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4.2 Arithmetic Operators

4.2.1 Unary Operator Upon successful completion of this chapter, students will be

4.2.2 Binary Operators able to:

4.2.3 Increment and Decrement

Operator § Describe operators

4.2.4 Precedence of arithmetic

Operators § Demonstrate an understanding of arithmetic operators,

relational operators, and logical operator

4.3 Relational Operators § Use assignment operator

§ Demonstrate an understanding of operator precedence

4.4 Logical Operators

§ Describe the various forms of expression

4.5 Assignment Operator

4.7 Expressions

4.7.1 Mixed Mode Expressions and

Cast

4.7.2 Spacing and Parentheses

4.8.1 Sample Program 1

4.8.2 Sample Program 2

4.8.3 Sample Program 3

4.9 Summary

4.10 Exercises

Fundamentals to Programming

In this chapter, we will discuss the operators and expressions, and the assignment statement

in C++ programming language.

4.1 Operators

A mathematician uses more than just the variables. A mathematician can add them together,

subtract them, multiply them, and perform an almost endless list of other operations.

C++ offers the same set of basic operations. C++ programs can multiply, add, divide, and so

forth. Programs have to be able to perform these operations in order to get anything done.

C++ is very rich in built-in operators. Operator triggers some computations when applied to

4

operands in an expression. The commonly used operators are as follows:

§ Arithmetic operators

§ Relational operators

§ Logical operator

§ Assignment operator

Table 4-1 shows the commonly use operators in C++ programming language.

operators operators operator

+ > && =

- < ||

* >= !

/ <=

% ==

Table 4-1 Commonly used operators in C++

Expressions are made up of constants, variables, and operator. The following are all valid

arithmetic expressions:

beta + 4

rate – 1.5

2- price

price * discount

m * x + c

The operators allowed in an expression depend on the data types of the constants and

variables. Table 4-2 shows the arithmetics operators used in C++ programming language.

72

Operators and Expressions

+ Unary plus

- Unary minus

+ Addition

- Substraction

* Multiplication

/ Floating-point division (floating-point result)

Intreger division (no fraction part)

% Modulus (remainder from the integer division)

Table 4-2 Arithmetics operators

The first two operators are unary operator. Unary oprarators just take one operand

(argument). The remaining five are binary operators. Binary operators take two operands.

4

The + and - operator can be unary or binary. A unary operator has only one operand (in

other words, unary operators take a single argument) while a binary operator has two

operands. For example, the - operator in -5 can be considered as a unary operator to negate

number 5, whereas the - operator in 4 -5 is a binary operator for subtracting 5 from 4.

instance,

n = -12 // Assigns 'n' a negative 12

Unary operators operate on a single value. Thus sizeof operator, decrement operator and

increment operator are unary operators.

#include <iostream.h>

main()

{

int a = +10;

int b = -a;

int c = -b;

int d = -(-b);

cout<<"a = "<<a<<endl;

cout<<"b = -a = "<<b<<endl;

cout<<"c = -b = "<<c<<endl;

cout<<"d = -(-b) = "<<d<<endl;

}

Program 4-1 Program that uses unary operator

73

Fundamentals to Programming

a = 10

b = -a = -10

c = -b = 10

d = -(-b) = -10

A binary operator is one that has two arguments. If you can say var1 op var2, op must

be a binary operator. The most common binary operators are the simple operations you

performed in grade school.

4 There are five standard arithmetic operators in C++ as shown in following table. The

arithmetic operators are use to manipulate values in programs.

+ Addition 25 + 2, the result is 27

- Subtraction 25 - 2, the result is 23

* Multiplication 25 * 2, the result is 50

/ Division 25 / 2, the result is 11 for integer; 11.5 for floating point

% Modulus 25 % 2, the result is 1 (that is, 25 / 2 = 11 with

(remainder) remainder of 1)

Table 4-3 Binary arithmetic operators

When you divide two integers, the result will be an integer. In other words, any fractional

part of the result is lost. For example, the result of 25 / 2 is 11, even though is 11.5 in a

mathematical expression.

When you use modulus operator with two integers, the result is an integer with the value of

the remainder after division takes place, so the result of 25 % 2 is 1.

Here are some examples of operations involving integer variables. The expressions on the left

evaluate to the values on the right. Let say

m = 5

n = 2

Expression Result

m + n 7

m - n 3

m * n 10

m / n 2 ← Remainder is discarded

m % n 1 ← Produces remainder of division

Table 4-4 Arithmetic operation involving integer variable

When the forward slash / is applied to integer operands, any remainder with be truncated

while the modulus (%) produces the remainder of the division.

