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A Minor Project Report
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of BBA (general) program of Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi.
Submitted by Mahender BBA (GEN) Semester - III Enrol. No: 05012201710
Delhi college of advance studies B–7, shanker Garden, vikashpuri New delhi – 110018
I hereby declare that the minor project report, entitled “Business communication”, is based on my original study and has not been submitted earlier for award of any degree or diploma to any institute or university.
The work of other author(s), wherever used, has been acknowledged at appropriate place(s).
Place: New Delhi Date:
Candidate’s signature Name: Mahender EnrolNo: 05012201710
Name: Ms. Shitika Supervisor Delhi College of advanced studies
Name: Dr. J.P. varshney Director Delhi College of advanced studies
An independent project is a contradiction in terms. Every project involves contribution of many people. This also bears the imprints of many people and it is a pleasure for me to acknowledge and thank all of them. I am deeply indebted to Miss Shitika who acted as a mentor and guide, providing knowledge and giving me their valuable time out of her busy schedule, at every step throughout the research. It is only because of her that project come into being. I also thank Prof. (Dr.) J.P varshney, director, Delhi College of advanced studies, for providing an opportunity of doing this project under his leadership. I also take the opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to each and every person, who directly or indirectly helped me throughout the project and without anyone of them the research, would not have been possible. The immense learning from this project would be indelible forever.
Student name: Mahender Enrol.No: 05012201710
The executive summary summarizes the key points of the business plan. It should define the decision to be made and the reasons for approval. The specific content will be highly dependent on the core purpose and target audience. To get a sense of the difference the purpose and target audience can make, here are three different sets of key points for an executive summary - one for a loan request, one for a start-up seeking venture finance, and one for an internal plan. Items unique to a particular kind of plan are highlighted in bold: A loan request executive summary might contain the following information • Company information: name of company, years in business, legal structure, minority and majority owners.
Brief description of project. Amount and length of loan. Objective reasons why the bank should be confident that the loan will be paid back. This likely will include
• • •
Financial track record The future revenue stream Any contracts in place that might guarantee the revenue stream is more
than just a forecast. For a new venture, the executive summary might contain:
Company information: name of company, proposed legal structure, current legal
structure, minority and majority investors.
• • • •
Amount of investment requested Expected terminal value Description of market opportunity Objective reasons why the market opportunity can be exploited by this particular
team For an internal project plan, the executive summary might look like this
• • • • •
Company information: not applicable Description of project Project mandate: who requested the proposal, who is being assigned to carry it out Strategic, tactical and financial justifications Summary of resources needed: staff, funds, facilities
In some cases information will overlap. For example, some of the reasons why a loan is likely to be repaid might equally as well be used as justification for the kind of extraordinary return expected by venture capitalists. In some cases the business plan as a whole contains similar information, but for one type of plan it is mere detail and for another it is a key decision making factor. For instance, both start-ups and internal projects need staff and facilities. However the staffing and facilities needs are considered details in a plan for start-up financing. In a plan for internal projects they are key elements and, in fact, may be the only resources needed.
UC provides organizations value that can be quantified and yield tangible benefits in various business processes. Although each has is own unique requirements, the need to communicate effectively and reduce delays spans all industries. UC benefits are found across many businesses activities, and include the following applications: • Reach subject matter experts and decision-makers quickly - UC enables employees to determine the availability of experts and decision-makers and reach them quickly over any device regardless of location. • Improve team collaboration - Project teams can initiate interactive audio, video, and Web conferencing quickly by viewing team members’ status and pointing and clicking on their names to launch a conference call. • Support remote workers more effectively - Remote workers have full business telephone features from their mobile devices including presence capabilities that enable them to use the same business applications as employees working from centralized office locations. • Speed up problem resolution - With the ability to contact others quickly and share information collaboratively regardless of location, problems can be resolved in less time, minimizing their consequences. • Facilitate training sessions without travel - Interactive web collaboration enables employers to offer training courses at local sites, eliminating costly business travel.
• Consolidate application management - UC enables organizations to consolidate the administration and management of applications and centralize their support. • Improve emergency response time - The ability to reach others quickly across any device with single number access enables organizations to quickly notify individuals or large groups of people of critical situations that require their attention.
