# COAL CALCULATION

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Air Fuel ratio is defined from stochiometry theory after we find Boiler capacity, coal specification and excess air set for perfect combustion. One of the most important items is that the correct amount oxygen must be supplied per unit weight of fuel burned to provide complete combustion. In addition to the correct “air-fuel” mixture, time must be allowed for complete mixing and burning, and the furnace temperature must be such as to support combustion.

. At 760 mmHg pressure (14. Air is mechanically mixture in various gases.8 percent nitrogen by weight. Percentage CO2 in exit gas on both dry and wet basis. Cubic feet of gas at boiler exit (600F) per pound of fuel fire with theoretically perfect combustion. Weight of gas formed per pound of coal fired with theoretical perfect combustion.7psia) and 32F. 1 mole of any gas occupies 359 cu ft. but principally of oxygen and nitrogen being 23. for coal assumed: Weight of air require for theoretical perfect combustion.3 percent oxygen and 76.Combustion in a furnace is best studied in connection with the ultimate analysis of the fuel used and certain simple chemical reaction.

Gustaf Gafert STEAM POWER STATION McGraw-Hill Book Company New York 1952. . More info see coal Theory.   COAL 1 PK Nag POWER PLANT ENGINEERING 2nd Edition McGraw-Hill International Edition 2002. we could find air combustion with add excess air for perfect combustion.After coal consumtion defined.

coal may be of the following types: 1. Sub bituminous 4. Anthracite. Lignite is the lowest grade of coal containing moisture as high as 30% and high volatile matter. Bituminous 5. Proximate Analysis. Volatile matter helps in the ignition of coal. Volatile matter consists of hydrogen and certain hydrogen-carbon compounds which can be remove from the coal simply by heating it. Coal Analysis There are two types of coal analysis. Both these types may be based on 1. According to ASTM (American society of testing and materials). Fixed carbon is the difference between 100% and the sum of the percentages of moisture. which indicates that there is only ash remaining in the crucible. Complete combustion of coal is determined by repeated weighing of the sample. Peat 2. proximate and ultimate. . Dry or moisture free basis. graphite is formed. As received basis useful for combustion calculation. The latter may now be determined since moisture has been calculated from the previous test. with increasing percentage of carbon. there is a loss in weight due the elimination of moisture and volatile matter. The lower of volatility is the higher the heating value. Sub Anthracite 6. Dry mineral matter free or combustible basis. By subjecting 1 g sample of coal in an uncovered crucible to a temperature of about 720C until the coal is completely burned. The proximate analysis indicates the behavior of coal when it is heated. a constant weight is reached. Bituminous coal is the large group containing 46-86% of fixed carbon and 20-40% of volatile matter. After anthracite. It can be low. Peat containing up to 90% moisture and is not attractive as a utility fuel. Anthracite contains more than 86% fixed carbon and less volatile matter. 3. Both are done on mass per cent basis. medium and high volatile. When 1 g sample of coal is placed in a cover platinum crucible and heated to 950C and maintained at the temperature for about 7 min. 2. Lignite 3. ash and volatile matter. the loss in weight of the sample gives the moisture content of the coal.According to geological order of formation. peat not regarded as a rank of coal. so it is difficult to burn anthracite. When 1 g sample of coal is subjected to a temperature of about 105C for a period of 1 hour.

A free burning coal has a high value of swelling index. This exposed more surface area for combustion. Ultimate Analysis The ultimate analysis gives the chemical elements that comprise the coal substance. Lower Rank coals (lower fuel ratio) are characterized by a greater oxygen content. grindability.However. High combustibility improves carbon burnout (reduce carbon carryover) and hence boiler efficiency and for pulverized coal fire units. hydrogen and oxygen derived from the original vegetable matter. which indicates what it some what expand in volume during combustion When modern pulverized coal burner are used. thus enhancing the combustion process efficiency. the volume expansion is 1600 to 1). They are swelling index. the coal must not cake as it burns. nitrogen. therefore C+H+O+N+S+M+A = 100% by mass. heating value and ash softening temperature. It breaks s apart during combustion exposing large surface to the air. thus fragmenting the coal particles. So. together with ash and moisture.H. sulphur content. has been devised to determine the extent of caking of a coal. that aids ignition and enhances combustibility and flame stability. the swelling property of coal is. The general trend with increasing rank is an increase in the heating value and fixed carbon and corresponding decreasing in moisture and VM. A qualitative evaluation method. the more it will smoke. Some types of coal during and after release of volatile matter become soft and pasty and form agglomerates. The consequent agglomeration disturbs greatly the availability of air and so the coal does not completely burn yielding low combustion efficiency. The more volatile the coal. such as traveling grate stoker. Low rank coals (high moisture content) produce a “self pulverization” of the coal particles during combustion. Coal that does not cake is called free burning coal. Grindability . The dry and ash free analysis on combustible basis is obtained on dividing C.N and S by fraction [1-(M+A)/100)] Coal Properties There are certain properties of coal which are important in power plant application. As the inherent moisture in the pore structure of the coal is heated and expands rapidly. which is largely needed in a steel plant. It is also possible that some of this fixed carbon may include sulphur.O. Coal devoid of volatile mater is coal coke. The coal substance consists of organic compounds of carbon. This trend is pronounced that a classification system based on the fuel ratio (ratio of fixed carbon to volatile matter) has been used as rough indicator of a coal’s rank. Swelling index. volatile matter and fixed carbon when expressed on a dry ash free basis. The amount of VM indicates whether the coal will burn with a short or long flame and whether it will tend to produce smoke. hydrogen. of less importance. with the volatile matter driven off. The figure shows the trend in moisture. weatherability. In a fixed bed. moisture and ash. sulphur. Some of carbon may have been in the form of hydrocarbon which may have been distilled off while determining the volatile matter. this difference does not represent all the carbon that was in the coal. These are called caking coal. The analysis shows the following components on mass basis: carbon. however. its volume increase (as water flashes to steam at atmospheric pressure. called swelling index. this allows the coal to be ground to a coarser size. Caking coals are used to produce coke by heating in a coke oven in the absence of air. nitrogen and oxygen. the proximate analysis of coal gives FC+VM+M+A=100% by mass.

