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Launch date 15April 1999
Spatial resolution 30m
orbit period (temporal?) 98.9min
Grounding track repeat cycle/swath? 16 days (233 orbits)
Resolution 15-90 m
IRS-1A IRS-1A is the first satellite in the IRS constellation. It was launched from Baikonur cosmodrome, Khazakhstan. It operated in sun-synchronous near polar orbit at an inclination of 99 degrees at an altitude of 904 km. One orbit around the earth took about 103 minutes and the satellite made 14 orbits per day. The 22 day repetivity ensured repeated collection of data of the same geographical area at the same local time. The equatorial crossing time for IRS-1A in the descending node was 9:40 AM. It had two types of cameras known as Linear Self Scanning Sensors (LISS-I and LISS-II). LISS-I had a spatial resolution of 72.5m with a swath of 148 km on ground. LISS-II had two separate imaging sensors LISS-IIA and LISS-IIB with spatial resolution of 36.25m each. They were mounted on the spacecraft in such a way so as to provide a composite swath of 146.98 km on ground. Both LISS-I and LISS-II operated in four spectral bands covering visible and near infrared region. It had following payload and orbital parameters Orbit Altitude Inclination Local Time Repetivity Orbits/day Period Sensors LISS - I Sensor Characteristics: Sensor Resolution Swath Repetivity Spectral Bands LISS-1 72.5 m 148 km 22 days 0.45 - 0.52 microns (B1) Polar Sun synchronous 904 Km 99 degrees 9:40 A.M 22 Days 14 103 minutes LISS-I, LISS-II
0.52 - 0.59 microns (B2) 0.62 - 0.68 microns (B3) 0.77 - 0.86 microns (B4) LISS - II Sensor Characteristics: Sensor Resolution Swath Repetivity Spectral Bands LISS - II 36.25 m 74 x 2 km 22 days 0.45 - 0.52 microns (B1) 0.52 - 0.59 microns (B2) 0.62 - 0.68 microns (B3) 0.77 - 0.86 microns (B4) IRS-1B IRS-1B is the second satellite in the Indian remote sensing series. It was launched from Baikanur cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. IRS-1B is identical to IRS-1A in all respects. The payload and orbital parameters of IRS-1B are the same as that of IRS-1A. The satellite provided excellent data during the period 1991-2001, outliving its designed life. Many nation level mapping projects were carried out using the data. IRS-1C The fourth in the IRS series, IRS - 1C was launched from Baikanur cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on May 19, 1995. It operates in a near polar, sun- synchronous orbit at an altitude of 817km. Its local equatorial crossing time is 10:30 A.M in the descending node. The satellite payload consists of three sensors, namely Panchromatic camera (PAN), Linear Imaging and Self-Scanning Sensor (LISS - III) and Wide Field Sensor (WiFS). The PAN camera provides data with a spatial resolution of 5.8m and a ground swath of 70 km at nadir view. This camera can be steered up to +/- 26 degrees, which can be used to acquire stereo pairs and this also improves the revisit capability to 5 days. LISS - III camera provides multi-spectral data in 4 bands. The spatial resolution for visible (two bands) and near infrared (one band) is 23.5m with a ground swath of 141 km. The fourth band (short wave infrared band) has a spatial resolution of 70.5m with a ground swath of 148 km. The repetivity of LISS - III is 24 days.
