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CCNA 1 Module 8 Exam Solutions

January 31st, 2008 Related Filed Under

Ciscos exams can be a lot of hard work- we know. But the worst thing you can do to yourself is to simply look up the answers to exam questions. Not only do you not learn anything- but youre hurting your future in the process. Instead, shouldnt you get a helpful hint and get pointed in the right direction of where to look for an answer? That way, you can keep your dignity, hopes for the future, and of course your grade. The questions below are from the CCNA 1 module 8 exam- but instead of straight answers, we reason out why the answers are correct. If any type of math or decision making is involved, we leave that up to you (But we will of course give you the resources you need to complete the question.)

1. What is characteristic of the operation of a Layer 2 switch?

A) forwards data based on logical addressing B) duplicates the electrical signal of each frame to every port C) learns the port assigned to a host by examining the destination MAC address D) uses the destination MAC address to determine the specific interface to forward a frame More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: Like a bridge, the layer 2 switch will forward data based on the destination MAC address of the data. This data is then forwarded to a specific port, unlike hubs who would broadcast to all ports (and thus waste resources). D is the correct answer.

2. Two newly hired technicians are discussing the implementation of a new LAN. One technician proposes installing a hub. The other technician advises installing a switch. Which statements are true about the differences between a hub and a switch? (Choose two.)

A) A hub operates at Layer 2 of the OSI model. B) A hub reduces the number of collisions on a LAN. C) A hub works at a higher OSI model layer than a switch.

D) A switch provides more throughput to hosts on a LAN E) A switch provides a collision-free environment on a LAN. F) The number of collisions on a LAN are the same whether a hub or a switch is used. More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: Switches use microsegmentation to provide more throughput, so D is correct. Switches also support full-duplex operation, which means a collision-free environment is possible- so E is also correct.

3. Refer to the exhibit. Forty-eight workstations are connected to a hub. The users are able to connect to the network, but access is very slow. An entry-level technician replaces the 10 Mbps hub with 100 Mbps hub but the problem still exists. What is the most economical way to correct the problem?

A) Replace the hub with a switch. B) Replace the hub with a router. C) Replace the hub with a 1 Gbps hub. D) Replace the hub with a 10 Mbps fiber hub. More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: Although the hub was upgraded, it is still a hub. Switches are considered to be superior in providing bandwidth via microsegmentation and reliability via fullduplex operation. In this case, we will want to replace the hub with a switch- A is the correct answer.

4. Exhibited is a portion of ABC Company internetwork. Which of the connections can be full duplex?

A) segments 1 and 2 B) segment 2 C) segments 3 and 4 D) segments 2, 3, and 4 E) segments 1, 2, 3, and 4 More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: Segment 1 is operating under a hub- and as we know, hubs arent capable of full-duplex capability. Therefore, all other segments except 1 may be full-duplex. D is the correct answer.

5. Refer to the exhibit. The switch and the hub have default configurations, and the switch has built its CAM table. Which of the hosts will receive the data when workstation A sends a unicast packet to workstation C?

A) workstation C B) workstations B and C C) workstations B, C, and the E0 interface of the router D) workstations B, C, D, E, F, and the E0 interface of the router More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: Only workstation C will get the data, since we are using a switch. Switches use microsegmentation, which will allow only the receiving computer to get the data in this instance. A is the correct answer.

6. An administrator would like to connect ten workstations on a 192.168.0.0/24 network. The device selected by the administrator must allow connectivity between hosts without sharing bandwidth. Which device would be appropriate?

A) hub B) router C) switch D) repeater More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: Only a switch can route data without sharing data. Note that the hub would be able to be used if sharing bandwidth wasnt an issue. But since it is, C is the correct answer.

7. Which networking devices use the MAC address to make forwarding decisions? (Choose two.)

A) NIC B) bridge C) hub D) switch E) repeater

More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: Bridges and switches both operate on the Data Link layer- meaning they do indeed deal with MAC addresses. B and D are the correct answers, since the rest of the answers operate on the physical layer.

8. Which devices are primarily used to extend cable segments within a collision domain by regenerating the data signals? (Choose two.)

A) switch B) repeater C) router D) bridge E) hub More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: Repeaters and hubs both extend the collision domain by repeating a signal, so B and E is correct. Bridges, routers, and switches create more collision domains- not extend them.

9. Which devices will create multiple collision domains in an Ethernet network? (Choose two.)

A) NIC B) hub C) switch D) router E) repeater More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: Switches, routers, and repeaters all create more collision domains when used correctly. C and D are correct. Hubs extend the collision domain, and NICs are unrelated.

10. Refer to the exhibit. How many broadcast domains exist in classroom 240?

A) 1 B) 2 C) 5 D) 12 E) 13 F) 15 More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: Only 1 broadcast domain exists, since the multiple hubs only extend the domain, not create more collision domains. The switch effectively creates our only collision domain. A is the correct answer.

11. A PC receives a frame. Which situation will cause the NIC on the receiving host to pass the frame contents up the OSI layers to be processed by the PC?

A) The frame is a runt frame. B) The destination MAC address of the frame is FFFF.FFFF.FFFF. C) The transmitting host generated a jam signal during the frame transmission.

D) The recalculated checksum for the frame does not match the FCS on the frame. More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: We know that broadcasts are always expressed as the highest number possible. In hex, this number is actually F. Therefore, the NIC will process a broadcast that is defined by the MAC address FFFF.FFFF.FFFF, so B is the correct answer.

12. A network administrator has a multi-floor LAN to monitor and maintain. Through careful monitoring, the administrator has noticed a large amount of broadcast traffic slowing the network. Which device would you use to best solve this problem?

A) bridge B) hub C) router D) transceiver More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: The best device would be the router. The hub would only cause bandwidth concerns, and the bridge would only divide the network into two halves- not provide any other functionality. Transceivers are unrelated. The correct answer is C.

13. What will a bridge do if it receives a frame with a MAC address that is not within the table?

A) discard frame B) ignore frame C) send frame to appropriate port D) send frame to all ports except source port More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: If a frame is received that doesnt have a MAC address, the frame is forwarded out of all ports except the source port. D is the correct answer.

14. Which networking device reduces the size of both collision domains and broadcast domains?

A) hub B) Layer 2 switch C) router D) bridge E) repeater More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: Since only a router can separate broadcast domains, C is the correct answer.

15. What is used to prevent Layer 2 switching loops?

A) bridging B) segmentation C) Address Resolution Protocol D) Spanning-Tree Protocol More Info: An Introduction to Ethernet Switching Explanation: Spanning tree protocol, or STP, is used to prevent switching loops. Have a look at the above article for more information.

CCNA 1 Module 7 Solutions


January 30th, 2008 Related Filed Under

Ciscos exams can be a lot of hard work- we know. But the worst thing you can do to yourself is to simply look up the answers to exam questions. Not only do you not learn anything- but youre hurting your future in the process. Instead, shouldnt you get a helpful hint and get pointed in the right direction of where to look for an answer? That way, you can keep your dignity, hopes for the future, and of course your grade. The questions below are from the CCNA 1 module 7 exam- but instead of straight answers, we reason out why the answers are correct. If any type of math or decision making is involved, we leave that up to you (But we will of course give you the resources you need to complete the question.)

1. Which Ethernet standard does the IEEE 802.3 standard recommend for backbone installations?

A) 10BASE-T B) 100BASE-T C) 100BASE-FX D) 1000BASE-LX More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: Backbone installations require a lot of bandwidth. Therefore, we need the option that provides the most. 1000BASE-LX would be this option, since it is Gigabit Ethernet; D is the correct answer.

2. Which statements describe Gigabit Ethernet technology? (Choose two.)

A) operates at 100 Mbps B) typically used for backbone cabling C) requires shielded twisted-pair cabling D) can be implemented over copper and fiber E) primarily used between workstations option More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: Backbone cabling needs high-bandwidth cable- so B is correct. Gigabit technology can also be copper or fiber optic media- so D is also correct.

3. Which of the following are Fast Ethernet technologies? (Choose two.)

A) 100BASE-5 B) 100BASE2 C) 1000BASE-F D) 100BASE-FX

E) 100BASE-TX More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: Fast Ethernet is classified as a 100-Mbit specification. The first two choices, A and B, do not exist. 10BASE5 and 10BASE2 do, however. This leaves us with D and E, since C is Gigabit Ethernet.

