window already exist (created by cvNamedWindow()). On the call to cvShowImage(), the window will be redrawn with the appropriate image in it, and the window will resize itself as appropriate if it was created using the CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE flag.

cvWaitKey(0);

The cvWaitKey() function asks the program to stop and wait for a keystroke. If a positive argument is given, the program will wait for that number of milliseconds and then continue even if nothing is pressed. If the argument is set to 0 or to a negative number, the program will wait indefinitely for a key press.

cvReleaseImage( &img );

Once we are through with an image, we can free the allocated memory. OpenCV expects a pointer to the IplImage* pointer for this operation. After the call is completed, the pointer img will be set to NULL.

36 | P a g e

cvDestroyWindow( Example1 );

Finally, we can destroy the window itself. The function cvDestroyWindow() will close the window and de-allocate any associated memory usage (including the windows internal image buffer, which is holding a copy of the pixel information from *img). For a simple program, you dont really have to call cvDestroyWindow() or cvReleaseImage() because all the resources and windows of the application are closed automatically by the operating system upon exit, but its a good habit anyway.

4.7 Video I/O


Following functions and methodology is used for Video I/O.

4.7.1 CvCapture This structure contains all of the information about the AVI files being read, including state information. The CvCapture structure is initialized to the beginning of the AVI

4.7.2 Capturing Frames Following are the basic structures used to capture frames from a US B camera. CvCapture* capture = cvCaptureFromCAM( CV_CAP_ANY ); This command initializes capturing from any video capture device that is connected to the pc. After that, we retrieve the frame using cvRetrieveFrame or cvQueryframe and store in a variable of type IplImage. NULL is returned is returned if no frames are available. cvReleaseCapture(&capture) is used at the end of program to release the resources that was used by the camera.

4.8 Circular Hough Transform


A commonly faced problem in computer vision is to determine the location, number or orientation of a particular object in an image. One problem could for instance be to determine the straight roads on an aerial photo, this problem can be solved using Hough transform for lines. Often the objects of interest have other shapes than lines, it could be parables, circles or ellipses

37 | P a g e

or any other arbitrary shape. The general Hough transform can be used on any kind of shape, although the complexity of the transformation increase with the number of parameters needed to describe the shape. In the following we will look at the Circular Hough Transform (CHT).

4.8.1Parametric Representations The Hough transform can be described as a transformation of a point in the x, y-plane to the parameter space. The parameter space is defined according to the shape of the object of interest. A straight line passing through the points (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) can in the x, y-plan is described by: y = ax+b This is the equation for a straight line in the Cartesian coordinate system, where a, b represent the parameters of the line. The Hough transform for lines do not use this representation of lines, since lines perpendicular to the x-axis will have an a value of infinity. This will force the parameter space a, b to have infinite size. Instead a line is represented b y its normal which can be represented by an angel q and a length r. r = x cos(q)+y sin (q) The parameter space can now spanned by q and r, where q will have a finite size, depending on the resolution used for q. The distance to the line r will have a maximum size of two times the diagonal length of the image. The circle is actually simpler to represent in parameter space, compared to the line, since the parameters of the circle can be directly transfer to the parameter space. The equation of a circle is r^2 = (xa)^2+(yb)^2 As it can be seen the circle got three parameters, r, a, b. Where a, b are the center of the circle in the x and y direction respectively and where r is the radius. The parametric representation of the circle is x = a+r cos(q) y = b+r sin (q) Thus the parameter space for a circle will belong to R^3 whereas the line only belonged to R^2. As the number of parameters needed to describe the shape increases as well as the dimension of the parameter space R increases so do the complexity of the Hough transform.

38 | P a g e

Therefore is the Hough transform in general only considered for simple shapes with parameters belonging to R^2 or at most R^3.