1 2 3 4 5 Declaration Acknowledgement Executive summary List of figures Chapter – 1 •
Introduction Objectives and scope of study Methodology
Chapter – 2 • Conceptual Framework • Business communication and its types • Principles of management • • • • • • • Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Controlling
Components of communication process Importance of communication in an organisation • • • Communication flow in an organisation Grapevine communication Feedback communication communication
Communication barriers – Reason for breakdown Seven C’s of effective communication • How to conduct a meeting • Guide for effective communication • Effective listening skill • Checklist for effective resume writing Job interview • • • Tips of interviewee Tips for interviewer Business ethics
Chapter – 3 • • Summary and Conclusion Results of study
Chapter - 1 Introduction
As the business environment grows in its complexity, the importance of skillful communication becomes essential in the pursuit of institutional goals. In addition to the need to develop adequate statistical skills, you will find it necessary to effectively communicate to others the results of your statistical studies. It is of little use to formulate solutions to business problems without transmitting this information to others involved in the problem-solving process. The importance of effectively communicating the results of your statistical study cannot be overemphasized. Unfortunately, it seems that many business managers suffer from inadequate communication skills. The December 1990 issue of the Training and Development Journal reports that "Executives polled in a recent survey decry the lack of writing skills
among job candidates." A report in 1993 issue of Management Review notes the "liability imposed on businesses by poor writing sills." The report states that employers are beginning to place greater emphasis on communication in hiring practices. Many employers have adopted policies requiring job candidates to submit a brief written report as part of the screening process. An August 1992 issue of Marketing News reveals that "Employers seek motivated communicators for entry-level marketing positions." Obviously, the pressing lack of adequate writing and communications skills in American businesses is well documented. Therefore, the purpose of this appendix is to illustrate some of the major principles of business communication and the preparation of business reports. We examine the general purpose and essential features of a report and stress the benefits of effective report writing. Emphasis is placed on the customary form a business report should take and the format, content, and purpose of its component parts. We will study illustrations of practical reports and the problems will provide the opportunity for students to develop and sharpen their communication skills.
• • • • • • • To identify various upcoming challenges of business communication.
To show the importance of business communication in Indian industries. To show usage of business communication. To mange communication system in an organization. To establish upcoming trends in business communication. To identify the ways to retain the business communication. To show current application of business communication.
SCOPE OF STUDY
The objective of the study was to know that how the communication in the business takes place in the corporate world. Business communication has specific objectives. They are: 1. Information related Communication: Information on a product, service or activity of an organization to the people concerned and information about the product, service or activity from the people concerned to the organization come under this category. They are outgoing information and incoming information respectively. The people concerned may be those within the organization or outside the organization. Transmission of information may be through personal contacts, written documents, advertisements, etc. Information might be in the nature of an advice, order, warning or counselling. Orders and warnings are different from advice and counselling by their very nature. 2. Persuasion related communication: Persuasion is related to the promotional activity of a company. It is employed to promote sales and service. Persuasion related communication calls for tact and an understanding on the part of the communicator. 3. Motivation related communication: A company has to motivate its workforce to turnout better work, its customers to buy its product and service. Motivation can be done only by understanding the mindset of the receiver. Business organizations have to continuously resort to motivation to succeed in their business aims.
Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines to describe source material that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied. In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, a document, a recording, or other source of information that was created at the time under study. It serves as an original source of information about the topic. Similar definitions are used in library science, and other areas of scholarship. In journalism, a primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation, or a document created by such a person. Primary sources are distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources, though the distinction is not a sharp one. A secondary source may also be a primary source and may depend on how it is used. "Primary" and "secondary" are relative terms, with sources judged primary or secondary according to specific historical contexts and what is being studied. Secondary sources involve generalization, analysis, synthesis, interpretation, or evaluation of the original information. Primary and secondary are relative terms, and some sources may be classified as primary or secondary, depending on how it is used. An even higher level, the tertiary source, such as an encyclopedia or dictionary, resembles a secondary source in that it contains analysis, but attempts to provide a broad introductory overview of a topic. In this project I have used secondary data to accomplish the project. The sources of collecting the data is through websites, books, encyclopedia etc.
