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LEARNING TARGETS - Chapter 8 “Memory" and Chapter 9 “Human Memory” = Cognition!

Terms to know: Attention - Chunk - Clustering - Conceptual hierarchy - Connectionist models - Consolidation Decay theory - Declarative memory system - Dual-coding theory - Elaboration - Encoding - Encoding specificity principle - Episodic memory system - Explicit memory - Flashbulb memories - Forgetting curve - Implicit memory Interference theory - Levels-of-processing theory - Link method - LTM Long Term Memory - Long-term potentiation (LTP) - Method of loci - Mnemonic devices - Nondeclarative memory system - Overlearning - Parallel distributed processing models - Proactive interference - Procedural memory system - Prospective memory - Reality monitoring Recall - Recognition - Rehearsal - Relearning - Repression - Retention - Retroactive interference - Retrograde amnesia - Retrospective memory - Schema - Script - Self-referent encoding - Semantic memory system - Semantic network - Sensory memory - Serial-position effect - Short-term memory (STM) - source monitoring - source monitoring error - Storage - Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon - Transfer-appropriate processing.

AP Psychology – Duez

Acculturation - Algorithm - Alternative outcomes effect - Availability heuristic - Belief perseverance - Bilingualism Cognition - Compensatory decision models - Confirmation bias - Conjunction fallacy - Decision making - Fast mapping - Field dependence-independence - Framing - Functional fixedness - Gambler's fallacy - Heuristic - Ill-defined problems - insight - Language - Language acquisition device (LAD) - Linguistic relativity - Mean length of utterance (MLU) - Mental set - Metalinguistic awareness - Morphemes - Noncompensatory decision models - Overextension Overregularization - Phonemes - Problem solving - Problem space - Representativeness heuristic - Risky decision making - semantics - Syntax - Telegraphic speech - Theory of bounded rationality - Trial and error - Underextensions - Well-defined problems. People to know: Richard Atkinson & Richard Shiffrin, Fergus Craik & Robert Lockhart, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Marcia Johnson, Elizabeth Loftus, George Miller, Brenda Milner, Endel Tulving. Noam Chomsky - Leda Cosmides & John Tooby - Daniel Kahneman - Steven Pinker - Sue Savage-Rumbaugh - Herbert Simon - B. F. Skinner - Amos Tversky Wilhelm Wundt was interested in the internal workings of the mind, specifically that consciousness is organized and structured. This idea is echoed in modern cognitive psychology as we focus on how our knowledge is organized. However, modern cognitive psychology has developed empirical techniques to study the organization of knowledge and memory. In this set of chapters, we discuss some of the modern conceptions of memory and how we have gone about studying those processes. MEMORY. Theory - Model of Information Processing (Atkinson-Shiffrin): information enters into a sensory memory for a brief period (250 milliseconds). Information that we pay attention to is then moved to short-term memory (capacity about 7 plus or minus 2 items of info). There we elaborate on it, and it stays for only about 30 to 40 seconds. If we elaborate sufficiently, the info is then transferred to long-term memory. Each process was thought to involve some underlying neurological process, but it was not specified at the time how the brain actually created this activity. Memory involves 3 processes - encoding, storage, & retrieval. In short, these are the processes by which we get info in (encoding), hang on to it (storage), and get it back out (retrieval).

ENCODING. Information from the environment is encoded when it enters the body through the senses. The 3

