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THE STORY OF SUGAR


SLINLIGHT makes sugar in all green leavesDthe green colouring matter called chlorophyl, causes the energy from the sun to fix carbon from the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere on to water to form sugar. The oxygen is released for us to breathe, and the plants provide us and the animals with the food we need. This procoss therefore is the basis of all life.

in the form of honey was eaten by primitive man, the'sugar familiar to us only
Sugar
coming with the advance of civilisation.

Today sugar is refined and produced in a


range of pure, crystal white sugars and golden syrup, not only good in taste, but high in energy content.

Runners, Climbers, Channel Swimmers and those engaged in energetic occupations or pastimes take just that amount more sugar in one form or other, because it gives thgm that reserve of vital energy which they need.

all

This book tells briefly the story of sugar-the history, geography, botany and chemistry of it,

and how the inventive genius of man

has

canalised nature's food from the sun to bring to the homes of millions.

it

HISTORY
the use of sugar as we kn6w it, but it is possible that man first acquired his sweet tooth through the acquaintance of honey. Less still is known of the beginning of sugar cane. although there is little doubt that it grew in the islands of
the Pacific.

f l-of

TTTLE is known of the origin

a.p. 1300 that the Egyptians had introduced into China a process of refining by means of ashes, and
wrote about the sugar mills there as one of the wonders of China. It was undoubtedly due to the

Marco Polo, the great traveller and adventurer, recorded in about

flnes

was the conquering armies of Alexander the Great in about 3@ B.C.,who flrst brought to the west news of the growing of sugar cane in India and China. Sugar cane, with its sweet juice, soon travelled far beyond the conreached Persia, Arabia and Egypt.

It

influence

Venice eventually became the centre

of Marco Polo

that

of

countries became envious position.

Venetians grew

sugar refning,

but while the rich, so other


of their

Spain and Portugal decided to


enter the Eastern Trade, and deter-

of India and

China. It

capture the Holy City of Jerusalem,


ledge of the many wise things which

The Crusaders may have failed to

but they did bring back with them to the European peoples, a knowthey had seen and learnt about in
the sugar cane, and soon a flourishing trade was built between East and West. In those days, however, the cost was enormously high, and sugar was a luxury only enjoyed by

sail West. Although he failed to reach India, he did discover, in

mined to fnd a shorter and quicker route to India. Columbus thought the quickest way to the East w'as to
1492, a new

the East. Among these was

-and there were made,

land-the West Indies the first settlements

found that these new lands were suitable for the growth of sugar cane. Vast plantations were set
JUrCeS.

The industrious Spaniards soon

sugar

Kings and the very rich. In 1264 the King of England had

up, and slave labour was imported to.sow and reap, and to extract the

there is a record of the importation of cargoes of sugar into London at

in his household; in

1319

as early as A.D. 74, when Pliny described sugar from the cane as "white and brittle", and it is known that about e.p. 600 the boiling of
cane

pound, equivalent to about f,10 today. There is evidence that a form of sugar refining was being carried out

price

of ls. 9*d. a

now one ofthe largest cane growing areas in the Commonwealth,

In 1655 Jamaica was conquered by an Expeditionary Force, and became a British Possession. It is
The secret refining spread despite all the Venetians' efforts to
record
I

of

keep

it to themselves. The first


of refining in England is

it was a costly business to set up a refinery, and many of the


544, but

juice to form sugar crystals was becoming a common practice.

more adventurous went bankrupt, Nevertheless, as the demand for sugar increased, so did the number

England, and in the following 100 years the number increased to 120

small family aflairs. In -mostly recorded that they refined 1750 it is 30,000 toos of sugar a year, an
average weekly melt, as of 5 tons each.

it is called,

Sugar is also obtained from the

sugar beet, and the development

this side of the industry in Europe was largely brought about by the

of

Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon is credited with having ordered the CANE CUTTER

of refineries, while cargoes of raw


sugar from the West Indies and

other producing countries were becoming a feature of the great ports of England. From 1544 to 1644 fifty refineries were built in

tries there has to be some measure of Government assistance.

growing of sugar beet on a large scale to combat the effective blockade of Europe by the Royal Navy. Althoueh about one-third of the world sugar production is obtained from beet, the cost of extraction is higher than that ofcane sugar. In most beet sugar producing coun-

CHEMISTRY
food for their own use. Sugar is formed in the leaves of these plants by a chemical action, brought about by the chlorophyl, the green colouring matter, which, when in the presence of sunlight,
causes carbon from the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to com-

SUGAR is a substance produced Din all green leaved plants as a

chemical action in the world, providing not only plants, and as a

natural corollary, animals with their food, but also the oxygen from the

carbon dioxide which is

into the atmosphere for us

released

breathe. The energy in coal and

to

bine with water

The chlorophyl remains unchanged

to form

oil was stored up in the dim past bY this great basic reaction-the fixation of atmospheric carbon.

sugar.

-it is simply the magician catalyst.


thesis

of

There are, of course, many different types ofsugar, each having

of the photosynof carbon and water is the most important and widespread
This process

a different chemical forrnula, but they all belong to a group of


compounds called "carbohydrates" because they are formed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

The type of sugar that we use at home, and is by far the most im-

portant,

is Crg Hp O11-i.e. 12 parts of carbon (C) to ll parts of water


(HoO;. Sucrose

simple chemical formula for sucrose

is called "sucrose". A

trees, notablj the sugar maple, and rnany palm trees.

tent of sucrose is the sugar cane,

The plant with the highest con-

and the second highest is the sugar

beet-the two main sources of'


world sugar supplies. When fully refined there is no
difference whatsoever between cane sugar and beet sugar.

roots and stems

such roots as parsnip, carrot,

turnip and beet, and in the sap of many

is to be found in the of all grasses, in

GEOGRAPHY
temperate areas.

SUGAR cane grows in tropical trclimates, and beet grows in The United I(ngdom
re,ceives

most of her supplies of raw cane

sugar from the Commonwealth


producing countries

the U.S.A., India, Mexico, Argentina, Formosa and China. The sugar beet is cultivated in Canada, the U.S.A., andthroughout
Europe.

Other cane growing countries are

- The West Indies, Australia, Mauritius, South


remainder comes from non-Commonwealth countries such as Cuba, and Peru.

The major European producers

Africa, Fiji and East Africa. The

the Dominican Republic, Brazll grown in the Eastern counties of


England, and in parts of Scotland.

are Russia, West Germany, France, Poland, Italy, Czechoslavakia, East Germany and the United Kingdom. In the U.K. sugar beet is mostly

BOTANY
looks rather like bamboo. Depending upon the variety and the country in which it is planted, it reaches heights of between 8 and 20 feet, the stem varying in thickness, frop half an inch to two

SUGAR Cane is a giant grass, \rwhich

is a tube of hard rind filled with a


sugar.

softer fibre which contains the

As the cane ripens a feathery plume of grey flowers, from 2 to 4 feet long, grows from the top of
the stalk. This is called the tassel, which acts as a barometer as far as the planter is concerned, telling him when the sugiu is approaching

inches. The leaves, which

often 5 feet long, have a minimum width of 2 inches. The stem itself

are

maturity.

