ΑΝΩΤΑΤΗ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΠΑΙΔΑΓΩΓΙΚΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΗΣ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΣΗΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΗΣ ΡΕΥΣΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΣΤΡΟΒΙΛΟΜΗΧΑΝΩΝ

ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ

Κωδικός: DT- 077/2011-03

ΣΧΕΔΙΑΣΜΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΑΠΤΥΞΗ ΠΟΛΥΜΕΣΙΚΗΣ ΕΦΑΡΜΟΓΗΣ ΓΙΑ ΤΗΝ ΕΞΑΤΟΜΙΚΕΥΜΕΝΗ ΜΑΘΗΣΗ ΣΕ ΕΠΙΛΕΓΜΕΝΑ ΘΕΜΑΤΑ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΗΣ ΤΩΝ ΡΕΥΣΤΩΝ
Δαλαμάγκας Σωτήριος του Ιωάννη

Επιβλέπων Καθηγητής Ανδρόνικος Ε. Φιλιός, Δρ. Μηχανολόγος Μηχανικός

Αθήνα, 2011

Copyright 2011: Εργαστήριο Μηχανικής Ρευστών και Στροβιλομηχανών, Τμήμα Εκπαιδευτικών Μηχανολογίας, ΑΣΠΑΙΤΕ, Τηλ./Fax +30 2102896838, http://fmtulab.meed-aspete.net/ Απαγορεύεται η αναδημοσίευση και η αναπαραγωγή με φωτοτυπικό μηχάνημα ή με χρήση άλλου ηλεκτρονικού μέσου οποιουδήποτε τμήματος αυτής της πτυχιακής εργασίας χωρίς τη γραπτή άδεια του συγγραφέα, του επιβλέποντα καθηγητή και του υπευθύνου του Εργαστηρίου.

2

SCHOOL OF PEDAGOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATORS LABORATORY OF FLUID MECHANICS AND TURBOMACHINERY

GRADUATION THESIS

Code: DT- 077/2011-03

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIMEDIA APPLICATION FOR CUSTOMIZED LEARNING IN SELECTED ISSUES OF MECHANICS OF FLUIDS
Dalamagas J. Sotirios

Thesis Advisor Andronikos Ε. Filios, Professor

Athens, 2011
3

Copyright 2011: Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics & Turbomachinery, Department of Mechanical Engineering Educators, ASPETE, Tel./Fax +30 2102896838, http://fmtulab.meed-aspete.net/ Republication and reproduction by photocopying machine or using other electronic means any part of this thesis is only permitted with written permission of the author, the advisor and the head of the Laboratory.

4

ΔΕΛΤΙΟ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ Κωδικός Εργασίας-1 Τίτλος Εργασίας Κωδικός Εργασίας-2 DT- 077/2011-03

ΣΧΕΔΙΑΣΜΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΑΠΤΥΞΗ ΠΟΛΥΜΕΣΙΚΗΣ ΕΦΑΡΜΟΓΗΣ ΓΙΑ ΤΗΝ ΕΞΑΤΟΜΙΚΕΥΜΕΝΗ ΜΑΘΗΣΗ ΣΕ ΕΠΙΛΕΓΜΕΝΑ ΘΕΜΑΤΑ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΗΣ ΤΩΝ ΡΕΥΣΤΩΝ
Δαλαμάγκας Σωτήριος Φιλιός Ε. Ανδρόνικος, Δρ. Μηχ/γος Μηχ/κος Εκπαιδευτικών Μηχανολογίας Εργαστήριο Μηχανικής Ρευστών και Στροβιλομηχανών 30-09-2011 Μηχανική των Ρευστών, Πολυμεσική εφαρμογή, Μάθηση

Σπουδαστής ,-ές Επιβλέπων Καθηγ. Τμήμα Εργαστήριο Ημερομηνία Λέξεις κλειδιά

Περίληψη : Η παρούσα πτυχιακή εργασία, έχει ως αντικείμενο την ανάπτυξη της πολυμεσικής εφαρμογής FM-MSL για την εξατομικευμένη μάθηση στο μάθημα «Μηχανική των Ρευστών». Η εφαρμογή είναι στην αγγλική γλώσσα και για την ανάπτυξη της χρησιμοποιήθηκε το πρόγραμμα Adobe flash CS5. Μέσω της εφαρμογής, ο χρήστης έχει τη δυνατότητα να μελετήσει τις επιλεγμένες ενότητες του εκπαιδευτικού υλικού σε αρκετές από τις οποίες υπάρχουν και λυμένες ασκήσεις ή εφαρμογές. Το εκπαιδευτικό υλικό έχει αναπτυχθεί σε ενότητες με δομή που συναντάται στα περισσότερα βιβλία «Μηχανικής των Ρευστών» προπτυχιακού επιπέδου. Ορισμένα κεφάλαια των περιεχομένων της εφαρμογής δεν «λειτουργούν» καθώς δεν κατέστη δυνατό να συμπεριληφθούν στην παρούσα έκδοση της εφαρμογής. THESIS INFORMATION SHEET Code number-1 Title Code number-2 DT- 077/2011-03 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIMEDIA APPLICATION FOR CUSTOMIZED LEARNING IN SELECTED ISSUES OF MECHANICS OF FLUIDS Dalamagas Sotirios Filios E. Andronikos, Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering Educators Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachinery 30-09-2011 Fluid Mechanics, Multimedia application, Learning

Student (s) Advisor Department Laboratory Date Keywords

Abstract: The objective of the current graduation thesis is the development of the FM-MSL multimedia application for individualized learning in the course "Fluid Mechanics". The application is in English and for its development used Adobe flash CS5 was used. Through the application, the user has the opportunity to study selected chapters of educational material in several of which are also solved exercises or applications. The educational material has been developed in modules with a structure that is found in most books "Fluid Mechanics" at undergraduate level. Some chapters of the contents of the application do not "work" and could not be included in this version of the application.

5

Declaration of academic integrity (Δήλωση ακαδημαϊκής ακεραιότητας)

I, the undersigned Sotirios J. Dalamagas, declare that the present graduation thesis entitled “Design and development of a multimedia application for customized learning in selected issues of mechanics of fluids” is my own work and that all the sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references.

______________________ Sotirios J. Dalamagas

6

Acknowledgements

Thanks to professor Dr. Andronikos E. Filios for his guidance and many thanks to my parents for their encouragement and support, throughout my studies. Sotirios J. Dalamagas

7

(page intentionally left blank)

8

ΕΚΤΕΤΑΜΕΝΗ ΠΕΡΙΛΗΨΗ
Τα πολυμέσα έδωσαν νέα πνοή στα υπολογιστικά συστήματα και τα μετέτρεψαν από ψυχρά υπολογιστικά εργαλεία σε μέσα ψυχαγωγίας, μέσα διασκέδασης με εκπαιδευτικούς και επιμορφωτικούς στόχους, μέσα παροχής κάθε μορφής πληροφορίας και μέσα επικοινωνίας. Οι νέες τεχνολογίες μπορούν να προσφέρουν πολλές δυνατότητες στην διδακτική προσέγγιση των καθηγητών προς τους μαθητές να εκσυγχρονιστούν με βάση τα νέα δεδομένα των ημερών και έπειτα να συμβάλουν βοηθώντας περισσότερο με οπτικοακουστικά μέσα στην εκμάθηση των μαθημάτων. Σκοπός της πολυμεσικής εφαρμογής FM-MSL που σχεδιάσθηκε και αναπτύχθηκε στα πλαίσια της πτυχιακής εργασίας είναι η υποστήριξη της εξατομικευμένης μάθησης σε επιλεγμένα κεφάλαια της μηχανικής των ρευστών. Κατά τη διάρκεια εκπόνησης της εργασίας και λαμβάνοντας υπόψη τους διαθέσιμους πόρους σε ανθρωποδυναμικό και μέσα έγινε προσπάθεια να ακολουθηθούν όλα τα στάδια παραγωγής μιας πολυμεσικής εφαρμογής, δηλαδή ανάλυση, σχεδίαση, ανάπτυξη, έλεγχος και διανομή. Τα τμήματα - κεφάλαια της εφαρμογής που λείπουν, είναι στα άμεσα αναπτυξιακά σχέδια του σχεδιαστή της εφαρμογής. Για την ολοκλήρωση, επεξεργασία και καταγραφή της εφαρμογής, χρησιμοποιήθηκαν τα εξής αναφερόμενα προγράμματα, για την επεξεργασία φωτογραφιών και εικόνων τα Adobe Photoshop® CS5 , το Adobe Lightroom® 2 και το Adobe Illustrator® CS5, για την επεξεργασία των βίντεο, τα Adobe Media Encoder® CS5 και το Magic Video Converter® 8.0.2.18, το Adobe Soundbooth® CS5 για την επεξεργασία και δημιουργία ηχητικών εφέ στα βίντεο. Τέλος η εφαρμογή Adobe Flash ® CS5 καθώς και η Adobe Bridge® CS5 έπαιξαν τον σημαντικότερο ρόλο στο "στήσιμο" και την δημιουργία της εφαρμογής καθώς έγινε η συγγραφή, κωδικοποίηση και ο προγραμματισμός σε γλώσσα action script 3.0 και τέλος η εγγραφή της σε dvd μορφή.

9

EXTENDED SUMMARY
More generally, the multimedia gave new blow in the calculating systems and changed from chill calculating tools in means of entertainment, means of amusement with educational and training objectives, means benefit of each information and communication. The new technologies can offer a lot of possibilities in the instructive approach of professors to the students are modernised with base the new data of days and then of contributing helping more with audiovisual means in the learning of courses. The aim of the FM-MSL multimedia application which has been designed and developed in the frame of the current graduation thesis is the support of customized learning in selected chapters of mechanics of fluid. At the duration of development of work and taking into consideration the available resources in manpower, became effort to follow all the stages of production of multimedia application, those are, analysis, designing, growth, control and distribution. The sections of application that are absent, is in the direct developmental drawings of application designer. For the completion, treatment and recording of application, were used the following reported programs, for the treatment of photographs and pictures Adobe Photoshop® CS5, Adobe Lightroom® 2 and Adobe Illustrator® CS5, for the treatment of videos Adobe Media Encoder® CS5 and Magic Video Converter® 8.0.2.18, Adobe Soundbooth® CS5 for the treatment and creation of sound effects in the videos. Finally the applications Adobe Flash ® CS5 as well as Adobe Bridge® CS5 played the more important role in the "setup" and creation of application as became the writing, coding and planning in language action script 3.0, finally registration in this multimedia application in dvd.

