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Republic of the Philippines Republika ng Pilipinas
Coat of arms
Motto: Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan, at Makabansa
("For God, People, Nature, and Country")
Location of Philippines (green) in ASEAN (dark grey) — [Legend]
Capital Largest city
14°35′N 121°0′E / 14.583°N 121°E
Quezon City Filipino (based on Tagalog) Official language(s) English
Recognised regional languages Optional languagesa National language Demonym Government President Vice President Senate President House Speaker
Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Pampango, Pangasinense, Tagalog, Waray Spanish and Arabic Filipino Filipino/Filipina Unitary presidential constitutional republic Benigno Aquino III (LP) Jejomar Binay (PDP-Laban) Juan Ponce Enrile (PMP) Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. (LP) Renato Corona Congress Senate House of Representatives from Spainb from United States April 27, 1565 June 12, 1898 March 24, 1934 July 4, 1946
- Supreme Court Chief Justice Legislature Upper House Lower House Independence Established Declared Self-government Recognized
Current constitution February 2, 1987 Area 299,764 km2 (72nd) 115,831 sq mi 0.61% (inland waters) Population
Land Water (%)
2010 estimate 2007 census Density
94,013,200  (12th) 88,574,614 306.6/km2 (43rd) 794.1/sq mi
GDP (PPP) Total Per capita
2010 estimate $351.370 billion (33rd) $3,737 2010 estimate $188.719 billion (46th) $2,007 45.8 (medium) 0.638 (medium) (97th) Peso (Filipino: piso) ₱ (PHP) PST (UTC+8) not observed (UTC+8) right PH .ph +63
GDP (nominal) Total Per capita
Gini (2006) HDI (2010) Currency Time zone Summer (DST) Drives on the ISO 3166 code Internet TLD Calling code
^a The 1987 Philippine constitution specifies, "Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis." ^b Philippine revolutionaries declared independence from Spain on 2 June 12, 1898, but the Spanish claim of sovereignty was passed from Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris. This led to the Philippine–American War. ^c Rankings above were taken from associated Wikipedia pages as of 3 October 2010 and may be based on data or data sources other than those appearing here.
The Philippines i/ˈfɪlɨpiːnz/ (Filipino: Pilipinas [ˌpɪlɪˈpinɐs]), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas), is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam. The Sulu Sea to the southwest lies between the country and the island of Borneo, and to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other islands of Indonesia. It is bounded on the east by the Philippine Sea. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and its tropical climate make the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons but have also endowed the country with natural resources and made it one of the richest areas of biodiversity in the world. An archipelago comprising 7,107 islands, the Philippines is categorized broadly into three main geographical divisions: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Its capital city is Manila. With an estimated population of about 94 million people, the Philippines is the world's 12th most populous country. An additional 11 million Filipinos live overseas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples who brought with them influences from Malay, Hindu, and Islamic societies. Trade introduced Chinese cultural influences which remain to this day.
2 Climate 5 Economy 6 Demographics o 6.The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 marked the beginning of an era of Spanish interest and eventual dominance. with popular "People Power" movements overthrowing a dictatorship in one instance but also underlining the institutional weaknesses of its constitutional republic in others. Since independence the Philippines has had an often tumultuous experience with democracy.2 International relations o 3.2 Communications 10 Culture and society o 10.1 Security and defense o 3. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Politics and government o 3.4 Religion 7 Education 8 Health 9 Infrastructure o 9.1 Flora and fauna o 4. As the 19th century gave way to the 20th.3 Media o 10.1 Cuisine o 10. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation.1 Ethnicity o 6.3 Language o 6. The United States bequeathed to the Philippines the English language and a stronger affinity for Western culture. there followed in quick succession the Philippine Revolution which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic. and the Philippine–American War.2 Mythology and literature o 10.4 Sports and recreation 11 See also 12 References 13 External links .3 Administrative divisions 4 Geography o 4. the Spanish-American War.2 Cities o 6. Christianity was widely adopted. the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until the end of World War II when the Philippines gained independence.1 Transportation o 9. In the aftermath. Manila became the Asian hub of the Manila–Acapulco galleon fleet. the United States emerged as the dominant power.
the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. the islands were divided among competing thalassocracies ruled by various datus. and Islam. petty plutocracies. Some of these societies were part of the Malayan empires of Srivijaya. a translation of the Spanish name. other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands. Buddhism. Landa Jocano theorizes that the ancestors of the Filipinos evolved locally.000 years ago as the oldest human remains found in the archipelago. During this time there was no unifying political state encompassing the entire Philippine Archipelago. and Brunei. There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. the rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu. American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos during his expedition in 1542 named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then Prince of Asturias. From the period of the Spanish-American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period. rajahs. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of the country's history. Instead. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the antediluvian Sundaland area around 48000 to 5000 BCE rather than by widescale migration. and maritime-centered harbor principalities.000 years ago thereby replacing the Tabon Man of Palawan. Trade between the maritime-oriented peoples and other Asian countries during the subsequent period brought influences from Hinduism. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants but their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated. During the American period the name Philippines began to appear and it has since become the country's common name. Whatever the case. Islam was brought to the Philippines . History Main article: History of the Philippines The metatarsal of Callao Man is reported to have been reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67. Among them were the kingdoms of Maynila. or sultans. Majapahit. Since independence the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. F. Namayan. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before it became commonplace. by 1000 BCE the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gathering tribes. The Austronesian Expansion Theory states that Malayo-Polynesians coming from Taiwan began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BCE. and the sultanates of Maguindanao and Sulu. displacing earlier arrivals. and Tondo. warrior societies. During the Philippine Revolution.Etymology Main article: Name of the Philippines The name Philippines is derived from that of King Philip II of Spain. carbon-dated to around 24.
From 1565 to 1821. after dealing with the local royal families in the wake of the Tondo Conspiracy and defeating the Chinese pirate warlord Limahong. Trade introduced foods such as corn. and pineapples from the Americas.by traders and proselytizers from Malaysia and Indonesia. is a general from the Rajahnate of Butuan and to the right is a princess of Tondo. efforts in mass public education mainly came to fruition during the American period. chili peppers. . In 1571. the Visayas. Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and by 1565 had reached Mindanao. Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines and claimed the islands for Spain. the Spanish established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies. By the 15th century. While a Spanish decree introduced free public schooling in 1863. potatoes. The Manila galleons linking Manila to Acapulco traveled once or twice a year between the 16th and 19th centuries. In 1521. and Luzon. Spanish rule contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the archipelago. Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. A page from the Boxer Codex. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools. Left. and hospitals. the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican War of Independence. tomatoes. a university.
1898 and the First Philippine Republic was established the following year. The influx of Spanish and Latino settlers secularized churches and opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula (peninsulares). and the Portuguese. the Spanish-American War began in Cuba and reached the Philippines.José Rizal. which sought independence from Spain through armed revolt. They found local allies like Diego and Gabriela Silang who took the opportunity to lead a revolt. the islands were ceded by Spain to the United States for US$20 million in the 1898 Treaty of Paris. lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. In 1898. Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the secret society called the Katipunan. organized by Marcelo H. and Mariano Ponce. This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain. The ideals of revolution also began to spread through the islands. on charges of rebellion. A faction of the Katipunan. and Jacinto Zamora (collectively known as Gomburza)—were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30. eventually came to challenge Bonifacio's position as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo took over. In an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years' War. and Mariano Ponce: leaders of the Propaganda Movement During its rule. José Rizal. but Spanish rule was eventually restored following the 1763 Treaty of Paris. 1896. Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three priests—Mariano Gómez. José Burgos. the Spanish fought off various indigenous revolts and several external colonial challenges from Chinese pirates. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines (criollos) and those of mixed ancestry (mestizos) became wealthy. Philippine ports were opened to world trade and shifts were occurring within Philippine society. Marcelo del Pilar. In the 19th century. As attempts at reform were meeting with resistance. Meanwhile. del Pilar. As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the First . British forces under the command of Brigadier General William Draper and Rear-Admiral Samuel Cornish briefly occupied Manila. Bonifacio and the Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. a society along the lines of the freemasons. Criollo dissatisfaction resulted in the revolt in Cavite El Viejo in 1872 that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution. the Dutch. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit. Cavite on June 12. the Magdalo of Cavite province.