***

has been derived from a wild plant called Beta Maritima, which can

The Sugar Beet resembles the parsnip in shape and colour. It

found in the south-western parts of England. The strain has been improved by plant-breeders until it can now contain up to 20 per cent of sugar in its long tapering root.

still be found growing on the shores of the Mediterranean, and may be

CULTIVATION AND
EXT RACT IO N
young shoots appear, and 15

fN the West Indies a few weeks rafter planted


the cane is
to
for harvesting.

the
18

process can go on indefinitely, but the yield of sugar per acre gradually

months later, when it is between 12 and 18 feet high, cane is ready

diminishes, and it pays afresh after 3 or 4 years.

to

start

January and May, with natural rainfall, but with good irrigation it can go on up to August. The cane is cut by hand with a
remain in the ground after cutting are left to grow fresh canes, called ratoons, the following year. This
machete and must go for processing within 24 hours. The roots which

The harvesting season is between

per acre is 3 to 8 tons of sugar,

of

The cut cane has a sugar content 14 to 17 per cent. and the yield
system

depending upon the nature of the

land, and the irrigation

employed. Occasionally as much

crushed and squeezed in giant roller mills to extract the juice. The remaining pulp mass of flbres
is known as bagasse, and is gener-

as 12 tons per acre may be obtained. factory cane is

At the

'

the

ally used as boiler fuel. After


chemical treatment to remove some of the impurities, the cane juice is

concentrated by evaporation to form sugar crystals, which continue to grow until the material is like a porridge. The sugar crystals are sticky and brown in colour, which is shipped to England to be refined. ifrG*

then separated from the juice in machines, to emerge as raw !ilgar,

CANE WORKER

lings are large enough they

OUGAR beet is sown in the Dspring. As soon as the seedare

thinned out, leaving about 9 inches

,months. Harvesting usually beg_ins

are left to grow during the surrlmer October.

to keep down-the weeds, the planti

between the

plants. After hoeing

machine, which also lifts the roots transport to the factory.

in late September or early The foliage is removed by a


As sunlight plays an
essential

from the soil and loads them for


part in the formation of sugar, it is obvious that the plants growing in

tropical climates have a great advantage oyer the beet which

grows only in lesser sunlit countries.

The highest yield of beet sugar is 2 tons per acre, as compared with 3 to 8 tons per acre for cane sugar. growing beet, the process of extraclion is also more complicated. rlhey

BEET HARVESTING

Apart from the higher cost of


have to be washed and sprayed

acres

35,0C[)

pnd other adhering

until reasonably cleaned of

earth

which is extracted from the beets in

other conditions, this producesr over 750,000 tons of sugar, all of


Corporation.

plants going to the acre. Depending upon the weather and

of

beets, some 26,000 to.

[an elaborate souking-out with water) and go through various other processes of further purif,cation
pleted.

impurities. ifhe beets are then sliced, diffused

factories

of the British

Sugar

before extraction

is finally

com-

also refine most of this sugar in a process continuous to that of extraction, while the remainder, abouti

The British Sugar Corporation

farmers grow more than 400,000

In the United Kingdom,

280,000 tons,
Reflneries
be refined.

35,000

of other

is

transported to
companies to

DISCHARGE OF

RAW
fTP until vshipped
packed

SUGAR
running in the holds of specially . designed ocean-going vessels.

periments were started

in jute

1949 all raw sugar was the costs of raw sugar imports by to the United Kingdom means of bulk shipments, i.e. free

bags. Then

to reduce

ex-

'

'of ships averaging 6,000 tons, the icargo carrying capacitY. These ralone bring in over 460,000 tons of raw sugar a yeat to U.K. Ports.
Altogether, over 80 Per cent. of all our raw sugar imPorts, totalling ,over 2 million tons, now arrives in bulk. At one London refinery a sPecial deep-water berth has been construCted to receive shiPs of uP to
8.000 tons capacity. Large cranes,

successful that two fleets of these vessles are now in oPeration, one

These experiments Proved

so

barges, which are loaded at other river or dock berths.

of shipping is carefully plar:n:d-to

Although a comPlete Programme

other of ships averaging 9,5@ tons

ensure iegular supplies of sugar for

the home and exPort markets, it is essential that each reflnery is able to store sufficient sugar to keeP it

working until the next shiPment


arrives.

A storage silo has been built at Liverpoollo hold 100,000 tons of raw iugar, enough to suPPlY the nearby- refinery for six weeks.
fhis silo is among the largest of its type yet built. Sugar, grabbed
from the ships, is conveYed over a -weighed and samPled road and is

mounted on the jetty, grab the 'sugar from the holds of the shiPs an-d pass it on to a comPlicated system of conveyors which carry it into the refinery. At another London refinery, where facilities are not yet available

before entering the silo through the

rocf. from which it cascades to the flooi at a rate ol many hundreds of


tons an
sugar is gathered from beneath the

hour,

When required, the

for ships to berth, sugar is-discharged in the same wa-Y from

floor and loaded into trucks for


transport to the reflnerY.

lilll

illrl
rrri

1:i,':"'

,ii,lii,:i;;r

,'l

llli'iirilrltt,"r'

rflJifljlrrilir

THE 8,too TONS M.Y. "SUGAR CARRIER"


6

REFINING AND DISTRIBUTION


sugar is separated from the impurities in the raw sugar. It is a long, complicated, and skilful operation, but when completed, the white sugar is 99.9 per cent. pure-in fact the purest food
we eat.

EFINING; as the word implies, is a process by which the pure

applied to sugar refining in 1867,r revolutionised the industry, for itl enabled refiners to produce sugari in large quantities. As the speed of the machine in-

Methods of refining have been known for several centuries. For-

wann syrup is thrown outwards through the fine mesh, while the hard crystals, being too large, are

creases, so, by centrifugal forcc, the

which coagulated when the liquid was boiled. The impurities were entaagled in this coagulate and rose to the surface as scum, which was carefully removed. The liquid was
then filtered through woollen cloths water.
I

adding to the resulting liquid, either bullocks blood or eggs,

merly it was done by simply melting the sugar in large open pans and

The sugar, having now had a high proportion of the impurities remoYed, is dropped into a mixing receiver containing water, in which it is melted and then partially take away larger impurities, like of cane flbre, etc., before passing into storage tanks for the next process-Carbonatation and
pieces Filtration.
The raw sugar is now in the form strained through a coarse screen to

retained inside the basket. As the syrup leaves, a spray of water is directed upon the sugar, washing still more of the impurities througb the mesh. The sugar is spun for about 6 minutes.

and boiled again to evaporate the

word meaning refining. The obiject of affination is to remove the ,f,lm of symp which clings to the surface of the raw sugar crystals, leaving behind
crystals.

today, is called affination-a French

The first process in reflning

only the

hard

Ths raw sugar is first mingled with a wafln raw syrup to soften
These are essentially cylindrical baskets of fine mesh gauge, about
this syrup fllm, and the mixture is then run into centrifugal machines.

4 feet in diameter and 3 feet deep. Each basket is suspended on a central steel spindle, which, in the most modern machines, is capable ofrevolving at 1500 revolutions per

minute. This machine was invented by Henry Bessemer, of sfeel fame, in 1852, and when practically

CRYSTALLISATION

of raw liquor, a brown solution, in which impurities still remain. Some of these are insoluble, floating in . the liquor, and others are in the form of soluble salts mostly picked up from the soil or fertilisers. The raw melted liquor is treated with milk of lime, and carbon dioxide is bubbled though until all the lime is precipitated as chalk. This entangles most of the gummy impurities, which are removed with

the remaining chalk in pressure filters, the liquor emerging as a


sparkling bright amber liquid. The next task is to remove the colour. This is done in what

PACKETING SUGAR crystal down

reflners call the Char House, in which there are tanks or cisterns from 6 to 10 feet in diameter and 20 feet high, each containing uP to 40 tons of charcoal. The amber liquor is passed into the top ofthese cisterns and slowly

to the finest

crystal

-Caster. there are sufficient crystals When

trickles through, the colour and

of the correct size the boiled sugar is run offfrom the pan. In modern vacuum pans liquor can be crystallised into granulated
sugar at a rate ofbetween 50 and 60 tons an hour. the type of sugar required.

other impurities being absorbed by the tiny granules of the sPeciallY prepared bone charcoal. The liquor comes out Pure and crystal
c1ear.

The next operation depends on

refined and is readY to be crystallised.