10

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 1.2 MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS 1.1.1 Usage of application SCOPE OF THE WORK

13
14 15 16

2

FLUID MECHANICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
2.1 FLUID MECHANICS 2.1.1 History of fluid mechanics 2.1.2 Details of fluid mechanics TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN FLUID MECHANICS MULTIMEDIA IN FLUID MECHANICS

19
20 20 22 24 28

2.2 2.3

3

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF APPLICATION
3.1 ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION 3.1.1 Purpose, objectives and needs 3.1.2 Users 3.1.3 Requirements 3.1.3.1 Content and originality 3.1.3.2 Agreement with production processes 3.1.4 Break down in stages 3.1.4.1 Structure of the application 3.1.4.2 Software application development 3.1.4.3 Availability of material resources CONTENTS OF THE APPLICATION 3.2.1 Technical features WORK ON THE COMPOSITION OF THE APPLICATION CONTROL AND DISTRIBUTION OF APPLICATION 3.4.1 Monitoring and evaluation 3.4.2 Records security and protection 3.4.3 Finished product distribution

31
32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 38 38 39

3.2 3.3 3.4

4

DESCRIPTION OF THE APPLICATION
4.1 4.2 INITIAL MENU SCREENSHOTS 4.2.1 Introduction 4.2.2 Properties of fluids 4.2.3 Fluids statics 4.2.4 Kinematics of fluid motion 4.2.5 Analysis of fluid flows 4.2.6 Dimensional analysis and similitude 4.2.7 Boundary layers

41
42 45 45 47 49 51 52 53 54 11

5

CONCLUSIONS
5.1 5.2 SUMMARY AND REVIEW FUTURE WORK

55
56 57

6

REFERENCES
6.1 6.2 REFERENCES FOR WRITTEN WORK 6.1.1 Internet sources REFERENCES FOR THE APPLICATION 6.2.1 Internet sources for the texts 6.2.2 Internet sources for the programming TEXTS INTO THE APPLICATION DVD OF MULTIMEDIA APPLICATION IN PACKING

59
60 60 61 62 65 67 71

ANNEX Α: ANNEX Β:

12

1
INTRODUCTION

CONTENT 1.1 1.2 MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS 1.1.1 Usage of application SCOPE OF THE WORK 14 15 16

13

14

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

1.1

MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS

Multimedia presentations can be live or recorded. A recorded presentation may allow interactivity via a navigation system. A live multimedia presentation may allow interactivity via an interaction with the presenter or performer. Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories. Linear active content progresses without any navigational control for the viewer such as a cinema presentation; the presentation is the practice of showing and explaining the content of a topic to an audience or learner. Presentations come in nearly as many forms as there are life situations. Non-linear content offers user interactivity to control progress as used with a computer game or used in self-paced computer based training. Hypermedia is an example of non-linear content, hypermedia is used as a logical extension of the term hypertext in which graphics, audio, video, plain text and hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear medium of information. The term "multimedia" was coined by Bob Goldstein to promote the July 1966 1 . On August 10, 1966, Richard Albarino of Variety borrowed the terminology, reporting: “Brainchild of song scribe comic Bob (‘Washington Square’) Goldstein, the ‘Lightworks’ is the latest multi-media music-cum-visuals to debut as discothèque fare." Two years later, in 1968, the term “multimedia” was reappropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer one of Goldstein’s producers at L’Oursin. In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings. In the late 1970s the term was used to describe presentations consisting of multiprojector slide shows timed to an audio track. However, by the 1990s 'multimedia' took on its current meaning 2 . The German language society, Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache, decided to recognize the word's significance and ubiquitous ness in the 1990s by awarding it the title of 'Word of the Year' in 1995. The institute summed up its rationale by stating "[Multimedia] has become a central word in the wonderful new media world" In common usage, the term multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images, audio, text in such a way that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls within this definition as understood by millions. Some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called "multimedia" computers because they incorporated a CDROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video, picture, and audio data. Since media is the plural of medium, the term "multimedia" is a pleonasm if "multi" is used to describe multiple occurrences of only one form of media such as a collection of audio CDs. This is why it's important that the word "multimedia" is used exclusively to describe multiple forms of media and content.
1

2

Wikipedia, Multimedia, History of the term in multimedia, http://tinyurl.com/66ctb34 (accessed 15-5-2011). Wikipedia, Multimedia, History of the term in multimedia, http://tinyurl.com/66ctb34 (accessed 15-5-2011).

INTRODUCTION

15

The term "multimedia" is also ambiguous. Static content (such as a pa-per book) may be considered multimedia if it contains both pictures and text or may be considered interactive if the user interacts by turning pages at will. Books may also be considered non-linear if the pages are accessed non-sequentially. The term "video", if not used exclusively to describe motion photography, is ambiguous in multimedia terminology. Video is often used to describe the file format, delivery format, or presentation format instead of "footage" which is used to distinguish motion photography from "animation" of rendered motion imagery. Multiple forms of information content are often not considered modern forms of presentation such as audio or video. Likewise, single forms of information content with single methods of information processing (e.g. non-interactive audio) are often called multimedia, perhaps to distinguish static media from active media. In the Fine arts, for example, Leda Luss Luyken's ModulArt brings two key elements of musical composition and film into the world of painting: variation of a theme and movement of and within a picture, making ModulArt an interactive multimedia form of art. Performing arts may also be considered multimedia considering that performers and props are multiple forms of both content and media. The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be in-tended to enhance the users' experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information or in entertainment on art, to transcend everyday experience. Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is increasingly becoming objectoriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images (pictures) and title (text) user-updated, to simulations whose coefficients, events, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, hectic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may also enhance the multimedia experience. Multimedia represents the convergence of text, pictures, video and sound into a single form. The power of multimedia and the Internet lies in the way in which information is linked. Multimedia and the Internet require a completely new approach to writing. The style of writing that is appropriate for the 'on-line world' is highly optimized and designed to be able to be quickly scanned by readers. 1.1.1 Usage of application

Multimedia finds its application in various areas including, but not limited to, advertisements, art, education, entertainment, engineering, medicine, mathematics, business, scientific research and spatial temporal applications. Several examples like, Creative industries, Commercial, especially, in addition, multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment industry, especially to develop special effects in movies and animations. Multimedia games are a popular pastime and are software programs available either as CD-ROMs or online. Some video games also use multimedia features. Multimedia applications that allow users to actively participate instead of just sit-

16

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

ting by as passive recipients of information are called Interactive Multimedia. In the Arts there are multimedia artists, whose minds are able to blend techniques using different media that in some way incorporates interaction with the viewer. One of the most relevant could be Peter Greenaway who is melding Cinema with Opera and all sorts of digital media. Another approach entails the creation of multimedia that can be displayed in a traditional fine arts arena, such as an art gallery. Although multimedia display material may be volatile, the survivability of the content is as strong as any traditional media. Digital recording material may be just as durable and infinitely reproducible with perfect copies every time. Next is Education, In Education, multimedia is used to produce computer based training courses (popularly called CBTs) and reference books like encyclopedia and almanacs. A CBT lets the user go through a series of presentations, text about a particular topic, and associated illustrations in various information formats. Edutainment is an informal term used to describe combining education with entertainment, especially multimedia entertainment. Learning theory in the past decade has expanded dramatically because of the introduction of multimedia. Several lines of research have evolved (e.g. Cognitive load, Multimedia learning, and the list goes on). The possibilities for learning and instruction are nearly endless. The idea of media convergence is also becoming a major factor in education, particularly higher education. Defined as separate technologies such as voice (and telephony features), data (and productivity applications) and video that now share resources and interact with each other, synergistically creating new efficiencies, media convergence is rapidly changing the curriculum in universities all over the world. Likewise, it is changing the availability, or lack thereof, of jobs requiring this savvy technological skill. In the end we have, Engineering, software engineers may use multimedia in. Computer simulation to training any from entertainment like as military or industrial training. Multimedia for software interfaces are often done as collaboration between creative professionals and software engineers. . Next is Industry, In the Industrial sector, multimedia is used as a way to help present in-formation to shareholders, superiors and coworkers. Multimedia is also helpful for providing employee training, advertising and selling products all over the world via virtually unlimited web-based technology. 1.2 SCOPE OF THE WORK

Multimedia may be defined as the integration of video, audio, graphics, animation and text to create an interactive computer application. Multimedia however can be used to cover everything from the simplest computer based presentation to the most complex CD-ROM based reference title. In recent years, the multimedia application is widely used in contrast with previous years was almost impossible. Especially in education have noticed that we have now the possibility to use audiovisual media to facilitate and improve student learning. But there are no large jumps in the Greek education rather than individual parts a university, technical school education with specialization in multimedia and information technology.

INTRODUCTION

17

The purpose of the multimedia application that is based on the most rapidly where it enters the application in the field of education, we can synchronize as many science gives us the opportunity to make possible the use of the application Joined today in all branches courses in schools and university especially in this thesis on fluid mechanics. Motivation was my interest in fluid mechanics and modernizing it for the best and most interesting learning the lesson. Information systems and especially multimedia applications altered the traditional way of teaching by offering new and comprehensive educational processes. In an effort to identify the Greek demand for multimedia educational materials, conducted a research whose main objective was to detect existing technology tools and the results may lead to secondary education. The potential of multimedia to depict the subjects using photographs, graphics, audio and video, and of course combined with interactivity, contribute to better transmission of information with traditional teaching. Existing multimedia tools are quite handy and able to create applications to support mathematical theories to represent graphs to help learners study through flexible and diverse examples, to the trainings and even to entertain. In my attempt to locate the most suitable multimedia tools for teaching fluid mechanics had to deal with different types of design projects where each one contributed in their own special way the educational process. The written part of this work is developed in the following chapters:  In chapter 2, the writer informs us for the mechanics of fluid, furthermore for the history and the details of fluids. Then the writer analyzes to us for the newer technological applications as multimedia in the mechanics of fluid.  In chapter 3, is presented the stage of analysis of multimedia application that aims at as the presentation all of elements that elects mechanics fluid in its entirety, moreover the writer want to saw the analysis of types and more generally the theory of fluid.  In chapter 4, is presented the application with pictures.  In chapter 5, are given the conclusions which resulted from the creation of multimedia application as well as the prospects of this.  In chapter 6, are given categorized the bibliographic sources that were used for the development of work. Finally, in Annex I attached the working documents and useful information about the fluid mechanics of which are much attached to the ROM and then in Annex II is a picture of multimedia application dvd.