WiFS camera collects data in two spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 188m and a ground swath of 810 km. By virtue of its wide swath there is huge side lap between adjacent paths. A repetivity of 3 days can be achieved by suitably combining paths. The satellite is equipped with an On Board Tape Recorder (OBTR) with a capacity of 62 Gb, for collecting data outside the visibility region of any ground station. The OBTR was capable of storing data collected for 24 minutes. The OBTR was functional during 1995-1998. Orbit Altitude Inclination Local Time Repetivity Orbits/cycle Period Sensors PANCHROMATIC Sensor Characteristics Resolution Swath Revisit Spectral Bands Quantization (Bits) Steerability LISS-III Sensor Characteristics Resolution 23.5 m (Visible and near IR region) 70.5 m (Shortwave IR region ) 141 km (Visible and near IR region) 148 km (Shortwave IR region ) 24 days 0.52 - 0.59 microns (B2) 0.62 - 0.68 microns (B3) 0.77 - 0.86 microns (B4) 1.55 - 1.70 microns (B5) 5.8m 70 km (3 x 23.33 km) 5 days by tilting the camera 0.50 – 0.75 Microns 6 +/- 26 degrees Polar, Sun synchronous 817 Km 98.69 deg 10:30 A.M 24 Days 341 101.35 min PAN, LISS-III, WiFS
Revisit Spectral Bands
Quantization WiFS Sensor Characteristics Resolution Swath Revisit Spectral Bands
188 m 810 km 3 days 0.62 - 0.68 microns (Visible) 0.77 - 0.86 microns (near infra-red) 7 bits
On 29th September, 1996, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) proved its launch vehicle capability by launching the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS-1D, using Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C1, from Sriharikota. This added one more member to the existing IRS constellation. It carries payloads similar to its predecessor, IRS-1C. Like IRS-1C, IRS-1D has LISS III, PAN, WiFS sensors onboard. Orbit Altitude Near Polar, Sun synchronous 737 km (perigee) 821 km (apogee) 98.53 deg 10.30 A.M to 10.47 A.M 25 days 358 100.56 minutes PAN, LISS-III, WIFS
Inclination Local Time Repetivity Orbits/cycle Period Sensors PAN Sensor Characteristics Resolution Swath Revisit Spectral Bands Quantization Steerability LISS-III Sensor Characteristics
5.2 to 5.8 m 63 to 70 km 5 days by tilting the camera 0.50 – 0.75 Microns 6 bits +/- 26 degrees
21.2 to 23.5 m ( Visible and near IR region) 63.6 to 70.5 m ( Shortwave IR region ) 127 to141 Km ( Visible and near IR region ) 133 to148 Km ( Shortwave IR region ) 25 days 0.52 - 0.59 microns (B2) 0.62 - 0.68 microns (B3) 0.77 - 0.86 microns (B4) 1.55 - 1.70 microns (B5) 7 bits
Repetivity Spectral Bands
Quantization WiFS Sensor Characteristics Resolution Swath Revisit Spectral Bands
169 to 188 meter 728 to 812 Km 3 days ( by combining paths ) 0.62 - 0.68 microns (Visible)
0.77 - 0.86 microns (near infra-red) Quantization 7 bits INDIAN REMOTE SENSING SATELLITES: The series of indian Remote sensing satellites like IRS1A,IRS-1B,IRS-1C,IRS-1D,IRS-P4,IRS-P6,IRS-P5 with spatial resolution ranging from 360m to 2.5m and also with pancromatic and multispectral imaging capability,catering to the needs of the country in managing its natural resources. Today, IRS data is being used for a diverse range of applications such as crop acreage and production estimation of major crops, drought monitoring and assessment based on vegetation condition, flood risk zone mapping and flood damage assessment, hydro-geomorphological maps for locating underground water resources, irrigation command area status monitoring, snowmelt run-off estimation, land use and land cover mapping, urban planning, biodiversity characterization, forest survey, wetland mapping, environmental impact analysis, mineral prospecting, coastal studies, integrated surveys for developing sustainable action plans and so on. CARTOSAT – IRS-P3,P4,P5,P6,1A,1B,1C,1D Resolution (m) 2.5 5 Sensor PAN Stereo PAN LISS-IV (MX) LISS-IV(Mono) Satellite IRS-P5 IRS 1C, IRS 1D IRS P6 IRS P6
24 36.25 56 72.5 180 360
LISS – III IRS 1C, IRS 1D, IRS P6 LISS – II IRS 1A, IRS 1B AWiFS IRS P6 LISS-I IRS 1A, IRS 1B WiFS IRS 1C, IRS 1D, IRS P3 OCM (Multispectral) IRS P4
SATELLITES INDIAN REMOTE SENSING SATELLITES During the 1970's and 80's, India's remote sensing data needs were being addressed by foreign satellites like LANDSAT , NOAA , SPOT etc., where NRSA procured the satellite data products from foreign agencies and supplied it to the users.. With the setting up of an Earth Station at Hyderabad in 1979, satellite data reception started, first from USA's LANDSAT satellite. The launch of India's first civilian remote sensing satellite IRS-1A in March 1988, marked the beginning of a successful journey in the course of the Indian Space Programme. The two LISS sensors aboard IRS-1A beamed down valuable data that aided in large scale mapping applications. Subsequently, IRS-1B , having similar sensors, was launched in August 1991, and together, they provided better repetivity. The LISS-III, PAN and WiFS sensors on IRS-1C (December 1995) and IRS1D (September 1997) further strengthened the scope of remote sensing, with increased coverage and foray into application areas like resources survey and management, urban planning, forest studies, disaster monitoring and environmental studies. Subsequently, IRS-1B , having similar sensors, was launched in August 1991, and together, they provided better repetivity. The LISS-III, PAN and WiFS sensors on IRS-1C (December 1995) and IRS1D (September 1997) further strengthened the scope of remote sensing, with increased coverage and foray into application areas like resources survey and management, urban planning, forest studies, disaster monitoring and environmental studies. The launch of IRS-P6 (Resourcesat-1) in October 2003, provided an excellent opportunity to obtain high resolution multi-spectral data and moderate resolution data in 10-bi, while providing continuity of data. IRS-P5 (Cartosat-1), launched on May 5, 2005, catapulted the Indian Remote Sensing program into the world of large scale mapping and terrain modeling applications. FOREIGN SATELLITES Apart from the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites, NRSA acquires and distributes data from a number of foreign satellites. Currently, NRSA is acquiring data from NOAA-17, NOAA-18, TERRA, AQUA and ERS. Apart from acquiring NRSA also distributes data collected by RADARSAT, IKONOS, QUICKBIRD , ORBIMAGE and ENVISAT. FUTURE IRS SATELLITES
Continuing the journey, the Indian Space Research Organization is planning to offer much more to the user community through its future IRS missions. Cartosat-2, RISAT and Oceansat-2 are the next few missions which are scheduled to be launched during 2006-2007.
Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 Orbit the Earth
Some of the most popular and valued remote sensing images of the earth are obtained from the Landsat satellites which have been orbiting the earth for over thirty years. Landsat is a joint venture between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey. On April 15, 1999, NASA launched Landsat 7 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, the last Landsat to be deployed since 1984. Prior to the launch of Landsat 7, two Landsats were in operation - Landsat 4 (operating from 1982 to decommission in June 2001) and Landsat 5 (operating since March 1984). Landsat 6 was launched in 1993 but it failed to attain proper orbit. The Landsat satellites make loops around the earth and are constantly collecting images of the surface through the use of a variety of sensing devices. Since the beginning of the Landsat program in 1972, the images and data have been available to all countries around the world. Images are used to measure rain forest loss, assist with mapping, determine urban growth, and population change. The different Landsats each have different remote sensing equipment. Each sensing device records radiation from the surface of the earth in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Landsat 7 has more sensing equipment than any other Landsat. It even includes a new panchromatic scanner with an impressive resolution of 15 meters (the highest resolution until Landsat 7 was 30m). This means that buildings or other objects which are 15 meters across will show up on the Landsat images. The Landsats orbit the earth from the north to south poles and vice versa. Landsat 7 completes a full orbit of the earth in about 99 minutes, allowing the satellite to achieve over 14 orbits per day. The satellites make a complete coverage of the earth every 16 days. Landsat 5 and 7 collect images from a swath of land about 183-185 kilometers wide. The ground path of the satellites is from east to west with each subsequent pass. About five passes cover the entire United States, from Maine and Florida to Hawaii and Alaska.
SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre) is a high-resolution, optical imaging earth observation satellite system operating from space. It is run by Spot Image based in Toulouse, France. It was initiated by the CNES (Centre national d'études spatiales – the French space agency) in the 1970s and was developed in association with the SSTC (Belgian scientific, technical and cultural services) and the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB). It has been designed to improve the knowledge and management of the earth by exploring the earth's resources, detecting and forecasting phenomena involving climatology and oceanography, and monitoring human activities and natural phenomena. The SPOT system includes a series of satellites and ground control resources for satellite control and programming, image production, and distribution. The satellites were launched with the ESA rocket launcher Ariane 2, 3, and 4. The company SPOT Image is marketing the high-resolution images, which SPOT can take from every corner of the earth.
• • • •
SPOT 1 launched February 22, 1986 with 10m panchromatic and 20m multispectral picture resolution capability. Withdrawn December 31, 1990. SPOT 2 launched January 22, 1990 and is still operational. SPOT 3 launched September 26, 1993. Stopped functioning November 14, 1997 SPOT 4 launched March 24, 1998
SPOT 5 launched May 4, 2002 with 2.5m, 5m and 10m capability
The SPOT Orbit
The SPOT orbit is polar, circular, sun-synchronous, and phased. The inclination of the orbital plane combined with the rotation of the earth around the polar axis allows the satellite to fly over any point on earth within 26 days. The orbit has an altitude of 822 kilometers, an inclination of 98.7 degrees, and 14 + 5/26 revolutions per day depending.
 SPOT 1, 2, and 3
Since 1986 the SPOT family of satellites has been orbiting the earth and has already taken more than 10 million high quality images. SPOT 1 was launched with Ariane 2 on February 22, 1986. Two days later, the 1800 kg SPOT 1 transmitted its first image with a spatial resolution of 10 or 20 meters. SPOT 2 joined SPOT 1 in orbit on January 22, 1990 and SPOT 3 followed on September 26, 1993. The satellite loads were identical, each including two identical HRV (High Resolution Visible) imaging instruments that were able to operate in 2 modes, either simultaneously or individually. The two spectral modes are panchromatic and multispectral. The panchromatic band has a resolution of 10 meters, and the 3 multispectral bands have resolutions of 20m. They have an image swath of 3600km2 and a revisit interval of 1 to 4 days depending on the latitude. Because the orbit of SPOT 1 was lowered in 2003, it will gradually lose altitude and break up naturally in the atmosphere. Although the recorders aboard SPOT 2 do not work anymore, it still provides measurements and high-quality images. SPOT 3 is not working anymore either due to problems with its stabilization system.