Meanwhile. the tension of the Cold War. and the specter of communist rebellion and Islamic insurgency as justifications.Philippine Republic. This led to the People Power Revolution. Ramos and Secretary of National Defense Juan Ponce Enrile—resigned and barricaded themselves in Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame. It also had to come to terms with Japanese collaborators. With political pressure building. 1946. Eventually this threat was dealt with by Secretary of National Defense and later President Ramon Magsaysay but sporadic cases of communist insurgency continued to flare up long afterward. Marcos and his allies fled to Hawaii and into exile. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and established a puppet government. Jr. . Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. In 1935. The elections were widely thought of as rigged when Marcos was proclaimed the winner. He was assassinated as he was taken off the plane at the Manila International Airport (now called the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in his memory). Marcos eventually called for snap presidential elections in 1986. Many atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war such as the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre that culminated during the Battle of Manila. ignored warnings and returned from exile in the United States. Exhorted by the Cardinal Archbishop of Manila Jaime Sin. his wife Imelda Marcos at his side. Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. It ended with American control over the islands which were then administered as an insular area. Benigno's widow. In 1965. he was able to govern by decree. the Philippines faced a number of challenges. the Philippines attained its independence. On July 4. The country had to be rebuilt from the ravages of war. the Philippine–American War broke out. In the face of mass protests and military defections. disgruntled remnants of the Hukbalahap communist rebel army that had previously fought against and resisted the Japanese continued to roam the rural regions. A statue of the Virgin Mary built at the EDSA Shrine after the People Power Revolution On August 21. 1972. instigated when two long-time Marcos allies—Armed Forces of the Philippines Vice Chief-ofStaff Fidel V. he declared martial law on September 21. Corazon Aquino was recognized as president. people gathered in support of the rebel leaders and protested on Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). By the end of the war it is estimated over a million Filipinos had died. Marcos' chief rival opposition leader Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino. Nearing the end of his second term and constitutionally barred from seeking a third. Corazon Aquino. Immediately after World War II. 1983. By using political divisions. the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status. was persuaded to become the presidential candidate and standard bearer of the opposition.
a persistent communist insurgency. However. Security and defense . and Islamic separatists. The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term. with members elected to a three-year term. and the House of Representatives. and Constitution of the Philippines The Philippines is a constitutional republic with a presidential system of government. coup attempts. The President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. serving as the upper house. amid charges of corruption and a stalled impeachment process. composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices. serving as the lower house. with members elected to a six-year term. Politics and government Session Hall of the House of Representatives Main articles: Politics of the Philippines. The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate. The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court. President of the Philippines. who was elected president in 1992. the economic improvements were negated with the onset of the East Asian financial crisis in 1997. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal. Benigno "Noynoy" Aquino III was elected president. government corruption. It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao which is largely free from the national government. Ramos' successor Joseph Estrada was ousted from the presidency by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and replaced by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council. The economy improved during the administration of Fidel V. In 2001. Ramos. or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration. during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet. As a result of the May 2010 elections.The return of democracy and government reforms after the events of 1986 were hampered by national debt. The senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation. unicameral.
In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. The Philippines supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean and Vietnam wars. and the Abu Sayyaf still roam the provinces. The Philippines is currently working to end its domestic insurgency with help from the United States. New Zealand. A mutual defense treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951. the Philippines was part of the coalition that gave support to the United States in Iraq. France. Pakistan. Other more militant groups like the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. It was a member of the now dissolved SEATO. the United Kingdom. a Hamilton class cutter of the Philippine Navy Philippine defense is handled by the Armed Forces of the Philippines and is composed of three branches: the Air Force. a group that was intended to serve a role similar to NATO and that included Australia. and the United States. the Moro National Liberation Front.Main articles: Armed Forces of the Philippines and Philippine National Police BRP Gregorio del Pilar. the largest separatist organization. and the Navy (including the Marine Corps). the communist New People's Army. The Philippines has been an ally of the United States since World War II. International relations . is now engaging the government politically. The United States designated the country a major non-NATO ally. After the start of the War on Terror. Thailand. Civilian security is handled by Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG). the Army. but their presence has decreased in recent years due to successful security provided by the Philippine government.
disagreements continue to exist due to the Spratly Islands. relations with Middle Eastern countries (including Egypt. Iraq. Romulo was a former President of the United Nations General Assembly. although. Iran. As a founding and active member of the United Nations. The country is an active participant in the Human Rights Council as well as in peacekeeping missions. military bases in Subic Bay and Clark and the current Visiting Forces Agreement have flared up from time to time. an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among states in the Southeast Asian region. In addition to membership in the United Nations.. still encourage a degree of carefulness. Although historical tensions still exist on issues such as the plight of comfort women much of the animosity inspired by memories of World War II have faded. the Group of 24. Historical ties and cultural similarities also serve as a bridge in relations with Spain and Latin America. It has hosted several summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc. the Philippines has been elected several times into the Security Council. Japan. Issues involving Taiwan. Main article: Foreign relations of the Philippines The Philippines' international relations are based on trade with other nations and the well-being of the 11 million overseas Filipinos living outside the country. is thought of as a friend. United States.C. The Philippines is a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS). controversies related to the presence of the now former U. Relations with other nations are generally positive. Libya. Recent foreign policy has been mostly about economic relations with its Southeast Asian and Asia-Pacific neighbors. however. once hostile relations in the 1950s between the Philippines and the People's Republic of China have improved greatly. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western and European countries while similar economic concerns help in relations with other developing countries. With communism no longer the threat it once was.The Philippine Embassy in Washington D. the Latin Union. Despite issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting overseas Filipino workers and obstacles posed by Islamic insurgency in Mindanao. It supported the United States during the Cold War and the War on Terror and is a major non-NATO ally. . The Philippines values its relations with the United States. and the United Arab Emirates) are friendly as seen in the continuous employment of more than two million overseas Filipinos living there. Despite this history of goodwill. Carlos P. the biggest contributor of official development assistance to the country. the country is also a founding and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). particularly in East Timor. Saudi Arabia. The relations it currently enjoys with other Southeast Asian states are in contrast to its relations with them before the 1970s when it was at war with Vietnam and was heavily disputing Sabah with Malaysia. and concerns of expanding Chinese influence. It is also seeking to strengthen relations with Islamic countries by campaigning for observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). and the Non-Aligned Movement. the Spratly Islands.S.
1.496 municipalities. 80 provinces. In addition. 5446 asserts that the definition of the territorial sea around the Philippine archipelago does not affect the claim over Sabah. and 42.025 barangays. these were divided into 17 regions. Section 2 of Republic Act No. Provinces and regions of the Philippines Region Ilocos Region Cagayan Valley Central Luzon Designation Region I Region II Region III Regional center San Fernando. 138 cities.Administrative divisions Main article: Administrative divisions of the Philippines The Philippines is divided into three island groups: Luzon. Cagayan San Fernando. La Union Tuguegarao. and Mindanao. Visayas. As of March 2010. Pampanga .
South Cotabato Region XIII Butuan Cotabato City Baguio Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao ARMM Cordillera Administrative Region CAR National Capital Region NCR Manila Geography Main article: Geography of the Philippines . Albay Western Visayas Region VI Iloilo City Central Visayas Eastern Visayas Zamboanga Peninsula Northern Mindanao Region VII Cebu City Region VIII Tacloban Region IX Region X Zamboanga City Cagayan de Oro Davao Region SOCCSKSARGEN Caraga Region XI Davao City Region XII Koronadal. Oriental Mindoro Region V Legazpi.CALABARZON MIMAROPA Bicol Region Region IV-A Calamba. Laguna Region IV-B Calapan.
The Moluccas and Sulawesi are located to the southsouthwest and Palau is located to the east of the islands. latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea to the east. and the Celebes Sea to the south. Ancient Filipinos utilized terrace farming to grow crops in the steep mountainous regions of northern Philippines. Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily.549 mi) of coastline makes it the country with the 5th longest coastline in the world. The San Juanico Strait separates the islands of Samar and Leyte but it is traversed by the San Juanico Bridge.The Philippines is an archipelago of 7. the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. though most are too weak to be felt. Mount Pinatubo. Subic Bay. by the Pasig River. of approximately 300. The trench is located in the Philippine Sea. It is located between 116° 40'. The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River. There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano.107 islands with a total land area. is connected to Laguna de Bay. Its 36.000 square kilometers (120. the largest lake in the Philippines. upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake.692 feet) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao. Most of the mountainous islands are covered in tropical rainforest and volcanic in origin. and the Moro Gulf are other important bays. Manila Bay. The white sand beaches that make Boracay a popular vacation getaway are made of coral remnants. and 126° 34' E. Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire. and Taal Volcano. . the South China Sea to the west. The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the north. including inland bodies of water. It measures up to 2.289 kilometers (22.954 meters (9. longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N. The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon. The Galathea Depth in the Philippine Trench is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. the Davao Gulf. The highest mountain is Mount Apo. Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive.000 sq mi).