18

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

(page intentionally left blank)

2
FLUID MECHANICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

CONTENTS 2.1 FLUID MECHANICS 2.1.1 History of fluid mechanics 2.1.2 Details of fluid mechanics TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN FLUID MECHANICS MULTIMEDIA IN FLUID MECHANICS 20 20 22 24 28

2.2 2.3

19

20

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

2.1

FLUID MECHANICS

Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids and the forces on them. These Fluids include liquids, gases, and plasmas in common usage, "fluid" is often used as a synonym for "liquid", with no implication that gas could also be present. For example, "brake fluid" is hydraulic oil and will not perform its required function if there is gas in it. Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid kinematics, the study of fluid motion, and fluid dynamics the fluid dynamics is a sub-discipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow—the natural science of fluids in motion. It has several sub disciplines itself, including aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. The study of the effect of forces on fluid motion, which can further be divided into fluid static’s, the study of fluids at rest, and fluid kinetics, the study of fluids in motion. Fluid mechanics, especially fluid dynamics, is an active field of research with many unsolved or partly solved problems. Fluid mechanics can be mathematically complex. Sometimes it can best be solved by numerical methods, typically using computers. A modern discipline, called computational fluid dynamics, is devoted to this approach to solving fluid mechanics problems. Also taking advantage of the highly visual nature of fluid flow is particle image velocimetry, an experimental method for visualizing and analyzing fluid flow. 2.1.1 History of fluid mechanics

The study of fluid mechanics goes back at least to the days of ancient Greece, when Archimedes 1 investigated fluid statics and buoyancy and formulated his famous law known now as the Archimedes' Principle. Rapid advancement in fluid mechanics began with Leonardo da Vinci 2 (observation and experiment), Evangelista Torricelli 3 (barometer), Isaac Newton 4 (viscosity) and Blaise Pascal 5 (hydrostatics), and was continued by Daniel Bernoulli 6 with the introduction of mathematical fluid dynamics in Hydrodynamic a (1738). Inviscid flow was further analyzed by various mathematicians (Leonhard Euler 7 , d'Alembert, Lagrange 8 , Laplace 9 , Poisson 10 ) and viscous flow was explored by a multitude of engineers including Poiseuille 11 and Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen 12 . Further mathematical justification was provided by Claude-Louis Navier 13 and George Gabriel
1 2

Archimedes of Syracuse, http://tinyurl.com/5rspxyh (accessed 17-5-2011). Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, http://tiny.cc/qwotx (accessed 17-5-2011). 3 Evangelista Torricelli, http://tiny.cc/ls544 (accessed 17-5-2011). 4 Sir Isaac Newton, http://tiny.cc/8pk4b (accessed 17-5-2011). 5 Blaise Pascal, http://tiny.cc/vcazi (accessed 17-5-2011). 6 Daniel Bernoulli, http://tiny.cc/zefxg (accessed 17-5-2011). 7 Leonhard Euler, http://tiny.cc/qgwmy (accessed 17-5-2011). 8 Joseph-Louis Lagrange. http://tiny.cc/dgi2g (accessed 17-5-2011). 9 Pierre-Simon marquis de Laplace, http://tiny.cc/4c5ak (accessed 17-5-2011). 10 Siméon Denis Poisson, http://tiny.cc/q0l2f (accessed 17-5-2011). 11 Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille, http://tiny.cc/41rcy (accessed 17-5-2011). 12 Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen, http://tiny.cc/5yv9f (accessed 17-5-2011). 13 Claude-Louis Navier, http://tiny.cc/6a2qj (accessed 17-5-2011).

FLUID MECHANICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

21

Stokes 14 in the Navier–Stokes equations, and boundary layers were investigated (Ludwig Prandtl 15 ), while various scientists (Osborne Reynolds 16 , Andrey Kolmogorov 17 , and Geoffrey Ingram Taylor 18 ) advanced the understanding of fluid viscosity and turbulence. Especially we have, the fundamental principles of hydrostatics were given by Archimedes in his work On Floating Bodies, around 250 BC. In it, Archimedes develops the law of buoyancy 19 , also known as Archimedes' Principle. This principle states that a body immersed in a fluid experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. Archimedes maintained that each particle of a fluid mass, when in equilibrium, is equally pressed in every direction; and he inquired into the conditions according to which a solid body floating in a fluid should assume and preserve a position of equilibrium. The effects of friction and viscosity in diminishing the velocity of running water were noticed in the Principia of Sir Isaac Newton, who threw much light upon several branches of hydromechanics. At a time when the Cartesian system of vortices universally prevailed, he found it necessary to investigate that hypothesis, and in the course of his investigations he showed that the velocity of any stratum of the vortex is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the strata which enclose it; and from this it evidently follows that the velocity of a filament of water moving in a pipe is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the filaments which surround it. In 1738 Daniel Bernoulli published his theory of the motion of fluids. He supposed that the surface of the fluid, contained in a vessel which is emptying itself by an orifice, remains always horizontal; and, if the fluid mass is conceived to be divided into an infinite number of horizontal strata of the same bulk, that these strata remain contiguous to each other, and that all their points descend vertically, with velocities inversely proportional to their breadth, or to the horizontal sections of the reservoir. In order to determine the motion of each stratum, he employed the principle of the conservatio virium vivarum, and obtained very elegant solutions. The theory of Daniel Bernoulli was opposed also by Jean le Rond d'Alembert 20 . When generalizing the theory of pendulums of Jacob Bernoulli he discovered a principle of dynamics so simple and general that it reduced the laws of the motions of bodies to that of their equilibrium. He applied this principle to the motion of fluids, and gave a specimen of its application at the end of his Dynamics in 1743. He made use of the same suppositions as Daniel Bernoulli, though his calculus was established in a very different manner. He considered, at every instant, the actual motion of a stratum as composed of a motion which it had in the preceding instant and of a motion which it had lost; and the laws of equilibrium between the motions lost furnished him with equations representing the motion of the fluid. It
14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Sir George Gabriel Stokes, http://tiny.cc/u9sa4 (accessed 17-5-2011). Ludwig Prandtl, http://tiny.cc/phrm6 (accessed 17-5-2011). Osborne Reynolds, http://tiny.cc/vtnag (accessed 17-5-2011). Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov, http://tiny.cc/dc9c8 (accessed 17-5-2011). Sir Geoffrey Ingram Taylor, http://tiny.cc/gb7f3 (accessed 17-5-2011). Buoyancy law, http://tiny.cc/34wwr (accessed 17-5-2011). Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert, http://tiny.cc/xow0d (accessed 17-5-2011).

22

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

remained a desideratum to express by equations the motion of a particle of the fluid in any assigned direction. These equations were found by d'Alembert from two principles - that a rectangular canal, taken in a mass of fluid in equilibrium, is itself in equilibrium, and that a portion of the fluid, in passing from one place to another, preserves the same volume when the fluid is incompressible, or dilates itself according to a given law when the fluid is elastic. One of the most successful laborers in the science of hydrodynamics at this period was Pierre Louis Georges Dubuat (1734–1809). Dubuat considered that if water was a perfect fluid, and the channels in which it flowed infinitely smooth, its motion would be continually accelerated, like that of bodies descending in an inclined plane. But as the motion of rivers is not continually accelerated, and soon arrives at a state of uniformity, it is evident that the viscosity of the water, and the friction of the channel in which it descends, must equal the accelerating force. Dubuat, therefore, assumed it as a proposition of fundamental importance that, when water flows in any channel or bed, the accelerating force which obliges it to move is equal to the sum of all the resistances which it meets with, whether they arise from its own viscosity or from the friction of its bed. This principle was employed by him in the first edition of his work, which appeared in 1779. In 1858 Hermann von Helmholtz 21 published his seminal paper. In his paper Helmholtz established his three "laws of vortex motion" in much the same way one finds them in any advanced textbook of fluid mechanics today. This work established the significance of vorticity to fluid mechanics and science in general. For the next century or so vortex dynamics matured as a subfield of fluid mechanics, always commanding at least a major chapter in treatises on the subject. The range of applicability of Helmholtz's work grew to encompass atmospheric and oceanographic flows, to all branches of engineering and applied science and, ultimately, to superfluids. In modern fluid mechanics the role of vortex dynamics in explaining flow phenomena is firmly established. Well known vortices have acquired names and are regularly depicted in the popular media: hurricanes, tornadoes, waterspouts, aircraft trailing vortices, drainhole vortices, smoke rings, underwater bubble air rings, cavitation vortices behind ship propellers, and so on. 2.1.2 Details of fluid mechanics

Like any mathematical model of the real world, fluid mechanics makes some basic assumptions about the materials being studied. These assumptions are turned into equations that must be satisfied if the assumptions are to be held true. For example, consider an incompressible fluid in three dimensions. The assumption that mass is conserved means that for any fixed closed surface the rate of mass passing from outside to inside the surface must be the same as rate of mass passing the other way. (Alternatively, the mass inside remains constant, as does the mass outside). This can be turned into an integral equation over the surface. Now we see those three assumptions: Assumption I: The continuum hypothesis, fluids are composed of molecules that collide with one another and solid objects. The continuum assumption, however, considers fluids to be continuous. That is, properties such as density, pres21

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, http://tiny.cc/8tapf (accessed 17-5-2011).