Chapter - 2
CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK
Unified Business Communication (UBC) = People + Process + Information + Technology. UBC is not just about multi-channel communication, but the integration of communication technologies/services with people, process, and information. People--Entities that are directly or indirectly involved in the communication Personperson, person-machine, machine-machine, Business-Business, Business-Consumer, Consumer-Consumer One-one, one-many, many-many Process--Following a standard business methodology towards an end result while handling all the exceptions in a timely manner. Internal--Manufacturing, supply chain, administrative external--Marketing/sales, delivery, support/service and billing. UC Information--Information that offers context to the communication who--Initiator, relationship, background, role, knowledge, group, value, preferences, history what-Topic, tasks, data, content, plan, type (sales, services, notification) When--Real time or delayed (synchronous vs. asynchronous), scheduled or adhoc Where--Location (Faceface, virtual, remote), modality, availability, cost Why--Objective (informational, decision, social, other), event, motivation, trigger. UC Technologies/Services--How communication takes place based on the above Channel(s)--Voice, video, web, messaging, letter/fax, in-person Presence--Status,
location, availability, contact rules Directories--User ID & information, authentication, authorization, federation Conferencing--Bridging multiple people together across one or more channels Control--Setup, transfer, forward, queue, routing rules Mobility--Where to send to communication--device, network, channel Unified Client--Smart phones, Net
books, Virtual Clients, PCs historical reports
Reporting--Logging and recording with real-time and
Business Collaboration is defined as people working together towards a shared goal/result over a period of time involving multiple interactive communications. File sharing for example is a collaboration service, not a communications service. More in the future on a Unified Business Communication & Collaboration (UBCC) architectural framework. Business Collaboration is defined as people working together towards a shared goal/result over a period of time involving multiple interactive communications.
What is Business Communication?
Communication is neither transmission of message nor message itself. It is the mutual exchange of understanding, originating with the receiver. Communication needs to be effective in business. Communication is essence of management. The basic functions of management (Planning, Organising, Staffing, Directing, and Controlling) cannot be performed well without effective communication. Business communication involves constant flow of information. Feedback is integral part of business communication. Organizations these days are verly large. It involves number of people. There are various levels of hierarchy in an organization. Greater the number of levels, the more difficult is the job of managing the organization. Communication here plays a very important role in process of directing and controlling the people in the oragnization. Immediate feedback can be obtained and misunderstandings if any can be avoided. There should be effective communication between superiors and subordinated in an organization, between organization and society at large (for example between management and trade unions). It is essential for success and growth of an organization. Communication gaps should not occur in any organization. Business Communication is goal oriented. The rules, regulations and policies of a company have to be communicated to people within and outside the organization. Business Communication is regulated by certain rules and norms. In early times, business communication was limited to paper-work, telephone calls etc. But now with advent of technology, we have cell phones, video conferencing, emails, and satellite communication to support business communication. Effective business communication helps in building goodwill of an organization. Business Communication can be of two types:
a) Oral Communication b) Written Communication
Oral Communication - Meaning, Advantages and Limitations
Oral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required. Face to face communication (meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and trust.
Advantages of Oral Communication
There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication as it is interpersonal.
There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for allowing changes in the decisions previously taken.
The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions can be made quickly without any delay.
Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money and efforts.
Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts, disputes and many issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them over.
Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy. Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale among organizational employees.
Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidential information/matter.
Written Communication - Meaning, Advantages and Disadvantages
Written communication has great significance in today’s business world. It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for preparing worthy promotional materials for business development. Speech came before writing. But writing is more unique and formal than speech. Effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.
Advantages of Written Communication
Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organization.
It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record maintenance is required.
It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral Communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the grounds of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge.
Written communication is more precise and explicit. Effective written communication develops and enhances an organization’s image.
It provides ready records and references.
Disadvantages of Written Communication
• Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.
Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous.
Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate.
The encoding and sending of message takes time. • Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on organization’s reputation. • Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involved.
Management Principles of Business Communication
Planning is deciding in advance what to do and how to do. It is one of the basic managerial functions. Before doing something, the manager must formulate an idea of how to work on a particular task. Thus, planning is closely connected with creativity and innovation. It involves setting objectives and developing appropriate courses of action to achieve these objectives. Planning Definition "Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go. It makes it possible for things to occur which would not otherwise happen" Koontz and O’Donnell. Importance of Planning
• • • • • •
Planning provides directions Planning reduces the risks of uncertainty Planning reduces overlapping and wasteful activities Planning promotes innovative ideas Planning facilitates decision making Planning establishes standards for controlling.