4. To make sure timing limitations are not violated when implementing a 10 Mbps Ethernet network involving hubs or repeaters, a technician should adhere to which rule?

A) the 4-5-3 rule B) the 6-4-2 rule C) the 3-4-5 rule D) the 5-4-3 rule More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: The rule states that networks should not exceed 5 network segments, four repeaters, and no more than three of the five network segments can be for end-users. Thus, the correct answer is D.

5. At which OSI layer do the differences between standard Ethernet, Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet occur?

A) physical layer B) data link layer C) network layer D) transport layer More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: Ethernet operates on the physical layer, so A is the only logical choice.

6. How does 1000BASE-T use the UTP wire pairs to accomplish transmission?

A) two pairs are used to transmit and two pairs are used to receive B) one pair is used to transmit, one pair is used to receive, one pair is used for clocking, and one pair is used for error correction C) all four pairs are used in parallel by both hosts to transmit and receive simultaneously D) two pairs of wires are used as in 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: 100BASE-T is a Gigabit Ethernet specification, meaning it can provide a large amount of bandwidth. To get as much bandwidth as possible, we need to use all four wired pairs- so C is the correct answer.

7. What RJ-45 pins are unused when transmitting and receiving data in an Ethernet 100BASE-T Category 5 UTP cable? (Choose two.)

A) 1 and 2 B) 3 and 6 C) 4 and 5 D) 7 and 8 More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: Pins 1, 2, 3, and 6 are used in 100BASE-T Cat5 UTP cable, as stated in the article above.

8. What is the maximum distance that 10BASE-T will transmit data before signal attenuation affects the data delivery?

A) 100 meters B) 185 meters C) 300 meters D) 500 meters More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History

Explanation: The maximum distance a 10BASE-T cable can be run is said to be 100 meters, so A is the correct answer.

9. Which media types can be used in an implementation of a 10BASE-T network? (Choose three.)

A) Category 5 UTP B) Category 5e UTP C) Category 3 UTP D) coaxial cable E) multi-mode fiber F) single mode fiber More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: A, B, and C are true based on the specifications found in the above article.

10. Which of the following Ethernet technologies are considered legacy Ethernet? (Choose three.)

A) 10BASE2 B) 10BASE5 C) 10BASE-T D) 100BASE-T E) 100BASE-FX F) 100BASE-TX More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: LegacyEthernet is characterized by having speeds of 10-Mbp. Only A, B, and C correspond with this number, and thus, they are correct.

CCNA 1 Module 6/7 Solutions


January 30th, 2008 Related Filed Under

Ciscos exams can be a lot of hard work- we know. But the worst thing you can do to yourself is to simply look up the answers to exam questions. Not only do you not learn anything- but youre hurting your future in the process. Instead, shouldnt you get a helpful hint and get pointed in the right direction of where to look for an answer? That way, you can keep your dignity, hopes for the future, and of course your grade. The questions below are from the CCNA 1 module 6/7 exam- but instead of straight answers, we reason out why the answers are correct. If any type of math or decision making is involved, we leave that up to you (But we will of course give you the resources you need to complete the question.)

1. Which of the following are specified by IEEE standards as sublayers of the OSI data link layer? (Choose two.)

A) Logical Link Control B) Logical Layer Control C) Media Access Control D) Logical Link Communication E) Media Access Communication F) Physical Access Communication More Info: How the Network Access Layer Works Explanation: Sublayers of the Data Link layer include Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC). A and C are both correct.

2. Refer to the exhibit. Host A is communicating with host F. What happens to a frame sent from host A to host F as it travels over the Ethernet segments?

A) The frame format is modified as it passes through each switch. B) The frame format remains the same across each Ethernet segment.

C) The frame format is modified as the media speed changed at switch B and switch E. D) The frame format is modified as the media material changes between copper and fiber at switch C and switch D. More Info: How the Network Access Layer Works Explanation: The frame format is not modified at any point to its destination, so B is the correct answer.

3. In which two layers of the OSI model does Ethernet function? (Choose two.)

A) application B) session C) transport D) network E) data link F) physical More Info: How the Network Access Layer Works Explanation: The bottom two layers of the OSI model deal with Ethernet functionsPhysical and Data Link. Note that this is also the Network Access Layer in the TCP/IP model. E and F are both correct.

4. Where does the MAC address originate?

A) DHCP server database B) configured by the administrator C) burned into ROM on the NIC card D) network configuration on the computer E) included in the creation of the processor chip More Info: What is a Network Interface Card?

Explanation: The MAC address is burned into the NIC at the factory- B is the correct answer.

5. At what layer of the OSI model does a MAC address reside?

A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 7 More Info: How the Network Access Layer Works Explanation: The second layer of the OSI model is the Data link layer (which corresponds to the TCP/IP network access layer). We know that the data link layer is responsible for MAC address capability, so B is the correct answer.

6. A router has an Ethernet, Token Ring, serial, and ISDN interface. Which interfaces will have a MAC address?

A) serial and ISDN interfaces B) Ethernet and Token Ring interfaces C) Ethernet and ISDN interfaces D) Token Ring and serial interfaces More Info: (none) Explanation: The MAC address is reserved for the Ethernet and Token Ring interfaces, so B is correct. Serial and ISDN interfaces do not require MAC addresses, so the remaining answers are incorrect.

7. Which two devices can provide full-duplex Ethernet connections? (Choose two.)

A) hub

B) modem C) repeater D) NIC E) Layer 2 switch More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: This question is rather tricky. It is best to eliminate the wrong answers first. Hubs cant, since they dont support microsegmentation. Modems operate as halfduplex, so they are out too. Repeaters are unrelated to the matter, so it leaves us with the NIC and Layer 2 switch. D and E are correct.

8. Refer to the exhibit. The small office network shown in the exhibit consists of four computers connected through a hub. Which configuration would cause collisions and errors on the network?

A) autonegotiation B) FastEthernet C) peer-to-peer shared resources D) administratively configured full duplex More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: D is the correct answer, since the device connecting the computers is a hub. We can not have an error-free network operating at full-duplex with a hub. If the device was a switch, it would be a different story.

9. Refer to the exhibit. The switch and workstation are administratively configured for fullduplex operation. Which statement accurately reflects the operation of this link?

A) No collisions will occur on this link. B) Only one of the devices can transmit at a time. C) The switch will have priority for transmitting data. D) The devices will default back to half duplex if excessive collisions occur. More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: Since full-duplex operation allows two devices send and receive information at the same time, there should be no collisions at all. The device is a switch (not a hub), so there should be no further problems. A is the correct answer.

10. What are three functions of a NIC in a PC? (Choose three.)

A) A NIC connects the PC to the network media. B) A NIC detects collisions on the Ethernet segment. C) A NIC checks the formatting of data before it is transmitted. D) A NIC passes the contents of selected frames to the upper OSI layers. E) A NIC acknowledges and retransmits data that was not received properly. F) A NIC discards frames when the destination IP address does not match the local host. More Info: What is a Network Interface Card? Explanation: The NIC connects a PC to network media, so A is correct. It also detects collisions, so B is also correct. A NIC is too dumb of a device to check formatting, so C is

incorrect. NICs do indeed pass information to upper OSI layers, so D is correct. D and E are both untrue since NICs do not have these responsibilities.

11. In an Ethernet LAN, how does the NIC know when it can transmit data?

A) An Ethernet NIC transmits data as soon as the frame is received. B) An Ethernet NIC transmits data as soon as the NIC receives a token. C) An Ethernet NIC transmits data when it senses a collision. D) An Ethernet NIC transmits data after listening for the absence of a signal on the media. More Info: What is a Network Interface Card? Explanation: NICs look for an absence in signal before transmitting, since we need an open spot on the network to transmit or there will be collisions. D is the correct answer.

12. Refer to the exhibit. All hosts are in listen mode. Host 1 and Host 4 both transmit data at the same time. How do the hosts respond on the network? (Choose two.)

A) Hosts 1 and 4 may be operating full duplex so no collision will exist. B) The hub will block the port connected to Host 4 to prevent a collision. C) After the end of the jam signal, Hosts 1, 2, 3, and 4 invoke a backoff algorithm. D) Hosts 1 and 4 are assigned shorter backoff values to provide them priority to access the media.

E) If a host has data to transmit after the backoff period of that host, the host checks to determine if the line is idle, before transmitting. More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: We know from the above article that when a collision occurs, a jam signal is sent and all devices invoke a back-off algorithm. After that time is up, hosts may then check the network for traffic. If it is open, the device may transmit. This describes answers C and E.