 SPOT 4
SPOT 4 was launched on March 24, 1998 and features major improvements over SPOT 1, 2, and 3. The principal feature was the modification of the HRV, becoming a high-resolution visible and infrared (HRVIR) instrument. It has an additional band at mid-infrared wavelengths (1.58-1.75 micrometre), intended to provide capabilities for geological reconnaissance, vegetation surveys, and survey of snow cover, with a resolution of 20 meters. The two HRVIR imaging instruments are programmable for independent image coverage, increasing the number of imaging opportunities. Its lifetime was increased from 3 to 5 years, and its telescopes and recording capacities were improved.
 SPOT 5
SPOT 5 was launched on May 3, 2002 and has the goal to ensure continuity of services for customers and to improve the quality of data and images by anticipating changes in market requirements. SPOT 5 has two high resolution geometrical (HRG) instruments that were deduced from the HRVIR of SPOT 4. They offer a higher resolution of 2.5 to 5 meters in panchromatic mode and 10 meters in multispectral mode. SPOT 5 also features an HRS imaging instrument operating in panchromatic
mode. HRS points forward and backward of the satellite. Thus it is able to take stereopair images almost simultaneously to map relief.
Platforms The vehicles or carriers for remote sensors are called the platforms. Typical platforms are satellites and aircraft, but they can also include radio-controlled aeroplanes, balloons kits for low altitude remote sensing, as well as ladder trucks or 'cherry pickers' for ground investigations. The key factor for the selection of a platform is the altitude that determines the ground resolution and which is also dependent on the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of the sensor on board the platform. Salient feature of some important satellite platforms. Features Natre Altitude (km) Orbital period (minutes) inclination (degrees Temporal resolution (days) Revolutions Equatorial crossing (AM) Sensors Landsat1,2,3 Sun Sys 919 103.3 99 18 Landsat 4,5 Sun Sys 705 99 98.2 16 SPOT Sun Sys 832 101 98.7 26 IRS-IA Sun Sys 904 103.2 99 22 IRS-IC Sun Sys 817 101.35 98.69 24
251 09.30 RBV,MSS
233 09.30 MSS,TM
369 10.30 HRV
307 10.00 LISS-I,LISS-II
341 10.30 LISSIII,PAN,WIFS
SENSORS ACTIVE SENSORS (Detect the reflected or emitted electromagnetic radiation from natural sources.) Passive Non-Scanning Non-Imaging. (They are a type of profile recorder, ex. Microwave Radiometer. Magnetic sensor.Gravimeter.Fourier Spectrometer. PASSIVE SENSORS (Detect reflected responses from objects that are irradiated from artificially-generated energy sources such as radar.) Active Non-Scanning Non-Imaging. (They are a type of profile recorder, ex. Microwave Radiometer.Microwave Altimeter.Laser Water Depth Meter.Laser Distance Meter. Scanning
Imaging. (Example of this are the cameras which can be: Monochrome, Natural Colour, Infrared etc.) Scanning Imaging. Image Plane scanning.Ex. TV CameraSolid scanner. Object Plane scanning.Ex. Optical Mechanical ScannerMicrowave radiometer.
Imaging. (It is a radar ex. Object Plane scanning: • • Real Aperture Radar. Synthetic Aperture Radar.
Image Plane Scanning: • Passive Phased Array Radar.
Resolution In general resolution is defined as the ability of an entire remote-sensing system, including lens antennae, display, exposure, processing, and other factors, to render a sharply defined image. Resolution of a remotesensing is of different types. 1. Spectral Resolution: of a remote sensing instrument (sensor) is determined by the band-widths of the Electro-magnetic radiation of the channels used. High spectral resolution, thus, is achieved by narrow bandwidths width, collectively, are likely to provide a more accurate spectral signature for discrete objects than broad bandwidth. 2. Radiometric Resolution: is determined by the number of discrete levels into which signals may be divided. 3. Spatial Resolution: in terms of the geometric properties of the imaging system, is usually described as the instantaneous field of view (IFOV). The IFOV is defined as the maximum angle of view in which a sensor can effectively detect electro-magnetic energy. 4. Temporal Resolution: is related ot the repetitive coverage of the ground by the remote-sensing system. The temporal resolution of Landsat 4/5 is sixteen days.
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