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**Times tables grid
**

Multiplication is much easier if you know your times tables. You can use this grid to help you with them.

Print the grid off and highlight any times tables you find difficult. Try to learn the tricky ones that you may not know: try to concentrate on 6s, 7s, 8s and 9s. You can pin it on your wall at home if that helps.

**Key words for times tables
**

Here are some of the words which will crop up when doing multiplication questions. Have a look below to see what they mean.

Factors One number is a factor of another number if it divides, or 'goes into' it exactly, with no remainders. So, 5 is a factor of 20, but 5 is NOT a factor of 23 because if you tried to divide 23 by 5 you'd be left with a remainder of 3. Groups of 4 groups of 2 are 8 4x2=8 Lots of 2 lots of 5 are 10 2 x 5 = 10 Multiple Multiples are the numbers you find in any times table. The multiples of 7 are the numbers in the 7 times table, 7, 14, 21, 28 and so on. Multiply There are lots of ways of talking about multiplication. The sum 3 x 4 = 12 can be written as:

• • • • • •

3 times 4 = 12 3 multiplied by 4 = 12 3 lots of 4 are 12 the product of 3 and 4 is 12 3 sets of 4 are 12 three fours are twelve

Prime number A prime number is a number which nothing else will go into except 1 and itself. Prime numbers don't appear in any other tables. So 3 is a prime number because only 3 and 1 go into it. 12 is NOT a prime number because lots of numbers go into it, like 1, 12, 2, 6, 4, etc.

Product The product is the answer that you get when you multiply numbers together. The product of 5 and 4 is 20. Sets of 3 sets of 3 are 9 3x3=9 Times 4 times 4 = 16 4 x 4 =16

Multiplication methods

There are a variety of methods you can try. Choose what works best for you. Here are some examples. Reverse the question If someone asks you what 3 x 8 is and you're not sure of your 8 times table, turn it around into 8 x 3. Use the facts you know well, like 10 times a number. If you need to work out 12 x 4, start with 10 x 4 = 40 and add 2 more 4s to give 48. Doubling Doubling is a good trick. If you know that 4 x 4 = 16, then you can work out 8 x 4 by doubling 16, which gives 32. Separate and add up If you had to work out 25 x 5 you could use: 10 x 5 = 50 plus another 10 x 5 = 50. Then 5 x 5 = 25. Added together 50 + 50 + 25 = 125 Ask others what methods they use and give them a try.

**1x and 2x tables - tips
**

The 1 times table 1x1=1 2x1=2 3x1=3 4x1=4 5x1=5 6x1=6 7x1=7 8x1=8 9x1=9 10 x 1 = 10 The 2 times table 1x2=2 2x2=4 3x2=6 4x2=8 5 x 2 = 10 6 x 2 = 12 7 x 2 = 14 8 x 2 = 16 9 x 2 = 18 10 x 2 = 20 Have a look at these timesavers. If a number ends in 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 it is even. A number is even when it can be divided by two without a remainder. 2 divided by 2 is 1. 10 divided by 2 is 5. All even numbers can be divided by 2. To find out if a number is in the 2 times table, look at the digit at the end. 1 357 318 is a multiple of 2 because the digit at the end is 8, which is even. Multiplying a number by 2 is the same as DOUBLING it. Double 6 is the same as 6 x 2, which equals 12. Dividing a number by 2 is the same as HALVING it. Half of 10 is the same as 10 ÷ 2 which equals 5.

**3x table - tips
**

The 3 times table 1x3=3 2x3=6 3x3=9 4 x 3 = 12 5 x 3 = 15 6 x 3 = 18 7 x 3 = 21 8 x 3 = 24 9 x 3 = 27 10 x 3 = 30 Have a look at these timesavers. To find out if a number is in the 3 times table, there is a very clever trick. Add up the digits of the number you want to find out about. If they add up to 3, 6, or 9, then you know that it's in the 3 times table. Let's look at 15. The digits are 1 and 5. Add those together and you get 6. 1 + 5 = 6. So 15 is in the 3 times table. Now let's look at a bigger number, 156. The digits are 1, 5 and 6. Add 1 + 5 + 6 and you get 12. Now add up the digits 1 and 2 and you get 3. So 156 is in the 3 times table. It always works, even with a really big number like 12 346 911. Just add up the digits: 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 6+ 9 + 1 + 1 = 27. Then add 2 + 7 = 9. So 12 346 911 is in the 3 times table.