13. Which statement describes how CSMA/CD on an Ethernet segment manages the retransmission of frames after a collision occurs?

A) The first device to detect the collision has the priority for retransmission. B) The device with the lowest MAC address determines the retransmission priority. C) The devices on the network segment hold an election for priority to retransmit data D) The devices transmitting when the collision occurs DO NOT have priority for retransmission. More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: After a back-off sequence is expired, the devices that were in the collision do not have priority to transmit data. D is the correct answer.

14. What is the maximum distance that 10BASE-T will transmit data before signal attenuation affects the data delivery?

A) 100 meters B) 185 meters C) 300 meters D) 500 meters More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History

Explanation: 10BASE-T, like other Ethernet cables, has a maximum distance rating before the signal starts to degrade. 10BASE-T has a rating of around 100 meters- A is correct.

15. Which of the following are Fast Ethernet technologies? (Choose two.)

A) 100BASE-5 B) 100BASE2 C) 1000BASE-F D) 100BASE-FX E) 100BASE-TX More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: Fast Ethernet classifies Ethernet operating in the 100-Mbps range. A an B do not exist- it would actually be 10BASE5 and 10BASE2, and even then they are Legacy Ethernet. C is considered Gigabit Ethernet, so it is also incorrect. D and E are the correct answers.

16. At which OSI layer do the differences between standard Ethernet, Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet occur?

A) physical layer B) data link layer C) network layer D) transport layer More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: The Physical Layer is the correct option. Ethernet operates on the Physical Layer, so this is the only logical option.

17. How does 1000BASE-T use the UTP wire pairs to accomplish transmission?

A) two pairs are used to transmit and two pairs are used to receive

B) one pair is used to transmit, one pair is used to receive, one pair is used for clocking, and one pair is used for error correction C) all four pairs are used in parallel by both hosts to transmit and receive simultaneously D) two pairs of wires are used as in 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: Gigabit Ethernet has the characteristic of being able to handle a lot of bandwidth. To accomplish this, all four wire pairs are use to send and receive signals.. C is the correct answer.

18. Which statements describe Gigabit Ethernet technology? (Choose two.)

A) operates at 100 Mbps B) typically used for backbone cabling C) requires shielded twisted-pair cabling D) can be implemented over copper and fiber E) primarily used between workstations option More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: Gigabit Ethernet is a high-bandwidth solution- so backbones will make good use of it- B is correct. It can come in both copper and fiber optic forms, so D is also correct.

19. Which media types can be used in an implementation of a 10BASE-T network? (Choose three.)

A) Category 5 UTP B) Category 5e UTP C) Category 3 UTP D) coaxial cable E) multi-mode fiber

F) single mode fiber More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: A, B, and C are true based on the specifications found in the above article.

20. Which of the following Ethernet technologies are considered legacy Ethernet? (Choose three.)

A) 10BASE2 B) 10BASE5 C) 10BASE-T D) 100BASE-T E) 100BASE-FX F) 100BASE-TX More Info: A Brief Overview of Ethernet History Explanation: LegacyEthernet is characterized by having speeds of 10-Mbp. Only A, B, and C correspond with this number, and thus, they are correct.

CCNA 1 Module 6 Exam Solutions


January 29th, 2008 Related Filed Under

Ciscos exams can be a lot of hard work- we know. But the worst thing you can do to yourself is to simply look up the answers to exam questions. Not only do you not learn anything- but youre hurting your future in the process. Instead, shouldnt you get a helpful hint and get pointed in the right direction of where to look for an answer? That way, you can keep your dignity, hopes for the future, and of course your grade. The questions below are from the CCNA 1 module 6 exam- but instead of straight answers, we reason out why the answers are correct. If any type of math or decision making is involved, we leave that up to you (But we will of course give you the resources you need to complete the question.)

Refer to the exhibit. Host A is communicating with host F. What happens to a frame sent from host A to host F as it travels over the Ethernet segments?

A) The frame format is modified as it passes through each switch. B) The frame format remains the same across each Ethernet segment. C) The frame format is modified as the media speed changed at switch B and switch E. D) The frame format is modified as the media material changes between copper and fiber at switch C and switch D. More Info: How the Network Access Layer Works Explanation: The frame format is not modified at any point to its destination, so B is the correct answer.

2. How many hexadecimal digits are in a MAC address?

A) 2 B) 8 C) 12 D) 16 E) 32 More Info: A Guide to Network Math Explanation: Hexadecimal is outlined in the above article, and we will find from reading it that there are 12 digits in a hexadecimal MAC address. C is the correct answer.

3. What are three functions of a NIC in a PC? (Choose three.)

A) A NIC connects the PC to the network media. B) A NIC detects collisions on the Ethernet segment. C) A NIC checks the formatting of data before it is transmitted. D) A NIC passes the contents of selected frames to the upper OSI layers. E) A NIC acknowledges and retransmits data that was not received properly. F) A NIC discards frames when the destination IP address does not match the local host.

More Info: What is a Network Interface Card? Explanation: The NIC connects a PC to network media, so A is correct. It also detects collisions, so B is also correct. A NIC is too dumb of a device to check formatting, so C is incorrect. NICs do indeed pass information to upper OSI layers, so D is correct. D and E are both untrue since NICs do not have these responsibilities.

4. At what layer of the OSI model does a MAC address reside?

A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 7 More Info: How the Network Access Layer Works Explanation: The second layer of the OSI model is the Data link layer (which corresponds to the TCP/IP network access layer). We know that the data link layer is responsible for MAC address capability, so B is the correct answer.

5. A router has an Ethernet, Token Ring, serial, and ISDN interface. Which interfaces will have a MAC address?

A) serial and ISDN interfaces B) Ethernet and Token Ring interfaces C) Ethernet and ISDN interfaces D) Token Ring and serial interfaces More Info: (none) Explanation: The MAC address is reserved for the Ethernet and Token Ring interfaces, so B is correct. Serial and ISDN interfaces do not require MAC addresses, so the remaining answers are incorrect.

6. In an Ethernet LAN, how does the NIC know when it can transmit data?

A) An Ethernet NIC transmits data as soon as the frame is received. B) An Ethernet NIC transmits data as soon as the NIC receives a token.

C) An Ethernet NIC transmits data when it senses a collision. D) An Ethernet NIC transmits data after listening for the absence of a signal on the media. More Info: What is a Network Interface Card? Explanation: NICs look for an absence in signal before transmitting, since we need an open spot on the network to transmit or there will be collisions. D is the correct answer.

7. Which characteristics describe carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD)? (Choose three.)

A) reliable B) point-to-point C) nondeterministic D) connection-oriented E) collision environment F) first-come, first-served approach More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: CSMA/CD is a first come first serve approach, as stated in the above article- F is correct.. This is basically defining nondeterministic, so C is correct too. CSMA/CD works with the collision environment, so E is also true.

8. Which two devices can provide full-duplex Ethernet connections? (Choose two.)

A) hub B) modem C) repeater D) NIC E) Layer 2 switch More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: This question is rather tricky. It is best to eliminate the wrong answers first. Hubs cant, since they dont support microsegmentation. Modems operate as halfduplex, so they are out too. Repeaters are unrelated to the matter, so it leaves us with the NIC and Layer 2 switch. D and E are correct.

9. On a local area network, one workstation can send data on the line while it is receiving data. What type of data transfer does this describe?

A) hybrid B) half duplex C) full duplex D) multilink More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: This is a full-duplex communication since both devices can transmit and receive simultaneously. C is the correct answer.

10. Refer to the exhibit. The small office network shown in the exhibit consists of four computers connected through a hub. Which configuration would cause collisions and errors on the network?

A) autonegotiation B) FastEthernet C) peer-to-peer shared resources D) administratively configured full duplex More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: D is the correct answer, since the device connecting the computers is a hub. We can not have an error-free network operating at full-duplex with a hub. If the device was a switch, it would be a different story.

11. Refer to the exhibit. The switch and workstation are administratively configured for full-duplex operation. Which statement accurately reflects the operation of this link?

A) No collisions will occur on this link. B) Only one of the devices can transmit at a time. C) The switch will have priority for transmitting data. D) The devices will default back to half duplex if excessive collisions occur. More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: Since full-duplex operation allows two devices send and receive information at the same time, there should be no collisions at all. The device is a switch (not a hub), so there should be no further problems. A is the correct answer.