The liquor has now

become

Tate & Lyle produce, apart from granulated sugar, a wide variety of speciality sugars. These include
finest granulated, caster, cube sugar,

Crystallisation takes Place in vacuum pans. These are large enclosed vessels in which the sugar is boiled under the skilled suPervision of a pansman. To avoid the hoat causing destruction and dis-

icing, coffee crystals, industrial

,carried out as rapidly as possible at low temperatures under vacuum. Sugarboiling is a highlY skillgd trade and it is the Pansman who, bY his technique, controls the Pan to oroduce the size of crystal required,

coloration

of

sugar, boiling

is

In the production of granulated, finest granulated and caster sugars, the boiled sugar from the vacuum pans is again fed into centrifugal machines and the adhering syrup
again
again

sugars and golden syrup and dark syrups.

is spun off. The syrup spun off tbis first boiling may be boiled

ianging from the large

ing after that is boilod again to


produce the moist yellow or brown

sugar crystals. The syrup remain-,

to

to

produce a second and produce a third crop of,

coffee

about I por cent. of water in the refined white sugar, and this is
removed

characteristic flavour of their own, and are largeiy used by confectionery and biscuit manufacturers. After spinning there still remains

synrp

sugars called "pieces" in which the left. "Pieces" have a

is

the Fairrie cube after the original firm which made it. These cubes

Another type of pressed cubo is manufactured at Liverpool, called

they are sold throughout Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and other areas in West Africa.

tating drums into which warm filtered air is drawn. Cube sugar is made in two ways. In the first way, boiled sugar is run straight from the vacuum pans into small compartments of a segmented
then assembled, cooled and spun in a centrifugal machine. The small slabs of sugar formed in the

in

granulators, large ro-

preferasmalersizeofcube. They hygienic presentation

are popular with consumers who

are also wrapped

in

mould. The mould

segments are

tons of sugar a week, of which approximately two-thirds is sold for home consumption, and the remainder is for sale on the highlY
competitive export market.

caterers and airline companies. Tate & Lyle refine about 40,000

by

pairs for
many

mould are then dried and cut into regular s2ed cubes. This is called

the "Crystal Cube" process. In the second method, boiled sugar


from the pans is passed flrst into centrifugal machines and then pressed into cube or other shape

I cwt. paper sacks, and 2-cwt. jute bags, andis also soldinbulk. The export trade is mainly in hessian
Packaging of sugar is highly mechanised. One machine makes its own bags, fills and seals them, all at a rate of 200 packets Per
bags.

For the home trade sugar is filled into 1-1b. and 2-lb. packets,

desired. These are called


sugar cubes.

before being dried and cut


Pressed sugar cubes are made

pressed

if

large quantities for export to West

in

Africa.

Packed in special cartons,

minute. At no time, from the pan boiling to the final bag, is the sugar touched by hand.
(Continued on poge

PRESSED CUBES

l\

CANE

'I.z

SUGAR p,1w

BEET 5UGAR

-Y/WARMRAwSYRUP
THE PROCESS
RAW
SYRUP

OF
SUGAR REF'N'NG

WATER

MELTER AND
STRAINER

MILK OF LIME

LARGE
IMPURITIES

CARBONATATION TANKS PRESSURE FILTERS

CARBON DIOXIDE

CHALK

PLUS

IMPURITIES

VACUUM

CHAR
CISTERNS

VACUUM
PANS

THE CUBE PROCESS


PURE CLEAR LIQUOR

wH11E

SUGAR CENTRIFUGAL MACHINES

':,\;

SYRUP

TO

BE

CUBE
PROCESSES

SYRUP
PROCESS

GMNULATED C'
FINEST

rl-l*

GRANULATED

COFFEE CRYSTALS

CUSE PRODUCTS

il

WEIGHING, PACKING AND DISTRIBUTION


11

(Continued from paCe 9)

refined sryup, not to be confused with treacle or molasses. It is a mixhre of different sugars and

Lyle's Golden Syrup is a specially

pearanc to petrol

what are known as non-sugars. Great care goes into its preparation, which is still a closely guarded
secret.

black cans in which Lyle's Golden Syrup is sold, are all made, printed machines at the Plaistow Wharf Refinery in London. About one

The famous green, gold,

and

and filled on modern automatic

carry refiued sugar in bulk, 15 tons at a time, mostly to manufacturers, who have installed special plaut at their factories for conveying the sugar from the tanker straight into the process of sweet making, biscuit manufacture, or similar industries. Every day there is a sugar tanker service to Wandsworth in London, and every night to Keynsham, near Bristol, where Packing Stations
consumers in those areas.

tankers.

These

have been established

for

sugar

million cans are made each week.

The task of distributing sugar and syrup to the public to ensure that they reach your home speedily and in tip-top oondition is the responsibility of Pease Transport Ltd., an associate company of Tate & Lyle. the road day and night delivering to

Apart from the packing stations, there is a chain of delivery depots in the country. Sugar and sYruP from the Refineries are delivered to these depots and from the dePots

A fleet of over 400 lorries is on

out to the retailer. There are 100,000 erocors to be supplied in


addition to manufacturers. But that is only one side of the

10,000 towns and villages in the country, each of these places being visited at least twice a week.

the delivery fleet are the sugar tankers, which aro similar in ap-

Among the specialised vehicles in

picture. There are also the refined products for export to bo shipped. These total nearly 600,000 tons a
year, and go to markets throughout

the world.

lj

BULK SUGAR TANKER

TJSEFT]t

Ii\F'ORMATIOI\
WEIGETS AND MEASARES
CONSTANTS

LOGANITHMS

ANTILOGARITHMS

NATURAL SINES
NATURAL COSINES NATURAL TANGENTS
LogarithmicTables by cwlcsy of Str lssac Pltmm ud Sons Lttl. Conttantt. Noturol Sirtet. Cosines atdTengents b, c.,otes! efThe Cenbtidge Uabettitl hest'

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES


UNEAL MEAfl'NT
3 ft. 22yds. l0 ch. 8fur. ZD yils. - I fw. 1760 yds, - I mile. 5280ft. -lmile"
12 inchcs (in.)

- I foot (ft.) - I yard (yd.) -lchain(ch.) - I fulong (fu.) -lmile. lfl) linkr - I ch5l yds. - I pole or rod or pcrc.L l()poleserc.: lfur,

ITAUTICAL MEAST'RE 6 ft. - I fathom (dep&)

t
144 ro.

@ land mile - @ sea-miles (approximstcly) tnot is a speed of I rea-mile per hour.

6080ft.-lsea-mile

500ft.-lcablo

t0 8q. ch. : I rcrc. iB. - I so. ft. I sq' milo' 640 acres 9 si. ft. - I rq. vil /[8,rcsq.yds. - I acrq ,184sq.vdr.- I sq.ch, 3Ol sq. y(s. - I sq. polo. 40 sq. pols - I rood 4roods - 1 acre. CT'BIC MEASURE
lZrS cubic

SQUARE MEASIJRE

iN. I cubic ft. 2TcubicfL -lcuUcyd.


4
8 bush.

tt gills

2pts,
16 16

- t pint (pt.) - I quart(qt) 4 qts, : I gallon (gall,)

MEASI]RES OF CAPACITY 2 gall, - I peck (pk.)

pks - 1 bmhel (bustr-) : t quarter (gr.)

: I ounce (oz) 28 lb. - I qurter (qr.) 4 qrs. - I hmdredweight (cwl) oz, I pound 0b.) 20 cwt. - I ton. l{ lb. - I atone (st.) tI2lb.-lcwt. 22401b. - 1 ton.
dram
TROY WEIGIIT
24 $ains

AYOIRDI'PO$ WEIGHT

I penqyweiebt 20dwt - I oz. : l2oz. - I tb.

(dwt)

20 3

- t mple (s,) ssuple: I dram (dr.)


sralns
24shets 2U
20

TPOTIIECARIES' WEIGIIT 8drams


PAPER, MEASURE

12 ounces

-loun@(oz.) : I pound (lb.)

I quire quim - 1 rbam -

quires or 516 sheets

CIRCULAR MEASURE Circum&rence of circle:2m Are of cidc:zrr Surfam of sphere : 4rrr Yolumo of sphere : 4/3ntr TABLE OF MOTION 50'seconds - l minutc,

I bmdls 2m10 ream - I balo. - I printers' ram.

60'minutes 30odegres
t2r

ri8[r

tl

- f degec. -leign. - Tb. cird. d

tbr

.fiL

CONSTANTS
3.1416 Earth's mean radius 3960 miles A velocity of 60 miles per hour 88 feet per second c 32.2 ft, per second per second.
.