FLUID MECHANICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

23

sure, temperature, and velocity are taken to be well-defined at "infinitely" small points. The fact that the fluid is made up of discrete molecules is ignored. The continuum hypothesis is basically an approximation, in the same way planets are approximated by point particles when dealing with celestial mechanics, and therefore results in approximate solutions. Consequently, assumption of the continuum hypothesis can lead to results which are not of desired accuracy. Assumption II: Navier–Stokes equations, The Navier–Stokes equations (named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes) are the set of equations that describe the motion of fluid substances such as liquids and gases. These equations state that changes in momentum (force) of fluid particles depend only on the external pressure and internal viscous forces (similar to friction) acting on the fluid. Thus, the Navier–Stokes equations describe the balance of forces acting at any given region of the fluid. The Navier–Stokes equations are differential equations which describe the motion of a fluid. Such equations establish relations among the rates of change of the variables of interest. For example, the Navier– Stokes equations for an ideal fluid with zero viscosity state that acceleration is proportional to the derivative of internal pressure. This means that solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations for a given physical problem must be sought with the help of calculus. In practical terms only the simplest cases can be solved exactly in this way. These cases generally involve non-turbulent, steady flow in which the Reynolds number is small. For more complex situations, such as global weather systems like El Niño or lift in a wing, solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations can currently only are found with the help of computers. The general form of the Navier–Stokes equations for the conservation of momentum is:

Where ρ is the fluid density, D/Dt is the substantive derivative, v is the velocity vector, f is the body force vector, and is a tensor that represents the surface forces applied on a fluid particle. Unless the fluid is made up of spinning degrees of freedom like vortices, symbol up, is a symmetric tensor. In general in three dimensions has the form:

Where σ are normal stresses, τ are tangential stresses. Assumption III: Newtonian versus non-Newtonian fluids, A Newtonian fluid is defined to be a fluid whose shear stress is linearly proportional to the velocity

24

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

gradient in the direction perpendicular to the plane of shear. This definition means regardless of the forces acting on a fluid, it continues to flow. For example, water is a Newtonian fluid, because it continues to display fluid properties no matter how much it is stirred or mixed. A slightly less rigorous definition is that the drag of a small object being moved slowly through the fluid is proportional to the force applied to the object. Important fluids, like water as well as most gases, behave to good approximation as a Newtonian fluid under normal conditions on Earth. By contrast, stirring a non-Newtonian fluid can leave a "hole" behind. This will gradually fill up over time this behavior is seen in materials such as sand (although sand isn't strictly a fluid). Alternatively, stirring a non-Newtonian fluid can cause the viscosity to decrease, so the fluid appears "thinner". There are many types of non-Newtonian fluids, as they are defined to be something that fails to obey a particular property for example, most fluids with long molecular chains can react in a non-Newtonian manner. The constant of proportionality between the shear stress and the velocity gradient is known as the viscosity. A simple equation to describe Newtonian fluid behavior is:

Where τ is the shear stress exerted by the fluid, μ is the fluid viscosity a constant of proportionality, du/dy is the velocity gradient perpendicular to the direction of shear. For a Newtonian fluid, the viscosity, by definition, depends only on temperature and pressure, not on the forces acting upon it. If the fluid is incompressible and viscosity is constant across the fluid, the equation governing the shear stress (in Cartesian coordinates) is:

where τ ij is the shear stress on the i th face of a fluid element in the j th direction, v i is the velocity in the i th direction and x j is the j th direction coordinate. 2.2 TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN FLUID MECHANICS

First of all, in fluid mechanics a big change was done from Newton. Newton, was directed to the discharge of water from orifices in the bottom of vessels. He supposed a cylindrical vessel full of water to be perforated in its bottom with a small hole by which the water escaped, and the vessel to be supplied with water in such a manner that it always remained full at the same height. He then supposed this cylindrical column of water to be divided into two parts,the first, which he called the "cataract," being an hyperboloid generated by the revolution of an hyperbola of the fifth degree around the axis of the cylinder which should pass through the orifice, and the second the remainder of the water in the cylindrical

FLUID MECHANICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

25

vessel. He considered the horizontal strata of this hyperboloid as always in motion, while the remainder of the water was in a state of rest, and imagined that there was a kind of cataract in the middle of the fluid. When the results of this theory were compared with the quantity of water actually discharged, Newton concluded that the velocity with which the water issued from the orifice was equal to that which a falling body would receive by descending through half the height of water in the reservoir. This conclusion, however, is absolutely irreconcilable with the known fact that jets of water rise nearly to the same height as their reservoirs, and Newton seems to have been aware of this objection. More and more changes were followed in a couple of years. A major discovery was in the spotlight from the year 1628 by the Benedetto Castelli, and Evangelista Torricelli those two involved a lot of with hydrodynamics. They worked in the motion of fluids in rivers and canals; Torricelli, observing that in a jet where the water rushed through a small ajutage it rose to nearly the same height with the reservoir from which it was supplied, imagined that it ought to move with the same velocity as if it had fallen through that height by the force of gravity, and hence he deduced the proposition that the velocities of liquids are as the square root of the head, apart from the resistance of the air and the friction of the orifice. Moreover, in the hands of Blaise Pascal hydrostatics assumed the dignity of a science; in ~1630-1650, the theorem of Torricelli was employed by Edme Mariotte is founded on a great variety of well-conducted experiments on the motion of fluids, performed at Versailles and Chantilly. Domenico Guglielmini in ~ 1640-1660, who was inspector of the rivers and canals at Bologna, had ascribed this diminution of velocity in rivers to transverse motions arising front inequalities in their bottom. But as Mariotte observed similar obstructions even in glass pipes where no transverse currents could exist, the cause assigned by Guglielmini seemed destitute of foundation. Furthermore, Sir Isaac Newton was discovered the effects of friction and viscosity in diminishing the velocity of running water. He showed that the velocity of any stratum of the vortex is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the strata which enclose it; Henri Pitot afterwards showed that the retardations arising from friction are inversely as the diameters of the pipes in which the fluid moves. A lot of development was done in fluid mechanics, we see a lot of used with the fluid mechanics; one of this is the mathematical expression of Fluid Mechanics. Now in ours daily lives we see those development. One example is the airfoils to cars, to airplane and the aerodynamic design of cars and airplanes. Newton and Bernoulli make a big change in this case. If the aircraft is ascending or descending, the relative velocity will not be horizontal, but the angle of attack would still be defined as the angle between the relative velocity of the air and the chord line of the airfoil. The mean line of the airfoil is the line equidistant from the lower and upper surfaces, measured perpendicular to the chord line. The camber of the airfoil is the maximum distance between the chord line and the mean line and is usually a few percent of the length of the chord. Aerodynamicists usually measure angles relative to the relative velocity of the air, sometimes referred to as the "relative wind".

26

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

Figure 2.1: Two airfoils

22

Moreover the mechanics of fluid is used in the health, especially to Vascular Systems, Diseases and Thrombosis. Nutrient and waste transport throughout the body is the primary function of the cardiovascular system. The heart serves to pump blood through a sophisticated network of branching tubes. The flow is not steady but pulsatile. The blood vessels distribute blood to different organs while maintaining vessel integrity. The arteries are not inert tubes but adapt to varying flow and pressure conditions by growing or shrinking to meet changing homodynamic demands. It is important to study blood flows during disease as well as under normal physiologic conditions. The majority of deaths in developed countries are from cardiovascular diseases. Most cardiovascular diseases are associated with some form of abnormal blood flow in arteries. This review focuses on some selected areas of importance to cardiology.

Figure 2.2: Vein with thrombosis

23

22 23

Flying Upside-Down, two airfoils, http://tiny.cc/ppc9z (accessed 2-5-2011). Vein with thrombosis, http://tiny.cc/itw9b (accessed 17-4-2011).

FLUID MECHANICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

27

The fluid mechanics help in design of future ships; engineers try to reset the abrasion of ships. In ours days the design a wide variety of ships, some of those ships are merchant ships, warships, transport ships, cargo ships. Engineers try to reset the abrasion to be able to develop faster and are more stable in their path.

Figure 2.3: Future ship

24

A method of hull shape control based on a barycentric blend of basis hulls is developed. It requires relatively few design variables. In addition to generalpurpose geometry, hydrostatic and resistance modules, containership-specific weight, cargo and economics modules were developed. The measure of merit is taken to be the required freight rate.

Figure 2.4: Design of commercial boats

25

Recent trends in increasing the size of container vessels, raise the new hydrostructural issues in ship design both from extreme loading point of view and fa24 25

Future ship, http://tiny.cc/441rw (accessed 18-4-2011). Design of commercial boats. http://tiny.cc/4qkqw (accessed 23-4-2011).

28

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

tigue point of view. Indeed, due to their extreme size (almost 400 meters in length) these ships become much”softer” which means that their hull natural frequencies will be significantly reduced. At the same time ship speed remains relatively high (around 25 knots) so that the risk of hydro elastic resonance between the waves and the structure (springing) is present. In addition, due to the very large bow flare of these ships, the importance of slamming induced vibrations (whipping) is also increased. Finally, local hydro elastic interactions of the bow structure with extreme slamming pressures, also becomes an important issue. When we know that even rigid body sea keeping analysis of the ship sailing in waves is still a challenge from modeling point of view, we can easily imagine the complexity of the numerical models which need to be put in practice in order to properly evaluate these hydro elastic effects. The present paper assumes that the sea keeping part is known and concentrates on hydro elastic aspects of ship-wave interactions only, from those reasons the designers – engineer’s needs to fixed the ships to be safe and with large capacity. 2.3 MULTIMEDIA IN FLUID MECHANICS

In many schools the use of computers began with small groups of enthusiasts organizing special classes in which children would learn to program in unwieldy computer languages such as Cobol, Basic or Fortran. These programs were first written on punched cards and sent to a mainframe computer perhaps based at a local university or college. Later the whole process was speeded up by sending programs via a modem to the mainframe computer. Programming dominated these classes but was interspersed with esoteric bits of knowledge about the central processing unit (CPU) or about binary arithmetic, and was coupled with short films and articles showing how The multimedia resonates now in fluid mechanics and especially in the training process of fluid mechanics. We are now given the opportunity to use audiovisual equipment to properly educate their students onto the field of science of fluid mechanics. Multimedia, imported more rapidly in the field of education, in recent years made great strides in achieving this goal by the competent authorities and especially by teachers. Important steps were taken during the early 19th century initially Paivio in 1971 reported the dual coding theory (DCT), this theory suggests that the visual and verbal information act as two distinctive systems. It had its roots in practical use pictures as a memory aid before 2.500 years, for example, can anyone think of a chair with the thought of mentioning the word only, or by creating a mental picture of a chair. Specially and wide application of the multimedia we had in the late 19th and early 20th century after the writing of books and the introduction of multimedia in Greek education. For this has helped the American Richard E. Mayer, who is an educational psychologist, particularly as they relate to problem solving and design of educational multimedia. When information is given to an optical image and a combination of secondary data is working together, we have a better impact on students. Has shown that when the data we are visual and acoustic remember the best. As noted above, the

FLUID MECHANICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

29

dual coding theory proposed first by Paivio and later applied to multimedia by Richard Mayer was the authority to implement the multimedia and education. Also, they became great strides and its multiple of fluid mechanics on the Internet, since we can consider such applications at no cost and anytime we want an application such as fabricated, C.C. Ngo and K.C. Gramoll. The multimedia applications have already impression and in the mechanics fluid and specifically in the process of education of mechanics of fluid. Is given to us henceforth the possibility of using audiovisual material in order to we educate suitably the student, onto the field of science of fluid mechanics. The multimedia applications are introduced more rapidly and in education, and in recent years made great strides in achieving this goal by the competent authorities and especially by teachers. The basic - important steps became the beginning of 19th century initial Paivio 26 in 1971 reported the double theory of coding (DCT), the particular theory, show that the optical and verbal action of information until two discreet systems. It had her roots in the practical use of pictures as aid of memory before 2.500 years, as an example, it can no one think a chair with his thought reporting the word simply, or with the creation a mental picture of chair. More special and with wide variety application we had in the dues 19th and beginning of 20th century after the writing of books and the import of multimedia in the Greek education, in this contributed American Richard E. Mayer who is a educational psychologist, particularly and they are related with the resolution of problems and the planning of educational multimedia. When the information is given with optical picture and with combination of secondary elements that works at the same time, we have better impression with the students. Have better impression than the students. It has been proved that, when the elements that we give are optical and earphones we remembered that better. As the author said, the double theory of coding that was proposed first time from Paivio and later it was applied in the multimedia from Richard Mayer it was the beginning in order to are applied the multimedia applications to the education. Also, big steps to the multimedia applications of fluid mechanics became with the internet. We can study such applications without any cost and any moment we want to see those. That application was manufactured by C.C. Ngo and K.C. Gramoll.