12. Refer to the exhibit. All hosts are in listen mode. Host 1 and Host 4 both transmit data at the same time. How do the hosts respond on the network? (Choose two.)

A) Hosts 1 and 4 may be operating full duplex so no collision will exist. B) The hub will block the port connected to Host 4 to prevent a collision. C) After the end of the jam signal, Hosts 1, 2, 3, and 4 invoke a backoff algorithm. D) Hosts 1 and 4 are assigned shorter backoff values to provide them priority to access the media.

E) If a host has data to transmit after the backoff period of that host, the host checks to determine if the line is idle, before transmitting. More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: We know from the above article that when a collision occurs, a jam signal is sent and all devices invoke a back-off algorithm. After that time is up, hosts may then check the network for traffic. If it is open, the device may transmit. This describes answers C and E.

13. When a collision occurs in a network using CSMA/CD, how do hosts with data to transmit respond after the backoff period has expired?

A) The hosts return to a listen-before-transmit mode. B) The hosts creating the collision have priority to send data. C) The hosts creating the collision retransmit the last 16 frames. D) The hosts extend their delay period to allow for rapid transmission. More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: After the back-off algorithm is expired, all devices go bck to normal (listening before transmitting). A is the correct answer.

14. Which statement describes how CSMA/CD on an Ethernet segment manages the retransmission of frames after a collision occurs?

A) The first device to detect the collision has the priority for retransmission. B) The device with the lowest MAC address determines the retransmission priority. C) The devices on the network segment hold an election for priority to retransmit data D) The devices transmitting when the collision occurs DO NOT have priority for retransmission. More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: After a back-off sequence is expired, the devices that were in the collision do not have priority to transmit data. D is the correct answer.

15. Refer to the exhibit. A technician wants to increase the available bandwidth for the workstation by allowing the switch and the NIC on the workstation to transmit and receive simultaneously. What will permit this?

A) CSMA/CD B) full-duplex C) FastEthernet D) crossover cable More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: This is only applicable via a full-duplex connection, B is correct.

16. Why do hosts on an Ethernet segment that experience a collision use a random delay before attempting to transmit a frame?

A( A random delay is used to ensure a collision-free link. B) A random delay value for each device is assigned by the manufacturer. C) A standard delay value could not be agreed upon among networking device vendors. D) A random delay helps prevent the stations from experiencing another collision during the transmission. More Info: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Explained Explanation: This random delay helps prevent every computer on the network transmitting at the same time after the back-off algorithm is expired. Since its random for each device, collisions are unlikely. D is the correct answer.

17. In which two layers of the OSI model does Ethernet function? (Choose two.)

A) application B) session C) transport

D) network E) data link F) physical More Info: How the Network Access Layer Works Explanation: The bottom two layers of the OSI model deal with Ethernet functionsPhysical and Data Link. Note that this is also the Network Access Layer in the TCP/IP model. E and F are both correct.

18. Which of the following are specified by IEEE standards as sublayers of the OSI data link layer? (Choose two.)

A) Logical Link Control B) Logical Layer Control C) Media Access Control D) Logical Link Communication E) Media Access Communication F) Physical Access Communication More Info: How the Network Access Layer Works Explanation: Sublayers of the Data Link layer include Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC). A and C are both correct.

19. Where does the MAC address originate?

A) DHCP server database B) configured by the administrator C) burned into ROM on the NIC card D) network configuration on the computer E) included in the creation of the processor chip More Info: What is a Network Interface Card? Explanation: The MAC address is burned into the NIC at the factory- C is the correct answer.

CCNA 1 Module 5 Exam Solutions


January 28th, 2008 Related Filed Under

Ciscos exams can be a lot of hard work- we know. But the worst thing you can do to yourself is to simply look up the answers to exam questions. Not only do you not learn anything- but youre hurting your future in the process. Instead, shouldnt you get a helpful hint and get pointed in the right direction of where to look for an answer? That way, you can keep your dignity, hopes for the future, and of course your grade. The questions below are from the CCNA 1 module 5 exam- but instead of straight answers, we reason out why the answers are correct. If any type of math or decision making is involved, we leave that up to you (But we will of course give you the resources you need to complete the question.)

1. Refer to the exhibit. What is the appropriate cable to use at each of the numbered network connections?

A) 1-crossover; 2-straight-through; 3-crossover; 4-straight-through B) 1-straight-through; 2-crossover; 3-straight-through; 4-straight-through C) 1-straight-through; 2-crossover; 3-crossover; 4-straight-through D) 1-rollover; 2-crossover; 3-straight-through; 4-straight-through E) 1-rollover; 2-straight-through; 3-straight-through; 4-straight-through More Info: The Difference Between Straight Through, Crossover, And Rollover Cables Explanation: In the first computer, we are connecting it to a routers console port- and so we will need a rollover cable. The second computer is linked to the Ethernet port, so it needs a crossover cable. The router to switch connection requires a straight-through cable, since they are unlike devices. The switch and the workstation are also unlike devices, so it is also a straight-through cable. D is correct.

2. Which two devices are considered OSI Layer 1 devices? (Choose two.)

A) hubs B) routers C) bridges

D) switches E) repeaters More Info: (None) Explanation: OSI Layer 1 devices reside on the Physical Layer. These are considered dumb devices- both hubs and repeaters reside on this layer. A and E are correct.

3. What device is used to connect hosts to an Ethernet LAN and requires a straightthrough UTP cable between the hosts and this device?

A) NIC B) router C) switch D) server More Info: What Is The Difference Between A Hub And A Switch? Explanation: While you could say that the above answers all may be able to connect hosts to a LAN, only the switch would require a straight-through cable, since the host and switch are unlike devices. Note that the NIC is an integral component of a computerso it doesnt have any type of Ethernet cable connecting it to a computer. (Only cable connecting it to a network.)

4. What is the most common type of cabling used in LANs?

A) STP B) UTP C) coax D) fiber More Info: A Brief Overview Of Networking Media Explanation: Single Twisted-Pair is quite popular, since it is cheap, easy to install, and quite durable. Each other method suffers from high cost or are rather difficult to install.

5. In which situations would a crossover cable be used to connect devices in a network? (Choose two.)

A) switch to PC B) switch to hub C) switch to router D) switch to server E) switch to switch More Info: The Difference Between Straight Through, Crossover, And Rollover Cables Explanation: The above article states that we use a crossover cable when connecting like devices- so B and E are both correct.

6. Refer to the exhibit. How many collision domains exist in the network?

A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 7 E) 8 More Info: What Is The Difference Between A Hub And A Switch? Explanation: Switches only create one collision domain. Since there are two connections to each part of the network, there are two collision domains- B is correct.

7. What type of cable would be used to make the connection between the console port of a router and a workstation?

A) crossover

B) rollover C) straight-through D) patch More Info: The Difference Between Straight Through, Crossover, And Rollover Cables Explanation: The above article states that to enter the console port, we need to use a rollover cable- B is correct.

8. Which function is a unique responsibility of the DCE devices shown in the exhibit?

A) transmission of data B) reception of data C) clocking for the synchronous link D) noise cancellation in transmitted data More Info: A Brief Overview Of Cabling LANs And WANs Explanation: The clocking rate must be set on the DCE side of the cable, or communication will not take place. C is correct.

9. Which address does a bridge use to make filtering and switching decisions?

A) source MAC B) source IP C) destination MAC D) destination IP E) network IP address More Info: (None)

Explanation: The bridge uses the destination MAC, since it is a layer two device. The source MAC would be impractical, since we need a to address, not a from address. C is correct.

10. What is characteristic of how a hub operates?

A) A hub selectively drops packets that represent potential security risks. B) A hub forwards data out all interfaces except the inbound interface. C) A hub dynamically learns the interfaces to which all devices are attached. D) At start up, a hub queries the devices on all interfaces in order to learn the MAC addresses of the attached devices. E) A hub transmits a frame to a specific interface based on the destination MAC address. More Info: What Is The Difference Between A Hub And A Switch? Explanation: The above article states that hubs forward data out all interfaces, except the inbound interface. Thus, B is corect. Unfortunately, hubs are dumb devices and do not work with MAC addresses, so A, C, D, and E are all incorrect

11. Users with systems that are attached to a hub are complaining about poor response time. What device could replace the hub and provide immediate response time improvement?