 Geothermal energy. There are 2. Around 1. Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora. with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power. and environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped. and sea creatures. the Visayan spotted deer. Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as 2. is another product of volcanic activity that the country has harnessed more successfully. poor management.Due to the volcanic nature of the islands. The Apo Reef is the country's largest contiguous coral reef system and the second-largest in the world. the dugong. including many rare types of orchids and rafflesia.500 plant species in the country.200 of which are unique to the islands. and zinc. . Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta). animals. It is also rich in nickel. such as the national bird. Despite this. such as pythons and cobras. It is one of the ten most biologically mega-diverse countries and is at or near the top in terms of biodiversity per unit area. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa and one of the largest copper deposits in the world. Endemic species include the tamaraw of Mindoro.400 fish species and over 500 species of coral. crabs.2 million square kilometers (850. the Philippine flying lemur. 3. chromite. one of the smallest primates. high population density. however. mineral deposits are abundant. and several species of bats. known as the Philippine eagle. The Philippines is the world's secondbiggest geothermal producer behind the United States. with the exception of snakes.100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere. Flora and fauna Main article: Wildlife of the Philippines The Philippines' rainforests and its extensive coastlines make it home to a diverse range of birds. Other native animals include the palm civet cat. the Visayan warty pig. With an estimated 13. the Philippine mouse deer.000 square miles) producing unique and diverse marine life and is an important part of the Coral Triangle. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of pearls. and the Philippine tarsier associated with Bohol. The Philippines lacks large predators. The narra is considered as the most important type of hardwood. and seaweeds. plants. and birds of prey.
the warmest is May.500 meters (4. the Amihan. and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April). There are three seasons: tag-init or tag-araw. south. Altitude usually has more of an impact. and tag-lamig. Temperatures usually range from 21°C (70°F) to 32°C (90°F) although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season.9°F).Deforestation. or west of the country. in its entirety. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of 1. the rainy season from June to November. faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the century. . the hot dry season or summer from March to May.900 feet) above sea level is 18. Forest cover declined from 70% of the country's total land area in 1900 to about 18. Main article: Climate of the Philippines The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate and is usually hot and humid. temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range.3% in 1999. is an acute problem in the Philippines." Climate Typhoon Megi (Juan) over the Philippines. placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation.3°C (64. Likewise. often the result of illegal logging. The coolest month is January. tag-ulan. Whether in the extreme north. the cool dry season from December to February. Tagaytay is a favored retreat. both a hotspot and a megadiversity country. which the Philippines is part of.88°F). "the country is one of the few nations that is. making it a popular destination during hot summers. The southwest monsoon (from May to October) is known as the Habagat.6°C (79. According to Conservation International. In considering temperature. Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia. The average yearly temperature is around 26. east. location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor.
 The unemployment rate as of July 2009 stands at around 7. which dropped over 1. most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and thunderstorms from July to October. Economy Main article: Economy of the Philippines The national economy of the Philippines is the 46th largest in the world. with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall. Major trading partners include the United States.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio City.5% of workers involved in the services sector are responsible for 56. Bagyo is the local term for a tropical cyclone in the Philippines. copper products. South Korea. Gross international reserves as of February 2010 are $45. Singapore. the Netherlands. the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Hong Kong.000 millimeters (200 inches) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1. the agricultural sector employs close to 32% but contributes to only about 13.6% and due to the global economic slowdown inflation as of September 2009 reads 0. Japan. A newly industrialized country. Taiwan.8% of GDP. the country's financial center. public debt as a percentage of GDP was . coconut oil. The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 1911 cyclone. petroleum products. and Thailand.000 millimeters (39 inches) in some of the sheltered valleys. Meanwhile the 46. with an estimated 2010 gross domestic product (nominal) of $189 billion.1 million.713 billion. In 2004.2% of GDP.Sitting astride the typhoon belt. Makati. garments. Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso (₱ or PHP). Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products. The industrial sector employs around 13. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5.7% of the workforce and accounts for 30% of GDP. Germany.168 millimetres (46. Of the country's total labor force of around 38.70%. and fruits. China. transport equipment.
Jr. The economy is heavily reliant on remittances which surpass foreign direct investment as a source of foreign currency. 56. and Singapore in terms of GDP and GDP per capita (nominal). Despite constraints.1% in 2007. The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy.27 billion. partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Other incongruities and challenges exist. Only in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization did the economy begin to recover. There have been signs of progress since. However. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government.estimated to be 74. The economy stagnated under the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos as the regime spawned economic mismanagement and political volatility. But the extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. next only to Japan. the country was for a time regarded as the second wealthiest in East Asia. as of 2010. The country suffered from slow economic growth and bouts of economic recession. the country's economy remains smaller than those of its Southeast Asian neighbors Indonesia. the economy experienced 6.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole and the daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2.2%.45% in comparison to an average of 5. service industries such as tourism and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas . The country is a net importer. In 2004.4% GDP growth and 7. its fastest pace of growth in three decades.9%. Despite enjoying sustained economic growth during the first decade of the 21st century. in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth. Malaysia. Regional development is uneven with Luzon—Metro Manila in particular—gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions. by the 1960s its economic performance started being overtaken. Yet average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1. After World War II. The Philippine Stock Exchange with the statue of Benigno Aquino. in 2008. Thailand. although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the country. Gross external debt has risen to $66. resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market.
7 . Goldman Sachs includes the country in its list of the "Next Eleven" economies. the International Monetary Fund. and Overseas Filipino Population growth of the Philippines.with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country.1 1990 62.6 1980 48. But China and India have emerged as major economic competitors. the Asian Development Bank which is headquartered in Mandaluyong City. the Colombo Plan. Population in Philippines Year Million 1971 37. The Philippines is a member of the World Bank.4 2000 77. the World Trade Organization (WTO). Demographics Main articles: Demographics of the Philippines. Filipino people. and the G-77 among other groups and institutions.
In 2007 there were an estimated 3. Some two million Filipinos work in the Middle East. Eventually Chinese.1% of Filipinos are Tagalog.6% Bisaya/Binisaya.2004 2008 Source: OECD/World Bank 83. There are also indigenous peoples like the Igorot. and South Asians. the number of people in the United States having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. It's believed that thousands of years ago Taiwanese aborigines migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan.4% Waray. 13. Japanese. 74.9 90. The population growth rate between 1995 to 2000 of 3. The population's median age is 22. the Kapampangan. As of 2011. 6% Bikol. the Mangyan. and the tribes of Palawan.1% Cebuano. such as the Aeta and the Ati. other Europeans. but remains a contentious issue. Spanish. Cities . and 25. Indonesians. 7. immigrants from the Philippines made up the second largest group after Mexico that sought family reunification. Chinese Filipinos number about two million. and the Ivatan.38 years. 7. bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing.7 years with 60. the Ibanag. These general headings can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro.95% for the 2005 to 2010 period. Negritos.21% decreased to an estimated 1. Other migrant ethnic groups who have settled in the country from elsewhere include Arabs. Britons. There are about 11 million Filipinos outside the Philippines. are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.3% are classified as other.45 years for females and 68. the Pangasinense. Their descendants are known as mestizos. with a population of over 94 million. According to the United States Census Bureau. and displacing the earlier Negrito groups of the islands. 9% Ilocano.45 years for males. the Lumad. Since the liberalization of United States immigration laws in 1965. Filipinos generally belong to several Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people.685. Ethnicity Main article: Ethnic groups of the Philippines According to the 2000 census 28. 3. Koreans.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5. the Philippines has become the world's 12th most populous nation. with nearly a million in Saudi Arabia alone.1 million.3 Population in Philippines increased from 1990 to 2008 with 28 million with 45 % growth. Life expectancy at birth is 71.567. It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon.5% Hiligaynon. and American arrivals intermarried with the various indigenous ethnic groups that had evolved. the Bajau.