26

Allan Urho Paivio, http://tiny.cc/wmu58 (accessed 17-5-2011).

30

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

(page intentionally left blank)

3
ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF APPLICATION

CONTENT 3.1 ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION 3.1.1 Purpose, objectives and needs 3.1.2 Users 3.1.3 Requirements 3.1.3.1 Content and originality 3.1.3.2 Agreement with production processes 3.1.4 Break down in stages 3.1.4.1 Structure of the application 3.1.4.2 Software application development 3.1.4.3 Availability of material resources CONTENTS OF THE APPLICATION 3.2.1 Technical features WORK ON THE COMPOSITION OF THE APPLICATION CONTROL AND DISTRIBUTION OF APPLICATION 3.4.1 Monitoring and evaluation 3.4.2 Records security and protection 3.4.3 Finished product distribution 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 38 38 39

3.2 3.3 3.4

31

32

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

3.1

ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION

According to the model of Dick and Carey 1 , that graphic appears in Figure 3.1, the energies of analysis for the production of application can be considered that they are organised in two on part phases:  Needs analysis or needs assessment in that it is determined who the needs that exist are and what are covers the application.  Front-end analysis in which are recorded data for a crowd of different characteristics that is related with the final users and that influence the way with which will be drawn and developed the application.

Figure 3.1: Graphic depiction of training model Dick and Carey 2 In the stage of analysis of multimedia application that was developed in the present final work were determined following:  The aim and the objectives of application, also the necessity for this.  The requirements of application that concern her content, the characteristics of her planning, the means of growth and presentation.  The likely objectives - users of application.  The analysis of work in stages or phases or parcels of work.  The planning of application and the structure map of pilotage in this. 3.1.1 Purpose, objectives and needs

The purpose of FM-MSL application is the promotion and teaching of fluid mechanics and even users that they do not know the subject, while providing the users learning and useful information on Fluid Mechanics.

1

2

Dick, W. and Carey, L. (1991), The systematic design of instruction, (3rd ed.), Harper Collins, New York. http://tiny.cc/apdwb , (accessed 11-8-2011). Graphic depiction of training model Dick and Carey. http://tiny.cc/kg32r, (accessed 11-82011).

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF APPLICATION

33

Objectives of the application are both the view and the learning of Fluid Mechanics (history, types and related texts). Initially, the general rules of this particular and then of Fluid Mechanics. The necessity of creation multimedia application for the fluid of mechanics is justified by the absence of a similar freeware application in the Universities and Technological Institutions in Greece. Existed enough movements for the creation of multimedia applications but most are not trafficked in free and that are trafficked to internet are medium category, as an example the application of C.C Ngo and K.C Gramoll with name Multimedia Engineering Fluid Mechanics. It had done also many efforts certain years before in other institutions of the country. This work has as thematic object the total process fluid of mechanics and simultaneously in all this capital. The director has concentration and coding information’s from the mechanic of fluids that can of course be sought in the bibliography or in the internet in the frames of extensive pilotage. Indubitably, it deserves it is materialized such type application, because provides utilitarian information and of course a unique experience at her creation. We could also supplement that, in the application is absent certain chapters which the author did not accomplish completes. Furthermore, it is in his direct drawings to add these chapters in the development of application. 3.1.2 Users

As objectives - users of multimedia application were determined the students, the professors and as generally speaking interested the Mechanics of fluid that would want know the object. The content of application is provided only in the English language, because English is an international language and it is addressed in concrete breadth of ages. It should be they know relative excellent the English language and certain relative familiarization in the use of computers. The multimedia application can be developed from the highest institute of the country individual help in the learning fluid of mechanics for the students. Finally, this can from the Ministry of Education of Life Learning and Religions. 3.1.3 Requirements

The requirements of multimedia application after extensive analysis and taking into consideration as possible agreement - and provided that it is feasible with the processes of production of multimedia application, were determined and are summarisen in following:  Simple structure with user-friendly environment.  Ease of use, without using obscure terms and functions.  Friendliness to the user of graphic environment.  Reliability of the information provided is valuable to the reader application.  Uniqueness of the content of photographs and video.  Full utilization of available resources and means to produce the application.  Proper functioning or performance of a conventional computer modern technology.

34

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

3.1.3.1

Content and originality

By referring the type of information and briefing, the multimedia application contains:  General historical information on the mechanics of fluid  Information on types, the expression of these and their usefulness, in the mechanics of fluid.  Basic theory in the mechanics fluid in combination with the types.  Video with various lectures and more specifically video in order to comprehend better the users the mechanics of fluid. The precision of provided information via the multimedia application is immediately interwoven with the precision of elements that is provided in the bibliography, the network places that are related with the mechanics of fluid and by the newspapers that are published per times for the mechanics of fluid. For this reason in the multimedia application became particular effort for the precise transport of drawn elements from the various sources with interventions only orthographic or syntactic character because was not given is formulated new chapter in the basic mechanics of fluid. The uniqueness and originality of application in addition to the presentation, is the installation to the application the photographic materials and videos, moreover the collection of information from different sources and their placement in the application. That video filed as the size was big and then classified and suffered some form of treatment to be in the form available on the multimedia application.
3.1.3.2 Agreement with production processes

The agreement with the processes of production of multimedia application is limited since from the start of its development did not exist team of work but one only individual. More specifically, the particular knowledge, techniques, experiences and faculties his producer and assistant, Multimedia programmer, Multimedia designer), script writer, electronic graphic producer, video producer, video specialist, image capture specialist), sound track producer and the expert relative with the thematic object of application, is assembled by one and unique individual that afterwards is characterized as the author or producer of multimedia application. Therefore, the absence of partners, issues with which this paper deals with the fixing of user needs, definition - planning - execution of the work required, developing and monitoring the implementation and finally produce a dvd which allows for "direct" application functionality to a computer without requiring installation. 3.1.4 Break down in stages

As there was no working group for the production of multimedia application and inexperience with multimedia applications, was big, there was a problem for the creation and production of multimedia application and from the beginning there was the certainty that they will perform. The work production of multimedia application set up in stages, which in sequence are:

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF APPLICATION

35

 Step 1:  Create a schedule,  Setting objectives for working,  Browse collection & study of bibliographical material,  Gathering information and publicity material for the multimedia  Application,  Download video and digital archive of primary material.  Step 2: Analysis of application,  Analysis of needs and objectives,  Create navigation map,  Design of screens on paper,  Select authoring software application,  Learning and familiarity with software.  Step 3: Preparing for the synthesis of application,  Editing the video,  Learning and familiarity with software.  Step 4: Membership application,  Creating the environment and monitors,  Writing and text input,  Import photos & video,  Check and create dvd-rom. It is pointed out that the phase of writing of final work develops at the same time with the composition of application as well as the work of supervision guidance. Moreover, the multimedia projects, in combination with the initial objectives, because for the realization of application author he was an individual, the timetable he was not precise.
3.1.4.1 Structure of the application

At the planning and treatment of application, was formulated the central idea for the content menu and mini-menu final. The realization would become as a example of possessed scenes that would pass the one afterwards the other than the screen of user and would transport him in the proportional piece-menu without it needs it searches a lot in the application or he is most excellent acquaintance of computers. One of the more important phases was the structure of drawing of application, because should is filed the all information of mechanics fluid are created units and sub-sections and then the author it checks the right structure so that are easily accessible the any units in the application. For the realization of composition, helped the map of pilotage the application that brings the form of tree and describes nodes, the connections between the various units of presentation and helps is the better organization of application. The diagram that was used in the application of mechanics of fluid appears in Figure 3.2.

36

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

Figure 3.2: The multimedia application in diagram with boxes
3.1.4.2 Software application development

Considering the capabilities and compatibility of commercial soft-ware creation of multimedia applications and ensure their licensing, after investigation, decided to use the following software, all of the company Adobe Systems Inc 3 , to develop the application:  Photoshop ® (version CS5), for image processing.  Premiere ® (version CS5), for processing the video.  Soundbooth ® (version CS5), to create sound effects.  Flash ® (version CS5) as an authoring tool for "setting" of implement.  Microsoft Office ® (version 2010).
3.1.4.3 Availability of material resources

For the development of multimedia application and the general realization of production the producer was initially available in the following ways:  Desktop / PC (AMD 2,3 GHz-4Gb ram memory) and laptop / PC (Acer Aspire 5742-Intel Core i5-480M / 2,7 GHz-1Gb ram memory) with peripherals (printer Cannon MP640, an external drive units 1Gb WD units and two internal WD 7200rpm drives for archiving digital hardware and storage implementation).  Software for multimedia applications and office software with licenses (see paragraph 3.1.4.2).

3

Adobe, http://tiny.cc/2hbv6, (accessed 3-10-2010).