A) router B) switch C) bridge D) repeater E) A hub transmits a frame to a specific interface based on the destination MAC address. More Info: What Is The Difference Between A Hub And A Switch? Explanation: Since hubs split bandwidth between all interfaces, this can be a very poor performing device. Switches use microsegmentation to give bandwidth only to interfaces that need it at a specific time- so B is correct.

12. Which of the following are benefits of peer-to-peer networks? (Choose three.)

A) centralized security B) easy to create C) very scalable D) no centralized equipment required E) centralized administrator not required F) centralized control of assets More Info: A Brief Overview Of Cabling LANs And WANs Explanation: Peer to peer networks are easy to create and are considered to be decentralized. This means that B, D, and E are all correct. The client/server model is centralized, and harder to create- which would apply to A, C, and F.

13. Which statement is accurate about a WAN link?

A) The link transmits data serially. B) The link uses a maximum distance of 100 meters. C) The link uses the same transmission rate as all other WAN links use. D) The link uses the same standardized connector style that is used for all WAN technologies. More Info: A Brief Overview Of Cabling LANs And WANs Explanation: We know from the above article that WANs use serial connections to communicate. The transmission rate can be changed, so C is wrong. Different connectors may be used, so D is wrong. B is also wrong, since the maximum distance may be much longer than that- after all, the internet is a rather large WAN that spans the entire Earth.

14. Which items in the exhibit are DTE devices?

A) A and B B) B and C C) C and D D) A and D E) A, B, C, and D More Info: A Brief Overview Of Cabling LANs And WANs Explanation: D is the correct answer, since routers A and D both act as the client in the given scenario. To put it into perspective, you can imagine that each router is your home network, and your computer is connected to the router. Thus, you are the client.

15. At which layer of the OSI model does the MAC address of a NIC reside?

A) physical B) application C) network D) transport E) data link F) session More Info: What Is A Network Interface Card? Explanation: The MAC address is a Layer 2 function- the Data Link Layer. E is the correct answer.

16. Refer to the exhibit. A technician measured the lengths of the CAT 5e structured cable runs in the exhibit. How should the technician evaluate the cabling shown in the diagram to the network administrator?

A) All cabling to work areas are within specifications.

B) Station A and B may experience intermittent problems because the length exceeds the recommended standard. C) Station B may experience intermittent problems because the length exceeds the recommended standard. D) Station C may experience intermittent network connectivity because the length is less than the recommended standard. E) Station A and B will have intermittent problems because the length exceeds the recommended standard. F) Station C will not have network connectivity because the length is less than the recommended standard. More Info: A Brief Overview Of Networking Media Explanation: If you check the distance specifications in the above article, youll notice that computer B is over the limit. Thus, C is the correct answer.

17. Which statement describes a typical use of Gigabit Ethernet?

A) to provide high-speed desktop connectivity for average users B) to provide connectivity to low to medium volume applications C) to provide medium volume connectivity to workgroup servers D) to provide high-speed connectivity for backbones and cross connects More Info: A Brief Overview Of Cabling LANs And WANs Explanation: Gigabit Ethernet is commonly used for backbone cabling, since that is where the most traffic is present. D is correct. Refer to the above article for more information.

18. The ends of a UTP cable are shown in the exhibit. Which cable configuration is shown?

A) crossover

B) rollover C) reversed-pair D) straight-through E) split-pair F) console More Info: The Difference Between Straight Through, Crossover, And Rollover Cables Explanation: The above configuration matches the specification of a straight-through cable, D is correct.

19. The ends of a UTP cable are shown in the exhibit. Which cable configuration is shown?

A) console B) crossover C) rollover D) reversed-pair E) split-pair F) straight-through More Info: The Difference Between Straight Through, Crossover, And Rollover Cables Explanation: The above configuration matches the specification of a crossover cable, B is correct.

20. Which of the following are benefits of a wireless network? (Choose two.)

A) higher data speeds B) better security C) mobility

D) less expensive NIC cards E) no need to run cables to hosts More Info: (None) Explanation: This question should be fairly obvious. Without wires, you have more mobility- C is correct. For the same reason, E is also correct. The other results may be true in some cases, but it really depends on how the network is configured to judge its security or speed.

CCNA 1 Module 4 Exam Solutions


January 28th, 2008 Related Filed Under

Ciscos exams can be a lot of hard work- we know. But the worst thing you can do to yourself is to simply look up the answers to exam questions. Not only do you not learn anything- but youre hurting your future in the process. Instead, shouldnt you get a helpful hint and get pointed in the right direction of where to look for an answer? That way, you can keep your dignity, hopes for the future, and of course your grade. The questions below are from the CCNA 1 module 4 exam- but instead of straight answers, we reason out why the answers are correct. If any type of math or decision making is involved, we leave that up to you (But we will of course give you the resources you need to complete the question.)

1. To ensure reliable LAN communications, what should a technician be looking for when attaching connectors to the ends of UTP cable?

A) that the white-orange/orange pair is attached first B) That the wire pairs remain twisted as much as possible C) that one end of the shield is properly ground but not the other D) that 50 ohm termination resistors are on both ends More Info: The Basics Of Network Cable Testing Explanation: Since we know that crosstalk is commonly caused from not keeping wires twisted correctly, we whould look for that first- B is correct. UTP cable isnt grounded, so C is incorrect. Resistors are used on UTP cable, so D is also incorrect. A is incorrect since

it would be rather pointless, unless the wire pairs appear to be twisted and the problem can not be found.

2. Which of the following describes frequency?

A) length of each wave B) height of each wave C) number of cycles each second D) amount of time between each wave More Info: The Basics Of Network Cable Testing Explanation: Frequency is defined in the article above as cycles per second, so C is correct.

3. How are binary ones and zeros represented in fiber optic installations? (Choose two.)

A) +5 volts/-5 volts B) 0 volts/5 volts C) light/no light D) high to low electrical transition E) low to high electrical transition F) increasing/decreasing light intensity More Info: The Basics Of Network Cable Testing Explanation: Fiber optic cable uses light to initiate communication- therefore, we can say that C and F are both correct. Voltage is associated with electricity, not light- and therefore the rest of the answers are incorrect.

4. What is expected when crosstalk is present in networks with higher transmission frequencies? (Choose two.)

A) jitter

B) increase in crosstalk C) higher signal attenuation D) increases in cancellation effect E) destruction of more of the data signal More Info: The Basics Of Network Cable Testing Explanation: As a higher frequency is obtained, more destruction of the data signal is present, and crosstalk increases. B and D are correct.

5. A small company is experiencing difficulties on its LAN. After performing some tests, a technician has determined that the copper media supporting the LAN is experiencing abnormal attenuation. What are two possible causes of the problem? (Choose two.)

A) defective connectors B) excessively long cable lengths C) use of higher grade cabling D) low frequency signals used in the media E) network cable runs isolated from other cables More Info: The Basics Of Network Cable Testing Explanation: Since many problems will be with connectors or long cable lengths, that is what we should check first. The signal degrades over time, so excessive distances will weaken the signal. Connectors that dont function properly will also, of course, distort or attenuate our signal.

6. What factors need to be considered to limit the amount of signal attenuation in Ethernet cable runs? (Choose two.)

A) type of users B) number of users C) length of cable

D) type of electrical equipment E) installation of connectors on the cable More Info: The Basics Of Network Cable Testing Explanation: This question directly corresponds to the one above- and therefore, we know that C and E are both correct.

7. What conditions are described when transmission signals from one wire pair affects another wire pair? (Choose two.)

A) noise B) resistance mismatch C) jitter D) crosstalk E) attenuation More Info: The Basics Of Network Cable Testing Explanation: We know from the above article that crosstalk and noise both result from signals jumping from one wire to another. Resistance mismatch, jitter, and attenuation are unrelated.

8. What is a cause of crosstalk in UTP cable?

A) cable pairs that are shorted B) cable pairs crossed during termination C) cabling runs installed in separate conduit D) cable pairs that are untwisted because of poor termination of the cable More Info: The Basics Of Network Cable Testing Explanation: It should be apparent by now that the number one cause of crosstalk is faulty connectors or untwisted wires- therefore, D is correct.