8 09 774.553.4 07 633. 966 552.378. Davao City in Mindanao and Cebu City in the Visayas are other important urban centers.Main article: Cities of the Philippines Skyline of Metro Manila Metro Manila is the most populous of the twelve defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the 11th most populous in the world. Metro Manila's gross regional product is estimated as of July 2009 to be ₱468. according to PricewaterhouseCoopers. 383 499. 330 553. 542 510. 856 1. 337 798. it had a population of 11.9 of Philippines Pop. Caloocan Calooca Metro Manila n Davao Davao Region City Cebu Central Visayas City Zambo Zamboang anga a Peninsula City Antipol CALABA Ra City Region nk Name Dasmar CALABAR 11 ZON iñas Cagaya Northern 12 n de Mindanao Oro Paraña Metro 13 Manila que Metro Las 14 Piñas Manila General SOCCSKSA 15 Santos RGEN 16 Makati Metro Manila Davao City 17 Bacolod Western . In 2008. 330 529. and Rizal) of Greater Manila.679. Laguna. 714 1. comprising 13% of the national population. 2. view · talk · edit view · talk · edit Largest cities Philippines 2007 Census Ra City Region nk Name Quezon Metro 1 Manila City 2 Manila 3 Quezon City 4 5 Manila 6 7 Metro Manila Pop.363. Cavite. As of the 2007 census. Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (Bulacan. the population is around 21 million.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP. 660 532.427. 556. The figure below shows the top ten largest cities by population in the Philippines. it ranked as the 40th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in Southeast Asia. 450 1.660.
943 450. Surigaonon. such as the Philippine Independent . 171 of which are living languages while 4 no longer have any known speakers. 526 439. Kalinga. spoken mainly in Metro Manila and other urban regions. 090 Language Main article: Languages of the Philippines Native Languages (2000) Tagalog 22 million Cebuano 20 million Ilokano 7. and mandates that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family. Ivatan.3 01 613. They are part of the Borneo–Philippines group of the Malayo-Polynesian languages. The constitution designates regional languages such as Bicolano. Kinaray-a. Cebuano. and Waray-Waray as auxiliary official languages. Masbatenyo. Yakan. Filipino and English are the official languages.1 million Ethnologue lists 175 individual languages in the Philippines. Kamayo. broadcast media. Romblomanon. Kankana-ey. and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces. Itbayat. education. Zamboangueño. Cuyonon. Other languages such as Aklanon. Pangasinan. Both Filipino and English are used in government. Religion Main article: Religion in the Philippines More than 90% of the population are Christians: about 80% belong to the Roman Catholic Church while 10% belong to other Christian denominations. Hiligaynon. Maranao. Tausug. print. Ilocano. Ifugao. Filipino is a de facto version of Tagalog. Chavacano.3 43 568. Kapampangan. Tagalog. and business. Boholano.7 million Hiligaynon 7 million Waray-Waray 3. 10 Philippi Manila nes o 71 617.9 28 Visayas Muntin Metro 18 Manila lupa Davao 19 Tagum Region San Central 20 Jose del Luzon Monte 497 452. According to the 1987 Philippine Constitution. Maguindanao.RZON Metro 8 Pasig Manila Metro 9 Taguig Manila Valenz Metro uela.
 Philippine traditional religions are still practiced by many aboriginal and tribal groups. According to the Department of Education. and the Orthodox Church. Seventh-day Adventist Church. Iglesia ni Cristo. United Church of Christ in the Philippines. Taoism. Most Muslim Filipinos practice Sunni Islam according to the Shafi'i school. Jehovah's Witnesses. Between five and ten percent of the population are Muslim.5% of GDP.384 secondary schools registered for the school year 2009–2010 while the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2. the babaylan. and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises the . Literacy is about equal for males and females. and the Sulu Archipelago—an area known as Bangsamoro or the Moro region. Classes start in June and end in March. Buddhism. Palawan.4% and a functional literacy rate of 84. the flagship constituent university of the UP system Main articles: Education in the Philippines and Higher education in the Philippines The National Statistics Office reports a simple literacy rate of 93. The Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia. Republic Act No. the other being East Timor. the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. most of whom live in parts of Mindanao. secondary. and Chinese folk religion. there were 44. 607 of which are public and 1. and the manghihilot. through the albularyo. The Department of Education covers elementary. Education University of the Philippines Diliman. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March. folk religion. and shamanism remain present as undercurrents of mainstream religion.180 higher education institutions. Some have migrated into urban and rural areas in different parts of the country. are dominant in Chinese communities. and nonformal education. Spending for education is around 2. Animism. There are also followers of Judaism and Baha'i. the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers the post-secondary middle-level education training and development.1% for 2003.573 private. Several government agencies are involved with education. or DepEd. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs.Church. 9155 gives the framework of basic education in the Philippines and provides for compulsory elementary education and free high school education. often syncretized with Christianity and Islam.846 elementary schools and 10.
 Public universities are all non-sectarian entities. madrasahs were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education.700 hospitals. and 1 hospital bed per every 769 people. The University of the Philippines is the national university of the Philippines. According to official estimates. and are further classified as State University and College (SUC) or Local College and University (LCU). Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was $52. The proposed national health budget for 2010 is ₱28 billion (about $597 million) or ₱310 ($7) per person.1% of total government spending.8% of GDP. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 25% of all deaths.965 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported in 2003. 480.9% was from government. The government share of total spending on health has declined steadily.college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulates standards in higher education. External resources accounted for 2. 1. 67. of which about 40% were government-run and 60% private.000 people living with HIV/AIDS in 2005. In 2001 there were about 1.910 nurses. 43. of which 636 had developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Health Main article: Health in the Philippines The Philippine General Hospital Most of the national burden of health care is taken up by private health providers. Health expenditures represented about 6. 70% of nursing graduates go overseas to work. and with more people. there has been less to spend per person. Other estimates have as many as 12.1% of that came from private expenditures while 32.370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people. In 2004. SUCs are funded by the national government as determined by the Philippine Congress.9% of the total. In 2006. Infrastructure Transportation . Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. total expenditures on health represented 3. There are an estimated 90.220 dentists. The country is the biggest supplier of nurses.
inter-island travel via watercraft is often necessary. but it is also the result of the government's persistent underinvestment in infrastructure. Cebu. In 2003. In 2007. there were about 5. Nevertheless there are many ways to get around.55%. and the Philippine National Railways (PNR). have air-conditioned commuter ferries. In 2003. the Manila Metro Rail Transit System (MRT). and motorized tricycles are commonly available in major cities and towns. Negros Navigation. the 919-kilometer (571 mi) Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH). Consequently. Davao. The Pasig River Ferry Service has numerous stops in . the main gateway to the country As an archipelago. Train services are provided by three main railway networks that serve different areas of Metro Manila and parts of Luzon: the Manila Light Rail Transit System (LRT). and Sulpicio Lines serve Manila. jeepneys. Buses. an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established. common forms of public transport in the Philippines The transportation infrastructure in the country is relatively underdeveloped. especially in urban areas. while there are 203. Iloilo. Partly this is due to the mountainous terrain and the scattered geography of the islands.53 million registered motor vehicles with registration increasing at an average annual rate of 4. Cagayan de Oro.154 mi) of roads in the country.Main article: Transportation in the Philippines A jeepney and a bus. with links to various cities and towns. Passenger ships and other sea vessels such as those operated by Superferry. such as the Pasig River and Marikina River.025 kilometers (126.6% of GDP went to infrastructure development which was significantly lower than that of some of its neighbors. The busiest seaports are Manila. and Zamboanga. only around 20% of the total is paved. Some rivers that pass through metropolitan areas. Terminal 3 of Ninoy Aquino International Airport. only 3. taxis.
In 2007. There are 3. Makati. there are about 67.Manila. and Sun Cellular are the major cellular service providers in the country. over five million of them use their cellular phones as virtual wallets. Text messaging is a popular form of communication and has fostered a culture of quick greetings and forwarded jokes among Filipinos. and Original Pilipino Music . Other important airports include the Diosdado Macapagal International Airport. Internet in the Philippines. Its wholly owned subsidiaries Smart Communications and Piltel. along with Globe Telecom of the Ayala Group. The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company commonly known as PLDT is the leading telecommunications provider. Philippine Airlines. and around 111 more that are private.000 mi) of navigable inland waterways.5 million to a high of 24 million people. As of 2008. are the major airlines serving most domestic and international destinations. It is also the largest company in the country. Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name. Literature of the Philippines.219 kilometers (2. The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) is the main international airport. Mandaluyong.9 million cellular phone subscribers in the Philippines. the leading low-cost airline. and Cebu Pacific. Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent internet activities. Out of this growing number of avid text message senders. and Social networking in the Philippines The Philippines has a sophisticated cellular phone industry and a high concentration of users. Francisco Bangoy International Airport and Zamboanga International Airport. Culture and society Main articles: Culture of the Philippines. There are 85 public airports in the country. Pasig and Marikina. Mactan-Cebu International Airport. making it a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks. Music of the Philippines. Estimates for internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2. Communications Main articles: Communications in the Philippines. the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day. There are approximately 383 AM and 659 FM radio stations and 297 television and 873 cable television stations. BayanTel.