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF APPLICATION

37

3.2

CONTENTS OF THE APPLICATION

At this present stage, the talent and skills of the creator of the application attached properly to the computer to achieve the best possible result. The talent in graphic arts and the ability to create logical paths with the use of information and materials of the project effectively combined to give the user something new. Driven by continuous analysis of the application, the creator, trying to build the application in a reasonable manner to be attractive and have an easy navigation within the application user. The association of chapters, menus and submenus are all predetermined and registered by the breeder to better navigate the application's user. A key concern at this stage was the emergence of ideas related to the contents of the application. This process has resulted in the creation of the following list of contents:  Introduction  Properties of fluids  Fluids static’s  Kinematics of fluid motion  Analysis of fluid flows  Dimensional analysis and similitude  Boundary layers  One dimensional compressible flow  Experimental fluid dynamics  Computational fluid dynamics The index above gives a first "taste" for the information provided by the application. The format is structured and includes hidden categorizations. The list of contents in its entirety is in full agreement with the one designed for the analysis phase of implementation (Figure 3.2). Monitors the creator constructed in such a way that is manageable with appropriate buttons and then declare the classic pattern that the director wanted to involve in the implementation declined to put a lot of buttons and hyperlinks to application, so movement in the application to retain a neutral of this. The texts have been incorporated in the application information from similar sites on fluid mechanics. After study, cross checking the information provided was selecting the necessary documents for application and transferred to a Word file which drafted and structured. This file and its contents are appended to this paper in Appendix A. Regarding the tools used to develop the application are those listed in section 3.1.4.2. 3.2.1 Technical features

A multimedia application requires both systems development and other multimedia presentation systems. The multimedia development systems should have high computing power, speed and storage capacity. A very fast processor is inadequate if not accompanied by sufficient memory and in developing an application often needs to be maintained while many programs open applications, files of many types and finally the authoring tool used.

38

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

The application development was the desktop with the characteristics mentioned in section 3.1.4.3. The multimedia presentation systems do not require great computing power as well as large memory. This is because unlike application development, it is necessary to have many open programs. The multimedia application to operate freely requires functional Windows 7/XP/Vista. Also necessary is the existence of dvd player, sound card and speakers for this reason video put on the application. Indeed, this application does not require the installation of presentation, but "runs" itself (auto run). 3.3 WORK ON THE COMPOSITION OF THE APPLICATION

At this stage, performed the following tasks:  Download video and digital archive of primary material,  Editing of video,  Learning and familiarity with software. The primary material organized and stored. The total volume of digital material used for the purposes of the application amounts to five (5) Gb and photographs of five hundred (500) Mb. For the video was used to analyze 670 pixel 16:9 mode / 690 pixels in 4:3 modes). Done at this stage the designer because there is a working group with experience in the manufacture of video should be familiar with the software and then build the video depending on their needs. This work package therefore seen as an inevitable stage of production for the author for this reason, the integration with the above packages work as an interim package in the production phase is inevitable. 3.4 3.4.1 CONTROL AND DISTRIBUTION OF APPLICATION Monitoring and evaluation

Upon completion of the development of multimedia application, it was tested extensively by its creator. Checked particular satisfaction standards and requirements established in the process of analysis in the previous paragraph and the requirements for the similar application users. During the audit found some errors which were corrected. It was also monitoring the implementation of other five (5) computers without any problems occur. 3.4.2 Records security and protection

The work in application development is constantly stored on hard disks of the computer and external drive to keep back ups. Backups were from all stages of implementation so until created dvd, and there should be earlier and later stages for any errors in planning or even the appearance of the application. Then there were backups for the primary photos and video as well as the waste material. The backups were simultaneously in three hard drives both internal and external one, then to a dvd in compression.

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF APPLICATION

39

For the protection of copyright, are followed different methods of protection so it can not copy the contents of the optic disc. In this application, is required to protect copyrights. 3.4.3 Finished product distribution

For implementation, the package was built, initially, by the photographic material was originally collected creator built the cover, which is proportional to the fluid mechanics and then the dvd created the application was placed on a special printer and processed photographic the leaser, (see Appendix II.) The application does not require a manual, and no automatic booting directly from the dvd without the need for installation and thus no special instructions for installation, nor to start or to navigate the application. The multimedia application can be distributed by the faculty of Engineering of the country into sections depending on fluid mechanics, as well as schools of fluid mechanics. You may also be delivered as an introduction to the mechanics of fluids in school technology and technological direction to schools in the country. To come into first contact children who want to work in the engineering sector and the engineering sciences. Finally, the multimedia application, "MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS" can be promoted by the Ministry of Education Lifelong Learning and religions in the educational enhancement of Greece (see section 3.1.2).

40

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

(page intentionally left blank)

4
DESCRIPTION OF THE APPLICATION

CONTENT 4.1 4.2 INITIAL MENU SCREENSHOTS 4.2.1 Introduction 4.2.2 Properties of fluids 4.2.3 Fluids statics 4.2.4 Kinematics of fluid motion 4.2.5 Analysis of fluid flows 4.2.6 Dimensional analysis and similitude 4.2.7 Boundary layers 42 45 45 47 49 51 52 53 54

41

42

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

4.1

INITIAL MENU

In this unit, the writer of application has placed in to four screens the initial stages of treatment of application. The examples of pictures of application are attached by the writer, these pictures screened directly by the surface of Pc. In the above and down part of application we can distinguish that in all her pages it has placed buttons which return the reader in the proportional localities. Those screens are:  Screen 1: the initial page with the full name and copyright of the multimedia.

Figure 4.1: First screen of application  Home page: this page allocates a button of fast passage in contents, then all available video in the application and finally the symbolism of fluid mechanics.

DESCRIPTION OF APPLICATION

43

Figure 4.2: Menu home  Contents: in this unit, the writer has placed ten (10) central units and then with one push of mouse is presented the proportional sub-sections and sections so the reader and user of application can be moved comfortably in any capital he wants.

Figure 4.3: Contents the first submenu

44

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

 Help: in this unit, has been placed the all help for the user in order to it can comfortably and without difficulty used the application.

Figure 4.4: Help page

DESCRIPTION OF APPLICATION

45

4.2 4.2.1

SCREENSHOTS Introduction

In this section, the reader could learn that what is fluid mechanics, furthermore the history of fluid mechanics and all of the major writers.

Figure 4.5: What is fluid mechanics

46

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

Figure 4.6: The page with the biography of Daniel Bernoulli

Figure 4.7: The page with the biography of Claude-Louis Navier.

DESCRIPTION OF APPLICATION

47

4.2.2

Properties of fluids

In this part, the reader - user could learn for the density and specific weight, the pressure, the bulk modulus, the viscosity with Newtonian, non-Newtonian and measure of viscosity. Moreover thermal conductivity and measure of thermal conductivity, the surface tension, measure of surface tension and finally equation of state. For example the author it presents with prints screens some of the pages down.

Figure 4.8: The page for the density and specific weight

48

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

Figure 4.9: The page for the measure of surface tension

DESCRIPTION OF APPLICATION

49

4.2.3

Fluids statics

In section fluid statics, the reader – user could learn for the pressure variation in a static fluid, fluid static of the atmosphere, for the absolute and gauge pressure. Furthermore, for the pressure measurement, hydrostatic forces on surfaces, the buoyancy and stability and finally for the liquids in acceleration. In the end, the what is piezometer, barometer, u-tube manometer, inclined manometer and micromanometer.

Figure 4.10: The page for the u-tube manometer

50

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

Figure 4.11: The page for the hydrostatic forces on curved surfaces

DESCRIPTION OF APPLICATION

51

4.2.4

Kinematics of fluid motion

In this section, the reader – user could learn for the ways to look the fluid of flow, the lagrangian and eulerian description of flow and finally for streamlines, streaklines and pathlines.

Figure 4.12: The page for the Eulerian description of flow

52

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

4.2.5

Analysis of fluid flows

In this part of application, the user could learn for the conservation laws, differential and integral equations and each submenu of these sections.

Figure 4.13: The page for the moment of momentum equation

DESCRIPTION OF APPLICATION

53

4.2.6

Dimensional analysis and similitude

In the section dimensional analysis and similitude, the reader could learn the methods for dimensional analysis, dimensionless equations of fluid motion and similitude.

Figure 4.14: The page for the dimensional numbers

54

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

4.2.7

Boundary layers

In Boundary layers part, the author presents the boundary layer concept, equations and the methods of analysis, the Blasius and Falken- skan solution. Finally presents the integral methods, von Karman momentum integral and Polhausen solution.

Figure 4.15: The page for the boundary layer concept

5
CONCLUSIONS

CONTENT 5.1 5.2 SUMMARY AND REVIEW FUTURE WORK 56 57

55

56

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

5.1

SUMMARY AND REVIEW

In this paper reached the production and presentation of application “Multimedia fluid mechanics". The application help to learn the mechanics of fluids at levels broadly than it has been predetermined by the books. This is one that we have an application that gives us lots of information and is installed on dvd and also that we have the opportunity to share it very easily from what books and notes will be needed for the course of fluid mechanics. We are given the opportunity to present the application to know the history, types and the absolute importance of these and then all the relevant theory on fluid mechanics. The accuracy of the information through the multimedia application is controlled solely by the accuracy of information provided by the scientific brochures and information on the internet which were transported to the implementation of appropriate interventions. The originality of the application and its uniqueness, beyond the appearance and content, the integration of material were scattered in various scientific books and the internet and then the collection of video and analogue processing them to look better in user. The targets - users of the application are the trainers and trainees of the engineering sector of similar schools in Greece. The application is only in English and addressed to a specific range of ages with certain conditions, one knows the use of computers and to be in a similar situation-age to be able to record information, stimuli with greater ease. The information provided by the application are particularly useful for students and teachers of fluid mechanics, to enable students to learn while the science of fluid mechanics in the best possible way and then allow teachers to teach the best possible way. The application can run on any compatible computer that has dvd rom or dvd driver. For the application development effort was paid to fully integrate the application in production process and then with the original requirements that were previously being analysis. The timing of preparation of this thesis which eventually reached the conclusion, it appears in Figure 5.1. The size of the multimedia application in conjunction with the objectives and requirements from the beginning of the working set, as well as the de facto merger of all responsibilities and tasks to a single person, prevented the preparation of the dissertation to the conventional time specified by the curriculum of the Department of Mechanical Engineering Educators in the School of Pedagogical and Technological Education (ASPETE). Undoubtedly, the time development of labour could be reduced to a minimum and there was a better result if you had the appropriate niche and assigning staff and then there were no outstanding student obligations of the producer-creator. The present application would initially be used by the Engineering Section of ASPAITE and after the appropriate sections of Engineering and Technology Higher Education Institutions in Greece to learn the mechanics of fluids from the students.

CONCLUSIONS

57

Figure 5.1: Final thesis timeline Then it could be used as a tool to teach any students in the engineering sector where technological schools in the country. Then it could be used by the Ministry of Education Lifelong Learning and Religion, to familiarize students analogues on the science of fluid mechanics and then in similar seminars or workshops as educational material. As an epilogue to the conclusion should be note that the producer had a unique experience for creating and learning the software from the multimedia application. Then he learned to work methodically and organized to be able to reach the best possible result and to fulfil their similar objectives had set at the beginning of work. Finally, the thesis was written in Greek first and then in English translation was made by the author and accessories free online translation programs. 5.2 FUTURE WORK

The English language was chosen as it is a global language and the application could be learned and to share in engineering schools abroad. The development purpose of application is to supplemented the remainder capital of application that is absent or improves the already capitals. Moreover, one more possible development of application would be issued for people with disabilities. The issue could support people with visual or hearing or with specific cognitive and physical needs. This version is the future goal of the producer and would like to be compiled digitally and socially vulnerable groups and to have parity. First to do so should make some modifications in the application and then had to use some specialized programs specifically for the appropriate modifications so that the aforementioned individuals to easily manage application data.