4.8.2

Accumulator The process of finding circles in an image using CHT is that first we find all edges in the

image. This step has nothing to do with Hough Transform and any edge detection technique of your desire can be used. At each edge point we draw a circle with center in the point with the desired radius. This circle is drawn in the parameter space, such that our x axis is the a - value and the y axis is the b value while the z axis is the radii. At the coordinates which belong to the perimeter of the drawn circle, we increment the value in our accumulator matrix which essentially has the same size as the parameter space. In this way we sweep over every edge point in the input image drawing circles with the desired radii and incrementing the values in our accumulator. When every edge point and every desired radius is used, we can turn our attention to the accumulator. The accumulator will now contain numbers corresponding to the number of circles passing through the individual coordinates. Thus the highest numbers (selected in an intelligent way, in relation to the radius) correspond to the center of the circles in the image.

4.8.3 Circular Hough Transform Algorithm The algorithm for Circular Hough Transformation can be summarized as, Find edges. Begin CHT. For each edge point, Draw a circle with center in the edge point with radius r and increment all coordinates that the perimeter of the circle passes through in the accumulator. Find one or several maxima in the accumulator End CHT. Map the found parameters (r, a, b) corresponding to the maxima back to the original image.

39 | P a g e

4.8.4 CHT in OpenCV With all of that in mind, lets move on to the OpenCV routine that does all this for us:

CvSeq* cvHoughCircles( CvArr* image, void* circle_storage, int method, double dp, double min_dist, double param1 = 100, double param2 = 300, int min_radius = 0, int max_radius = 0 ); The Hough circle transform function cvHoughCircles() has similar arguments to the line transforms. The input image is again an 8-bit image. The cvHoughCircles() function will automatically perform edge detection on the input image, so you can provide a more general grayscale image. The circle_storage can be either an array or memory storage, depending on how you would like the results returned. If an array is used, it should be a single column of type CV_32FC3; the three channels will be used to encode the location of the circle and its radius. If memory storage is used, then the circles will be made into an OpenCV sequence and a pointer to that sequence will be returned by cvHoughCircles(). The method argument must always be set to CV_HOUGH_GRADIENT. The parameter dp is the resolution of the accumulator image used. This parameter allows us to create an accumulator of a lower resolution than the input image. (It makes sense to do this because there is no reason to expect the circles that exists in the image to fall naturally into the same number of categories as the width or height of the image itself.) If dp is set to 1 then the resolutions will be the same; if set to a larger number (e.g., 2), then the accumulator resolution will be smaller by that factor (in this case, half). The value of dp cannot be less than 1. 40 | P a g e

The parameter min_dist is the minimum distance that must exist between two circles in order for the algorithm to consider them distinct circles. For the (currently required) case of the method being set to CV_HOUGH_GRADIENT, the next two arguments, param1 and param2, are the edge threshold and the accumulator threshold, respectively. Canny edge detector actually takes two different thresholds itself. When cvCanny() is called internally, the first (higher) threshold is set to the value of param1 passed into cvHoughCircles(), and the second (lower) threshold is set to exactly half that value. The parameter param2 is the one used to threshold the accumulator and is exactly analogous to the threshold argument of cvHoughLines(). The final two parameters are the minimum and maximum radius of circles that can be found. This means that these are the radii of circles for which the accumulator has a representation.

4.9 The Ball detection and retrieval algorithm.


The program waits for the user to input what color ball he wants to detect and retrieve. Once the ball is selected, the image is passed to a function which explicitly checks whether the ball of specific color is in the frame or not. For this, the function first thresholds the input image for that specific color. Say for extracting the red content of the input image, a simple scan is done. The red channel of each pixel of input image is compared with the other two channels. If the intensity of red channel is greater than the other two by some threshold value say 29 ,the corresponding pixel in the resultant grayscale image is turned white i.e. intensity= 255 otherwise the pixel is turned black. Same is the case if we want to find ball of green or blue color. Next step is to find circular objects in the input image. This is done by using cvHoughCircles library function. Which returns the centre point and radius of the circular object if found. The input image and corresponding resultant images are shown below.