74

Operators and Expressions

The modulus operator (%), increment operator (++) and decrement operator (--) only can be

used with integers. You can not use with floating-point data.

# include <iostream.h>

main()

{

int value1 = 43, value2 = 10, sum;

int difference, product, quotient, modulus;

difference = value1 - value2;

4

product = value1 * value2;

quotient = value1 / value2;

modulus = value1 % value2;

cout<<"\nSum is "<<sum<<endl;

cout<<"Difference is "<<difference<<endl;

cout<<"Product is "<<product<<endl;

cout<<"Quotient is "<<quotient<<endl;

cout<<"Modulus is "<<modulus<<endl;

return 0;

}

Program 4-2 Program using arithmetic operators

Sum is 53

Difference is 33

Product is 430

Quotient is 4

Modulus is 3

In C++, the increment operator is ++ and means “increase by one unit.” The decrement

operator is -- and means “decrease by one unit.”

and decrement operators produce the value of the variable as a result.

There are two versions of each type of operator, often called the prefix and postfix versions

which is summarized in the table 5-3. Pre-increment means the ++ operator appears before

the variable or expression, and post-increment means the ++ operator appears after the

variable or expression.

Similarly, pre-decrement means the -- operator appears before the variable or expression,

and post-decrement means the -- operator appears after the variable or expression.

75

Fundamentals to Programming

++ Pre-increment ++m Increment m by 1, then the 6

new value of m in the

expression in which m

resides.

++ Post-increment m++ Use the current value of m in 6

the expression in which m

resides, then increment m by

1.

-- Pre-decrement --n Decrement n by 1, then use 1

the new value of n in the

expression in which n

4

resides.

-- Post-decrement n-- Use the current value of n in 1

the expression in which n

resides, then decrement n by

1.

Table 4-5 The increment and decrement operators

For pre-increment and pre-decrement, (i.e., ++a or --a), the operation is performed and the

value is produced. For post-increment and post-decrement (i.e. a++ or a--), the value is

produced, then the operation is performed.

#include <iostream.h>

main()

{

int n; // Declare varible n

n = 5; // Set n equal to 5

cout<<n<<endl; // Display n

cout<<++n<<endl; // Add 1 to n then Display n

cout<<n<<endl; // Display n

cout<<n<<endl; // Display n

cout<<n++<<endl; // Display n then add 1 to n

cout<<n<<endl; // Diaplay n

return 0;

}

Program 4-3 Program to show pre-incrementing and post-incrementing operation

76

Operators and Expressions

5

6

6

5

5

6

Unary Operators

Operator

+ - ++ --

4

Arithmetic multiply, divide, remainder (modulus) * / %

Arithmetic add and subtract + -

Lowest

Figure 4-1 Precedence of arithmetic operators

When you combine mathematical operations in a single statement, you must understand

operator precedence, or the order in which parts of a mathematical expression are evaluated.

Multiplication, division and modulus always take place prior to addition and subtraction in an

expression. For the expression

int result = 2 + 3 * 4;

The results is 14, because the multiplication (3 * 4) occurs before adding 2. You can

override normal operator precedence by putting the operation to perform in parentheses. The

expression

int result = (2 + 3) * 4;

results in 20, because the addition within the parentheses takes place first, and then that result

(5) is multiplied by 4.

77

Fundamentals to Programming

Relational operators are also known as comparison operators. A relational operator compares

two items. There are six relational operators in C++ as shown in the table below.

< Less Than 3 < 8 8 < 3

> Greater Than 4 > 2 2 > 4

== Equal to 7 == 7 3 == 9

<= Less than or equal to 5 <= 5 8 <= 6

>= Greater than on equal to 7 >= 3 1 >=2

!= Not equal to 5 != 6 3 != 3

4

Table 4-6 Relational operators

(represented by 0).

When you use any of the operators that have two symbols (==, <=, >=, or !=), you cannot

place any whitespace (blank space) between the two symbols.