'E

kngth of seconds pendulum (Greenwich) : 39.139 in. I Atmosphere : 760 m.m. or 29.9 n. of mercury : 14.7

lbs. per sq. in.

Velocity of sound in air is about 1100 ft. per sec. Velocity oflight in vacuo: 186,300 miles per sec.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Lead Morcury Platinum Silver

Gold (pure) Iron (wrought)

Bronzo Coinage (English) 8.96 Copper 8.9 Glass (crown; window) 2,4-2.6

Aluminium Brass (ordfuary) (drawn)

2.65

8.4-8.7

Alcohol 0.8 Glycerine l:26 Methylated Spirit 0.83 Petrol 0.684.72 Ice
Paraffin 0,917 0.9

l9'3
7,81.9
71.4 13.6 21.5 10.5

Deal

Beech,

Wax Oak

0.7-0.9

0.5{.7

A gallon of water weighs about l0 lb.,^l^cubic foot of water about 62.3 lb., I c.c. of water at 4"C. weighs I gram.
WORK AND HXAT

I Watt : l joule per $ec.: 10? ergs per sec. I horsepower : 550 ft. lb. per sec.: 33,000 ft. lb. per min. I kilowatt : 102 kg. metres per sec. I British Thermal Unit (B.T.U.) :252 caloies. 1 B.T.U.: 778 ft.lb.;1 calorie : 4.18 x I0, ergs.

t
I

SPECIFIC HEAT
Brass

0'09

Copper 0'094

Glass 0.2

LATENT IIEAT In B.T.U. per lb. Water I,l4 Steam at212"F 97A In calories per gram Water 79'8 Steam at 100"C 539

coEFx'IcIENTS OF EXPANSION (LTNEAR) Brass l'9x10-n kon (cast)


Copper

1.67xlt'

Iron

(wrought) l.19xI0-'
15

I .02 x

l0-'

LOGARITHMS
:TMD
X.IGURN

FoURTH-X'rcuRr DrrrEBENcEg

r
t0 l1

28101

lrlsle
t27tll
004
335

t 2
481 48 t s71 361 36

3l

,r 5 6l'
L7 27

l9
16

l2 t3 l4 l5 l6 l7 t8 l9
20

t7

16

28 3l

30 34

1553 I 1584116r

644

26 29 24 27

al

x, 2'

71
150 314

B
2A

26

7l
29 3o

36 36 26 24 24 24 24 24 24 2S 2A 2A
I

1147 113 I 2t 24 0127 t7 20 22 sL2 1 t6 19 2l 911 I t6 18 20


811

il

?2

3{
35

33

36

t7
38 39 2
60

40

1l

o 1'
11 15 16

624 6s4

611 621

r91

1f

48

4'
5l

50

016
77

2
77

s2

53 54

101 185 267

126 I 77

7r

l2

5l

56

5f
58

5'

I I

-l

79 7S 1S 10 t2 14 l5 78 10 11 13 15 68 1l 78 L4 11 12 14 68 6? 10 t2 t3 67 0110 t1 t3 67 8t10 u12 57 8l e lt t2 56 81 9 to 12 56 rln 10 11 1 56 7ls l0 11 7l 8 10 11 '^l 56 DO 71 8 910 3l 56 71 8 910 gl 46 7ta 910 J 46 ul, 910 elz 89 sl 46 45 alz 89 6lr 89 al 45 46 6l? 89 ,l 4 5. J, 80 6t7 78 sl 45 sl a 18 3l 45 44 rl o ?8 al 4.4 ulu 78 34 sl 6 7a sl e 7a sl 34 34 sl o sl o 67 2i 34 rl o 67 zl a4 ulu zlt 34 e4 ol o 55 67 2l 34 4t5 o7 2i g4 84 41 5 61

810 810

L4 12 t4 11 13 11 t2

t5 17 19 16 18 t5 t7 16 t7 14 16

LOGARITHMS
F! :=h 6o

TEIBD FIGI'af,

tr'oIIBTE-trtcI,R,E DrrrEBENcEg

rizi,
??8rh?16
?8oB 7860 7R6a 7R75

I 2 314 5 617 8
1

*
I

62 63 64 55 56 68 59

6l

1
1

34 34

I I I I I I

1 1 1

5f

fo 7l 72 7t
71

13185

1
1

23 23 2B 23 2g 2g 23 2S 2S

566 566 566 556 556 556 556 556 456 466 456 +55 455 455 455
4 4 4 4 4 4 4
4 4

f5

76 77
7S

79 8o

I I 1 I
49i9154
0119206 133

5
5

6
5

5
5 6

8t

a2 83 a4 85 86

5 6 6 4 4 4
4 5 5

4 4 4
3
B

at 88 a, ,0 9l y2 ,3
?4

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0

t I

I
1 1

22

4 4

t5 ,5 n t8

I
1 1

3
B

),

0 0

r
I

Logarithms of Useful Factors


nl
I

.aezr

fl
E

:t *l
"l
_t
4t

'roor
.ozoo

i6

fi

1'2980

fr

I.sozr Ia
.?0?(
1

7 |.rn,
I

I -:

1
g

t/n

6; ilsszo ft
61

l6
fr
180

T.oost
L.7581
.9943

^/2;

I ,c z.rn rlTol'
g'

li.assr

Iosos

ili'z,eo

mb 2-24t5

-,
4rB

--

?.soes
.2486

ln 1
t

1.5963

\/;

\n

fr

I a.ssffil 7

It lI "i s.orsll,
I

q.as2slt/ztl

l_t

t/g

.ts*l

l"'1.

li'
.

*l

l7

ANTILOGARITHMS
TErRD tr'rGU-rE

X'ouRrH-FrcrRE
Drx'FERENcEs

.02 .03 .04


.05

'00 .0t

1000 1047
LO72

toz9
1096 1t22,
1148 1 1

1or1
1045 1069 1094 LI? 1119

.06 .08 '09

.ot
.r0

at?5

t202 t25g
1288 1318 1349 1880

7211 | t2r3ir276l12r9
1268

1 1

1247

I I I I
128
131 134 13? 140

1146 1190 L227 1256 1315 1346 1377 1409

t172

.tt

.t3
-.11
.15 .16 .17

'12

l29t l32l

r2s7 ts27
137 140

1 2 314 S 6l' I e 00 I 222 00 222 00 00 I 01 222 01 0l 01 01 01 01


1 1

0 0

0 0

143 143
150 153 157 1607 164717644 r 6?911 643 171
161

1442 0 146 t41 7476 0


1510

't8
.19 .20
.21

1545 0 1581 0
1618 1656 1694 L?84 1774

.22
.23

.74
.25 .26 7778 | 1820 1862 1905 I 1950 1995
1

7to |

164

1722
L?62 1803 1845 1888
LSAZ

0 0 0 0
0

2 2
2

2 2 2 2
2

t79t
1832 1875 1919 1963

.27
.24 .29

811l1816 | 0 854 1858 I 0 897 1901 I O 0


0

2 2
2

BA4 354 834 sg4 3 34 344 s44


4 4 3
4

'30
.31

20

.t2
.33

.34 .35
.36 .38 .39
-41

04121 53121

206r

2037 I 0 2084 I 0 2133 I O 2183 I o

2 2 2 2

4 4 L 4
4 5 4
5

.rl
.,.|l

2 2

5 5 5

.a
,1? .,t5 .16

2 3
3

3
3
4 4

.4
.4f
.18 .49 !2944
:Bo1B

i3083 3155

4
4

55 55 56 56 56 56 56 co 66 66

ANTILOGARITHMS
ts
I

e Hrl
O

r iiEll EEEII
!
.50

,l'