41 | P a g e

Figure 4.1: Input Image

Figure 4.2: Multiple Circles Detection Output

42 | P a g e

Figure 4.3: Red Color Detection Output

Figure 4.4: Blue Color Detection Output

43 | P a g e

Figure 4.5: Green Color Detection Output

The circular object coordinates returned by cvHoughCircles are compared against the resultant red, green and blue gray scale images. The grayscale image having intensity =255 in the circular region returned by cvHoughCircles helps us in determining which color ball has been detected. The following figures show the input image and corresponding output of circular Hough transform for different number of balls in the input image.

Figure 4.6: Input Image to function and Output Image

44 | P a g e

After finding the ball of the specified color, control signals are sent serially to the robot. If the ball is not in center, the signals sent are such that the robot turns some unit such that the ball comes in center. Once the ball is in center, another control is sent telling the robot to move forward. Once the robot is near the ball (this is found by continuously monitoring the radius returned by cvHoughCircles), another control signal is sent telling the robot to lower its arm and then start moving forward to retrieve the ball.

45 | P a g e

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

5.1 Introduction Control system design for the robot was the final phase of the project. Basic idea was to keep the design simple yet complete in its working. The design considerations are listed below. The actual control mechanism must be simple and so we made the control of the robot just like an actual being in search of something. While the arm is moving, the robot must not be able to move. This does not mean a locking of the wheels, but control of the robots movement must not occur simultaneously with that of the arm.

5.2 Algorithm Considerations Normal human day-to-day functioning is an automatic process almost involuntary. The thought pattern required for what most consider simple movements are actually incredibly complex and intricate procedures. Consider you want to retrieve an object; the thought process can be outlined in a few steps: Locate the object. Go to the object. Retrieve it. Now if we want our robot to perform these tasks, we would have to write pages and pages of computer code as the processing for these very simple looking steps is quite immense, even for the human brain (not that we notice it). The robot must have a vision system that can see and locate the object. After the object is located, the motor control must be activated so that robot can move to the object. After the object is reached, the robotic arm control is activated for the retrieval of the object.

46 | P a g e

5.3 Controls Simulation It is obvious that for successful operation of the project some method of checking control algorithm and user interface is required, since doing direct construction could prove expensive in terms of both money and time. To avoid this, we used Proteus as a simulation tool and all the circuits were simulated first and after that hardware was made. The simulations of the control are shown in figure 5.1.

Figure 5.1

control of dc motor

Figure 5.2

control of stepper motor

47 | P a g e

Figure 5.3

Microcontroller circuit

Figure 5.4

Powe r Supply Unit

48 | P a g e

Figure 5.5

Serial Port Circuit

5.4 Control Code At the time this document was being written, control code and hardware problems are in the process of being debugged. However, all control flow can be simplified to the following: 1. Power on - reset and initialize all chips/processors. 2. Start Rear motor and Turn 45 degrees by starting front motor. 3. Continue movement until ball is found. 4. Head towards the ball. Once a certain distance is achieved, lower the arm and then start forward to retrieve the ball. 5. Once ball is retrieved, raise the arm.

49 | P a g e

FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Circular Hough Transform Hardware


The Hough Transform (Hough, 1962) has been used to characterize analytic features. It was first applied to the recognition of straight lines, and later extended to circles, ellipses and arbitrary shaped objects. Its main disadvantage is the computational and storage requirements increase as a power of the dimensionality of the curve. It is not difficult to implement Circular Hough Transform (CHT) algorithm (which is in R^3) on modern perso nal computer. However, we want to use FPGA or ASIC to perform CHT. Modern FPGAs are capable of performing high speed operation and have large amount of embedded memory. The whole CHT circuitry with accumulator array excluded on a FPGA chip which has more than 1Mb RAM embedded. For implementing the image processing algorithm on hardware, we need the code to be efficient. For that reduce the image size, say image size is set to 256pixels * 256pixels, which means 16bit address are enough for X-axis and Y-axis arithmetic. If we use trigonometry, then the implementation will not be that efficient for hardware implementation. So do not use trigonometric function to implement fast and efficient CHT. Not to use trigonometric function means no tangent (gradient information) and no floating point arithmetic. We only need to compute the integer radius and center location on FPGA and then use external accumulators to get the results. A FPGA or ASIC having more than 1 M-Bits embedded memory can serve our purpose which can be used as our RAM buffer. Three 256*256*8 bit embedded memory (RAM1, RAM2 and RAM3) are required for edge detection and Laplace filtering. Images can be read from or written to the RAMs using clock i.e. the FPGA use synchronous memory. Synchronous memory in FPGA has better performance in writing than asynchronous memory. The block diagram of the system is shown in Figure 6.1. The following paragraph describes the architecture more detailed.