78

Operators and Expressions

#include <iostream.h>

main()

{

cout<<"The results of evaluation of a relational operation"<<endl;

cout<<"true (represented by 1) or false (represented by 0)."<<endl;

cout<<endl; // An empty line

cout<<"Testing greater than"<<endl;

cout<<"100 > 10 results in "<<(100 > 10)<<endl;

cout<<"10 > 100 results in "<<(10 > 100)<<endl;

cout<<"100 > 100 results in "<<(100 > 100)<<endl;

cout<<"\nTesting less than"<<endl;

cout<<"10 < 100 results in "<<(10 < 100)<<endl;

4

cout<<"100 < 10 results in "<<(100 < 10)<<endl;

cout<<"100 < 100 results in "<<(100 < 100)<<endl;

cout<<"\nTesting greater than or equal to"<<endl;

cout<<"100 >= 10 results in "<<(100 > 10)<<endl;

cout<<"10 >= 100 results in "<<(10 > 100)<<endl;

cout<<"100 >= 100 results in "<<(100 >= 100)<<endl;

cout<<"\nTesting less than or equal to"<<endl;

cout<<"10 <= 100 results in "<<(10 < 100)<<endl;

cout<<"100 <= 10 results in "<<(100 < 10)<<endl;

cout<<"100 <= 100 results in "<<(100 <= 100)<<endl;

// Testing equal to

cout<<"\nTesting equal to"<<endl;

cout<<"100 == 100 results in "<<(100 == 100)<<endl;

cout<<"100 == 10 results in "<<(100 == 10)<<endl;

cout<<"10 == 100 results in "<<(10 == 100)<<endl;

return 0;

}

Program 4-4 Program that testing the relational operators

79

Fundamentals to Programming

true (represented by 1) or false (represented by 0).

100 > 10 results in 1

10 > 100 results in 0

100 > 100 results in 0

10 < 100 results in 1

100 < 10 results in 0

100 < 100 results in 0

4

100 >= 10 results in 1

10 >= 100 results in 0

100 >= 100 results in 1

10 <= 100 results in 1

100 <= 10 results in 0

100 <= 100 results in 1

Testing equal to

100 == 100 results in 1

100 == 10 results in 0

10 == 100 results in 0

In addition to use simple relational expressions, we can create more complex expressions by

using the logical operations AND, OR and NOT.

The three logical operators in C++ are represented by the symbols as shown in the Table 4-7

below.

Operator Description

&& AND

|| OR

! NOT

Table 4-7 Logical operators

M n m && n m || n !m

Both m and n must be Either m or n must be Produces the opposite

true true relation

0 0 0 0 1

0 1 0 1 1

1 0 0 1 0

1 1 1 1 0

Table 4-8 Logical operations on m and n

80

Operators and Expressions

#include <iostream.h>

main()

{

// Output to screen

cout<<"true = 1, false = 0"<<endl;

cout<<"\nfalse AND false results in "<<(0 && 0)<<endl;

cout<<"false AND true results in "<<(0 && 1)<<endl;

cout<<"true AND false results in "<<(1 && 0)<<endl;

cout<<"true AND true results in "<<(1 && 1)<<endl;

cout<<"\nfalse OR false results in "<<(0 || 0)<<endl;

cout<<"false OR true results in "<<(0 || 1)<<endl;

4

cout<<"true OR false results in "<<(1 || 0)<<endl;

cout<<"true OR true results in "<<(1 || 1)<<endl;

cout<<"\nNOT false results in "<<(!0)<<endl;

cout<<"NOT true results in "<<(!1)<<endl;

return 0;

}

Program 4-5 Program that testing the logical operators

true = 1, false = 0

false AND true results in 0

true AND false results in 0

true AND true results in 1

false OR true results in 1

true OR false results in 1

true OR true results in 1

NOT true results in 0

81

Fundamentals to Programming

C++ has several assignment operators. The most commonly used assignment operator is =.

The assignment operator is used to change the value of a variable. Assignment operations

using = has the general form

identifier = expression;

where identifier generally represents a variable and expression represent a value, constant, a

variable or a more complex expression. Here are some examples of assignment operations.

num_of_seat = 50;

interest_rate = 0.05;

area_of_rectangle = (width + height) * 2;

salary = basic_pay + overtime_hours * overtime_rate;

There is a shorthand notation that combines the assignment operator (=) and an arithmetic

operator so that a given variable can have its value changed by adding, subtracting,

multiplying by, or dividing by a specified values. The general form is

The expression can be another variable, a constant or more complicated arithmetic expression.