58

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

Moreover, it could, within the existing application to use java applications for identifying various types and diagrams in which the user could be placed on such measurements is taken from a laboratory or from the Internet and to verify. Finally, the future could be to enrich the application with more information. In particular they could enrich the text of application types and be fitted if necessary and new chapters on the best possible separation. More, it could be translate to different languages some of them could be Greek, German and Chinese language.

6
REFERENCES

CONTENT 6.1 6.2 REFERENCES FOR WRITTEN WORK 6.1.1 Internet sources REFERENCES FOR THE APPLICATION 6.2.1 Internet sources for the texts 6.2.2 Internet sources for the programming 60 60 61 62 65

59

60

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

6.1

REFERENCES FOR WRITTEN WORK

1. Bhatnagar, G. (2002), Introduction to Multimedia Systems, Academic Press. 2. Christiansson, P. (2004), Application of ict supported learning in fluid mechanics, http://tiny.cc/irjf6 (accessed 2-2-2011). 3. Dick, W. and Carey, L. (1991), The systematic design of instruction, (3rd ed.), Harper Collins, New York, http://tiny.cc/apdwb (accessed 11-8-2011). 4. Laurillard, D. Learning formal representations through Multimedia, http://tiny.cc/ftu7e (accessed 2-2-2011). 5. Linda, E. (1994), Δουλέψτε με τα πολυμέσα, Εκδόσεις Κλειδάριθμος, Αθήνα. 6. Καραπιστόλης, Δ.Ν. (2008), Σύγχρονη Τεχνολογία: Επικοινωνία-Πολυμέσα, Αλεξάνδρειο Τεχνολογικό Εκπαιδευτικό Ίδρυμα Θεσσαλονίκης, http://tiny.cc/qblc2 (πρόσβαση 3/5/2011). 6.1.1 Internet sources

1. Adobe CS5, http://tiny.cc/2hbv6, (accessed 3-10-2010). 2. Analysis of multimedia application, http://tiny.cc/kg32r (accessed 5-3-2011). 3. Dick, W. and Carey, L. Graphic depiction of training model, http://tiny.cc/kg32r, (accessed 11-8-2011). 4. Equations for a Newtonian fluid, http://tiny.cc/9jadw (accessed 17-5-2011) 5. Multimedia and the user-centred design process university of emus http://www.ucc.ie/hfrg/emmus (accessed 10-10-2010). 6. Picture for design of commercial boats. http://tiny.cc/4qkqw (accessed 23-42011). 7. Picture for flying upside-down, two airfoils, http://tiny.cc/ppc9z (accessed 175-2011). 8. Picture for future ship. http://tiny.cc/441rw (accessed 18-4-2011). 9. Picture for vein with thrombosis, http://tiny.cc/itw9b (accessed 17-4-2011). 10. Wikipedia, Allan Urho Paivio, http://tiny.cc/wmu58 (accessed 17-5-2011). 11. Wikipedia, Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov, http://tiny.cc/dc9c8 (accessed 17-5-2011). 12. Wikipedia, Archimedes of Syracuse, http://tinyurl.com/5rspxyh (accessed 175-2011). 13. Wikipedia, Blaise Pascal, http://tiny.cc/vcazi (accessed 17-5-2011). 14. Wikipedia, Claude-Louis Navier, http://tiny.cc/6a2qj (accessed 17-5-2011). 15. Wikipedia, Daniel Bernoulli, http://tiny.cc/zefxg (accessed 17-5-2011). 16. Wikipedia, Evangelista Torricelli, http://tiny.cc/ls544 (accessed 17-5-2011). 17. Wikipedia, Fluid mechanics, http://tiny.cc/loixb (accessed 5-3-2011). 18. Wikipedia, Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen, http://tiny.cc/5yv9f (accessed 175-2011). 19. Wikipedia, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, http://tiny.cc/8tapf (accessed 17-5-2011). 20. Wikipedia, History of fluid mechanics, http://tiny.cc/gy3pn (accessed 5-32011). 21. Wikipedia, Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille, http://tiny.cc/41rcy (accessed 17-52011).

REFERENCES

61

22. Wikipedia, Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert, http://tiny.cc/xow0d (accessed 17-5-2011). 23. Wikipedia, Joseph-Louis Lagrange, http://tiny.cc/dgi2g (accessed 17-5-2011). 24. Wikipedia, Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, http://tiny.cc/qwotx (accessed 175-2011). 25. Wikipedia, Leonhard Euler, http://tiny.cc/qgwmy (accessed 17-5-2011). 26. Wikipedia, Ludwig Prandtl, http://tiny.cc/phrm6 (accessed 17-5-2011). 27. Wikipedia, Multimedia, http://tiny.cc/u7e7m (accessed 3-10-2010). 28. Wikipedia, Navier–Stokes equations, http://tiny.cc/irjf6 (accessed 17-5-2011) 29. Wikipedia, Osborne Reynolds, http://tiny.cc/vtnag (accessed 17-5-2011). 30. Wikipedia, Pierre-Simon marquis de Laplace, http://tiny.cc/4c5ak (accessed 17-5-2011). 31. Wikipedia, Siméon Denis Poisson, http://tiny.cc/q0l2f (accessed 17-5-2011). 32. Wikipedia, Sir Geoffrey Ingram Taylor, http://tiny.cc/gb7f3 (accessed 17-52011). 33. Wikipedia, Sir George Gabriel Stokes, http://tiny.cc/u9sa4 (accessed 17-52011). 34. Wikipedia, Sir Isaac Newton, http://tiny.cc/8pk4b (accessed 17-5-2011). 35. Wikipedia, The law of buoyancy, http://tiny.cc/34wwr (accessed 17-5-2011). 36. Wikipedia, Usage of multimedia, http://tiny.cc/ot026 (accessed 3-10-2010). 6.2 REFERENCES FOR THE APPLICATION

1. Anderson, D.M. and McFadden, G.B. (1998), Diffuse-Interface methods in fluid mechanics, University of north Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 2. Batchelor, G. K. (1967), An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press. 3. Donald, R. (1991), Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East, Scientific American. 4. Donald, R. (1996), A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times, Rout ledge. 5. Gramoll, K. (2007), A web-based electronic book for solid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, published at 2007 ASSEE, Honolulu, HI. 6. Gramoll, K., and Abbanat, R. (1995), Interactive Multimedia for Engineering Dynamics, Salt Lake City, UT. 7. Granger, R.A. (1995) e-book for fluid mechanics, Mineola, New York USA, http://tiny.cc/oj5w7 (accessed 9/5/2011). 8. Günter, H. and Veit, H. (2004), Application of multimedia in engineering design education, European Journal of Engineering Education, http://tiny.cc/6w8y4 (accessed 19-4-2011). 9. Kundu, P. K. (2008), Fluid Mechanics (4th revised ed.), Academic Press. 10. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K. (2004), A web-based electronic book for fluid mechanics, school of aerospace and mechanical engineering University of Oklahoma, first presented and published at 2004 ASEE, Salt lake city, UT. 11. Richard, A. (2001), Goldstein’s Light Works at Southampton, Variety. 12. Stewart, C. and Kowaltzke, A. (1997), Media, New Ways and Meanings (second edition), JACARANDA, Milton, Queensland, Australia.

62

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

13. Tretiakov, A., Kinshuk, T. and Tretiakov, T. (2003), Designing Multimedia Support for Situated Learning, Published in the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies Conference Proceedings, Los Alamitos, USA. 14. Vaughan, T. (1993), Multimedia Making It Work, Osborne/McGraw-Hill, Berkeley. 15. Wootton, D.M. and Ku, D.N. (1999), Fluid mechanics of Vascular system, diseases and thrombosis, Woodruff’s school of mechanical engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, http://tiny.cc/itw9b (accessed 9/10/2010). 6.2.1 Internet sources for the texts

1. Wikipedia, Joseph Louis Lagrange, http://tiny.cc/jv1f7 (accessed 5-10-2010). 2. Wikipedia, Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille, http://tiny.cc/bkjqa (accessed 5-102010). 3. Wikipedia, Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen, http://tiny.cc/iteuq (accessed 510-2010). 4. Wikipedia, Claude-Louis Navier, http://tiny.cc/nnp3e (accessed 5-10-2010). 5. Wikipedia, Sir George Gabriel Stokes, http://tiny.cc/cysi2 (accessed 5-102010). 6. Wikipedia, Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky, http://tiny.cc/ks8g6 (accessed 510-2010). 7. Wikipedia, Hermann von Helmholtz, http://tiny.cc/jk30p (accessed 5-10-2010). 8. Wikipedia, Frederick William Lanchester, http://tiny.cc/wv0n4 (accessed 5-102010). 9. Wikipedia, Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, http://tiny.cc/6nsxk (accessed 5-10-2010). 10. Wikipedia, Theodore von Kármán, http://tiny.cc/5g2po (accessed 5-10-2010). 11. Wikipedia, Hermann Schlichting, http://tiny.cc/khs8f (accessed 5-10-2010). 12. Fmtulab, List of educational video, http://tiny.cc/44a3f (accessed 2-11-2011). 13. The fmtulab project, list of educational video http://tiny.cc/ymct2 (accessed 211-2010). 14. Voller, V.R., Hooves, S.J. and Watson, J.F. (1998) The use of multimedia in developing undergraduate engineering courses, JOM, http://tiny.cc/gead8 (accessed 9-4-2011). 15. Höhnea, G. and Henkel, V. (2010), Design task of multimedia application, European journal of engineering education, http://tiny.cc/6w8y4 (accessed 194-2011). 16. Nasa Aerodynamics, Bernoulli or Newton's laws for lift, http://tiny.cc/ppc9z (accessed 2-5-2011). 17. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Density and specific weight, http://tiny.cc/yji4m (accessed 4-5-2011). 18. Wikipedia, Measurement of density, http://tiny.cc/zuoxg (accessed 4-5-2011). 19. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Pressure, http://tiny.cc/liqe9 (accessed 5-5-2011).