50 | P a g e

Figure 6.1: Block Diagram Of System

6.2 UART Interface


A UART interface is to receive gray level image from host and send the drawn circle image to host. One-stop or two-stop bit can be adjusted. Even parity or odd parity can be adjusted too. All the features help the interface works fine with any other UART interface. RAM1 is directly connected to UART and images stored in it can be read by using RAM read signal. The address of the RAM is also required in case of writing to or reading from it. If host wants to process some image stored in RAM1, send the address serially to chip and start Sobel Filtering.

6.3 Sobel Module


The Sobel module performs Sobel edge detection. It read gray level image data from RAM1 and performs the horizontal convolution and vertical convolution. The result of horizontal convolution is stored at RAM2 , and vertical convolution result is stored at RAM3. Figure 6-1 shows the relationship among Sobel module and others. During these convolution, all the results greater than 255 are fixed at 255, and all the results smaller than 0 are fixed at 0. This has to be done because (1) we use 8bit embedded memory and (2) this will reduce the computation required in the future stage. After the two convolutions are finished, the magnitude of the

51 | P a g e

gradient can be calculated and stored into RAM1. A threshold is again set to examine the magnitude which makes the Sobel edge detection generate binary image.

6.4 Laplace Filtering


Some image have better result if we performance the Laplace filtering after Sobel edge detection, and some dont. We can set a control bit to bypass Laplace filtering whenever we want. This will reduce the computation time.

6.5 Compact Module


The extracted edge pixels in the result are randomly located in the image buffer RAM1 or RAM2. We need to perform a defragmentation so that the performance of improves. So we need to rearrange the edge pixels and place them in the RAM buffer in sequence to reduce searching time in the center and radius calculation stage. The effect of compacting edge pixel locations is remarkable and center and radius calculation time can be reduced by a great amount. This will greatly reduce total detection time. If it is a valid edge pixel, the address of the data will be written into RAM.

6.6 Circle Module


The Circle module calculate radius and center location according to the address stored in the RAM.

6.7 Draw Module


The Draw module draw circle according to the detected radius and center location. Only the circle with local maximum radius and center histogram is to be drawn or otherwise processing time and memory required will increase. RAM contains the exact location of circle we detected. The content of RAM can be read through UART interface.

52 | P a g e

APPENDIX A MATLAB Code

fabric = imread('C:\Documents and Settings\Jahanzeb\My Documents\MATLAB\sample.jpg'); figure(1), imshow(fabric), title('fabric');

load regioncoordinates;

nColors = 6; sample_regions = false([size(fabric,1) size(fabric,2) nColors]);

for count = 1:nColors sample_regions(:,:,count) = roipoly(fabric,region_coordinates(:,1,count),... region_coordinates(:,2,count)); end

imshow(sample_regions(:,:,2)),title('sample region for red');

cform = makecform('srgb2lab'); lab_fabric = applycform(fabric,cform);

a = lab_fabric(:,:,2); b = lab_fabric(:,:,3); color_markers = repmat(0, [nColors, 2]);

for count = 1:nColors color_markers(count,1) = mean2(a(sample_regions(:,:,count))); color_markers(count,2) = mean2(b(sample_regions(:,:,count))); end

color_labels = 0:nColors-1; 53 | P a g e

a = double(a); b = double(b); distance = repmat(0,[size(a), nColors]);

for count = 1:nColors distance(:,:,count) = ( (a - color_markers(count,1)).^2 + ... (b - color_markers(count,2)).^2 ).^0.5; end