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primary ways (visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding). Visual is most effective, but the most successful way is to encode in all three ways. Ex: learning the sounds and meanings of new words, or seeing pictures while a storyteller tells a tale. If we want to remember large amounts of information, our recall will be easier if we can use chunking to group information together. Remembering a 10-digit phone number is much easier if we remember the pattern 3-3-4 rather than trying to recall 10 unconnected numbers. STORAGE. Involves previously mentioned sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. STM has a limit not only on the number of items it can hold but also on duration (20 seconds or so). AKA - Working Memory. Use of rehearsal helps to increase the likelihood that those memories will be recalled. LTM is divided into explicit (knowing facts) and implicit memories (remembering how to move your body when walking). RETRIEVAL. Key to accessing information from LTM is to have an appropriate retrieval cue. Mnemonics is a memory aid that relies on reorganization of information for easy retrieval. (Song to know information for a test) Evidence suggests that retrieval is better when the context in which we are trying to retrieve something matches the context in which it was learned: encoding specificity or transfer appropriate processing. The idea is that when we learn something the context is part of the overall memory. By reinstating that context when retrieval is occurring, we are creating an optimal recall situation. ORGANIZATION. 2 biggest assumptions of long term memory are: 1. capacity is unlimited, and 2. once the information gets into long-term memory, it is there forever. Nodes/Links: Activation is the process of "thinking" about a concept. When we activate a node, that activation spreads down the links to related nodes. Recently, psychologists have divided memory into explicit and implicit memory. Explicit memory - memory for information that you are aware of. Implicit memory - memory that influences your behavior but for which you have no conscious awareness. PROBLEM SOLVING. Heuristics - shortcuts to a solution. Algorithms - approaches to problems that will definitely result in a correct solution. They are long, yet certain. In the last 30 years, the study of cognitive psychology and memory has come a long way. We have developed models of memory that help us understand why people remember things, why people forget things, and why, sometimes, we need to work to learn things. In general, it is best to keep in mind that no matter how recent your textbook is, new information is always constantly evolving about memory. LANGUAGE. Language is a complex communication system that involves the use of abstract symbols to convey unlimited messages. Human language can convey meaning about things that haven't happened yet, things that happened in the past, and things that may never happen. Because we can transcend time and space with language, we have unlimited ability to communicate ideas. Structure of Language. Multi-layered process. Phonemes: smallest unit of sound in a language. All the letters of the alphabet are phonemes. In English we produce all the unique sounds that we are able to make by combining about 40-50 unique phonemes. Other languages make due with less. Hawaiian = 30 phonemes. Morphemes: smallest unit of meaning in a language. Small words, such as cat or walk, are morphemes. If we add the letter s to cat, we now have two morphemes (cat(s)), and if we add-ing to walk, we have two morphemes (walk(ing)). Grammar: system of rules used in a language. One of those rules is semantics, which is the way we understand meaning from words by their morphemes and from their context. We know that adding an -s to the end of a word means that we are referring to more than one, or we know that words can have different meanings depending on the placement in a sentence or on the context. "I'm dying!" has a very different meaning when said by a person who is bleeding on the ground versus an adolescent preparing for her first middle school dance. Syntax: rules that refers to the way we order words to create meaning. "Your new please away shoes put" makes us confused, wheras "Please put away your new shoes" is quite clear. Learning Language. Behaviorists believe being "exposed" to things in the environment, reinforcement, and repetition is correct. Nativists, however argue that we are "hardwired" to learn language & that humans are unique in that respect. Both sides have supporters, evidence isn't clear which is correct. ACQUISITION. Noam Chomsky, a linquist, believed that language is learned by exposure to language, but the ability to speak is hardwired. He believed there is a critical period of language acquisition, and if we do not learn language during that time, we will not learn language well. There is overwhelming evidence to support this theory. Age --> Milestone Birth to 2 months --> Cooing 2 months to 12 months --> Babbling Approx. 12 months --> First word (typically matching a simple sound: "da") Approx. 16 months --> 2-word utterances 2-6 years --> Add 6-10 new words a day; learn grammar. Overextension ("doggie" for ever 4legged animal) Age 5 --> Over-regularization: "I goed to the store." From Age 5 on --> Add words to vocabulary; learn subtleties of language. Other languages show the same pattern of acquisition (not just English). LANGUAGE & THOUGHT. Do our words shape the way we think, or do we have ideas first and then look for ways to articulate them? Linguist Benjamin Whorf believed it was the former; linguistic determinism: our words shape & restrict our thinking. LINGUISTIC UNIVERSALS. Arbitrariness: words are not inherently imbued with meaning. They are selected and stand for objects in the world in an arbitrary manner. Dog in English is chien in French. Displacement: language allows us to talk about events that have already happened, events that will happen, and events that may not happen at all. No other form of communication allows for this. Vocal-Auditory Channel: All languages in all cultures rely on

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this as the primary form of communication using language.