TSIBD BIOUBE
7
321

tr'oI,RTE.X'IGTAB DIFTEBENCE

.st

s1zzlB184
3258 3334

Br

'_l [' isrrllr I z1 s n 330411 2 zlg a


t2 l2 t2

.52 .53 .54

tz

f
I

.55

t I
i,

.56 .57 .58 .59 .60


.61

.52
.61

.51 .65 .66 .67 .58


.59 .70
.71

.71

.ft
.75

t2 el s a L2 3l B 4 't" 2 sl+ + L2 a[ + o el e r 4064 l2 gl 4 E 4159 t2 t2 3l 4 5 t2 sl n r L2 al + o t2 rl n u 31 4 5 t2 gl n s t2 sl + o Ir z 3l 5 6 nl u o 5111 lt 2 41 5 6 5236 Ir z Ir z 41 5 6 lr s al r o


I

zls 4 zl,t + zl 3l, zls n

t t
!
t

567 567 567 66? 67 7 678 678 678 67 a 6'7 A ?89 789 78S 789 789 7 910 8 910 I910 8 910 8 911

.71 .76
.77 .79

'74 .8t
0 57 I 617

lr s l, ,s lr s lr a lr 11

rl

.80

.82'
.83 .84

.85 .86 .87 .88

78 45 16 ,9t

.0,
.90

.9t

.92

.r3

.94
.95 .95

t11
710

10 7 , 4lB e 9rll 12 t3 t2 14 sl o s 8 sln 12 14 lz s sl 6 8 9l1l 13 14 lz s 51 6 g rolrr 13 15 lz t sl e t, ,e 51I 7 88 ,nlt, 13 15 lz z bl 7 s rohz 13 15 lz t sl z e rohz 14 16 lz t rl ? e rrIz 14 16 5l? rrha 14 16 lz ,1, n al z s 11i13 15 L7 3110 ol a s nlre t5 t7 3299tlz t tlz n 61810 rzlr+ t5 77 8492 olaro rzi+ 16 18 8690tlz e o[ato rglu 16 18 8892tl z t
I

t, lz

+lr z alr z tls z tlo z 41 6 7

a1011 91011 91011 91012


9 10

t0

I tt L2 1l 12

1.2

10 10

11 13 11 13

Dl3
120

9099 9311

.?t .t8
.90

,1, I elsro ,rlru 17 19 olsrr r3115 17 19 Llz shs rl2 4 ?1911 raho L7 20 tlz + 7i911 t+lro 18 20 18 tlz 71e11
o r
ZO S

NATURAL SINES
a .00q)
.0176 .0349 .0523 .0698 .0872 .1045 .1219 .7592 .1664
I .1786
|

0017 I 0036 0052 0070 0087 0192 0366 0541 o?L5


I I

t 3
1

I t

0384 0401 0419 0436 I osea 0593 0610 0782 0761 0785
|

oron 0227 0244 0262

loLzz
I
I
I

0140

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

0 6 6 6 6 0 6 6 6 0 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
6

I
9

12

lo2s7 0314

onzt 0488 oors 0663 osrs 0837

,
l0 ll l2

0889 I osoo 1063 I 1080 r236 I tzss 1409 I t42s 1582 I 1600

rl{
t3

t3

1764 1857 ta?4 .r9og ts25 I t94z lrES 1805 1822 1950 ts77 1994 20r1 2028 20L5 l.2o7s 2006 | 2rrg 2130 2747 2164 2181 2198 2275
| .2410

t,,,,

0924 0941 0958 0976 I ooo, I 1011 1097 1116 L1,92 1149 Inoz lrrga t27t 1288 1305 1323 | 1B4o ts57 1444 1461 L478 I 1513 1530 1016 1638 1650 I ross 1702
I

l.22bo

lt t8 l,
7l 72 2t
71 26 20

l6

l'ru*
1.2766 1.2924

2267 lzzs4 2300 2gL7 2SS4 2351 2368 2385 2436 I 2455 2470 2487 2,504 ?.52r 2538 2554 257L

9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

I l2 I 12 I t2 L4 I L2 14 I 12 t4 I 12 L4 9 t2 14 I 11 14 I 11 I 11
11

12

t1
11 11 11 11 11

l.Boso

l.8zio
I

2005 2779 2540 4107 8272

1,o,,

2689 2856 2790 280? 2825 2557 2974 2990 31U1 3140 3156 s28g 8805 s322

2840 2857 2874 2890 3007 3024 8040 3057 8173 3100 8206 3338 8871 3387 8535 8665 8697 3827 3843 3859 8987 4003 4019 ltLT 4163 4179 4493 4648 4802 4556 5105 6255 6402 6548 6693
l

?.672 2689 2706

2740
2907

r1 l4

3074 3239 3+04

6 6 6 6 6 5 5 6 6 o 6 6 b 5 6 5 5 6 5 6
D

t4
14 L4 13 13

L4 14 14

1.s420
1.4584
|

'3746

,t

1.3907 1.4067

3487 3468 8409 8486 3600 3616 9638 3649 s778 8706 3811 8989 8065 8971 40ce 4116 4l8t

s50z

3567 87r4 3730 3875 3891 4035 4051 4195 42L0


8551

l1
11 11

3 3

t1
1L

11

t3

7t 78 Z'
30

.{695
.(1848

-1226 .1384 'a540

4242 4258 1274 1305 l82t 4399 4416 {431 4462 4478 1556 1671 4617 4633 {7r0 4726 4?56 47?2 41A7 480t| 1879 4900 4524 4939 6016 6165 6314 5461 6600 6760 5892 6032 6170 6807 5080

{837 4352 4368


4609 4664 4818 4970 5720 6270
641,7

452+ 4679 3 4883 4985 3 2 2 q 2 2 2 2 2 q 2 2 2


2

8 8 8 8 8 8

10 10 13
10 13

10 18 10 13 10 12 10 12 10 t2 10 t2

t2 33 ,1
35

tl

.6b92
.5736 .6878 .6018 .6157 .0293 .0428 '0561

.6000 .6150 .6299 .6446

6r80

6S2S

6478 6621 l 6so6 6046 6184

6060 6210 6358 6605 6650

6076 6226 6378 6519 6664

5563

ntut

7 7 7

,7 38 ,9 4t 4l 17 t3

36

urunl
| I

I I

m2o

6?93 5807 5934 6948 6074 6088 62tL 6226


6547 6481 0{}61

5835 5850 6864 ssza) 6990 6004 etrsl 6t2S 6143 azszl 6266 6280 osgg I 6401 6414

4 4 4 4 4 4
?

I I I I
I I I

72
11

t2 t2

s 11
11 11 11 8 11 8 10

.6691

.6820 .6547

644L unuu 6574 6587 6704 oTtz 6i133 6845

I
I I

8g?21

6194 6613 6626 6743 6756 6871 6884 6097

uur,
osos

66521 6665

6534

l
|

654?

I oezr 6984 zoar I ?046 7069


I |

azszl

67941 6807

66?8

6
6

12'l 48',ll

54'

NATURAL SINES
rz'l
45 46

t8'

47' 1

48' 2

2',3',14',J5',
+

1'

,t8 49 50

5l t2
53

54
55 56

7120 I 7133 | 7145 .707L I 7088 I 70e6 I ?2421 ?2541 .?193 I ?206 I .7374 7825 | u?19 I 734{tl 7361 I .7431 7443 | ?455 I ifissl 7478 I ?490 | 7501 .1547 755e 7670 | ?581 ?593 I 7604 I 76L5 | I I .7660 7672l| ,u,,I zosl I 7V05 7776 | ?727 .77?L 7?82 zzssl ?804 I 7815 7826 I ?837 .7880 ?891 | Tsozl zstzl 7523 zssr I 1S+4 .7986 7997 | 800? BolB I 8028 so3e I .8090 81001 8111 grzt I 8131 8141 I 8151

? 7169 I 7181 7157 I 7 72sO1 7S0Z 7 72781 7 ? ?408 I 7420 7 73s6 | 1 75241 7536 75131 ? I 7638 I 7649 ?627 | 7

2
2

4 4
+

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

4 4 4 4 3 6
5

I I 8 I
7 7
7

,rrrl', ?Bbo I
7848 |

7?491i

6
5 5 5

7s65 7555i i |to70 8059 L i gror I 81?1 t

Ii Ii L I 8080 8181 I1

I o
0 8 8 8
8

ll

58 59

.8192 L *ro, I 8211 a221 .8290 | 83oo I 8310 8320 .8387 I sB96 I 8406 8415 .8480 I srso I 8499 8508 .8572 8590 8599