Below are examples:

count += 2; count = count + 2;

total -= discount; total = total - discount

bonus *= 2; bonus = bonus * 2;

time /= rush_factor; time = time / rush_factor

change %= 100; change = change % 100;

amount *= count1 + count2; amount = amount * (count1 + count 2)

82

Operators and Expressions

#include <iostream.h>

main()

{

// Variable declaration and initialization

float m = 0.0, n = 0.0, result = 0.0;

cout<<"Enter 2 numbers: ";

cin>>m>>n;

result = m + n;

cout<<m<<" + "<<n<<" = "<<result<<endl;

result = m;

result = result - n;

4

cout<<m<<" - "<<n<<" = "<<result<<endl;

result = n;

result = result * m;

cout<<m<<" * "<<n<<" = "<<result<<endl;

result = m;

result /= n;

cout<<m<<" / "<<n<<" = "<<result<<endl;

return 0;

}

Program 4-6 Program that testing the assignment operators

Enter 2 numbers: 5 2

5 + 2 = 7

5 - 2 = 3

5 * 2 = 10

5 / 2 = 2.5

83

Fundamentals to Programming

The hierarchy of operator precedence from highest to lowest is summarized in figure below.

Unary Operators ++ -- + -

Arithmetic multiply, divide, remainder * / %

Arithmetic add and subtract + -

Relational operators > < >= <= == !=

Logical operators && || !

Assignment =

Lowest

4

Figure 4-2 Precedence of operators

Here is a sample program testing the operator precedence from highest to lowest.

#include <iostream.h>

main()

{

int result = 0;

int a = 2, b = 3;

int m = 2, n = 3;

int p = 2, q = 3;

int x = 2, y = 3;

&& p++ + q-- * 4 < x++ * y-- + 4;

cout<<"\nResult = "<<result;

return 0;

}

Program 4-7 Program that testing the precedence of operators

Result = 0

84

Operators and Expressions

4.7 Expressions

Expressions in C++ are formed by properly combining operators, variables and constants. As

in algebra, C++ expression can be complex. Parentheses are used to force the order of

evaluation. An expression may also contain spaces for readability. Here are some examples

of C++ expressions.

gross_pay – deductions

(basic_pay + hours * rate) – (socso +epf)

(k * k - 5 * j* h) >100

(gender == 'm') && (age > 20)

(size == 'M' || size = 'L') && price <= 20

4

When variables and constants of different data types are mixed in an expression, they are

converted to the “biggest” or “longest” data type, in other words, data type that requires the

most number of byte, before it is evaluated.

#include <iostream.h>

main()

{

int a = 5, b = 2; // both a and b are type int

float c = 3.0, d;

d = c + a / b;

cout<<"Result = "<<d;

return 0;

}

Program 4-8 Program to illustrate data conversion

Result = 5

The expression a / b is evaluated to 2 since both a and b are of type int and no data

convertion takes place (the fraction part .5 is dropped. Next, since c is of type float

(require more bytes), the result is then added to the value in c (3.0). The end result 5.0 is

finally stored in d.

However if a or b is declared as type float, then a / b would evaluate to 2.5 in which case d

would have the value 5.5 as shown in following program.

85

Fundamentals to Programming

#include <iostream.h>

main()

{

int a = 5;

float b = 2, c = 3.0, d; // c and d is now declare as float

d = c + a / b;

cout<<"Result = "<<d;

return 0;

}

Program 4-9 Program to illustrate data conversion

4 Result = 5.5

The function cast may be used to force an expression to be of a specific data type. It has the

general forms

(type)expression

expression(type)

With reference to the statement d = c + a / b;, any of the following six expressions can be

used to preserve the fractional part of a / b.

c + (float)a / b;

c + float (a) / b;

c + a / (float)b;

c + a / float (b);

c + (float)a / (float)b;

c + float(a) / float(b);

You may place space in an expression or a statement to make it more readable. Use of or

additional or redundant parentheses will not cause errors or slow down the execution of an

expression. It is shows in Program 4-10 below.

#include <iostream.h>

main()

{

{

{

{

cout<<"Result = ";

cout<<((((1 + 2) + 3) + 4) + 5);

}

}

}

}

Program 4-10 Program to test the spacing and parentheses

86

Operators and Expressions

Result = 15

87

Fundamentals to Programming

Program 4-11 begins with a comment that explains what the program does. The body of the

main function includes a declaration section where the variables w, h, perimeter and

area are defined and initialized. It is follow by a sequence of executable statements. These

statements compute the perimeter and area. Finaly, it display results to screen.

4

#include <iostream.h>

main()

{

// Variable declaration and initialization

float w = 0.0, h = 0.0, perimeter = 0.0, area = 0.0;

cout<<"Enter the rectangle width: ";

cin>>w;

cout<<"Enter the rectangle height: ";

cin>>h;

perimeter = 2 * (w + h);

area = w * h;

cout<<"Perimeter = "<<perimeter<<endl;

cout<<"Area = "<<area<<endl;

return 0;

}

Program 4-11 Program to compute perimeter and area

Enter the rectangle height: 8.00

Perimeter = 24

Area = 32

88

Operators and Expressions

Program 3-10 begins with a comment that explains what the program does. The body of the

main function includes a declaration section where the variables value1 and value2, and

are defined. It is follow by a sequence of executable statements. These statement display the

comparison results of variables value1 and value2.