[value, label] = min(distance,[],3); label = color_labels(label); clear value distance;

rgb_label = repmat(label,[1 1 3]); segmented_images = repmat(uint8(0),[size(fabric), nColors]);

for count = 1:nColors color = fabric; color(rgb_label ~= color_labels(count)) = 0; segmented_images(:,:,:,count) = color; end %imshow(segmented_images(:,:,:,2)), title('red objects');

%imshow(segmented_images(:,:,:,3)), title('green objects');

imshow(segmented_images(:,:,:,6)), title('purple objects');

x=segmented_images(:,:,:,2); x=rgb2gray(x); z=edge(x); 54 | P a g e

figure(2),imshow(z),title('edge');

55 | P a g e

APPENDIX B OpenCV Code

#include"math.h" #include"conio.h" #include"cv.h" #include"highgui.h" #include"stdio.h" #include <windows.h> #include <iostream>

IplImage* redcheck(IplImage* input); IplImage* greencheck(IplImage* input); IplImage* bluecheck(IplImage* input); void serialsend(int send,int stps); int status = 0; int ball=0; int main() { /////////////////////////Wait for User Input //////////////////////////// printf("\n Enter the colour of the ball to detect:\n 0: Red \n1:Blue\n2:Green\n3:exit\n"); scanf("%d",&ball); ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// /////////////////////Initializing dvices and images////////////////////// int key=0; IplImage* frame=0; CvCapture* capture = cvCaptureFromCAM( CV_CAP_ANY ); if( !capture ) { fprintf( stderr, "ERROR: capture is NULL \n" ); getchar(); return -1; }

/////////////////////////Start capturing frames////////////////////////// for (;;) 56 | P a g e

{ frame = cvQueryFrame( capture ); if( !frame ) { fprintf( stderr, "ERROR: frame is null...\n" ); getchar(); break; } IplImage *red=redcheck(frame); IplImage *green=greencheck(frame); IplImage *blue=bluecheck(frame); cvNamedWindow( "mywindow", CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE ); cvShowImage( "mywindow", frame ); ////////////////////////Show Resultant Images//////////////////////////// switch(ball) { case 0: cvNamedWindow( "RED", CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE ); cvShowImage( "RED", red); break; case 2: cvNamedWindow( "GREEN", CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE ); cvShowImage( "GREEN", green); break; case 1: cvNamedWindow( "BLUE", CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE ); cvShowImage( "BLUE", blue); break; }

key=cvWaitKey(10); if (key == 27){ printf("\n\n done! \n\n"); break; } } ////////////////////////Destroy Windows and Devices//////////////////////////// switch(ball) { case 0: cvDestroyWindow("RED"); break; 57 | P a g e

case 2: cvDestroyWindow("GREEN"); break; case 1: cvDestroyWindow("BLUE"); break; } cvReleaseCapture( &capture ); cvDestroyWindow( "mywindow" ); return (0); }

IplImage* redcheck(IplImage* input) { IplImage *result=cvCreateImage( cvGetSize(input), 8, 1 ); //////////////////////Access Image Data Using pointers////////////////////// int i,j,k; int height,width,step,channels; int stepr, channelsr; int temp=0; uchar *data,*datar; i=j=k=0; height = input->height; width = input->width; step =input->widthStep; channels = input->nChannels; data = (uchar *)input->imageData;

stepr=result->widthStep; channelsr=result->nChannels; datar = (uchar *)result->imageData;

for(i=0;i < (height);i++) { for(j=0;j <(width);j++) { /* CHANNELS +2 ==RED CHANNEL.Select pixels which are more red than any other color. Select a difference of 29(which again depends on the scene)*/ 58 | P a g e