60
51 61.

l*''1 '8660 [I 8669 86?8


] I

8231 8329 8425 8517 I 8607

Rz41

II
|
I

*ru, I ,*rrt I ,8281 2 I 8251 8368 | I8377 2 ases I 8348 ls3bsll l8453lr8462 | l8471 2 slga I 8443 l8b45ll8554 I 8563 2 85261 l8684lr 8643 I 86bZ 8616 I I
I

5 6 4
+

0 6 6

53 64
65

szsr s?63 .882e I 8838 I bs+o I .8910 i esrg I sszo [ '8988 I 8s96 I soos
'R746 [ I

8686 8771 8854 8934


qo11

8949 e018 I sozo 9107 9178


92'45

I szor I s?88 I sezo

8712 I*r,I szzo 8818 8796


I sBsa I gsca

I
I I I |

I esoo II gsza I soar II eo48


I
I

:l ol
3l
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1

,l

4 4 4 4 4 3

6l
5

01
5
5

55 57 68
59

0092 II 9100 9078 I I .e1sb lgug 9150 I 9157 I srol II srzt I .e2o5 lszrz szrsl s2251 s%zlI 9239 [ I 'sztzl szzs 9285 I szst I 9298 I|I e3o4 p348 g:rl I e361 ssoz |

.nou,

o,r,

9311

lru+l

70
71

72

7t
7a
75

:3f?? I eE16 I

:il1t::; I slor

onno I e466 |

.eb63 I e568 I e61?

76 77 78 79 80

:HI 9664 .9?03 I 970?


|

's7 441 9748 '9281 I s785 .e816 9820

s427 II 9426 94?8 II 9483 s$zl| 9537 962t I ssza I 3??[l 9583 II ob88 e6zzl s627 | 9632 II onso I sooe I nozsl Iou,I 9681 q?zo 9?11 | ezlb II g?5e I 9721 I 9763 9?51 | sTbslI I 9?96 I 9799 9?89 l s7921 q823 e8261I e8z9 l 9833

I I

'rfirl

9432 9489 I o5b3 I 9542 I e6o3 I 9593 l8AffiiI 9650 I 9641

9699 I 9686 9728rlszszl I szso ,l ozzo tlI 9774 9813 , I 0810 I osrz 9845

kml 9694 l**ltt


'

I qzss I I sazs; eB85 I | I s444 I I ssoo I

crsr

I I

b
5

9330 9391 9449 9505 9558 9608 9655

4 L 4
+

3 2 2 2 2

4 4
3

?l
4l 4l
4

1
1 1 1

2 2
1 1 1 1 1
1 1

2 2 2
1 1

3 2

8t

82

8l

84
85

9880 .0903 9905 I .sszr 9928 .ee45 9947

'ssne 9851
.9877
I

9874 9854 I 9857 I ornn 9863 9866 i i sese I 9882 I 9885 I osss 9890 9893 ) I 9921 gsrz 9914 9917 I ssoz I ssro I gsgl ilf,Bifltl ss42 9936 9938 I 9930 I 9932 I r | 9959 I qsng oesr ! ssrz 9954 9956
I

ll**,Ior^
:1il;

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1
1 1
1

2 2
1 1 1

lsz

86

| .ssoz .9976

lss

lsr

9963 I oruu I sooo I nou* I es?1 I sgza I oozo I ssso I l'es86 I ssgz I 9988 I 9089 I scso | .ssst I cssr I ssss II 9996 I 3BB3 I .9s98 I cssg I ssss ssss
I

9974 ,I 2 9982 I 9e83I I sss+ 9985 z 1 9991 I sg92 I 9903 7 I 9998 9997 rol IJi%K 1.00( 1.O0( 1.00( 9969 9981 9990 9997
9S71

nr*

Ir

lo l0

lr

l.

NATURAL COSINES
SUBTRAgT

0'
0 2
3

6',

1l',
1.0001

18',

24',

,r' | ,a'
1 oool 9999
I I I I

47',

48',

s4'

1lr lg' 1e' s


I
I I I
I

4
5

1.0000 .999e .9994 .9986 '9976

1.000 9998 9993 9985 9574

9998 9993 9984 9973

1.000 1.000
sssz I ggg2 9983 9972

9997 9997 9991 sqso 9982 gssr 9971 ssos

I I I
I I

ssso ssgo
9980

scos

9999 9996 9989 9979 9966

9999 9995 9988 9978 9965

,rn,

ssqs
9e8z sg77 oqes

,l"l,l,l,l

f I I
1l

.ss62 9960 9959 9957 9956 nnun nnu, 9951 s949 nnn, .9945 9943 9542 9940 9938 s936 l sssr 9932 9930 sszg
I I I

I I
I I I I

.s925 9923 s92t 9919 9917 9S14 sstzl 9910 9907 qsos .9908 9900 9898 9895 9893 9890 I es8s l 9885 9882 seso .9877 9874 9871 9869 9866 ssoa I 9860 9857 9854 e85r .9848 9845 9842 9839 .9816 9813 9810 9806 .9?81 s778 9774 9770 .9744 9740 9736 9732 .9703 9699 9694 9690 .9659 .9613 .9563 .9511 .9455 .9336 .9272 .9205 .9135 .9063 .8988 '8910 .8829 .8746 .8660 .8572 .8480 .8387 '8290 .8192 .8090 .7986 .7880
I

:l:llllll ol1111112 olrlrl2l2


olrlrlzlz ol1l1l212 1l1lz 3 rlrl2LBl4 rlllsl2lB 'l'lrlrl, 111l2i3le rlz Bl4l4 1l2lBi415 1l2lBl415

i0
12

t3 t5

14 16 17

9836 orm I s803 szss I 9767 gzos I 9728 e724.l 9686 e681 s636 e588 9537 saes
|

9829 9796 9759 9720 9677

9826 9823 9820 s792 9?89 9785 9755 9?5L 9748 97t5 s711 s707 9678 9668 9664 9627 s622 9617 9578 9575 9568 9527 9521 9516 9472, 9466 9461 9415 9409 9403 9348 9285 9219 9150 9078 9278 9212 9148 9070

l8 l9

9665 9608 9558 9505 9449 9391 9330 9265 9198 9L28 9056 8980 8902 8821 8738 8652 8563 8471 8577
8281

9650 0603 9553 9500 9444 9385 9323 9259 9191


9121

9646 9641 9598 9593 9548 9542 9494 9489 9438 9432 9379 9377 9252 9184 9114 9041 8965 8886 8805 8721 8634 8545 8453 8358
8261 9373 9311

9692 9583 9532 I gtzal 9478 9421


I I
1

,l,l,luln Llz12lBl4

20
21

.9397

22 23 24
N5

,ru, I 9361 9354 9304 9298 9291 9245 gz\g 9232 9226 9178 91?1 9164 9157 9107 9looI 9092 9085
9038
8957

s342

,l,l,l, 1lzlBL415
rl2isl4l6 1l2lBl516 1lzl4lbl6

26 77
2A

29
30
31

9048 8973 8894 8813 8729 8643 8554 8462 8368

,oru I 9018 8949 I 8942 8878 8870 8862 8796 8?88 8780 87t2 8zo4 I 8695
8625 8536 8443 8348 a251 8616 | 8607 srzo i 8517 g+s+ i 8425 asss i 8329 Bz41 i 8231 8141 8039 793+ 7826 7716 8131 8028 ?923 7815
I

9011 8934 8854 8777 8686 8599 8508 8415 8320 8227

9003 8996 8926 8918 8846 8838 8768 5 /5b 8678 8669

,l,lnlu 1lBl415l6
zlslslt

rlsl41517 rlBi41617 1l3141617

t2
33

34
35 36

827t

8590 8499 8406 8310 821L

8581 8490 8396 8800

s202

2lalbl6 21315 6 2lBlBl618

,l*lnlul,
,lrlulrlt 2lBl5l?le
zl4lblTle 2l4t5l7l9 21416)7]{s 2l4l6l8l10 2l4l6l8l10

q a 8

t7

38 39 40
41

8181 8171 8161 8151 soao 8070 8059 8049 17s76 7965 7955 1944 I 7869 7859 7848 788? .7?7L lzzao 7749 7727

8121 8018 7512 7804 7 IUD 7694

8111 8100 8007 7997 7902 ?891 71-gg 7782 7683 7672 7555 7143 7325 7246 7083
54'.