#include <iostream.h>

main()

{

// Variable declaration and initialization

4

float value1 = 0.0, value2 = 0.0;

cout<<"Enter first number: ";

cin>>value1;

cout<<"Enter second number: ";

cin>>value2;

cout<<"\nTrue = 1, false = 0"<<endl;

cout<<value1<<" > "<<value2<<" results in "<<(value1 > value2)<<endl;

cout<<value1<<" < "<<value2<<" results in "<<(value1 < value2)<<endl;

cout<<value1<<" >= "<<value2<<" results in "

<<(value1 >= value2)<<endl;

cout<<value1<<" <= "<<value2<<" results in "

<<(value1 <= value2)<<endl;

cout<<value1<<" == "<<value2<<" results in "

<<(value1 == value2)<<endl;

return 0;

}

Program 4-12 Program that comparing two numbers entered from keyboard

Enter second number: 9.8

True = 1, false = 0

2.3 > 9.8 results in 0

2.3 < 9.8 results in 1

2.3 >= 9.8 results in 0

2.3 <= 9.8 results in 1

2.3 == 9.8 results in 0

89

Fundamentals to Programming

Program 4-13 computes the amount earned. The program starts with the declaration and

initialization of constant variable rate, and variable total and day. Given the number of

days worked and the daily rate, the program first converts or casts the value of day (an

integer) to a floating-point number before using it in the multiplication. Finaly, it displays the

result to screen.

#include <iostream.h>

main()

{

4

// Constant & variable declaration and initialization

const float rate = 50.00;

float total = 0.00;

int day = 0;

cout<<"Enter entered number of days worked: ";

cin>>day;

total = (float) day * rate; // Converts day to floating point

cout<<"\nFor "<<day<<" days of work with the daily rate $ "<<rate;

cout<<", you have earned $ "<<total<<".";

return 0;

}

Program 4-13 Program to calculate the amount of money earned

For 10 days of work with the daily rate $ 50, you have earned $ 500.

90

Operators and Expressions

4.9 Summary

§ The commonly used operators in C++ are arithmetic operators, relational operators,

logical operators, and assignment operators.

§ There are six comparison operators: >, <, >=, <=, ==, !=.

Unary Operators

4

Arithmetic multiply, divide, remainder

Arithmetic add and subtract

Relational operators

Logical operators

constants.

make it more readable.

91

Fundamentals to Programming

4.10 Exercises

1. What is the numerical value of each of the following expressions as evaluated by the

C++ programming language?

a. 3+6*4

b. 6/3*8

c. 18 / 2 + 14 /2

d. 16 % 2

e. 17 % 2

f. 28 % 5

g. 28 % 5 * 3 + 1

4

h. 20 / (4 +1)

i. (10 + 20) / 5

j. 'B' - 'A'

a. 4>1

b. 6<= 18

c. 42 >= 42

d. 6 == 9

e. 2 + 5 == 7

f. 8 + 3 <= 10

g. 3 != 9

h. 13 != 13

i. -4 != 4

j. 2 + 5 * 3 == 21

3. Given integer variables x, y, and z with values 10, 7, and 2 respectively. Determine

the valued of each of the following arithmetic expressions.

a. x + y - 2z

b. x / z (x * x +y)

c. (x * y) % z

d. 5 * (x + y + z) – x / z

e. x*y–x*z

f. y * (x + z) * (x – y)

4. Using the values given in exercise 3, determine the values for the each af the

following expressions:

a. x++

b. x < 2 && z > 5.0

c. y >= x

d. z != 10

e. x < y || y > z

f. (z * 5) == x

92

Operators and Expressions

a. =

b. ==

c. =>

d. +=

a. =

b. ==

c. !=

d. !!

7. If you attempt to add a float, an int and a long, the result will be a(n) ____________.

a. float

4

b. int

c. long

d. error message

a. char code = 3;

b. char code = "three";

c. char code = "3";

d. char code = '3';

a = 'b';

b = 'c';

c = a;

cout<<a<<b<<c;

10. Write a complete C++ program that reads two whole numbers into two variables of

type int, and then output both the whole number part and the remainder when first

number is divided by the second. This can be done using the operators / and %.

93

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