unique among the people of Asia. however. a Spanish name and surname does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. The Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has been lauded for preserving many of the various traditional folk dances found throughout the Philippines. mainly among the country's churches. The Moriones Festival and Sinulog Festival are a couple of the most well-known. an example of preHispanic musical tradition Philippine culture is a combination of Eastern and Western cultures. Some examples remain. The Philippines exhibits aspects found in other Asian countries with a Malay heritage. and universities. The names of many streets. came as a result of a colonial decree. and provinces are also in Spanish. are changing or gradually being forgotten due to modernization. yet its culture also displays a significant amount of Spanish and American influences. music. the Clavería edict. Bulacan where the First Philippine Republic was founded. Traditional festivities known as barrio fiestas (district festivals) to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are common. Some traditions. These community celebrations are times for feasting. One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos. for the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of the Spanish naming system on the population. Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor. Barasoain Church in Malolos. and dancing.Percussion instruments that make up the Philippine kulintang ensemble. but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II. They are famed for their iconic performances of Philippine dances such as the tinikling and singkil that both feature the use of clashing bamboo poles. However. Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the San Agustín . government buildings. This peculiarity. towns.
the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Ilocos Sur. Filipinos regularly listen to and watch contemporary American. Some common local ingredients used in cooking are calamondins. milkfish. crispy pata. The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan is seen more often in less urbanized areas. to the elaborate. sinigang. like a meal of fried salted fish and rice. Popular dishes include lechón. Mythology and literature . mangoes. This affinity is seen in Filipinos' love of fast food. milk. but local fast food chains like Goldilocks and most notably Jollibee. and the Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo. not knife and fork. Dishes range from the very simple. the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork. lumpia. and halo-halo. Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks. adobo. and ice cream. saba (a kind of short wide plantain). have emerged and compete successfully against their foreign rivals. the leading fast food chain in the country. and fish sauce.Church in Manila. However. Fast food outlets are found on many street corners. film. various fruits. the Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. and European music and film just as they enjoy Original Pilipino Music (also known as OPM) and local films. and music. Cuisine Main article: Philippine cuisine The halo-halo is a dessert made of ice. tapa. American global fast food chain stalwarts have entered the market. and other Asian influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Asian. pancit. they use western cutlery. Vigan in Ilocos Sur is also known for the many Hispanic-styled houses and buildings preserved there. possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Philippine cuisine. It has contributed to the ready acceptance and influence of American pop cultural trends. American. Philippine cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian origins to become a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic. kare-kare. coconuts. Chinese. such as the paellas and cocidos created for fiestas. Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors. Unlike many of their Asian counterparts.
Spanish. and Happy. and Alejandro Roces. In the 20th century. His depiction of the injustices of Spanish rule. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are Maria Makiling. Nick Joaquin. Television in the Philippines. Yipee. Philippine cinema has a long history and is popular domestically. Lam-Ang. Other Philippine languages. The dominant television networks ABS-CBN. Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino. Daytime television is dominated by game shows. Hindu and Spanish influence can nonetheless be detected in many cases. or English. Media Main articles: Cinema of the Philippines. Yehey. Gonzalez. Drama and fantasy shows are anticipated as are Latin telenovelas. and anime. variety shows. especially in radio due to its ability to reach remote rural locations that might otherwise not be serviced by other kinds of media. Asianovelas. and the Sarimanok.M. and talk shows such as Eat Bulaga. The entertainment industry is vibrant and feeds broadsheets and tabloids with an unending supply of details about celebrities and sensationalist scandals du jour. among those officially recognized as National Artists of the Philippines in literature are N. the diwata (fairy). José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) and El Filibusterismo (The Filibustering. Francisco Balagtas the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Filipino language. and his death by firing squad. and Deities of Philippine mythology Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. such as the aswang (vampire). but has faced increasing competition from American. also known as The Reign of Greed) and is considered a national hero. Showtime. inspired other Philippine revolutionaries to seek independence. F. Some of the most known were created in the 19th century. and Nature.Main articles: Philippine literature. Sionil Jose.V. Critically acclaimed directors and actors include Lino Brocka and Nora Aunor for films like Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag (Manila: In the Claws of Light) and Himala (Miracle). including various Visayan languages are also used. Asian and European films. In recent years it has become common to see celebrities flitting between television and movies and then moving into politics provoking concerns. GMA and TV5 also have extensive radio presence. While each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell. Many of the myths are creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures. Philippine mythology. and Philippine drama Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English. Sports and recreation Main article: Sports in the Philippines .
karate. and Gabriela Silang · Cariñosa · Carabao · Bangus · "Bayan Ko" · "Pilipinas Kong Mahal" · Juan de la Cruz · Anahaw · Mango · Sipa · Barong and Baro't saya . Flash Elorde. Marcelo H. boxing. and sipa. Eugene Torre in chess. including pusoy and tong-its. the Philippine government included Filipino martial arts into the national sports arena. being used as a form of illegal gambling. Card games are popular during festivities. billiards. and Manny Pacquiao in boxing. and tumbang preso are still played primarily as children's games among the youth. Emilio Aguinaldo. volleyball. The Ministry of Education. football. a popular toy in the Philippines. motocross. Paulino Alcántara in football (soccer). Apolinario Mabini. taekwondo. In 1972. with some. Carlos Loyzaga. patintero. Traditional Filipino games such as luksung baka. Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines. and Ramon Fernandez in basketball. chess. Efren Reyes in billiards. ten-pin bowling. and mountaineering are also becoming popular. Culture and Sports also incorporated them into the physical education curriculum for high school and college students. del Pilar. there is a basketball court. cycling. Arnis (Eskrima or Kali in some regions) is the national martial art and sport. Some Filipinos recognized for their achievements include Francisco Guilledo. The yo-yo. Mahjong is played in some Filipino communities. Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat. Southeast Asia's largest arena. v · d · eNational symbols of the Philippines Official Flag · Coat of arms · "Lupang Hinirang" · Philippine Eagle · Sampaguita · Narra · Arnis National heroes: José Rizal. In almost every corner of the cities. Melchora Aquino.A PBA basketball game at the Smart Araneta Coliseum. Robert Jaworski. piko. was introduced in its modern form by Pedro Flores with its name from the Ilokano language. badminton. Today there are said to be almost as many Filipino fighting styles as there are islands in the Philippines. Various sports and pastimes are popular in the Philippines including basketball. Juan Unofficial Luna. Sungka is a traditional native Filipino board game. Andrés Bonifacio. and Rafael Nepomuceno in bowling.
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^ a b Conde.com/?id=aaUR07G0yAcC&pg=PA145&q=.com/?id=aaUR07G0yAcC&pg=PA44&q=. (2005-05-31). ^ Lopez. Chris and Greg Bloom. 173. Lonely Planet.com/?id=zMFKs8-FDMC&pg=PA160&dq=#v=onepage&q=.ph/corporate/phen omenon.com. ^ Universal McCann. 169. ^ Zibart. . http://books. ^ Rowthorn. ^ Dumont. Archived from the original[dead link]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.google. Fernando Nakpil. Philippines (9th ed. ^ Liao. Chris and Greg Bloom. Philippines (9th ed. http://web. 160–162. 176.com/?id=aaUR07G0yAcC&pg=PA48&dq=filipino+cuisine&q=filipi no%20cuisine. Wave3.com. "Jollibee stings McDonald's in Philippines". Jollibee Inc. ISBN 9715504795. Retrieved 2008-01-09. "Baroque Churches of the Philippines". Visayan Vignettes: Ethnographic Traces of a Philippine Island.com/2005/05/30/business/worldbusiness/30ihtburger. ^ Rowthorn. (2008-05-09). ^ Internet World Stats. http://books. Author. Authentic Though not Exotic: Essays on Filipino Identity. 167. Philippines (9th ed. 44.google. Retrieved 2010-03-21. Retrieved 2009-12-10. Scientific and Cultural Organization.htm?id=63003580. 171.com/?id=jGssp-oJrT8C&printsec=frontcover&q=. (2001). Jean-Paul. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 177. Retrieved 2009-12-10. (2006). Power To The People: Social Media Tracker.org/en/list/677/multiple=1&unique_number=801. ISBN 0226169545. Cnet Asia. (2009). 178. Eve. ^ "The Jollibee Phenomenon". Lonely Planet.). pp. Retrieved 2010-01-09.unesco. 145. The Ethnic Food Lover's Companion: Understanding the Cuisines of the World. ISBN 0897323726. (2010). Retrieved January 22. http://www. http://books. Philippines: Internet Usage Stats and Marketing Report. Sally E.google. Lonely Planet. ^ Baringer. 277. Retrieved 2009-12-14.org/web/20070623034806/http://www. 175. Retrieved 2009-12-20 from www.google.com/?id=PEy9GHLokwC&pg=PA281&dq=#v=onepage&q=. p. 2006].nytimes. p. Miniwatts Marketing Group. http://books. p. 174. (2006). 168. Retrieved 2010-0112.cnet.everyculture. http://asia.google. Carlos H. ISBN 9715425143. Jerry.html?pagewanted=all.htm. Mellie Leandicho. 179. [ca.com/blogs/infochat/post. The New York Times. (2005). http://books. (March 2008).).jollibee. ^ Zialcita. Retrieved 2010-01-06. http://books. ISBN 1741042895. http://books. ISBN 1741042895. (2006). http://whc.archive. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. 48. Retrieved 201001-12.com/?id=y6vTun3i4NQC&pg=PA266&q=. Menasha Ridge Press. 281. p. 170. ^ United Nations Educational. A Handbook of Philippine Folklore. (1992).google.166. 172. 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-05. University of the Philippines Press. In Countries and Their Cultures. "The Philippines – Social Networking Capital of the World". p. (2006). Chris and Greg Bloom. ^ a b Rowthorn. ISBN 1741042895. Retrieved 2009-11-08.google. Archived from the original on 200706-23.). Retrieved 2010-01-05. "The Philippines". Advameg Inc.
