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12 How to Secure a Network

12.1 Security Threats

12.2 Viruses and Worms
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
12.3 Spyware (SW)

12.4 Trojan Horses ƒ Know the importance of computer security

ƒ Learn about computer viruses and worms
12.5 Removing Trojan Horses and Spywares ƒ Learn about antivirus and how to select good antivirus
12.6 Protecting Network with Antivirus
ƒ Acquire knowledge on firewall
12.7 Installing Norton Antivirus 2006 ƒ Install and scan computer with antivirus
ƒ Install and configure firewall on Windows XP
12.8 Installing and Configuring Firewall
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12.1 Security Threats

Most of the security problems arise inside the network from the attack of viruses and worms.
Password stealing, weak security implementation, employees looking to cause harm to their
employers or simple misuse of computer can lead to security problem.

Many of these security breeches can be solved by good policy enforcement and advising
employees to safeguard their passwords and computers.

12.2 Viruses and Worms

13 A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program

written to alter the way a computer operates, without the
permission or knowledge of the user. A true computer virus
has properties of replicating and executing itself. The
executing criteria are often met by a virus which replaces
existing executable files with a virus-infected copy. Computer
viruses do more harm than good to any computer. They
destroy data, force useful program to behave undesired way
and annoy computer users.

For example, a virus might attach itself to a program such as a spreadsheet program. Each
time the spreadsheet program runs, the virus runs too, and it has the chance to reproduce (by
attaching to other programs).

A computer worm is a self-replicating computer program. It uses a network to send copies

of itself to other systems and it may do so without any user intervention. Unlike a virus, it
does not attach itself to an existing program or remove the files from computers. Worms
always harm the network (if only by consuming bandwidth), whereas viruses always infect
or corrupt files on a targeted computer.

Both viruses and worms usually attempt to shut down networks by flooding them with
massive amount of unnecessary network traffic.

How to Secure a Network

12.3 Spyware (SW)

Figure 12-1 A spyware pop-up window

Spywares are small programs that run in the background on your PC. Spywares install itself
to your computer without your knowledge. They hide themselves from the user and perform
tasks that typically invade your privacy; they do literally spy on you. Spaywares are difficult
to find and remove them from infected computer. These spyware programs come bundled
with free downloadable programs from the Internet (such as Kazaa, Imesh and even Cuteftp).
The reason these programs are free to you is because advertising companies pay the
developer of the program to put their spywares within it.

Other "Ware"
Malware - a general term for any program that makes changes (does malicious or bad things)
without your permission.
Adware - programs designed specifically to deliver you un-requested advertising while
surfing the Internet.
Stealware - specific spyware designed to capture clicks or Web-site referral credits.
Browser hijacker - a malicious program that becomes deeply embedded in your browser's
code and core functionality.

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12.4 Trojan Horses

This is the leading causes of all break ins. Trojan horses are programs that can give a hacker
access to your computer by attaching itself to other files. Similar to viruses, Trojan Horses
are hidden within other executable files, usually inside “free” games, music files or movies,
once these files are opened the troubles starts.

Example of Trojan Horse

A simple example of a Trojan horse would be a program named "waterfalls.scr.exe" claiming
to be a free waterfall screensaver which, when run, instead begins erasing all the files on the
victim’s computer.

13 12.5 Removing Trojan Horses and Spywares

There are various Trojan Horses removal tools and scanners available in the computer market
today. Some of these scanner and removal tools are described below:

A. Trojan Remover

Trojan Remover was written to aid in the removal of Trojan Horses and Internet Worms
when standard anti-virus software has either failed to detect the problem or is unable to
effectively eliminate it.

How to Secure a Network

B. Digital Patrol


Digital Patrol is a powerful anti Trojan scanner, which detects and eliminates more than
115'000 Trojan Horses and Spywares. Digital Patrol detects viruses, Trojans, worms,
spywares, malicious ActiveX controls and Java applets.

C. The Cleaner Professional

The Cleaner Professional is a system of programs designed to keep your computer and data
safe from trojans, worms, spyware, adware and all manner of malware

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12.6 Protecting Network with Antivirus

Antivirus Software
Antivirus software is a type of application you install to protect your system from viruses,
worms and other malicious code. Most antivirus programs will monitor traffic while you surf
the Web, scan incoming email and file attachments and periodically check all local files for
the existence of any known malicious code.