REFERENCES

63

20. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Measure of pressure, http://tiny.cc/fexyp (accessed 5-5-2011). 21. Wikipedia, Measurement bulk modulus, http://tiny.cc/5jqnx (accessed 6-52011). 22. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Viscosity, http://tiny.cc/qvo4x (accessed 6-52011). 23. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Newtonian fluids and non - Newtonian fluids, http://tiny.cc/8y09e (accessed 6-5-2011). 24. Wikipedia, Viscosity measurement, http://tiny.cc/4lkv6 (accessed 8-5-2011). 25. Wikipedia, Thermal conductivity and measure of thermal conductivity, http://tiny.cc/t3qul (accessed 8-5-2011). 26. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Surface tension and measure of surface tension, http://tiny.cc/00xgu (accessed 8-5-2011). 27. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Pressure variation in a static fluid, http://tiny.cc/ojpy0 (accessed 10-5-2011). 28. Wikipedia, Absolute and gauge pressure, http://tiny.cc/u1vae (accessed 10-52011). 29. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia Engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Absolute and gage pressure, barometer, piezometer, u-tube manometer, inclined u-tube manometer, http://tiny.cc/hs37a (accessed 11-5-2011). 30. Biswas, G. and Som, S.K. eBook for multimedia Mechanical enginneering fluid mechanics, Department of mechanical engineering Indian Instirute of technology Kanpur NPTEL, Micromanometer, http://tinyurl.com/64jrgkb (accessed 11-5-2011). 31. Donny, Hydrostatic force on a plane, http://tiny.cc/0ujxp (accessed 12-5-2011). 32. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia Engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Hydrostatic force on a plane, plane surface, http://tiny.cc/3recx (accessed 12-5-2011). 33. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia Engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Curved surface, http://tiny.cc/0nrjz (accessed 125-2001). 34. Biswas, G. and Som, S.K. eBook for multimedia Mechanical enginneering fluid mechanics, Department of mechanical engineering Indian Instirute of technology Kanpur NPTEL, Buoyancy and stability, http://tinyurl.com/64jrgkb (accessed 12-5-2011). 35. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia Engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Buoyancy and stability, http://tiny.cc/cz11t (accessed 12-5-2011). 36. Bs Civil engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Washington American Global University, Fluid Statics of Atmosphere, http://tiny.cc/o8gum (accessed 13-5-2011).

64

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

37. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia Engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Archimedes' Principle and Stability of Submerged or Floating Bodies, http://tiny.cc/zdfnq (accessed 13-5-2011). 38. Biswas, G. and Som, S.K. eBook for multimedia Mechanical enginneering fluid mechanics, Department of mechanical engineering Indian Instirute of technology Kanpur NPTEL, Archimedes' Principle and Stability of Submerged or Floating Bodies, http://tinyurl.com/64jrgkb (accessed 13-5-2011). 39. Bs Civil engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Washington American Global University, Liquids in acceleration, http://tiny.cc/o8gum (accessed 14-5-2011). 40. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia Engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Ways to look the fluid flow, Lagrangian and Eulerian description flow, http://tiny.cc/kj9in (accessed 14-5-2011). 41. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia Engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Streamlines, Streaklines and Pathlines, http://tiny.cc/tioud (accessed 14-5-2011). 42. Biswas, G. and Som, S.K. eBook for multimedia Mechanical enginneering fluid mechanics, Department of mechanical engineering Indian Instirute of technology Kanpur NPTEL, Streamlines, Streaklines and Pathlines, http://tinyurl.com/64bld5b (accessed 14-5-2011). 43. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia Engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Conservative laws, differential equations, http://tiny.cc/3euzc (accessed 14-5-2011). 44. Biswas, G. and Som, S.K. eBook for multimedia Mechanical enginneering fluid mechanics, Department of mechanical engineering Indian Instirute of technology Kanpur NPTEL, Continuity, momentum and energy differential equations, http://tinyurl.com/68nye3g (accessed 16-5-2011). 45. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia Engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Energy equation, http://tiny.cc/gh5r2 (accessed 16-5-2011). 46. Wikipedia, Navier–Stokes equations, http://tiny.cc/e3cyx (accessed 16-52011). 47. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia Engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Conservative laws - Integral equations, http://tiny.cc/m8h2c (accessed 16-5-2011). 48. Biswas, G. and Som, S.K. eBook for multimedia Mechanical enginneering fluid mechanics, Department of mechanical engineering Indian Instirute of technology Kanpur NPTEL, Conservative laws - Integral equations, http://tinyurl.com/68nye3g (accessed 16-5-2011). 49. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia Engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, dimensional analysis and similitude, http://tiny.cc/432tw (accessed 18-5-2011). 50. Ngo, C.C. and Gramoll, K., eBook for multimedia Engineering fluid mechanics, University of Oklahoma, Boundary layers, http://tiny.cc/ezc4e (accessed 18-5-2011). 51. Biswas, G. and Som, S.K. eBook for multimedia Mechanical enginneering fluid mechanics, Department of mechanical engineering Indian Instirute of

REFERENCES

65

52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65.

technology Kanpur NPTEL, Boundary layers, http://tinyurl.com/6e5ezth (accessed 18-5-2011). Multimedia and the user-centred design process, University of EMMUS, http://tiny.cc/fxj86, (accessed 12-2-2011). Wikipedia, George Cayley, http://tiny.cc/k6lgd (accessed 5-10-2010). Wikipedia, James Lighthill, http://tiny.cc/0logb (accessed 5-10-2010). Wikipedia, Ernst Mach, http://tiny.cc/2x23b (accessed 5-10-2010). Wikipedia, Pressure, http://tiny.cc/roeyf (accessed 5-5-2011). Wikipedia, Bulk modulus, http://tiny.cc/cbfk3 (accessed 6-5-2011). Wikipedia, Equation of state, http://tiny.cc/am7k5 (accessed 8-5-2011). Wikipedia, Daniel Bernoulli, http://tiny.cc/1hndt (accessed 5-10-2010). Wikipedia, Osborne Reynolds, http://tiny.cc/irjf6 (accessed 5-10-2010). Wikipedia, Fluid mechanics, http://tiny.cc/imqnt(accessed 4-10-2010). Wikipedia, Leonhard Euler, http://tiny.cc/xvibp (accessed 5-10-2010). Wikipedia, William Froude, http://tiny.cc/9nu8v (accessed 5-10-2010). Wikipedia, Ludwig Prandtl, http://tiny.cc/gec4x (accessed 5-10-2010). Wikipedia, Anton Flettner, http://tiny.cc/isc3u (accessed 5-10-2010). Internet sources for the programming

6.2.2

1. Action script 3.0 tutorials of adobe Flash CS5, http://tiny.cc/ifbki (accessed 19-3-2011). 2. Action script 3.0 tutorials, adobe forum, back button, http://tiny.cc/vnzqd (accessed 6-4-2011). 3. Action script 3.0 tutorials, Auto-complete Control, http://tiny.cc/22shn (accessed 25-3-2011). 4. Action script 3.0 tutorials, exit button, http://tiny.cc/eojg9 (accessed 5-22011). 5. Action script 3.0 tutorials, gotoAndPlay() work with scenes, http://tiny.cc/0mbri (accessed 5-4-2011). 6. Action script 3.0 tutorials, quit button, http://tiny.cc/yv4ea (accessed 19-32011). 7. Bustin, A. Action script 3.0 tutorials, the back button, http://tiny.cc/pr220 (accessed 8-4-2011). 8. Nokia developer, Action script 3.0 tutorials, exit button, http://tiny.cc/zsw8c (accessed 6-6-2011). 9. Stiller, D. Shupe, R. deHaan, J. and Richardson, D. Action script 3.0 quick reference quide, Adobe, http://tiny.cc/bfyb6 (accessed 19-3-2011). 10. Tutorial video for action script 3.0, Basic button Properties, http://tiny.cc/2vf8y (accessed 10-11-2010) 11. Tutorial video for action script 3.0, Button component, http://tiny.cc/98mcw (accessed 2-3-2011) 12. Tutorial video for action script 3.0, create toggle buttons, http://tiny.cc/0t979 (accessed 22-3-2011) 13. Tutorial video for action script 3.0, Scroll pane component, http://tiny.cc/plrvx (accessed 22-3-2011). 14. Tutorial video for action script 3.0, Scrollbar component, http://tiny.cc/iweus (accessed 22-3-2011).

66

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

15. Tutorials for simple Auto-complete button for forms (search button), http://tiny.cc/ms678/ (accessed 17-4-2011). 16. Tutorials of adobe Flash SC5, Work with libraries, http://tiny.cc/vem6o (accessed 3-5-2011). 17. Video - demo tutorials for action script 3.0 in site of adobe, http://tiny.cc/xj0mx (accessed 16-4-2011). 18. Video - demo tutorials for action script 3.0, http://tiny.cc/jlxm5 (accessed 164-2011). 19. Youtube, scrolling thumbnails w/Mouse Control, Flash tutorial for action script 3.0 , http://tiny.cc/qic4c (accessed 18-2-2011).

ANNEX A
TEXTS INTO THE APPLICATION

CONTENTS A.1 GENERALLY 68

67

68

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

A.1

GENERALLY

Aiming at the writing of texts that was registered for the multimedia application and which concerns the mechanics fluid and relative information, was attempted for the better possible effort of writing of this texts, investigation so in scientific booklets and bibliographic sources as in sources in the internet. For the writing of texts, there was not used information from biographical sources a lot, as long as was used information from the internet, because from the internet the information was more specific. The mainer sources of information for the application, is first the web page http://www.efluids.com/ in this page they had installed computational multimedia application of mechanics of fluid, second from the web page of university emmus http://www.ucc.ie/hfrg/emmus/, furthermore from the English publication of encyclopaedia Wikipedia and finally the video from the web page http://fmtulab.wordpress.com According to the drawing of pilotage of application, we have the following main chapters:  Introduction  Properties Of Fluids  Fluids Statics  Kinematics Of Fluid Motion  Analysis Of Fluid Flows  Dimensional Analysis And Similitude  Boundary Layers  One Dimensional Compressible Flow  Experimental Fluid Dynamics  Computational Fluid Dynamics Then from those sections, exist in application sub-chapters and sections, which are analyzed in the cd that the author attaches with thesis. For the completion of texts in the application, the information was drawn from the mentioned before web pages. In any case, becomes the proportional report on the elements that were drawn the origin of these for reasons of control of provided information.

ANNEX A

69

70

MULTIMEDIA FLUID MECHANICS

ANNEX B
DVD OF MULTIMEDIA APPLICATION IN PACKING

71

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.