184. ^ Yo-yo. SEAsite Project. Cultural Profiles Project. ^ Mga Larong Pilipino [Philippine Games]. (2009). 190. Tagalog at NIU. ^ Country profile: The Philippines. 191. ^ Viera. [ca. ^ Republic of the Philippines. Center for Southeast Asian Studies. (2010-04-24). 182. 189. AGB Mega Manila TV Ratings (April 7–11): Agua Bendita pulls away. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. The Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 2009-12-20. Retrieved 2010-04-25 from the Northern Illinois University. ^ "Billiard Congress of America: Hall of Fame Inductees". Retrieved 2010-04-24. (n. (archived from the original on 2007-11-06) 186. ^ Santiago. ^ "The Philippines' celebrity-obsessed elections". (2009). Retrieved 2009-12-20 from the Billiard Congress of America Website.Retrieved 2010-02-18 from the Senate of the Philippines Website. 185. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC). Retrieved 2009-12-19 from the Northern Illinois University. 188. Philippines: Sports and Recreation. External links Find more about Philippines on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Government . ^ Mga Kilalang Pilipino [Known Filipinos].d. ^ Republic of the Philippines. Odete Maria and Swarnalata Vemuri.) (in Filipino).com. Retrieved 2009-12-26 from the National Commission for Culture and the Arts Website. Retrieved 2010-01-15. The National Artists of the Philippines. Retrieved 2009-1220. BBC News.180. Erwin. Center for Southeast Asian Studies. 181. (Approved: 2009-12-11). (2007-04-26). Retrieved 2010-05-23 from the Philippine Entertainment Portal Website. (2009-12-08). 183. (2010). ^ Mga Larong Kinagisnan [Games One Grows Up With]. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Retrieved 2010-01-10. SEAsite Project. The Economist. 187. (2010-04-12). Hagonoy. ^ "9 named to Philippine Sports Hall of Fame". 2002]. An Act Declaring Arnis as the National Martial Art and Sport of the Philippines. Tagalog at NIU.
the general editor) Washington Post – How the Philippines Sees America Other Asian Development Bank (ADB) AER – Economic and social issues in the Philippines at Action For Economic Reforms Filipinana.net – Free digital library and a research portal Wikimedia Wikimedia Philippines Wikimedia Atlas of Philippines WikiSatellite view of Philippines at WikiMapia Philippines travel guide from Wikitravel Articles Related to the Philippines v·d·e Philippines topics History Prehistory · Spanish colonial period · Battle of Mactan · Manila Galleon · Spanish East Indies · Philippine revolts against Spain · Philippine Revolution · Philippine Declaration of Independence · First Republic · Philippine-American War · American colonial . Official website of the Official Gazette of the Philippines Official website of the House of Representatives of the Philippines Official website of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Official website of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines) Official website of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) Official website of the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics Official website of the Philippine National Police (PNP) Official website of the Department of Tourism General information Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members Philippines at UCB Libraries GovPubs WikiAnswers: Q&A about the Philippines Philippines. from Project Gutenberg (indexed under Emma Helen Blair. an external wiki Philippines at the Open Directory Project Philippine News and Current Events Books and articles History of the Philippine Islands in many volumes.
period · Tydings-McDuffie Act · Commonwealth of the Philippines · World War II · Second Republic · Third Republic · Marcos era · 1986 People Power Revolution · 2001 EDSA Revolution · EDSA III · Fifth Republic Island groups · Administrative divisions · Regions · Provinces · Cities · Municipalities · Barangays · Bays · Islands · Lakes · Mountains · Peninsulas · Rivers · Volcanoes · Environmental issues · Water supply and sanitation · Tourism · Landmarks Constitution · President (Cabinet) · Vice President · Congress (Senate · House) · Supreme Court · Military · Law enforcement · Foreign relations Political parties · Elections · Liberalism · Human rights Companies · Central Bank · Philippine peso · Stock Exchange · Transportation · Communications · Fiscal policy Demographics · Filipino people · Education · Ethnic groups · Languages · Religion · Immigration Art · Cinema · Cuisine · Dance · Literature · Music · Public holidays · Sports · Traditional beliefs · Martial arts · Olympics Name · Flag · Coat of arms · "Lupang Hinirang" · Philippine Eagle · Sampaguita · Narra · · Arnis v · d · ePolitical divisions of the Philippines Capital Manila • National Capital Region Autonomous Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao region Abra • Agusan del Norte • Agusan del Sur • Aklan • Albay • Antique • Apayao • Aurora • Basilan • Bataan • Batanes • Batangas • Benguet • Biliran • Bohol • Bukidnon • Bulacan • Cagayan • Camarines Norte • Camarines Sur • Camiguin • Capiz • Catanduanes • Cavite • Cebu • Compostela Valley • Cotabato • Davao del Norte • Davao del Sur • Davao Oriental • Dinagat Islands • Eastern Samar • Guimaras • Ifugao • Ilocos Norte • Ilocos Sur • Iloilo • Isabela • Kalinga • La Union • Laguna • Lanao del Norte • Lanao del Sur • Leyte • Maguindanao • Marinduque • Masbate • Geography Governance Politics Economy Society Culture Symbols Portal Provinces .
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and others Statistics $199.) (PPP 32nd) 7.737 (2010 est.8%) (2010 est.3%).) (PPP 125th) agriculture (13.9% (2006 est.) (nominal 46th) GDP GDP growth GDP per capita GDP by sector Inflation (CPI) Population $373.6 billion (2010 est. search Economy of the Philippines Currency Fiscal year Trade organizations Philippine peso (PHP) = 100 centavos (English) piso = 100 sentimo (Filipino) Calendar year APEC.) .123 (2010 est. ASEAN.) (nominal 122nd) $3. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.9%). services (54.6 billion (2010 est. industry (31.5% (May 2011) national – 32.6% (2010) $2. All articles containing potentially dated statements Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010 Good articles Economy of the Philippines From Wikipedia. WTO.) 4.
Singapore 8.1% (July 2011) electronics assembly. garments.) 7.7 million (Apr 2011) services (52%) agriculture (33%). Republic of China 5.7 million ODA recipient. Singapore 6.27 billion (58. industry (15%) (2010 est.7%. plastic Japan 12. textile fabrics.) $561. China 7.84 billion $33.) $54.8 (2006) 39.9%. pharmaceuticals. iron and steel.) $26. fruits Japan 12.7% of GDP) (2009 est.5%.below poverty line Gini index Labor force Labor force by occupation Unemployment Main industries Ease of Doing Business Rank Exports Export goods international – 22. 2010) Public finances $94.82 billion (2010 est. South Korea 7. petroleum products. food processing. Hong Kong 8.7%. chemicals. mineral fuels.7 billion (2010) electronic products.8%. chemicals. coconut oil. wood products. transport equipment. machinery and transport equipment.5%. (2007)  Standard & Poor's: BB+ (Domestic) Main export partners Imports Import goods Main import partners Gross external debt Public debt Revenues Expenses Economic aid Credit rating .5%.6% (2006) regional – 27% (2006) 45.416 billion (1st Quarter. United States 12%. footwear.) $55. garments. China 8. Germany 6.8%. copper products. grains.7% (2009 est.2%. petroleum refining.6%. Netherlands 9. fishing 148th External $51.8% (2009 est.4 billion (2010) semiconductors and electronic products. South Korea 4.