Most of the anti-virus software comes with multiple virus scans, allowing you to schedule
scan in advance. Provide you access to a variety of location-specific scans and even real-time
scanning, which scan your computer every few minutes for viruses—stopping them before
they can do damage.

13 How to choose antivirus software

Easy to Use –Anti-virus software must be simple to use, regardless of a person’s computer
experience or knowledge of viruses.

Effective at Identifying Viruses and Worms – The best anti-virus products identify infected
files quickly through real-time scanning, perform search on various sources, including email,
instant message applications, web browsing and so on.

Effective at Cleaning or Isolating Infected Files –Effective anti-virus software thoroughly

cleans, deletes or quarantines infected files—keeping them from spreading throughout the
hard drive or network.

Activity Reporting – Anti-virus programs should give immediate notification of viruses

found by real-time scanners and should provide an easy-to-read report of scan results.

Feature Set – A well-rounded feature set allows anti-virus software to provide absolute
protection. The best programs are those that offer a wide variety of tools for virus scanning
and computer protection like firewall.

Ease of Installation and Setup – Anti-virus programs should be easy to install and easy to
use in just a couple clicks of the mouse.

Help Documentation – High-end anti-virus software come with plenty of help, including
support via email, online chat or over the telephone.

How to Secure a Network

Antivirus software

Kaspersky Antivirus


Kaspersky has a very clear and easy-to-use interface. The program contains three tabs-
protection, settings and support. By clicking each tab, you can see several other functions.

This antivirus is suitable for the average home user as well as advanced users. For home users,
who don't want to get too technical, there is recommended settings and an easy-to-find scan
button that will instantly start to scan your computer based on these settings. More advanced
users can go into the settings tab and completely customize what they would like the program
to do.

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12.7 Installing Norton Antivirus 2006

1. Double-click the My Computer icon after putting Norton Antivirus CD-ROM in the drive.
2. In the My Computer window, double-click the CD-ROM icon.
3. When the opening screen appears, click Install Norton AntiVirus 2006 link


4. On the Welcome screen Click Next to continue installing the software.

5. Select 'I accept the License Agreement' to continue installing and click Next.
6. On the Preinstall Checkup screen, click Start Scan to detect any components that can
hinder the software installation.

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7. On the Select the destination folder screen, select a folder to install Norton AntiVirus


8. Once the software is installed, restart the computer and reconnect to the Internet.
9. On the Software Service screen, select one of the two options
A. I have already subscribed to Norton AntiVirus. Activate my software
B. I have not subscribed to this service

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10. On the Norton AntiVirus Service Activation screen, enter the activation PIN next to My
Service PIN.


11. Once software activation process is complete, you would be prompted to Run
LiveUpdate while still being connected to the Internet to update software and virus

12. Click Finish to complete installation.

How to Secure a Network

12.8 Installing and Configuring Firewall

A firewall is a piece of software or hardware that creates a protective barrier between your
computer and potentially harmful content on the Internet. It helps to screen out hackers,
viruses, and worms that try to reach your computer. If you are a home user or small-business
user, using a firewall is the most effective and important method you can take to help protect
your computer.
Hardware firewalls
Many wireless access points and broadband routers for home networking as well as small
office networking have built-in hardware firewalls, which provide good protection for most
home and office networks.

Software firewalls
Software firewalls are a good choice for single computers, and they work well with Windows
98, Windows ME, and Windows 2000. (Windows XP has a built-in firewall, so an additional
firewall is not necessary.)

Windows XP has built in firewall features. Once you have Windows XP service pack 2
running on your computer, you don’t need to install any additional firewall software. Only
you need to enable and configure the firewall within Windows XP.

Configuring Windows XP Firewall

1. Click on Start, and then click Control Panel

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2. Locate and click on the category “Network and Internet Connections”.

3. Locate and click on Windows Firewall icon

4. The Windows Firewall will appear click General tab. Select On for firewall


Make sure the

firewall is turned
On for protection

How to Secure a Network

5. Click Exceptions tab


Select all programs and Services you would like to block/allow. You can also add other
program by clicking Add Program.. button. Similarly you can Add Port and Edit existing
programs options.

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6. Click Advanced tap


Here you can select the Network Connections for which Windows Firewall is enabled.
Other security options like Security Logging and ICMP are also available for configuration
at this point.