if(((data[i*step+j*channels+2]) > (25+data[i*step+j*channels])) && ((data[i*step+j*channels+2]) > (25+data[i*step+j*channels+1]))) { datar[i*stepr+j*channelsr]=255; } else datar[i*stepr+j*channelsr]=0; } } IplImage* gray = cvCreateImage(cvGetSize(input), 8, 1); CvMemStorage* storage = cvCreateMemStorage(0); cvCvtColor(input, gray, CV_RGB2GRAY); cvSmooth(gray, gray, CV_GAUSSIAN, 9, 9); CvSeq* circles = cvHoughCircles(gray, storage, CV_HOUGH_GRADIENT, 9, gray->height/25, 200, 100); int numofsteps=0; int left=0; int right=0; int cn=0; for (int x = 0; x < circles->total; x++) { float* p = (float*) cvGetSeqElem(circles, x); int radius=cvRound(p[2]); int column=cvRound(p[0]); int row=cvRound(p[1]); if (ball==0 && status == 0) { if (datar[cvRound(p[1])*stepr+cvRound(p[0])*channelsr]==255) { printf("\n Red Circle num=%d located at Row=%d Column =%d Radius = %d\n",x,cvRound(p[1]),cvRound(p[0]),cvRound(p[2])); if (radius>=62) printf("\ncircle is too near move backward\n"); else if (radius>=50 && radius<=70) { printf("\ncircle is ready to be picked\n"); // 0000 0 0 1 1 0000 0000 serialsend(3,0); status = 3; 59 | P a g e

} else if (radius<=49) { if (column > ((gray->width/2)-20) && column < ((gray->width/2)+20)) { printf ("\ncircle is in centre ,Move forward.\n"); //0000 0 0 1 0 serialsend(2,0); status = 2; } else { printf ("\ncircle is NOT in centre ,Rotate stepper motor by some degrees \n"); if (column>(gray->width/2)) { right=1; left=0; cn=320-column; printf("\ncolumns = %d",cn); numofsteps=(6-(cn/26.67)); printf("\n move %d steps to right\n",numofsteps); //0000 0 1 1 0 serialsend(6,numofsteps); status = 1; } else { right=0; left=1; cn=column; printf("\ncolumns = %d",cn); numofsteps=(6-(cn/26.67)); printf("move %d steps to left",numofsteps); //0000 1 0 1 0 serialsend(10,numofsteps); status = 1; } } } 60 | P a g e

} } if (ball == 0 && status == 1){ if (column > ((gray->width/2)-20) && column < ((gray>width/2)+20)) { printf ("\ncircle is in centre ,Move forward.\n"); serialsend(2,0); status = 2; } } if (ball == 0 && status == 2){ //check whether in centre or not.if yes than pickup the balll..///// if ((radius>=55 && radius<=70) && status == 2) { printf("\ncircle is ready to be picked\n"); serialsend(3,0); status = 3; } } } return result; }

IplImage* greencheck(IplImage* input) { IplImage *result=cvCreateImage( cvGetSize(input), 8, 1 ); ///////////////////Accessing Image Data//////////////////////////// int i,j,k; int height,width,step,channels; int stepr, channelsr; int temp=0; uchar *data,*datar; i=j=k=0; height = input->height; width = input->width; step =input->widthStep; channels = input->nChannels; 61 | P a g e

data = (uchar *)input->imageData;

stepr=result->widthStep; channelsr=result->nChannels; datar = (uchar *)result->imageData;