2 Electronics o 3.1 Automotive o 3.3 Mining and natural resources o 3.4 Outsourcing 4 Statistics 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links  Macro-economic trend . are in US dollars Contents [hide] 1 Macro-economic trend 2 Government budget 3 Private sector o 3. unless otherwise stated. BB (Foreign) BB+ (T&C Assessment) Outlook: Stable Moody's: Ba2 Outlook: Stable Fitch: BB Outlook: Stable Main data source: CIA World Fact Book All values.
143 8.51 18.513.9 1981 3.205 .883 1.158 22.789 21.026.01 3.09 51.91 3. GDP Implied in millions of PPP Year PHP:US$ PHP PHP:US$ (current prices) (current) 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 243.8 1982 3.510 1.714 5.750 6.905.60 24.044 7.48 3.875 1974 5 1984 -7.307 1976 8 1986 3.23 44.903 8.2 1983 1.417 1977 5.1 3.11 6.18 3.6 1989 6.312 1978 5.2 1988 6.892.037 7.11 4.076 18.149 1971 4.23 GDP per capita as % of US (current prices) 5.749 571.Philippine Stock Exchange in Makati A chart of selected statistics showing trends in the gross domestic product of the Philippines using data taken from the International Monetary Fund.18 7.423 1972 4.721 7.6 1987 4.6 1980 5.324 1975 6.902 9.753 1979 5.54 7.90 GDP growth at constant 1985 prices in Philippine pesos: Year GDP growth % Year GDP growth % 1970 4.677.720.88 7.074.32 47.97 2.19 55.58 6.24 GDP per capita as % of US (PPP) 10.72 3.975 14.48 3.76 4.172 23.4 1985 -7.951 3.157 6.755 22.64 45.8 2.580.55 7.346 23.619 1973 9.31 46.620 24.32 25.271.01 44.
  Electronics .8 2.13 5.7 756.153 1.945. Nissan and Honda are the most prominent automakers manufacturing cars in the country. that will serve and export cars to other countries in the region if monthly sales would reach 1.700 Department of Social Welfare and Development 34.2 % 30.5 516.300 Department of Health 33. China's Chery Automobile company is going to build their assembly plant in Laguna.46 15.411 2.578 1992 0.Year GDP growth % Year GDP growth % 1990 3.  Automotive The ABS used in Mercedes-Benz.632  Government budget The proposed national government budget for 2011 has set the following budget allocations Millions of Budget Allocation Pesos (PHP) Department of Education ₱207. BMW.037 1991 -0. Mitsubishi. and Volvo cars are made in the Philippines.309.846 1997 5. Toyota.86 16.439.148 7. Ford.970 6. the Philippines is still an economy with a large agricultural sector.700 Department of Interior and Local Government 88.7 734.300 Department of Transportation and 32. usually from foreign multinational corporations.338 1993 2.778 5.81 3.646 4.600 Department of National Defense 104.58 13.11 4. services have come to dominate the economy.698 4.082 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 4.7 831.61 5.243 7.200 Department of Agriculture 37.679 1996 5. Much of the industrial sector is based on processing and assembly operations in the manufacturing of electronics and other high-tech components.96 4. Kia and Suzuki produce small cars in the country.48  Private sector As a newly industrialized nation.577 1999 3.117 4.300 Department of Public Works and Highways 110.185 1998 -0. Toyota sells the most vehicles in the country.573 2.000 units.400 Millions of US Dollars (USD) $4.6 712.300 Communications State Universities and Colleges 23.  By 2011. however.388 1995 4.7 1.894 3.116 1994 4. Honda and Suzuki produce motorcycles in the country. Isuzu also produces SUVs in the country. A 2003 Canadian market research report predicted that further investments in this sector were expected to grow in the following years.
Intel has been in the Philippines for 28 years as a major producer of products including the Pentium 4 processor. A Texas Instruments plant in Baguio has been operating for 20 years and is the largest producer of DSP chips in the world. Texas Instruments' Baguio plant produces all the chips used in Nokia cell phones and 80% of chips used in Ericsson cell phones in the world. Until 2005, Toshiba laptops were produced in Santa Rosa, Laguna. Presently the Philippine plant's focus is in the production of hard disk drives. Printer manufacturer Lexmark has a factory in Mactan in the Cebu region.
 Mining and natural resources
Geothermal power station in Negros Oriental. The country is rich with mineral and geothermal energy resources. In 2003, it produced 1931 MW of electricity from geothermal sources (27% of total electricity production), second only to the United States, and a recent discovery of natural gas reserves in the Malampaya oil fields off the island of Palawan is already being used to generate electricity in three gas-powered plants. Philippine gold, nickel, copper and chromite deposits are among the largest in the world. Other important minerals include silver, coal, gypsum, and sulfur. Significant deposits of clay, limestone, marble, silica, and phosphate exist. About 60% of total mining production are accounted for by non-metallic minerals, which contributed substantially to the industry's steady output growth between 1993 and 1998, with the value of production growing 58%. In 1999, however, mineral production declined 16% to $793 million. Mineral exports have generally slowed since 1996. Led by copper cathodes, Philippine mineral exports amounted to $650 million in 2000, barely up from 1999 levels. Low metal prices, high production costs, lack of investment in infrastructure, and a challenge to the new mining law have contributed to the mining industry's overall decline.
The industry rebounded starting in late 2004 when the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of an important law permitting foreign ownership of Philippines mining companies. However, the DENR has yet to approve the revised Department Administrative Order (DAO) that will provide the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Financial and Technical Assistance Agreement (FTAA), the specific part of the 1994 Mining Act that allows 100% foreign ownership of Philippines mines.
Asiatown IT Park in Cebu Main article: Business process outsourcing in the Philippines According to an IBM Global Location Trends Annual Report, as of December 2010 the Philippines has overtaken India as the world leader in business support functions such as shares services and business process outsourcing. The majority of the top ten BPO firms of the United States operate in the Philippines. Total jobs in the industry grew to 100,000 and total revenues are placed at $960 million for 2005. BPO facilities are mainly in Metro Manila and Cebu City although other regional areas such as Baguio, Bacolod, Cagayan de Oro, Tacloban, Clark Freeport Zone, Dagupan, Davao City, Dumaguete, Lipa, Iloilo City and CamSur are now being promoted and developed for BPO operations.
Percentage of population in 2007 living below poverty line, by province. Provinces with darker shades have more people living below the poverty line.
Economic growth Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 % GDP % GNI 3.1 4.4 2.9 3.6 5.0 6.7 4.8 5.2 2.7 7.7 3.6 4.1 8.5 7.1 7.0 5.0
 3.1% (2009 est.1 8.purchasing power parity: $373.1 4.4% highest 10%: 31. in 2010 US dollars) GDP nominal: $199. 2010 (currency is US dollars except where otherwise indicated).composition by sector: agriculture: 14.6 % (2010) GDP per capita purchasing power parity: $3.real growth rate: 7.2 3. GDP .6 billion (2010 est.Philippines page retrieved on May 15.9 * Computed at Constant 2000 Prices ** Source: NEDA and NSCB Filipino exports in 2006 Most of the following statistics are sourced from the CIA World Factbook .9% services: 55.6 3.6 1.6 billion (2010) GDP per capita: $2.9% industry: 29.2% (2006) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.).2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 (1st Qtr) 2011 (2nd Qtr) 7.737 (2010 est.9% (2006 est.2 5.) Population below poverty line:  32.4 6.0 6.123 (2010 est.) GDP .5% (September 2010) .2 1.)  Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3% (2009 est.6 4.1 7.) GDP .
84 billion (2010 est. 55. transport equipment. fish Exports: $37.2% (april 2011) Budget: revenues: $26. corn. Republic of China 5. 47.63 (2011). food processing.production: 56.) Unemployment rate: 7.8%. machinery and transport equipment.2%. Netherlands 9.439 (2008). chemicals.partners: United States 17.exports: 0 kWh (2007) Electricity .8 (2009). eggs.51 billion (2009 est. mangoes. cassavas.5%. China 7. iron and steel. coconuts. textile fabrics. beef. Singapore 8.) Foreign Reserves: US$71. fishing Industrial production growth rate: 12.246 (2006). plastic Imports . garments.) Currency: 1 Philippine peso (₱) = 100 centavos Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar .82 billion (2010 est.products: sugarcane.) Exports .6%.57 billion kWh (2007 est.6%. grains. pharmaceuticals.4 billion kWh (2009 est. 44. United States 12%. footwear.086 (2005)  See also Action For Economic Reforms (Research and public interest organization in the Philippines) Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas Communications in the Philippines Department of Finance Department of Trade and Industry .7%.5%.imports: 0 kWh (2007) Agriculture . China 8. Hong Kong 8.89 million (2009 est. pork. South Korea 4. coconut oil. wood products.46 billion (2010 est.8% (2009 est. petroleum refining.) Electricity .2%.7% (2009 est. Labor force: 37. 46. chemicals.) Imports .) Electricity .11 (2010).39 billion (2009 est. pineapples.77 billion (30 September 2010 est.external: $59. garments.) Debt . petroleum products.) Electricity .).) Labor force by occupation: agriculture 33% industry 15% services 52% (2009 est. mineral fuels.8%.) Imports: $45.consumption: 54. $69. Singapore 6. fruits Exports . 45. Germany 6.9%.148 (2007).7%. South Korea 7. Japan 16. bananas.00 billion (July 2011) Industries: electronics assembly. copper products.commodities: semiconductors and electronic products. 51.partners: Japan 12.commodities: electronic products. rice.42.) expenditures: $33.1% (2010 est.