**4x table - tips
**

The 4 times table 1x4=4 2x4=8 3 x 4 = 12 4 x 4 = 16 5 x 4 = 20 6 x 4 = 24 7 x 4 = 28 8 x 4 = 32 9 x 4 = 36 10 x 4 = 40 Have a look at these timesavers. All the NUMBERS in the 4 times table are EVEN - they end with 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 You can work out a 4 times sum by doubling the number twice. 7 x 4 is the same as 7 x 2 = 14, then 14 x 2 = 28. Look at the last 2 digits of the number you want to find out about. If they are a multiple of 4, then the whole number is. Let's look at the number 116. This is a multiple of 4 because 16 is in the 4 times table. You can reverse the sum if that makes it easier. Have a look at these coins. There are five piles with four coins in each. This is the same as the sum 5 x 4.

Count them up - there are 20. Now reverse the sum so you have four piles with five coins in each - 4 x 5. There are the same number of coins.

**5x and 10x tables - tips
**

The 5 times table 1x5=5 2 x 5 = 10 3 x 5 = 15 4 x 5 = 20 5 x 5 = 25 6 x 5 = 30 7 x 5 = 35 8 x 5 = 40 9 x 5 = 45 10 x 5 = 50 Have a look at this timesaver. This is an easy one. All multiples of 5 end in a 5 or a 0. So 4 320 is in the 5 times table because it ends in a 0. 55 552 is not because it ends in a 2. The 10 times table 1 x 10 = 10 2 x 10 = 20 3 x 10 = 30 4 x 10 = 40 5 x 10 = 50 6 x 10 = 60 7 x 10 = 70 8 x 10 = 80 9 x 10 = 90 10 x 10 = 100 Have a look at this timesaver. This is another easy one. Numbers that are multiples of 10 always end in a 0 - 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and so on.

**6x table - tips
**

The 6 times table 1x6=6 2 x 6 = 12 3 x 6 = 18 4 x 6 = 24 5 x 6 = 30 6 x 6 = 36 7 x 6 = 42 8 x 6 = 48 9 x 6 = 54 10 x 6 = 60 Have a look at these timesavers. There is no easy trick for finding out if a number is in the 6 times table, but here are some tips:

• • •

All the numbers in the 6 times table are EVEN - they end with 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8. They are all a multiple of 3, they can be divided by 3. You can work out a 6 times sum by doubling the number and then tripling it. 5 x 6 is the same as 5 x 2 = 10, then 10 x 3 = 30.

You can reverse the sum if that makes it easier. Have a look at these coins. There are eight piles with six coins in each. This is the same as the sum 8 x 6.

Count them up - there are 48. Now reverse the sum so you have six piles with eight coins in each - 6 x 8. There are the same number of coins.

**7x table - tips
**

The 7 times table 1x7=7 2 x 7 = 14 3 x 7 = 21 4 x 7 = 28 5 x 7 = 35 6 x 7 = 42 7 x 7 = 49 8 x 7 = 56 9 x 7 = 63 10 x 7 = 70 Have a look at these timesavers! - There is no easy trick for finding out if a number is in the 7 times table. But there is a way of remembering the tricky sum 7 x 8: 7 x 8 = 56. Just remember - 5,6,7,8. - Try reversing the sum if you are having problems. 7 x 5 is the same as 5 x 7: 35. - You can make rectangular patterns on a piece of paper to help you. Have a look at this one - 4 rows of 7 which is the same as the sum 4 x 7. ooooooo ooooooo ooooooo ooooooo Count them up - there are 28. It is the same as 7 x 4 - 7 rows of 4. oooo oooo oooo oooo oooo oooo oooo

**8x table - tips
**

The 8 times table 1x8=8 2 x 8 = 16 3 x 8 = 24 4 x 8 = 32 5 x 8 = 40 6 x 8 = 48 7 x 8 = 56 8 x 8 = 64 9 x 8 = 72 10 x 8 = 80 Have a look at these timesavers! - The numbers in the 8 times table are always even. That means they can be divided by 2 without remainder. If it's ODD then it is not in the 8 times table! - Have a look at the 8 times table again. The unit digits have a regular pattern - they go down in 2s.

- Try reversing the sum if you are having problems. 8 x 4 is the same as 4 x 8: 32. - You can make rectangular patterns on a piece of paper to help you. Have a look at this one - 3 rows of 8 which is the same as the sum 3 x 8. oooooooo oooooooo oooooooo Count them up - there are 24. It is the same as 8 x 3 - 8 rows of 3. ooo ooo ooo

ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo

**9x table - tips
**

The 9 times table 1x9=9 2 x 9 = 18 3 x 9 = 27 4 x 9 = 36 5 x 9 = 45 6 x 9 = 54 7 x 9 = 63 8 x 9 = 72 9 x 9 = 81 10 x 9 = 90 Have a look at these timesavers. Look at the numbers on the right hand side. Can you see how the tens go up but the units go down? - This is an easy one. All the digits in the 9 times table add up to 9. 18 = 1 + 8 = 9 27 = 2 + 7 = 9 36 = 3 + 6 = 9 - What's 9 x 7 ? You can use the 9-method! Hold out all 10 fingers, and lower the 7th finger.