9. Which of the following are detected by the wire map test? (Choose three.)

A) near-end crosstalk (NEXT) B) opens C) propagation delay D) return loss E) reversed-pair faults F) short circuits More Info: The Basics Of Network Cable Testing Explanation: Opens, reversed-pair faults, and short circuits are all detected by a wire map test. We need to use special features of a testing device to test for NEXT, propagation delay, and return loss. Its possible to test for these things, but not with a wire map.

10. A company needs to extend the LAN to six separate buildings. To limit the amount of signal attenuation on the LAN media, what type of media would be the best to use between the buildings?

A) air (wireless) B) coaxial cable C) fiber D) shielded twisted pair E) unshielded twisted pair More Info: The Basics Of Network Cable Testing Explanation: Since fiber can be run for longer distances, and isnt effected by outside interference, the company should use fiber; C is correct. Wireless would be a poor choice since walls would interfere with the signal. STP and UTP would both be vulnerable to interference, and would also have a much shorter distance capability.

CCNA 1 Module 3 Exam Solutions

January 28th, 2008 Related Filed Under

Ciscos exams can be a lot of hard work- we know. But the worst thing you can do to yourself is to simply look up the answers to exam questions. Not only do you not learn anything- but youre hurting your future in the process. Instead, shouldnt you get a helpful hint and get pointed in the right direction of where to look for an answer? That way, you can keep your dignity, hopes for the future, and of course your grade. The questions below are from the CCNA 1 module 3 exam- but instead of straight answers, we reason out why the answers are correct. If any type of math or decision making is involved, we leave that up to you (But we will of course give you the resources you need to complete the question.)

1. What are two advantages of using UTP cable in a networking environment? (Choose two.)

A) is stiffer than STP B) is less expensive than fiber C) is easier to install than coaxial D) provides longer distances than coaxial provides E) is less susceptible to outside noise sources than fiber is More Info: A Brief Overview Of Networking Media Explanation: A is incorrect, since we dont ever recall the stiffness of a cable being a factor in cable advantages. B is true, since fiber is a newer technology, that likewise is more expensive to produce. C is also true, since coaxial can be a pain to install- unlike UTP cable. D and E are both untrue since coaxial provides longer distance, and fiber isnt susceptible to most outside interference.

2. What are two advantages of using fiber-optic cabling instead of UTP? (Choose two.)

A) lower cost B) easer to install C) allows longer distances

D) less effected by external signals E) easier to terminate the cable ends More Info: A Brief Overview Of Networking Media Explanation: A is incorrect, since fiber-optic media is still fairly expensive. And although it is fairly easy to install, UTP is much easier- B is also incorrect. C is true since we use modulated light waves to transmit data- which can travel vast distances as compared to copper media. D is also true for the same reason- we arent using electric signals in fiber optic media, which means no electro-magnetic interference. E is untrue, since UTP cable doesnt need to be terminated at all.

3. What is the difference between a wireless NIC and an Ethernet NIC?

A) The Ethernet NIC operates at 100 Mbps, whereas a wireless NIC operates at 10 Mbps. B) The Ethernet NIC uses a PCI expansion slot, and a wireless NIC cannot use an expansion slot. C) The wireless NIC uses CSMA/CA, whereas a Ethernet NIC uses token passing as an access method. D) The wireless NIC associates to an access point, and an Ethernet NIC attaches to a hub or switch using a cable. E) The Ethernet NIC attaches to a hub or a switch using only fiber cabling, and a wireless NIC attaches to a wireless antenna using air as a network medium. More Info: (None) Explanation: Since the type of NIC doesnt necessarily dictate operation speed, A is not correct. B is also incorrect, since both use expansion slots. C is incorrect, since the NIC again does not necessarily dictate the network type. D is true, since we know that wireless signals need an access point, and Ethernet NICs connect to hubs/switches. Finally, E is incorrect since we arent limited to fiber optic media on Ethernet NICs.

4. Which wireless standard operates in the 5 GHZ transmission range and is capable of 54 Mbps of data throughput?

A) 802.11 B) 802.11a C) 802.11b D) 802.11g More Info: A Brief Overview Of Networking Media Explanation: From reading the above article, we know that only one of the above standards operates at 5 GHZ. Click the above link to learn more.

5. A company is converting a cabled LAN to a wireless Ethernet LAN. What must be changed on every host on the network?

A) No changes are required. B) Each host will require a new IP address. C) Each host will require an appropriate NIC or adapter. D) Each host will require that the operating system be upgraded. More Info: (None) Explanation: A is incorrect since we will indeed need to change the NIC. B is incorrect since we dont necessarily need to rearrange our IP addresses. C is correct, since we will need to obtain a wireless NIC as opposed to the Ethernet NIC. D is also incorrect since the operating system has no influence on the question at hand.

6. Refer to the exhibit. Which answer correctly identifies the pinout of the UTP cables labeled Cable A, Cable B, and Cable C?

A) A=straight, B=rollover, C=crossover B) A=rollover, B=crossover, C=straight C) A=crossover, B=straight, C=straight D) A=crossover, B=straight, C=rollover

E) A=straight, B=crossover, C=rollover F) A=rollover, B=straight, C=crossover More Info: The Difference Between Straight Through, Crossover, And Rollover Cables Explanation: From reading the above article, we know that the above pinouts only match one of the listed answers. Read the above article for more information.

7. What factors should be considered when selecting the appropriate cable for connecting a PC to a network? (Choose two.)

A) type of system bus B) motherboard model C) distance of cable run D) speed of transmission E) computer manufacturer More Info: A Brief Overview Of Networking Media Explanation: A and B are both incorrect since they do not relate to the wiring process of a network. C and D are both factors in the process, so they are correct. E is incorrect, for the same reason A and B were- it does not have a part in the wiring process.

8. Which Ethernet implementation requires the signal on the media to be boosted at a maximum distance of 100 meters?

A) 10BASE2 B) 10BASE5 C) 100BASE-T D) 100BASE-FX E) 1000BASE-CX More Info: A Brief Overview Of Networking Media

Explanation: There is a handy diagram in the above article that will explain the distance implementations of the above choices. Click the above link for more information.

9. When is a straight-through cable used in a network?

A) when configuring a router B) when connecting a host to a host C) when connecting a switch to a router D) when connecting one switch to another switch More Info: The Difference Between Straight Through, Crossover, And Rollover Cables Explanation: The above article explains which instance a straight-through cable is used- refer to it for further information.

10. What type of cable is used to make an Ethernet connection between a host and a LAN switch?

A) console B) rollover C) crossover D) straight-through More Info: The Difference Between Straight Through, Crossover, And Rollover Cables Explanation: The above article explains which cable should be used in this instancerefer to it for further information.

11. Which of the following are used for data communication signals? (Choose three.)

A) light patterns B) electrical voltages C) controlled air pulses

D) mixed media impulses E) magnetized fluid wave F) modulated electromagnetic waves More Info: A Brief Overview Of Networking Media Explanation: The above article explains that light patterns, electrical voltages, and modulated electromagnetic waves are all used for communication. Thus, A, B, and F are correct.

12. What does UTP cable rely on to reduce signal degradation caused by EMI and RFI?

A) shielding B) magnetism C) cancellation D) insulation E) properly grounded connections F) RJ-45 connectors More Info: A Brief Overview Of Networking Media Explanation: We know from the above article that EMI and RFI can both be reduced via cancellation- particularly, in the twisting of the wires inside the cable.

13. Select the characteristics specified by 10BaseT. (Choose three.)

A) twisted pair cable B) T style connectors C) baseband transmission D) 10 gigabits per second data rate E) 10 megabits per second data

F) decimal encoded data transmission More Info: A Brief Overview Of Networking Media Explanation: The above article explains that we can break down what a cables specifications are through its name. The 10 means that it may transmit 10 megabits per second- E is correct. The T means it is a twisted pair cable- A is correct. Base means that it is a baseband transmission- so C is also correct.

14. Refer to the exhibit. What type of cable connects the two routers together without any intermediary device?

A) console B) rollover C) crossover D) straight-through More Info: The Difference Between Straight Through, Crossover, And Rollover Cables Explanation: The above article explains which cable we would use to connect two like devices- a router and a router.

15. Which cable connectors are used to connect a cable from a routers console port to a PC? (Choose two.)

A) RJ-11 B) RJ-12 C) RJ-45 D) DB-8 E) DB-9 F) DB-10 More Info: (None)

Explanation: Since the above is fairly basic terminology, we should know that RJ-45 and DB-9 are both correct. Thus, C and E are the correct choices.