Features of planning • Planning focuses on achieving objectives
• • • • • •
Planning is a primary function of management Planning is pervasive Planning is continuous Planning is futuristic Planning involves decision making Planning is a mental exercise
Planning Process Setting objectives: Objectives may be set for the entire organisation and each department or unit within the organisation. Developing premises: Planning is concerned with the future which is uncertain and every planner is using conjuncture about what might happen in future. Identifying alternative courses of action: Once objectives are set, assumptions are made. Then the next step would be to act upon them. Evaluating alternative courses: The next step is to weigh the pros and cons of each alternative. Selecting an alternative: This is the real point of decision making. The best plan has to be adopted and implemented. Implement the plan: This is concerned with putting the plan into action. Follow-up action: Monitoring the plans are equally important to ensure that objectives are achieved.
• • • • •
Types of Plans
Objectives: Objectives are very basic to the organisation and they are defined as ends which the management seeks to achieve by its operations. They serve as a guide for overall business planning. Strategy: strategy is a comprehensive plan for accomplishing an organisation objectives. This comprehensive plan will include three dimensions, (a) determining long term objectives, (b) adopting a particular course of action, and (c) allocating resources necessary to achieve the objective. Policy: They are guides to managerial action and decisions in the implementation of
strategy. Procedure: Procedures are routine steps on how to carry out activities. Procedures are specified steps to be followed in particular circumstances. Method: Methods provide the prescribed ways or manner in which a task has to be performed considering the objective Rule: Rules are specific statements that inform what is to be done. They do not allow for any flexibility or discretion. Programme: Programmes are detailed statements about a project which outlines the objectives, policies, procedures, rules, tasks, human and physical resources required and the budget to implement any course of action. Budget: It is a plan which quantifies future facts and figures. It is a fundamental planning instrument in many organisations.
Organising is the process of defining and grouping activities and establishing authority relationships among them to attain organizational objectives. Organising Definition
"Organisation is the process of identifying and grouping of the works to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most efficiently" Louis A. Allen Importance of Organising
• • • • • •
Organising helps Organisations to reap the benefit of specialization. Organising provides for Optimum utilization of resources. Organising helps in Effective administration. Organising channels for Expansion and growth. Organising achieves co-ordination among different departments. Organising creates scope for new change.
Organising Process Division of work: The first process of Organising includes identification and division of work which shall be done in accordance with the plans that are determined previously. Departmentation: once the work of identifying and dividing the work has been done those are similar are to be grouped. Linking departments: When the process of departmentation was completed, linking of a department has to be done so that those departments operate in a co-ordinated manner which gives a shape to overall organisation structure. Assigning Duties: On completion of departmentation process assigning duties i.e. defining authority and responsibility to the employees on the basis of their skills and
capabilities has to be done, which in consequence magnifies efficiency with regard to their work. Defining hierarchal structure: Each employee should also know from whom he has to take orders and to whom he is accountable/responsible. Organisation Structure Organisation structure is the pattern of relationships among various components or parts of the organisation which prescribes the relations among various activities and positions. An effective structure will result in increased profitability of the enterprise. Whenever an enterprise grows in size or complexity it needs an adequate organisation structure. Line Organisation Structure: Hierarchy derived from a scalar process. Organisation is quite simple in understanding and implementation. This does not offer scope for specialization. Line and Staff Organisation Structure: Staff personnel generally specialists in their fields advice line managers to perform their duties. Staff personnel have right to recommend, but have no authority. Functional Organisation: Grouping of activities on the basis of functions required for the achievement of ultimate objectives.
Staffing in Management
Staffing is that part of the process of management which is concerned with acquiring, developing, employing, appraising, remunerating and retaining people so that right type of people are available at right positions and at right time in the organisation. In the simplest terms, staffing is ‘putting people to jobs’. Staffing Definition "Staffing is the function by which managers build an organisation through the recruitment, selection, and development of individuals as capable employees" - McFarland Importance of Staffing •
Filling the Organisational positions Developing competencies to challenges Retaining personnel - professionalism Optimum utilisation of the human resources
Staffing Process Analyzing Manpower requirements: It is making an analysis of work and estimating the manpower requirement to accomplish the same. Recruitment: It is identifying and attracting capable applicants for employment. it ends with the submission of applications by the aspirants.
Selection: It is choosing the fit candidates from the applications received in the process of recruitment. Placement: This may be on probation and on successfully completion of the same the candidate may be offered permanent employment. Training and Development: It is concerned with imparting and developing specific skills for a particular purpose. Performance Appraisal: Systematic evaluation of personnel by superiors or others familiar with their performance so as to rank employees to ascertain their eligibilty for promotions. Differences between Recruitment and Selection • Attracting maximum number of applicants so as to have more options is
Recruitment and where as Selection is picking the best among them.