There are 6 fingers to the left and 3 fingers on the right. The answer is 63. - Try reversing the sum if you are having problems. 9 x 8 is the same as 8 x 9: 72. - Look at the pattern below - can you see how the units column goes down one at a time and the tens column goes up? You can also see how the 9 times table reverses itself! 09 ~ 90 18 ~ 81 27 ~ 72 36 ~ 63 45 ~ 54

54 ~ 45 63 ~ 36 72 ~ 27 81 ~ 18 90 ~ 09

**'Times tables' tutor notes
**

The module can be used as a starting point for learning a particular table; a reinforcement of number patterns and tables already covered; practising knowledge of tables. Please let us know what you think of this module; do you like the game, can you suggest any more learning tips for the factsheets, do your students like the worksheets? You can email us at skillswise.feedback@bbc.co.uk

**How does this tie in with the curriculums?
**

•

• • •

England. N1/L1.4 - multiply and divide whole numbers by 10 and 100. N1/L1.5 - recall multiplication facts up to 10 x 10 and make connections with division facts. N1/L1.6 - recognise numerical relationships (e.g. multiples and squares). Wales As England. Northern Ireland As England. Scotland See www.aloscotland.com for details of the Scottish curriculum.

**In the Skillswise module you'll find:
**

Times tables factsheets There are eleven sheets in this section which can be printed out and kept.

• • • • • • • • • • •

Factsheet 1 - Time tables grid. Factsheet 2 - Key words for times tables. Factsheet 3 - Multiplication methods. Factsheet 4 - 1x and 2x tables - tips. Factsheet 5 - 3x table - tips. Factsheet 6 - 4x table - tips. Factsheet 7 - 5x and 10x tables - tips. Factsheet 8 - 6x table - tips. Factsheet 9 - 7x table - tips. Factsheet 10 - 8x table - tips. Factsheet 11 - 9x table - tips.

Times tables game There are two games for practising times tables based around a 10 x 10 multiplication grid. Game 1 - in this game, learners answer multiplication questions by clicking on the correct boxes in the grid. The game has two levels.

• •

Level A - the boxes in the grid have the numbers filled in. Level B - the boxes start blank and are filled in once the questions are answered.

Game 2 - In this game, learners have to identify the sum which makes a number. For example, the question may be 'find 40', which could be answered by clicking on the boxes for 8 x 5 or 4 x 10. In both games, learners can choose which tables they want to practise, and also whether they want to be timed or not. TOP TIP! To see the game completely full screen, press the F11 key on the keyboard. This takes away the distraction of the top browser bar. To bring the browser bar back, just press F11 again! Times tables quiz The learner can choose their level. Level A is the easiest, level C the hardest. Students can print out a certificate if they score 50% or more in the quiz. This will appear as a link on the results page - click on the link and the certificate will appear in a new window. Once printed students can write their name on the certificate. Times tables worksheets There are five printable worksheets in this section, for learners to carry on the work done online.

• • • • •

Worksheet 1 - Quick grid quiz 1 - 1 to 5 times tables. Worksheet 2 - Quick grid quiz 2 - 6 to 10 times tables. Worksheet 3 - Linking quiz. Worksheet 4 - Timesaver quiz. Worksheet 5 - Fill the gaps.

Technical help:

To get the most out of this topic area you need the following 'plug-ins':

•

Flash The game in this topic section uses Flash. This is free to download and should only take a few minutes. You can follow the BBC WebWise instructions to download it to your machine. Find out more.

If you don't have Flash the same learning points are covered in the quiz and in the worksheets and factsheets. If you are new to the web, why not try the BBC WebWise online course, Becoming WebWise? It's free, you can do it in your own time from any computer and it will take you through everything you need to know to use the web successfully in your teaching. Get WebWise. You can find out more about the technical requirements for Skillswise in our Help - Technical Information section.

Taking it further:

Here are a couple of places on the web where you might find useful resources that you can adapt for teaching times tables.

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Perfect Times Features information on learning tables and an interactive game. Players can compare their scores with others from around the world. Multiplication.com A site with games, activities, techniques, tips, and secrets for teaching times tables.

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