The higher heating value (HHV) assumed that the water vapor in the products condenses and thus includes the latent heat vaporization of the water vapor formed by combustion. And γa is the specific humidity of atmospheric air and wa is the actual amount of air supplied per kg of coal. Two different heating values are citied for coal. If the coal selected for use at power plant has grindability of 50. Excessive crumbling or weathering of coal due to climate conditions may result small particle of coal which can be dispersed by wing or rain. There is an environmental regulation on SO2 emission. therefore LHV = HHV – mw. Sulphur Content. where a coal sample of known mass is burnt with a pore oxygen supply completely in a stainless steel bomb or vessel surrounded by a known mass of water and the rise in water temperature is noted. The operating cost of SO2 removal equipment need be considered while selecting a coal with high sulphur content. The lower heating value (LHV) assumes that the water vapor formed by combustion leaves as vapor itself.hfg Where mw is the mass of water vapor formed given by mw = M + 9H + γa.45[H-(O/8)] + 9. it would require twice grinding power of standard coal to produce e specified particle size. The coal unloaded from wagon is packed in a long trapezoidal pile. Grindability of standard coal is defined as 100. This property of coal is measured by standard gridability index.8C + 144. sulphur dioxide is major source of atmospheric pollution. Weatherability. Sulphur content in a coal is combustible and generates some energy by its oxidation to SO2. dry or dry and ash free basis. It is measure of how well coal can be stockpiled for long periods of time without crumbling to pieces. If the ultimate analysis is known. For energy balance and efficiency calculation of steam generators. HHV of fuel is considered in the USA. which is inversely proportional to the power required to grind the coal to a specified particle size for burning. It may be determined on an as received. It is the heat transferred when the products of complete combustion of a sample of coal (or other fuel) are cooled to the initial temperature of air and fuel. Heating Value The heating value of caloric value of coal is property of fundamental importance.wa Where M and H are the mass fractions of moisture and hydrogen in the coal. whereas LHV is the standard used in European practice. Modern power plants normally stockpile 60 to 90 days’ supply of coal in a large pile near the power plant. It is normally determined in a standard test in a bomb calorimeter.38S in MJ/kg . the HHV of anthracite and bituminous coal can determined approximately by using Dulong and Petit formula as given below HHV = 33.Grindability is often an important criterion for selection a coal.

mw Softening Temperature.s. it is important to maintain a dry pile and compaction at regular intervals.t) of of the coal. Amount of surface area exposed to air 3. Free moisture in coal. If it takes place slowly. low rank of coals are most susceptible because of their higher porosity.. the ash will melt and would come out of the furnace bottom continuously as molten slag. The factors which influence spontaneous combustion and which can lead to a big fire. For furnace that would discharge ash in the solid form. as high as softening temperature would be required. oxygen and sulphur in coal. If the furnace temperature is higher than the a. there is a degradation or loss of energy content and hence in the value of fuel.395 MJ/kg. Assuming the latent heat of vaporization hfg at the partial pressure ofwater vapor in the combustion product as 2. Clinkers which are large masses of fused ash. H. This is somewhat below the melting point of ash. with high solar insulation aiding it. The ash softening temperature is the temperature at which the ash softens and become plastic. Ambient temperature. Spontaneous Combustion Combustion (oxidation) of coal can take place rapidly as in a furnace or slowly on a stockpile. 5.                   .Where C.t a. Oxygen content of coal. The design of steam generator greatly depends on the ash softening temperature (a.395. the lower heating value of coal is given by LHV = JJV – 2.s. To prevent spontaneous combustion. cause troubles in discharge and also make combustion inefficient.t otherwise clinkers would be formed. 6. A stoker furnace must use coal with a high a.s. Rank of coal. 2. hydrogen. 4. O and S are mass fractions of carbon. Configuration of coal stockpile. are the following 1. steep conical piles with coarse coal at the edges and fines near the top are more susceptible because they promote natural convection (chimney effect) and good air flow through the pile to support combustion as it develops.

we could defined Boiler capacity for Generator output. . Boiler Energy Needed depend on how much Generator load output andcoal heating value that must be selection. Rankine cycle heat balance mus be calculation first so main equipment (such as condenser & Turbine) of Power Station can be defined. From output steam super-heater & re-heater condition and input steam economizer condition.BOILER CAPACITY 0 In every power station. also flue gas to air heater that absorb for air combustion.

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