FOUR STRATEGIES TO PROBLEM SOLVING ALGORITHMS (step-by-step approach) Some algorithms involve simple trial and error. If X is a possible solution to a problem, the algorithm for a solution might be stated "Try X; if X works, then X = solution; if X doesn't work, then try next X." Clearly, this could go on as many times as there is another possible X. Algorithms guarantee a solution but can be very time consuming. HEURISTICS (a procedure that has worked in the past and is seen as likely to work in the future.) Heuristics are "rules of thumb" based on past experiences. If the light in your room goes out, you could check the fuse box, change the light bulb, check the wires in the wall or lamp, check the socket, and so on. Because experience suggests that the probability of the light bulb burning out is higher than the other choices, you try that first. Heuristics take less time than algorithms, but they may not result in a solution. MEANS-END ANALYSIS (keeps in mind the final goal when setting subgoals.) In planning your study for finals, you might start with math but will set a time limit because you have exams in three other subjects. Will you need to spend the same amount of time on each? What exactly do you need to focus on? WORKING BACKWARD (start with the goal state and work backward until you reach the present state.) When a company wants to know how its competitor's product works, it will "reverse engineer" that product. This means beginning with the product and analyzing its construction to see what each part does. The company can then begin with its own parts and reconstruct a similar product.

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If you learn only 6 things from this chapter for the AP Test... 1. Cognition is the study of mental processes. 2. STM seems to be limited to 7+ - 2 items at any given time. 3. The differences between encoding, storage, and retrieval are important. 4. Models of LTM deal with how we organize information that we need to know. 5. Problem solving involves applying what we know in an organized way to issues that we face. 6. Language is a complex system of communication that allows us to use complex symbols to talk about things in the past or future, not just the present. 20 Questions to know: 1. When studying memory, we are often concerned with the process of getting information into the system. The process of getting information into short-term memory is called ______. 2. According to memory research, the most important factor in memory performance is _____. 3. The capacity of short-term memory is ____. 4. The stage that information first enters when it comes into the information processing system is called ____. 5. A student closes his eyes and listens to his teacher read a poem. He is struck by the rhythm of each line and the clever way the poet uses rhyme. This student is primarily using what kind of memory? 6. An example of explicit memory would be ____. 7. Ernie has to be able to list all the presidents of the US in chronological order for a history quiz. Using what he learned in AP Psychology, he broke the presidents down into groups of four, so that instead of remembering 44 names, he learned 11 groups. This method of grouping items together to make them easier to remember is called _____. 8. We recall information better when we try to remember it in the same situation as when we learned it. This concept is called ____. 9. Suppose you want to remember all the states. You decide that you are going to make up a song to help you. When you do this, you are using what psychologists call a(n) _____. 10. What evidence suggests that memory is organized the way that it is? 11. Mnemonics help us to remember things more efficiently because they ____. 12. Dina is frustrated because her teacher just called on her and she couldn't think of the answer. She isn't frustrated because she didn't know the answer, but because she had been studying for several days and had practiced that answer several times -- it just wouldn't come to her mind in class. This is most likely an error in what memory system? 13. An example of a task that might lead to poor memory would be ___. 14. Short-term memory has a capacity that is ____. 15. Which level is considered to represent the smallest unit of sound in language? 16. "Curious blue ideas sleep furiously" is a famous statement by a linguist to argue that sentences can be proper but still make no sense. At what level is this sentence ambiguous? 17. The final stage of the information processing model is ____. 18. Someone is currently paying attention to something. In what stage of information processing is this person? 19. The idea that information is better recalled when the encoding context matches the retrieval context is called the _____. 20. The difference between the cognitive and behavioral perspective on language acquisition is ____.

Thinking & Problem-Solving Concept Chart TERM DEFTINITION Algorithm Heuristic Prototype Insight Confirmation Bias Fixation Functional Fixedness Mental Set Representativeness Heuristic Availability Heuristic Overconfidence Framing Belief Bias

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Belief Perseverance Artificial Intelligence

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