CCNA 1 Module 2 Exam Solutions


January 28th, 2008 Related Filed Under

Ciscos exams can be a lot of hard work- we know. But the worst thing you can do to yourself is to simply look up the answers to exam questions. Not only do you not learn anything- but youre hurting your future in the process. Instead, shouldnt you get a helpful hint and get pointed in the right direction of where to look for an answer? That way, you can keep your dignity, hopes for the future, and of course your grade. The questions below are from the CCNA 1 module 2 exam- but instead of straight answers, we reason out why the answers are correct. If any type of math or decision making is involved, we leave that up to you (But we will of course give you the resources you need to complete the question.)

1. Which layer of the OSI model provides network services to processes in electronic mail and file transfer programs?

A) data link B) transport C) network D) application More Info: An Introduction To The Tcp/Ip And OSI Model Explanation: This question is rather basic, and shouldnt need much explaining. If youre still lost or arent sure of the right answer, consult the above material for confirmation.

2. Which of the following are data link layer encapsulation details? (Choose two.)

A) A header and trailer are added. B) Data is converted into packets. C) Packets are packaged into frames.

D) Frames are divided into segments. E) Packets are changed into bits for Internet travel. More Info: How Encapsulation Works Within the TCP/IP Model

Explanation: Since each layer encapsulates the information with a header and trailer, A is correct. At the Data Link Layer, we do not convert the information into a packet- so B is wrong. Rather, we convert the packets into frames- so C is correct. D and E also incorrect since they do not follow the encapsulation process correctly- review the above material if youd like a more thorough explanation.

3. Which three features apply to LAN connections? (Choose three.)

A) operate using serial interfaces B) make network connection using a hub C) limited to operation over small geographic areas D) provide part-time connectivity to remote services E) typically operate under local administrative control F) provide lower bandwidth services compared to WANs More Info: The Difference Between LANs MANs And WANs Explanation: From reading the above article, we know that WANs use serial interfaces, not LANs, so A is incorrect. Since we can indeed make a network connection using a hub, B is correct. C is also correct- it corresponds with the exact definition of a LAN. D is incorrect, since LANs do not access remote services. E is correct, as it also corresponds with the definition of a LAN. F is incorrect since LANs provide much more bandwidth than WANs.

4. Which layer of the OSI model provides connectivity and path selection between two end systems where routing occurs?

A) physical layer

B) data link layer C) network layer D) transport layer More Info: An Introduction To The Tcp/Ip And OSI Model Explanation: Path selection is not available on the physical layer- A is incorrect. The Data Link Layer provides an interface to the NIC, so B is incorrect as well. The Network Layer supports logical addressing and routing- and therefore, C is correct. The Transport Layer would be incorrect since it is responsible for and end-to-end connection, not necessarily path selection.

5. Which term describes the process of adding headers to data as it moves down OSI layers?

A) division B) encoding C) separation D) segmentation E) encapsulation More Info: How Encapsulation Works Within the TCP/IP Model Explanation: Division, encoding, separation, and segmentation all do not make sense in this instance. Logically, only encapsulation could be the correct answer. Follow the link above for more information on encapsulation.

6. Refer to the following list. Choose the correct order of data encapsulation when a device sends information.

1. segments 2. bits 3. packets

4. data 5. frames A) 1 3 5 4 2 B) 2 1 3 5 4 C) 2 4 3 5 1 D) 4 3 1 2 5 E) 4 1 3 5 2 F) 3 5 1 2 4 More Info: How Encapsulation Works Within the TCP/IP Model Explanation: The encapsulation process in the OSI model is quite easy- by reading the above material we can remember the pneumonic Dirty Sick People Feel Bad, whereas each letter of each word stands for Data, Segments, Packets, Frames, Bits.

7. The central hub has malfunctioned in the network. As a result, the entire network is down. Which type of physical network topology is implemented?

A) bus B) star C) ring D) mesh More Info: A Guide To Network Topology Explanation: By reading the link on network topology, we know that the only choice above that is a centralized topology is the Star Topology. All other topologies are decentralized- which would of course not correspond with the question as it states central hub.

8. Which of the following are factors that determine throughput? (Choose two.)

A) types of passwords used on servers

B) type of Layer 3 protocol used C) network topology D) width of the network cable E) number of users on the network More Info: A Guide To Bandwidth And Throughput Explanation: The above guide to bandwidth and throughput states that the network topology and number of users on the network both influences throughput- so C and E are both correct. Passwords, layer 3 protocols, and width of cable are either ambiguous or wouldnt load down throughput.

9. Which best describes the function of the physical layer?

A) Defines the electrical and functional specifications for the link between end systems. B) Provides reliable transit of data across a physical link. C) Provides connectivity and path selection between two end systems. D) Concerned with physical addressing, network topology and media access. More Info: An Introduction To The Tcp/Ip And OSI Model Explanation: The above introduction to the TCP/IP model states that the physical layer is concerned with physical aspects of a network. It doesnt provide a reliable connectionB is incorrect as other layers do this. The Physical Layer is fairly dumb, so it doesnt do path selection either- C is incorrect. Again, the Physical Layer isnt smart enough for media access, so D is wrong. A is therefore correct.

10. Which of the following are ways that bandwidth is commonly measured? (Choose three.)

A) GHzps B) kbps C) Mbps

D) Nbps E) MHzps F) Gbps More Info: A Guide To Bandwidth And Throughput Explanation: This question should be fairly easy- although the above link will help you out if you are a little rusty. B, C, and F are all correct by definition.

11. Which of the following are layers of the TCP/IP model? (Choose three.)

A) Application B) Physical C) Internet D) Network Access E) Presentation More Info: An Introduction To The Tcp/Ip And OSI Model Explanation: This should be another fairly easy question. The TCP/IP model does not have the Presentation or Physical layer- the OSI model does, however. Likewise, A, C, and D are correct.

12. What is the term used to describe the transport layer protocol data unit?

A) bits B) packets C) segments D) frames E) data streams More Info: How Encapsulation Works Within the TCP/IP Model

Explanation: By reading the above article, we know that the Transport Layer corresponds with segments. (You may also have remembered the pneumonic Dirty Sick People Feel Bad, whereas S stands for Segments.)

13. What makes it easier for different networking vendors to design software and hardware that will interoperate?

A) OSI model B) proprietary designs C) IP addressing scheme D) standard logical topologies E) standard physical topologies More Info: (None) Explanation: The clear choice here is A- the OSI model. Proprietary designs would actually make it harder for networking vendors to provide compatible hardware and software. The rest of the answers do not directly apply to networking vendors and their products.

14. Refer to the exhibit. Which column shows the correct sequence of OSI model layers?

A) A B) B C) C D) D More Info: An Introduction To The Tcp/Ip And OSI Model Explanation: This is another simple question. You can review the above article, or you may have remembered the pneumonic Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away, whereas each letter of each word corresponds to an OSI model layer.

15. What is one advantage of defining network communication by the seven layers of the OSI model?

A) It increases the bandwidth of a network. B) It makes networking easier to learn and understand. C) It eliminates many protocol restrictions. D) It increases the throughput of a network. E) It reduces the need for testing network connectivity. More Info: (None) Explanation: The only answer above that would even apply to the OSI model would be B- as it is much easier to understand as compared to the TCP/IP model. All other answers assume that the OSI model has an actual influence on network design- it doesnt. It is simply a learning model.

16. Which two features apply to WAN connections? (Choose two.)

A) operate using serial interfaces B) make network connection using a hub C) limited to operation over small geographic areas D) typically operate under local administrative control E) provide lower bandwidth services compared to LANs More Info: The Difference Between LANs MANs And WANs Explanation: Both A and E are correct, as defined in the above article. B, C, and D apply to LANs, not WANs.

17. A switch has failed in the network. As a result, only one segment of the network is down. Which type of physical network topology is implemented?

A) bus

B) ring C) star D) extended star More Info: A Guide To Network Topology Explanation: Bus and Ring topologies do not use switches, so A and B is incorrect. C is incorrect because if the switch failed on a Star Topology, the entire network would be down. Thus, D is correct. Review the article above for more information.

18. Refer to the exhibit. Identify the devices labeled A, B, C, and D in the network physical documentation.

A) A=bridge, B=switch, C=router, D=hub B) A=bridge, B=hub, C=router, D=switch C) A=bridge, B=router, C=hub, D=switch D) A=hub, B=bridge, C=router, D=switch More Info: (None) Explanation: B is correct- it shows the diagram of each device correctly. This should be very basic networking knowledge, and thus, no further explanation is needed.