11. Standard & Poor's. 9. 10. World Economic Outlook Data. 13. Retrieved 2010-09-30. ^ "18. http://www. (August 27. BusinessWorld. (May 12. Ami (15 April 2011). By Country – Philippines: [selected annual data for 1980–2015]. ^ a b "April 2011 Labor Force Survey (LFS)".doingbusiness. List of companies of the Philippines Next Eleven Newly Industrialized countries Philippine Dealing Exchange Philippine peso Philippine Stock Exchange Economic history of the Philippines (1973–1986)  References 1. Retrieved 2010-05-29 from the World Economic Outlook Database.x=67&pr. (October 2010).com/ratings/sovereigns/ratingslist/en/eu/?subSectorCode=39. ^ a b c International Monetary Fund. 2010. United Nations – Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. 2.html. Retrieved May 13. Census. (2010-10-05). Retrieved 2010-0820. "Consumer Price Index September 2010".aspx?pr. Philippines. ^ a b National Statistics Office. ^ International Monetary Fund. ^ Dumlao. Retrieved May 15.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept. Retrieved 26 May 2011. http://www. (April 2010). "How Fitch.ph/data/sectordata/datacpi. ^ "Doing Business in Philippines 2010". The Guardian. 3. http://census. 2009. http://census. ^ a b c Rogers. March 24. 2010. Doris. 2011.html.standardandpoors.co.gov.1). 8. Republic of the Philippines. 2010). Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2009.ph/data/pressrelease/2011/lf1102tx. Moody's and S&P rate each country's credit rating". http://www. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. 2011). Poverty and inequality". Retrieved 2011-09-04. World Bank.org/ExploreEconomies/?economyid=153. (September 24.imf. World Economic Outlook Data. Retrieved September 27.asp (Table 18. 7.gov. "World Economic Outlook (WEO) Database April 2010 – Report for Selected Countries and Subjects – Philippines and United States". Retrieved 28 May 2011. Sedghi. Growth much higher in 2010. 23 million Filipinos living below Asia-Pacific poverty line. Retrieved 2011-01-31 from the World Economic Outlook Database.unescap. 5.y= . 12.ph. ^ a b International Monetary Fund. (April 2010). The Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://www. ^ Nepomuceno-Rodriguez. ^ "Sovereigns rating list". Simon.uk/news/datablog/2010/apr/30/credit-ratings-country-fitchmoodys-standard. 2008). 4. Daniel Anne. http://www.guardian. By Country – Philippines: [selected annual data for 1980–2015]. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an CIA World Factbook.gov. 6.org/stat/data/syb2009/index. ^ Economic and Financial Data for the Philippines.
Retrieved 2007-12-11. ^ IBM Global Business Services. The Philippine Daily Inquirer.org/web/20071208161345/http://strategis. As.&br=1&c=566%2C1 11&s=NGDP_R%2CNGDP_RPCH%2CNGDP%2CNGDPD%2CNGDP_D%2CNGDPR PC%2CNGDPPC%2CNGDPDPC%2CNGAP_NPGDP%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CP PPSH%2CPPPEX%2CNID_NGDP%2CNGSD_NGDP%2CPCPI%2CPCPIPCH%2CPC PIE%2CPCPIEPCH%2CFLIBOR6%2CLUR%2CLE%2CLP%2CGGXCNL%2CGGXC NL_NGDP%2CGGSB%2CGGSB_NPGDP%2CGGXWDN%2CGGXWDN_NGDP%2 CGGXWDG%2CGGXWDG_NGDP%2CNGDP_FY%2CBCA%2CBCA_NGDPD&grp =0&a=#sNGDP.philstar. ^ Oslowski.com/2005/ma. R. "The World Economic Outlook (WEO) Database April 2002 – Real Gross Domestic Product (annual percent change) – All countries". http://www. Retrieved September 2010. Industry Canada. ^ "The positive outlook to the Philippines". C. Dipippo. Veatch.csv. Petty.html. 2003). ^ http://www. Global Location Trends – 2010 Annual Report.gov. K. Philstar. PMID 17272236. Toksoz. ^ International Monetary Fund.9&sy=1980&ey=2015&ssm=1&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=subject&ds=. "National Income Accounts (NIA) – GNP/GDP Matrices". 21. and engineering sciences (ResLab. (December 28.html 19. J. http://reslab. (March 25. The Philippine Star.philnews. ^ Balana.5% in 3rd quarter.ph/2010/08/24/presidentaquinos-2011-budget-message. ^ National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA). Dd. Annual GDP Sizzled to its Highest Growth Rate in the Post Marcos Era at 7.1964. P. 2010). physical. Livesay. (October 2010). Bj.imf. ^ National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA). ^ Ho.com. 2010).3 Percent.ic.1 percent 23. Lawrence. Augustine. http://www. 2011-08-05. Moore. B. Rw. ^ "President Aquino's 2011 Budget Message". http://www.2006. 14.net/577/a376549. Retrieved 2007-12-11 18. (January 31.html.ph/econreports_dbs. 24. ^ "Philippines' forex reserves hit $71B USD in July".html. 17. Retrieved 2007-12-11 (from internet archive) 20. Blackwell. 2010. (April 2002). DTI says export earnings to hit $100B by '16. "Geothermal Energy Systems". GDP growth slows to 6. Richards. 22. Philosophical transactions.com.  Further reading .gov. Retrieved 2011-09-04. 1 in BPO. Garnish. "Automotive Production in the Philippines". http://www. Justin.aspx?articleId=713643&publicationSubCategoryId=200. 2011). The Philippine Daily Inquirer. R. E.neda. Retrieved 2010-08-24. It's official: Philippines bests India as No. Abigail. (November 26. Mc.gc. Negraru. 15.asp. Retrieved December 28. http://www.nsf/en/gr115011e. Republic of the Philippines. 2010). Anderson. 26.cn-c114.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2002/01/data/growth_a. Murphy. Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 2007-12-08. Nichols. ^ Tester. Q4 2010 GDP grew by 7. and Lawrence de Guzman.au/resfiles/geo/text. ^ Agcaoili. Australia) 365 (1853): 1057–94. Batchelor. 25. Drake. http://web. 16.com/Article. S. Mn. Mathematical.com.1098/rsta. Em. Cynthia D.ca/epic/site/imrri. doi:10. (December 5. philnews. Jw.archive. M (Apr 2007). Series A. Baria.
.net. State of the Philippine Islands A book written by a Spaniard during the early 19th century that studies the economic conditions of the Philippines which was then. http://www. 496. Policies.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Economics/Developmental/Regional/?vie w=usa&ci=9780195158984 Balisacan. (2002). Arsenio.  External links Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines) National Statistical Coordination Board Department of Trade and Industry Department of Finance Philippine Stock Exchange National Federation of Sugarcane Planters Department of Tourism Philippines Business Brokers Philippine Economic Zone Authority Philippines 8th Regular Foreign Investment Negative List [show]v · d · eAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) [show]v · d · eWorld Trade Organization 3.charts. Hal Hill (2007). Manila: University of Asia and the Pacific. David C. and Challenges.pdf Bhagwati.).01. (1974). Bernardo.adbi. An online book published by Filipiniana. a colony of Spain. ISBN 978-0521004084. ISBN 9780195158984.development.book. http://www. National Bureau of Economic Research. Hal Hill (2003). p. Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development. (2010).dynamic. The Philippine Advantage (3rd ed. The Dynamics of Regional Development: The Philippines in East Asia. UK: Edward Elgar. Crony Capitalism – Corruption and Development in South Korea and the Philippines. Jagdish and Anne Krueger.oup. Villegas. Kang. The Philippine Economy: Development. Cambridge University Press.org/files/2007.30. Balisacan. Cheltenham. Arsenio. New York: Oxford University Press.regional.
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