for(i=0;i < (height);i++) { for(j=0;j <(width);j++) { /* CHANNELS +1 ==GREEN CHANNEL.Select pixels which are more red than any other color. Select a difference of 29(which again depends on the scene)*/ if(((data[i*step+j*channels+1]) > (25+data[i*step+j*channels])) && ((data[i*step+j*channels+1]) > (25+data[i*step+j*channels+2]))) datar[i*stepr+j*channelsr]=255; else datar[i*stepr+j*channelsr]=0; } } IplImage* gray = cvCreateImage(cvGetSize(input), 8, 1); CvMemStorage* storage = cvCreateMemStorage(0); cvCvtColor(input, gray, CV_RGB2GRAY); cvSmooth(gray, gray, CV_GAUSSIAN, 9, 9); CvSeq* circles = cvHoughCircles(gray, storage, CV_HOUGH_GRADIENT, 9, gray->height/25, 200, 100); int numofsteps=0; int left=0; int right=0; int cn=0; for (int x = 0; x < circles->total; x++) { float* p = (float*) cvGetSeqElem(circles, x); int radius=cvRound(p[2]); int column=cvRound(p[0]); int row=cvRound(p[1]); if (ball==2 && status == 0) 62 | P a g e

{ if (datar[cvRound(p[1])*stepr+cvRound(p[0])*channelsr]==255) { printf("\n Green Circle num=%d located at Row=%d Column =%d Radius = %d\n",x,cvRound(p[1]),cvRound(p[0]),cvRound(p[2])); if (radius>=62) printf("\ncircle is too near move backward\n"); //circle is too near.... move backward. else if (radius>=50 && radius<=70) { printf("\ncircle is ready to be picked\n"); serialsend(3,0); status = 3; } else if (radius<=49) { if (column > ((gray->width/2)-10) && column < ((gray->width/2)+10)) { printf ("\ncircle is in centre ,Move forward.\n"); serialsend(2,0); status = 2; } else { printf ("\ncircle is NOT in centre ,Rotate stepper motor by some degrees \n"); if (column>(gray->width/2)) { right=1; left=0; cn=320-column; printf("\ncolumns = %d",cn); numofsteps=(6-(cn/26.67)); printf("\n move %d steps to right\n",numofsteps); serialsend(6,numofsteps); status = 1; } else { right=0; left=1; 63 | P a g e

cn=column; printf("\ncolumns = %d",cn); numofsteps=(6-(cn/26.67)); printf("move %d steps to left",numofsteps); serialsend(10,numofsteps); status = 1; } } } } } if (ball == 2 && status == 1){ if (column > ((gray->width/2)-20) && column < ((gray>width/2)+20)) { printf ("\ncircle is in centre ,Move forward.\n"); serialsend(2,0); status = 2; } } if (ball == 2 && status == 2){ if ((radius>=55 && radius<=70) && status == 2) { printf("\ncircle is ready to be picked\n"); serialsend(3,0); status = 3; } } }

return result; }

IplImage* bluecheck(IplImage* input) { IplImage *result=cvCreateImage( cvGetSize(input), 8, 1 ); int i,j,k; int height,width,step,channels; int stepr, channelsr; 64 | P a g e

int temp=0; uchar *data,*datar; i=j=k=0; height = input->height; width = input->width; step =input->widthStep; channels = input->nChannels; data = (uchar *)input->imageData;

stepr=result->widthStep; channelsr=result->nChannels; datar = (uchar *)result->imageData;

for(i=0;i < (height);i++) { for(j=0;j <(width);j++) { /* CHANNELS +0 ==Blue CHANNEL.Select pixels which are more red than any other color. Select a difference of 29(which again depends on the scene)*/ if(((data[i*step+j*channels]) > (25+data[i*step+j*channels+2])) && ((data[i*step+j*channels]) > (25+data[i*step+j*channels+1]))) { datar[i*stepr+j*channelsr]=255; } else datar[i*stepr+j*channelsr]=0; } } IplImage* gray = cvCreateImage(cvGetSize(input), 8, 1); CvMemStorage* storage = cvCreateMemStorage(0); cvCvtColor(input, gray, CV_RGB2GRAY); cvSmooth(gray, gray, CV_GAUSSIAN, 9, 9); CvSeq* circles = cvHoughCircles(gray, storage, CV_HOUGH_GRADIENT, 9, gray->height/25, 200, 100); 65 | P a g e