Recruitment is known as a positive process as it contains only the process of
creating the application pool. Selection process includes rejection and fewer candidates are selected or sometimes even not a single candidate is selected. • For the process of Recruitment High Skills are not essentials but whereas for the
later process, Selection, High Skills are must to select only those who are really fit for the job. • Output for recruitment process, creating application pool is input for the later process, selection.
Differences between Training and Development
Training is for Non-Managerial personnel, Development is for Managerial personnel.
Technical and Mechanical fields are emphasized in the process of training whereas the idea behind the process of Development is to enhance the conceptual ideas.
Training is given to the personnel for specific job. Development process is for preparing the personnel for variety of jobs.
Training is always a short-term process on the other hand development is a longterm process.
Human nature is much more complex than what we perceive though understanding of this nature is essential. Directing means giving instructions, guiding, counselling, motivating and leading the staff in an organisation in doing work to achieve Organisational goals. Directing is a key managerial function to be performed by the manager along with planning, organizing, staffing and controlling. From top executive to supervisor performs the function of directing and it takes place accordingly wherever superior – subordinate relations exist. Directing is a continuous process initiated at top level and flows to the bottom through organisational hierarchy. Directing Definition "Activating deals with the steps a manager takes to get sub-ordinates and others to carry out plans" - Newman and Warren. Importance of Directing • • • Direction initiates actions to get the desired results in an organisation. Direction attempts to get maximum out of employees by identifying their capabilities. Direction is essential to keep the elements like Supervision, Motivation, Leadership and Communication effective. • • It ensures that every employee work for organisational goals. Coping up with the changes in the Organisation is possible through effective direction.
Stability and balance can be achieved through directing.
Elements of Direction
Supervision "Guiding and directing efforts of employees and other resources to accomplish stated work outputs" - Terry and Franklin. Supervision is an element of direction."Dayto-day relationship between an executive and his immediate assistant and covers training, direction, motivation, coordination, maintenance of discipline, etc." - Newman and Warren. Supervision denotes the functions performed by the supervisors are as follows: Motivation "Motivation is the complex force starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation. Motivation is something that moves the person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiates." - Dubin. Motivation is the core of management. Technically, the term motivation can be traced to the Latin word mover, which means 'to move'. Motivating is a term which implies that one person induces another, to engage in action by ensuring that a channel to satisfy the motive becomes available to the individual. Motive is energizer of action, motivating is the channelisation and activation of motives, motivation is the work behavior itself. Motivation depends on motives and motivating. It is a complex process.
"Leadership is essentially a continuous process of influencing behaviour. A leader breathes life into the group and motivates it towards goals. The lukewarm desires for achievement are transformed into burning passion for accomplishment" - George R. Terry. Leadership is the process of influencing the behaviour of others to work willingly and enthusiastically for achieving predetermined goals. It is an essential ingredient for successful organisation.The successful organisation has one major attribute that sets sets it apart from unsuccessful organisation that is dynamic and effective leadership. Communication "Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another person. It is a way of reaching others by transmitting ideas, facts, thoughts, feeling sand values." - Newstrom and Davis. Communication is regarded as basic to the functioning of the organisation, in its absence, the organisation would cease to exist. It is the process through which two or more persons come to exchange ideas and understanding among themselves.
Effective leadership is putting first things first. Effective management is discipline, carrying it out. The managerial function controlling always maximise the use of scarce resources to achieve the purposeful behaviour of employees in an organisation. In planning stage, it is decided that how the resources would be utilised but where as in the controlling stage it is observed that whether the resources are being utilised in the same way as planned or not. Thus, control completes the whole sequence of management process. Controlling Definition "Control refers to the task of ensuring that activities are producing the desired results. Control in this case is limited to monitoring the outcome of activities, reviewing feedback information about this outcome, and if necessary, taking corrective actions". - Reeves and Woodward. "Controlling is determining what is being accomplished - that is evaluating performance and, if necessary, applying corrective measures so that performance takes place according to plans". - Terry and Franklin. Features of Controlling • One can control future happenings but not the happened. Hence in here all the past performance is measured for taking corrective actions for future periods.