42 43 44

'7660 7645 7638 7627 .7547 7536 7524 7'tR '745L 7420 7408 7396 .73t4 7302 7290 7278 .7193 7181 7169 7167 0
5',

7615 ?604 ?553 7581 7570 7501 7490 7478 7466 7455 ?385 7361 7349 ?286 7254 i242 7230 72t8 7720 7108 7096 lzr+s
24',

,l,lol'1, 2l4l6l8l10
2 | 41618l10

1z',

la

m'l
'oe'

47.

48',

fli

t__l_t_l__

"l

vl

41

5',

The black type i!1dicates that the integer change8.

22

NATURAL COSINES
SUBTRAcT

ly
I I I
| | I

t8'
6qoq 6621
I I

2+
6Bq6 6Eo8

30'
I

35',

a'
I I

45',

5A',

1',

z'.

t'
0 0 6
7

4',

5',

t
i.

45

46 17 48 49 5o
51

.7071 .6947 .6820 .6691 .6561 .6424 .6298 -6L57 .6018 '5878 .5736

7059 6934 6807 06?8


6547

,onu I ,orn

oszr
6bB4

?oz2l zoos I 6997


I
I I I

6794 ezezl ozos 6?56 I 674.3l 6730


I

6884 I 68?1
|

6665

66bzl eoes 6620 oore


I

64e4 oear
I I

6984 6972 6959 6858 6845 6833 6777 0704 6600 6587 6574 6468 6455 6441,

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 ,6
D

52 53

54
55

6414 6280 6143 6004 5864

0361 I o+or I or*, I 65741 '62251 634? 6266 6252l 6289 ozrr
|

erzs

6520 6307 I 6334 6184 6170 I 6198 01 6088 I 6074 | 6060 6046 6032 | 8948 | 59941 5520 5906 5892 rsso I l 5S62 -b764 5750 5850 I 6835 5821 5807 szsg i 5775
I

6116 5976

61

7 7 7 7 7 7
7

I 8 I I I I I I 9 I

10
11

11 11 11
11 11

72 12 12

56
57 58 59

.5592
.5446 .5255 .5150

6721 5707 5577 6563 5432 5417 6284 5270 5185 5]20 4985 4833 4679 462+ 4368 4051 3891 3730 8567 4g7o 4818 4664 4509

5693 5544 5402 5255 5106 4965 4802 4648 4493 4179 4019 3859 3697 8535

66?8 5534 5488 5240 6090 4989

5664 6519 5578 6225

6650 5635 55U5 5490 6858 5344 5210 6195 bu /b 6060 50+5

bazl 5606 2 5476 546t 2


5329 5314 5180 bL65 5030 5015

2 2 3

6 5 6 6
b

7 8 8 8 8 8

10 L2 10 12 10 12 10 LZ

10 18 L0 13 10 13 10 18 10 1A 11 13 11 1B 11 13 11 13 11 14 11 14
11 t4 11 L4 11 14 L1 14 11 L4 11 11 11 11 11

60
51 57.

:5000 .4848 .4695 .4884

63

.4540 .4226
.4067 .3907 .9746 .8684

54 65
55 57

4924 4909 4894 4787 4772 4756 47+t 4633 4617 +602 4586 4478 4462 4446 44gl 4R52 4537 4g2l 4306 42Ag 4274 4163 4147 I 4003 3987 I esrs s827 I 3681 3665 4131 3971 3811 3649 s502 3486

4875 4863 4726 47LO 4671 4655 44!5 4399 4258 4242

I
3 3 3 3

6 6 6
D

42LO 4195

4035 3875 3551

68

6'
t1

s7L4

Isna

4115 4099 4083 3955 3939 3925 s795 s778 8762 3633 3616 3600 3469 s45g 3457 3107 2940 2775 2605

6 6 5 6 6 5 6 6 o 6 6 6
B

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

70

t2
73 74

.s420 3404 3387 3371 l rruu 3338 3305 3289 .8256 3239 8206 I srso 3173 8156 3140 3L2S .3090 3074 3057 3040 I aoze 3007 2990 2974 2957 .2924 2907 2890 2874 I 28h7 2840 2823 2807 2750 .2766 2740 2708 I zoas 2672 2656 2689 2622
.2588 2571 2554 .24t9 2402 2385 .2250 2253 2.215 .207s 2062 2045 .1908
I

8272 3
3

I5 f5
77
7A

79
81

2588 2368 I zsrt 2198 I zrar 2028 lzott 1891 L874 1857 I 1840

l,u^

2504 2,4A7 2470 2459 246 2334 23L7 2800 22,84 22.67 2164 2L47 2130 2118 2096 1994 ls77 1969 L942 t925 7822 1805 1788 L77L t754
1660 1633 1,478 1461 1305 1288 L732 1115 0958 0941 1616 1599 1582 1444 1426 1409 127L 7253 1236 1097 1080 1063 0924 0906 0889 0558 0884 0209 0035 0541 0366 001?
54',

\4
L4

6 0 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
z',

I I

14 14 74

80 82 83
85

8{
86

.1?36 I rzrs t70z 1685 I ruu* .1564 11641 1530 1513 I rncr .1892 Itgz+ 1857 1340 ltszR .1219 Itzot 1184 1167 lrras .1045 1028 1011 0993 I ogzo
I I I

3 3
B

8t
88 89

0680 0663 0645 I 0628 osoo 0488 o411 I ols+ .0349 I oeaz 0314 o2g7 I oz7s .01?5 I oroz 0140 0722 I olob '0698
.Q623

.0872 I oerr 0837 o8I g I n*n, 0785 o787 0760 07s2 07t5
0610 0593 o576 0436 0419 040t 0262 0244 0227 0087 0070 0062 30'
36', 42',

0ts2

I 11 t4 I t2 14 I 12 t4 9 L2 L4 I L2 L4 I t2 L4 I t2 15 I 72 15 16 I I 12 15
4'.

0'

5',

12,

l8'

?4',

4'

t'

23

I.k

NATURAL TANGENTS

,
0 2 3 4
5

0.0000 0.0175 0.0349 o-0524 0.0699 0'0875 0.1051 0.1228 0.1405 0.1584 0.1944

','l;

I 001? I 0035

I 0087 \',t a 0244 I 0262 osoz I ossa I 0402 )2l04rs I o43z lob4z I ob5e 0517 I 0672 0?17 i 0734 0752 :2|31"6 I o?s? |

l01q2 I ozos
I

:t,,

I otzzI I 0140 rl I ozsz 0314 lo47z| | 0489 I o50? 0647'l 0664 I 0682 I I 0840 0857
I

6 7 8

I
t3
12

tl

l0

0892 I osro 0928 0945 I i8l 1069 l 1086 1104 ,4l7tzz) I 0963 1139 1246 I 1263 1281 1317 7423 Ira,n 1459 +li??el 1602 1620 1638 165s I 1495 8l 16?3 I

0.1768

rll
tt5

0.2126 0.2309
0-2493

$azl 1980 1998 I aela i 2o3s 1871 | ,rro iI rnot sl 2744 I 2162) 21Bol 21ee I zztz I 2053 I 2071 II 2o8e l 0l I I zzsa I zslt I zsatl z4,otl zEtsllz4sslIlzztzl z4b6l z|lzl 2530 I zsao
I

1?8r 1799 1817


I

,ro,

0981 i roro 1757 I ttzb I tt92 1334 I Lsbz I 1B?o t572 I ls3o I 1548 1691 I uos 11727
I

lffi;