CCNA 1 Module 1 Exam Solutions


January 28th, 2008 Related Filed Under

Ciscos exams can be a lot of hard work- we know. But the worst thing you can do to yourself is to simply look up the answers to exam questions. Not only do you not learn anything- but youre hurting your future in the process. Instead, shouldnt you get a helpful hint and get pointed in the right direction of where to look for an answer? That way, you can keep your dignity, hopes for the future, and of course your grade. The questions below are from the CCNA 1 module 1 exam- but instead of straight answers, we reason out why the answers are correct. If any type of math or

decision making is involved, we leave that up to you (But we will of course give you the resources you need to complete the question.)

1. Several computers in the company require new NICs. A technician has located a good price on the Internet for the purchase of these NICs. Before these NICs are purchased and installed, what details must be verified? (Choose three.)

A) The MAC address on the NIC B) The size of the RAM on the NIC C) The bandwidth supported by the NIC D) The type of media supported by the NIC E) The type of network architecture supported by the NIC More info: What is a Network Interface Card? Explanation: After reading the material What is a Network Interface Card, we find out that a MAC address is unique to every NIC. Therefore, we dont really have a need to be selective, and thus A is wrong. And NICs do have RAM, but it isnt as vital to a NIC as it is for something like your computer- so B is wrong. The remaining three answers are therefore correct.

2. What is the hexadecimal equivalent for the binary number 00100101?

A) 15 B) 20 C) 25 D) 30 E) 37 F) 40 More Info: A Guide to Network math

Explanation: The above problem involves converting a binary number to a hexadecimal number. The above article explains that to do so, you need to split the binary number into two nibbles and then find their decimal value. After you find the decimal value, you may finally find the hex number. Consult the article above more a more in-depth explanation.

3. Which phrases describe a byte? (Choose two.)

A) a single binary digit B) +5 volts of electricity C) the value range 0 to 127 D) a grouping of eight binary digits E) a single addressable data storage location More Info: A Guide to Network math Explanation: From reading the above article, we know that one binary digit is a bit, not a byte- A is wrong. +5 volts of electricity may in some instances indicate a bit, but certainly not a byte- B is wrong. C is wrong because the value ranges from 0 to 255, not 127. Finally we get D and E as our answers- since we know that there are 8 bits in a byte, and each byte is considered to be a single addressable data storage location.

4. Which specialized equipment is used to make a physical connection from a PC to a network?

A) router B) RAM C) CD ROM D) network interface card More Info: What is a Network Interface Card? Explanation: You dont necessarily need to read the above article to know this answer. RAM and CD-ROM components do not take a part in a network- and a router, like the

name implies, routes data rather than connects a PC to a network. Obviously, the answer should be D.

5. What is the binary equivalent for the decimal number 248?

A) 11100000 B) 11110000 C) 11110100 D) 11111000 More Info: A Guide to Network math Explanation: The above question wants you to convert the number 248 to binary. By reading the above article, we know that to do so we need to see which bits fit into 248. This is commonly done by the Will this number go into 248? method. If you need more of a descript explanation (complete with diagrams), consult the above article.

6. Convert the binary number 01011011 into its hexadecimal equivalent. Select the correct answer from the list below.

A) 5A B) 5B C) 5C D) 5D E) 6B F) 7A More Info: A Guide to Network math Explanation: The above problem involves converting a binary number to a hexadecimal number. The above article explains that to do so, you need to split the binary number into two nibbles and then find their decimal value. After you find the decimal value, you may finally find the hex number. Consult the article above more a more indepth explanation.

7. What is the binary equivalent for decimal number 149?

A) 10010111 B) 10010101 C) 10011001 D) 10010111 E) 10101011 F) 10101101 More Info: A Guide to Network math Explanation: The above question wants you to convert the number 149 to binary. By reading the above article, we know that to do so we need to see which bits fit into 149. This is commonly done by the Will this number go into 149? method. If you need more of a descript explanation (complete with diagrams), consult the above article.

8. In an 8 bit binary number, what is the total number of combinations of the eight bits?

A) 128 B) 254 C) 255 D) 256 E) 512 F) 1024 More Info: A Guide to Network math Explanation: This question can be tricky. By reading the above article, we know that it is either 255 or 256. We know that we can go up to 255 with each byte of data. But dont be so sure its C- it is, in fact, D. This is because we count 0 as a number, and thus, there are 256 combinations. Be on the lookout for more sly questions Cisco throws at us to make sure were still awake.

9. Which device connects a computer with a telephone line by providing modulation and demodulation of incoming and outgoing data?

A) NIC B) CSU/DSU C) router D) modem E) telco switch More Info: What is a Modem? Explanation: This question should be fairly easy. If you know the definition of a modem, you should get this question right even without our help. Nonetheless, the article above will provide extra information on modems if needed.

10. What is the binary equivalent for the decimal number 162?

A) 10101010 B) 10100010 C) 10100100 D) 10101101 E) 10110000 F) 10101100 More Info: A Guide to Network math Explanation: The above question wants you to convert the number 162 to binary. By reading the above article, we know that to do so we need to see which bits fit into 162. This is commonly done by the Will this number go into 162? method. If you need more of a descript explanation (complete with diagrams), consult the above article.

11. Which of the following are popular web browsers? (Choose two.)

A) Acrobat B) Internet Explorer C) Macromedia Flash D) Netscape Navigator E) Quicktime F) World Wide Web More Info: (none) Explanation: This is another question that you should know from basic computer knowledge. Although we ourselves hesitated and asked, Wheres FireFox, and why is Netscape Navigator on the list? (It seems Cisco is a little behind on the times.)

12. Convert the Base 10 number 116 into its eight bit binary equivalent. Choose the correct answer from the following list:

A) 01111010 B) 01110010 C) 01110100 D) 01110110 E) 01110111 F) 01010110 More Info: A Guide to Network math Explanation: The above question wants you to convert the number 116 to binary. By reading the above article, we know that to do so we need to see which bits fit into 116. This is commonly done by the Will this number go into 116? method. If you need more of a descript explanation (complete with diagrams), consult the above article.

13. What is the hexadecimal equivalent for the binary number 10001110?

A) 22

B) 67 C) 142 D) AE E) 8E More Info: A Guide to Network math Explanation: The above problem involves converting a binary number to a hexadecimal number. The above article explains that to do so, you need to split the binary number into two nibbles and then find their decimal value. After you find the decimal value, you may finally find the hex number. Consult the article above more a more indepth explanation.

14. Represented as a decimal number, what is the result of the logical ANDing of binary numbers 00100011 and 11111100?

A) 3 B) 32 C) 35 D) 220 E) 255 More Info: A Guide to Network math Explanation: This question involves the AND logical operator. Essentially, you compare the two binary numbers. If there is a binary 1 in the same location of both numbers, then you count that bit. Think of it as a test: you need 1 AND 1 for any addition to take place. A binary 1 and binary 0, or binary 0 and binary 0, will both not work. B is the correct answer since the 5th bit from the right is the only bit that can be ANDed- and 2^5 = 32. (Note that it is not the 6th bit, since we start counting at 0, not 1.)

15. Convert the decimal number 231 into its binary equivalent. Select the correct answer from the list below.

A) 11110010

B) 11011011 C) 11110110 D) 11100111 E) 11100101 F) 11101110 More Info: A Guide to Network math Explanation: The above question wants you to convert the number 231 to binary. By reading the above article, we know that to do so we need to see which bits fit into 231. This is commonly done by the Will this number go into 231? method. If you need more of a descript explanation (complete with diagrams), consult the above article.

16. What are three conditions that would require a network administrator to install a new NIC? (Choose three.)

A) whenever a NIC is damaged B) when there is a need to provide a secondary or backup NIC C) when there is a change from copper media to wireless D) whenever operating system security patches are applied E) whenever the PC has been moved to a different location More Info: What is a Network Interface Card? Explanation: A is correct since when something is broke, we should fix it (or in this case replace it). Obviously if we have the need for a backup NIC, we will need to install a new one- B is correct too. C is correct since some NICs are specific to a certain type of media, so changing that media warrants a new NIC. D is not true since the operating system does not have an effect on the NIC. E is not true because the physical location of a computer will not interfere with your NIC.