Every manager in an organisation has to perform the control function. The control may be quality control, inventory control, production control, or even administrative control. Control is a continuous process, it follow a definite pattern and time-table, month after month and year after year on a continuous basis. Importance of Controlling • Control system acts as an adjustment in organisational operations. It mainly checks whether plans are being observed and suitable progress towards the objectives is being made or not, and if necessary any action to control the deviations. • Policies and other planning elements set by the managers become the basis and reason for control. Through control it is monitored whether the individuals adhere to those frameworks or not so that organisation and management can verify the quality of various policies. • Exercising some authority and forming superior-subordinate relationship throughout the organisation can be established through controlling. • With the presence of authority or control the individuals will work properly and exhibit better performance to reach the targets set for them. • Control system ensures the organisational efficiency and effectiveness. When Proper system exists the organisation effectively achieves its objectives.
Management by Exception It is a system of identification and communication that signals to the manager when his attention is needed and he concentrates more on the important areas where deviation occurred. Components of management by exception are as follows: Measurement: By measuring past and present performance the manager tries to find out the deviations. Projection: Manager analyses those measurements that are meaningful to the organisational objectives. Selection: It involves the criteria which the manager will use to follow progress towards organizational objectives. Observation: It involves measurements of current performances. Comparison: The manager makes comparisons of actual and planned performance and identifies the exceptions that require attention. Decision Making: The manager prescribes the action that must be taken in order to bring performance back into control or to adjust expectations to reflect changing conditions.
Components of Communication Process
Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and non verbal messages. It is a continuous process. Pre-requisite of communication is a message. This message must be conveyed through some medium to the recipient. It is essential that this message must be understood by the recipient in same terms as intended by the sender. He must respond within a time frame. Thus, communication is a two way process and is incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to the sender on how well the message is understood by him.
Fig no. 1 Communication Process The main components of communication process are as follows:
1. Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This
context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context.
2. Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender
makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender.
3. Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign
that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.
4. Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender
must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication.
5. Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is
intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder.
6. Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits
the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) nonverbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.
Importance of Communication in an Organization
Effective Communication is significant for managers in the organizations so as to perform the basic functions of management, i.e., Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling. Communication helps managers to perform their jobs and responsibilities. Communication serves as a foundation for planning. All the essential information must be communicated to the managers who in-turn must communicate the plans so as to implement them. Organizing also requires effective communication with others about their job task. Similarly leaders as managers must communicate effectively with their subordinates so as to achieve the team goals. Controlling is not possible without written and oral communication. Managers devote a great part of their time in communication. They generally devote approximately 6 hours per day in communicating. They spend great time on face to face or telephonic communication with their superiors, subordinates, colleagues, customers or suppliers. Managers also use Written Communication in form of letters, reports or memos wherever oral communication is not feasible. Thus, we can say that “effective communication is a building block of successful organizations”. In other words, communication acts as organizational blood. The importance of communication in an organization can be summarized as follows: 1. Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark.
2. Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decisionmaking process as it helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions. 3. Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individual’s attitudes, i.e., a well informed individual will have better attitude than a less-informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in moulding employee’s attitudes. 4. Communication also helps in socializing. In today’s life the only presence of another individual fosters communication. It is also said that one cannot survive without communication. 5. As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process. It helps
controlling organizational member’s behaviour in various ways. There are various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work problem and grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of management.
Communication Flows in an Organization
In an organization, communication flows in 5 main directions1. Downward 2. Upward 3. Lateral 4. Diagonal 5. External 1. Downward Flow of Communication: Communication that flows from a higher level in an organization to a lower level is a downward communication. In other words, communication from superiors to subordinates in a chain of command is a downward communication. This communication flow is used by the managers to transmit work-related information to the employees at lower levels. Employees require this information for performing their jobs and for meeting the expectations of their managers. Downward communication is used by the managers for the following purposes –
• • •
Providing feedback on employees performance Giving job instructions
Providing a complete understanding of the employee’s job as well as to
communicate them how their job is related to other jobs in the organization. • Providing a complete understanding of the employee’s job as well as to
communicate them how their job is related to other jobs in the organization. • • Communicating the organizations mission and vision to the employees. Highlighting the areas of attention.
Organizational publications, circulars, letter to employees, group meetings etc are all examples of downward communication. In order to have effective and error-free downward communication, managers must: • • Specify communication objective Ensure that the message is accurate, specific and unambiguous.
Utilize the best communication technique to convey the message to the receiver
in the right form. 2. Upward Flow of Communication: Communication that flows to a higher level in an organization is called upward communication. It provides feedback on how well the organization is functioning. The subordinates use upward communication to convey their problems and performances to their superiors. Upward communication leads to a more committed and loyal workforce in an organization because the employees are given a chance to raise and speak dissatisfaction issues to the higher
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