.1745
1926
zToz

1210 1388 1566

ro*

l3
la
I

lt t8 l,
22 23 24 25 25 27 28 29

l5

0.2675 I 2698 2786 0.2867 I zsse 2905 I| 2924 tl 0'3057 I 80z6 Boe6 I| 3115 zs4B tlBri4l 0.3249 a Bz6s BzsB II 3307 I 0.8443 I B469 e+se t't502
I

,rrrl

l:ill
I

22901
24?51

ot o

I 72 15 I 12 15 I 72 15 6 I L2 15 6 I 72 l5 6 I 72 15 6 I 72 l5 6 I 12 75 6 I t2) 151 6i I rzl rsl ol I 6t I ^t


6 6 6
9 9

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260',l zaztlI 2642l zaatl


3000 I aoro Boss I

ol
B

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L2l 15
121 16 13 13 13 13 13 116 16 16

12l

15

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20

0.3640 | ,uo,I I 3679 1,u,, 0.3839 I BBseI I B8?s I 3809rlBgrsl:3739 0.4040 I 4061 I 408] I 4101 I 4t2zl ,3939 4742 o.4245 I 4z6b I 4286 I 4so? 4348 o.4452 144?3 I 4494 It'S:,l, 4557

'lii#l

3846 I 3365 saao I 34041 B54r I 3581 sooo


i

srse I 3172 Blel I1 3211 II I

29621

zsrr Il rrro

,rnnl
3

6 l9 6
o 7

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tttsl

0'4663 0.4877 0.6095 o.5817 0.5543

4770 4986 tttz II Else 516r I 5206 ssto II ssaz) sss+ I a54oz I E 5430 5566 ssao sarzl 156351fi 5658
l

+o* I 4106 lgss I lszt fi?,zl


I

Bgzs I looo I 418s I 4204 I aeso I +ltt I +ess I ,462t1


I

szzsl 3?90

I
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3819

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l.*ail,

I 4818 $sal , bo2s sosr J I szso 52721 5295 | 54zb 5498 | I5520
,
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4t

4l +l :)
7l
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13 t7 10 13 17 7 10 14 L7 7 10 14 t7 11 14 181

l'o 7 10

16

l6

130

llr

t4
37 38 39
a1

32 33

o.8745 o.7002 o.7265

0.6494

0'6009 o.6245

0.5774

579? II sezo I saul 5890 ooaz I| 6056 I ooeo I 6728 6275 II 62s7 I 63224 l6846l6 6371 65rs II 6b441 l65e4l6 661S 67?7 I azoal 1684?i6 6873

l1

I 5704 5727 I bltU !


5985 I 6176 I 6200 6224 I 6420 I 6445 6469 I 6669 I 6604 6sz4l 6950
I

laml:

u,,, I 5961

rrl t5l rel rr rsl 181 8l lt 15 8t 721 15j lsl


I

1l

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I

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t6

35

0.8098

0'7813
l
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0.7536

75sol
z86e 8156

ze].gl
I
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zostl

l rrorl 7t\s ,
8zt4 I 8, 8243
l

TBZBI 7, 7400 26461 7t 7675 79261 ?l 7954

o.8608 42 o.9oo4 /t3 o.s32s 14) o.soez

fi

o.sasr

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?r86 I 7212 ?4541 748L ?7291 7757 8012 I 8040 8Bo2 I 8332 l
8910 I 894r

gz54l

sooz I r 9391 I I 9725 I t

9z9B I gs

8816 I 8 9131 I 9r s457 I s4

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10 15

I16 tzltI6 120 20 I tzllro 20 8 rsll7? 2t I ral 7? 21 I 13 18 22 I 14 18 I 14 18 I 14 19 24)

8 8

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szzsl szaol
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15 20t 10t 16 zrl ""t zal 16 zrl zzl

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t7

ill

NATURAL TANGENTS
o'
1.000(
1.0351
5',

l?,

t8'

l1'

30' 01?6 0538 0913 1303 1708 2672 3032 3514 4010

36' o2L2 05?5 0961 1343 1?60 2677 3079 3564 4071 4605 5166 olDl 6383 7045

42',

48',

5.1'

,l"l"l"

L.072, 1.110r 1.160, 1.191r


1.2341

0035 0392 0761 1145

0070 0428 0799 1184 t5+4 1685

0106 0141 0464 0501 0837 0875 L224 L263 L$26 1667 2527 2985 3465 3968

0247 0612 0090 1383

0283 0649 1028 1838 2708 3176 3663

7792 2662

t42g 226t

0319 0686 1067 1463 1875 2305 2755

L.27Sl
L.8271

r.376,

1960 2393 2A4o 3319

2437 2482 2852 2938 3367 3416 38i4 s865 3916


11388

2002 2045 2088

2t3t 2t74 22t8


st27

8618 4124 4659 5224 5818 7118


6447

8222
4225 4?70 5340 5941

4!70
4716 6282 5880

t.428. 4386
1.482(
1.5391

1.600i 1.664r 1.804r


1.880',

4442 4496 4882 4938 4994 5051 5454 55L7 b5 t't 5637 6066 6128 6191 6255 6709 6775 6442 6909 8190 8967 9757 0686 8265 9047 9883 0778

4550 5108
5697

6319
6977

65t2 7tgz

?z,L

6577

7.732. 7351 7461


1.962r 2.050i 8115 8887 9711 0594

774? 7820 7893 7603 7675 7966 8341 8418 8495 8572 8650 8728 llt 9292 s375 s458 9128 9210 9542 9970 2.405i 2.0L41 2.023: 2.O32i 2.04Li 1060 1165 t25t 1348 11r 0872 0965 2045 3109 4262
5517

2.1441 1549 7642 7742 1842 1S43 z.z46t 2566 2673 2781 2889 2998 2.355\ 3673 3789 3906 4023 4t42

4876 5002 5129 5257 2.605. 6187 6325 6464 6605


2.475-.

5386 6746

6889 8397 3.006: 1910 3977 6305 8947 7576 5483 9594 4486

2148 3220 4383 5649 7084 8556 2106

2251 3332 4504 5782 7L79 8716

2355

s445
5916 lz. 7326
4627 lLt,

1625 7929 8083 2.9041 9208 9375 9544 9714 s.o77'. 0961 1146 1334 1524 4.2701 2914 3t22 3544 3.4871 5105 5339 5576 5816 7583 4.010i 0408 4.331{ 3662 4-?041 7453 5.1441 1929
3.732'_

8239 9887 1716 3755 6059 866? 1653 3955

i.o23 3.041! 3.0591 lz' 4rs7


6554 2305 4420 6806 2506 4646 7062
13r

8878 11,
Is,
14

7848 8118 8391 0713 1022 1335 4015 43?S 47R7 786? 8288 8716 2422 2924 8436

st52

51,07

9620 9812 t, 2303 2635 2972 ll 5864 6252 6646 lor t.0044 5.050r 5.097( 5026 6578 6140 l3r

s2s2

5.6?L 6.314

8'144
9.51

7.1t6 7.207 7'300 7.396 7.495 7.596 7.700 ?.806


8.264 8'386 8'513 8.643 8.7?7 8.915 9.68 9.84 10.02 10.20 10.89 10.58
9.058 10.78

5.730 5.789 6.85C 5.912 5.976 6.041 6.107 6.386 6.460 6.535 6.612 6.691 6.772 6.855

6.L74 6.243 6,940 7.026 7.916 8'028 9.205 9.367 10.99 11.20
17.89 26.03 47.74 286.5
48',

11'43
14.30 19.08 28.64 57.29

I1.66 11.91 72.76 t2.43 72.71


1{.67 15.06 15'46 15'89 16.35
19.74 20.15 21.20 30.14 31.82 33.6S 63.66 7t.62 81.85
5', 12',

22.90 38.19 114.6

13.00 16.83 23.80 143.2 35'

13.30
1-?.34

13'62

13.95

untlmtsorthv
here

Dlfferences

40'92

24.90 44.07 191.0


42',

27.27 52.08
573.O
54'.

18'46

0'

la'

24'.

30'

]',Pl"l'

The black type indicates that the integer changes.

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