int numofsteps=0; int left=0; int right=0; int cn=0; for (int x = 0; x < circles->total; x++) { float* p = (float*) cvGetSeqElem(circles, x); int radius=cvRound(p[2]); int column=cvRound(p[0]); int row=cvRound(p[1]); if (ball==1 && status == 0) { if (datar[cvRound(p[1])*stepr+cvRound(p[0])*channelsr]==255) { printf("\n Blue Circle num=%d located at Row=%d Column =%d Radius = %d\n",x,cvRound(p[1]),cvRound(p[0]),cvRound(p[2])); if (radius>=62) printf("\ncircle is too near move backward\n"); else if ((radius>=50 && radius<=70) ) { printf("\ncircle is ready to be picked\n"); serialsend(3,0); status = 3; } else if (radius<=49) { if (column > ((gray->width/2)-10) && column < ((gray->width/2)+10)) { printf ("\ncircle is in centre ,Move forward.\n"); serialsend(2,0); status = 2; } else { printf ("\ncircle is NOT in centre ,Rotate stepper motor by some degrees \n"); if (column>(gray->width/2)) { right=1; left=0; 66 | P a g e

cn=320-column; printf("\ncolumns = %d",cn); numofsteps=(6-(cn/26.67)); printf("\n move %d steps to right\n",numofsteps); serialsend(6,numofsteps); status = 1; } else { right=0; left=1; cn=column; printf("\ncolumns = %d",cn); numofsteps=(6-(cn/26.67)); printf("move %d steps to left",numofsteps); serialsend(10,numofsteps); status = 1; } } } } } if (ball == 1 && status == 1){ if (column > ((gray->width/2)-20) && column < ((gray>width/2)+20)) { printf ("\ncircle is in centre ,Move forward.\n"); serialsend(2,0); status = 2; } } if (ball == 1 && status == 2){ if ((radius>=55 && radius<=70) && status == 2) { printf("\ncircle is ready to be picked\n"); serialsend(3,0); status = 3; } } } 67 | P a g e

return result; } void serialsend(int send,int stps) { ///////////////////////////////////////////////////// /////////////////Opening the serial port///////////////// HANDLE hSerial= CreateFile("COM3", GENERIC_READ|GENERIC_WRITE, NULL, NULL, OPEN_EXISTING, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, NULL); if(hSerial==INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE){ printf("invalid handle.\n"); } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////// /////////////////Setting Parameters///////////////// DCB dcbSerialParams = {0}; dcbSerialParams.DCBlength=sizeof(dcbSerialParams); if (!GetCommState(hSerial, &dcbSerialParams)) { printf("error occured at getCommState\n"); } dcbSerialParams.BaudRate=CBR_115200; dcbSerialParams.ByteSize=8; dcbSerialParams.StopBits=ONESTOPBIT; dcbSerialParams.Parity=NOPARITY; ///////////////////////Writing data ////////////////////// char buff1[2]; buff1[0]=char(send); buff1[1]=char(stps); int siz1 = sizeof(buff1); DWORD dwBytesRead = 0; for(int t=0;t<siz1;t++){ WriteFile(hSerial, buff1, siz1, &dwBytesRead, NULL); printf("\nsending data to serial port\n"); }

68 | P a g e

//////////////////////Closing down////////////////// CloseHandle(hSerial); }

69 | P a g e

APPENDIX C DataSheets

70 | P a g e

REFRENCES

[1] Gary Rost Bradski, Adrian Kaehler. Learning OpenCV. New York: Oreilly Publishing, 2008. ISBN 13: 9780596516130 [2] OpenCV Installation and Getting Started Guide http://www.scribd.com/ [3] Rafael C. Gonzalez & Richard E. Woods Digital Image Processing (3rd Edition) Prentice Hall Publishing, ISBN : 9780131687288. [4] Ying Bai The Windows Serial Port Programming Handbook ISBN-10: 0849322138 [5] Image Acquisition Toolbox 3.2 Manual http://www.mathworks.com/ [6] Rafael C. Gonzalez & Richard E. Woods Digital Image Processing Using Matlab Prentice Hall Publishing, ISBN : 9780130085191.

71 | P a g e