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Histology  serous glands : composed of pyramidal cells Digestive System - with basally located nuclei Nov. 11,2003 - bluish cytoplasm because it is rich in Dr. Amata zymogen granules  mucous glands – composed of cuboidal/ ”fat” cells - w/ flattened nuclei Digestive System – a system of capable of breaking down particles or - clear cytoplasm metabolites to until they can be absorbed.  mixed glands- mucous glands w/ serous demilunes *Saliva – a lubricant 2 Parts; -contains enzyme 1. Digestive Tract – passageway of food - bacteriostatic; prevents invasion of bacteria and  Oral cavity microorganism  Mouth - w/ IgG and IgA  Esophagus  Stomach  Small and large intestine 3. Palate – located at the roof of the mouth  Rectum - lined by stratified squamous  Anus epithelium 2 parts: 2. Accessory glands – provide necessary hormones on the body a. Hard palate – more anterior  Salivary glands - w/ keratinization  Liver - adherent to periosteum (bone)  Pancreas b. Soft palate – loose underlying Lamina propia ORAL CAVITY - non keratinized - w/ circular and longitudinal underlying - lined w/ nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium muscle - epithelium: - forms the uvula (an ovoid tissue in the posterior midline portion) Function: 1.entrance to digestive system - (+) palatine tonsils paired lymphoid 2.Ingestion, fragmentation. moistening of food and aggregates w/c is covered w/ mucous and mastication there’s a presence of deep pits/ crypts Parts: 4. Tongue –muscular organ 1. Lips – visible - capable of manipulating - transition between keratinized food epithelium and mucosal layer - has 3 types of striated - red area: muscle w/c form interlacing VERMILLION BORDER bundles  Devoid of glands a. longitudinal  has thinner epidermis b. transverse c. circular  non keratinized stratified squamous epithelium - capable of general sensation - lamina propia: highly - has special sensation vascularized, gives its function (taste) reddish color. - lined by keratinized - orbicularis muscle is present for stratified squamous epithelium lip movements - firmly attached to - skin: has sebaceous and sweat glands underlying muscle - thick or dense lamina propia 2. Oral Mucosa – rich in salivary/ mucus glands - has 2 surfaces: - epithelial lining: stratified squamous a. ventral (lower surface) Nonkeratinized : - smooth; purely non  ventral surface of the tongue keratinized squamous  floor of mouth epithelium b. dorsal surface- divided by  mucousal surface of lips & cheek the V-shaped sulcus Keratinized; terminalis  gums 1. anterior 2/3 -w/ special  hard palate structures called lingual  most dorsal surface of tongue papillae (w/ taste buds) 2. posterior 1/3 - Lamina propria : loose CT - bumpy  especially loose at cheeks - has lingual tonsil - has lymphoid aggregates / nodules for - Submucosa: maybe loose oe dense immunologic defense depending on adaptation  underneath: minor salivary glands (labial and buccal Kinds of papillae glands a. Filiform papillae – bristle like - heavily keratinized - there is weakness in the neck of the tooth - has a dense supporting because of the weak radicular epithelium. connective tissue This is the site of the bacterial invasion ( as in gingivitis) b. Fungiform papillae –mushroom shaped - globular shaped - non-keratinized - thin stratified squamous Bone like Location Produced/ Other info epithelium - highly vascularized substance Deposited by c. Circumvallate papillae – largest papillae Dentin Core/ bulk of odontoblast -W/CaPO4 in the form - round shape tooth of hydroxyapatite - possess deep cleft w/c is crystals irrigated by saliva - w/ collagen like bone - saliva comes from serous - no blood vessels glands(SEROUS GLAND Enamel Covers ameloblast -mostly mineral (99%) OF VON EBNER) crown - hardest substance in - possess the most no. of taste the body buds - collagen is absent - arranged in a row anterior to Cementum Thin bone cementocytes - requires organic matrix the sulcus terminalis like and minerals substance - w/ collagen-like bone d. Foliate papillae – rudimentary in humans w/c covers - form ridges / furrow at the the root surface - many can be seen at lower  These 3 cells slowly differentiate from germ layers animals  a budding from the ectoderm enters the mesoderm  ectodermal portion derived from the dental/ lamina 5. Lingual glands : layer ( these form a bell / cap , w/c becomes the a. serous glands of Von Ebner tooth’s crown) b. anterior lingual glands ( glands of Nuhn and Blandin)  the mesenchyme is enclosed by the ectodrm and - mixed glands (w/ serous demilunes) becomes the dental papillae w/c subsequently c. Mucous glands at the root of the tongue becomes the dental pulp  differentiation forms odontoblasts - located at the interface of ectoderms 6. Taste buds- barrel shaped modifications in epithelium mesenchyme - composed of 4 types of cells - secretes dentin long cells w/ microvilli w/c project - predentin (uncalcified) w/c becomes to the luminal cavity calcified a. Type 1- supporting/ sustentacular cell - trap osteocytes, secrete dentin, the pulp - lightly stained cytoplasm retreats, so the dental processes are b. Type 2 – light cells w/ ovoid nuclei pinned, forming dentinal tubules w/ c. Type 3 – gustatory type odontoblast processes - synaptic vesicles at the basal portion of the cell - while dentin is deposited , the dental - assoc. with sensory afferent nerve fibers papillae is pushed inside until the dental - cells involve in sense of smell pulp is obliterated. - has taste pores w/c is where the chemicals interact w/ taste receptors  Ameloblast – develop from dental lamina w/c gives rise to the enamel organ ( composed of stellate/ 7. Teeth and Associated structures reticular cells) - children- have 20 deciduous milk teeth - produces enamel - adults – have 32 permanent teeth - appears as tall columnar cells - types of teeth accdg to shape: - found at the enamel organ a. incisors – chisel type (for cutting) - 1. outer enamel epithelium b. canines – (for tearing) - 2. enamel rods – interrods / interprismatic c. molars matrix st - 1 teeth arise 6 mos. After birth (particularly the front incisors) - 3. inner enamel epithelium – becomes - all milk teeth are replaced by permanent teeth by 12-18 yrs. ameloblast - derived from ectoderm and mesoderm/mesenchyme - enamel layer is thin - Parts:  Tomes processes – short, conical extension of a. crown – projects to the mucosa (oral cavity) ameloblast – covered by a bone like substance (enamel) - sites of secretion of enamel matrix - secrete organic matrix of interred enamel b. root – embedded portion covered by cementum (lateral surf.) (bone like) - responsible for deposition of the matrix c. pulp cavity – contains dentin of enamel rods ( apical surf.) d. dental canal – courses to the root – where the apical foramen opens  Hertwig’s root sheath – enveloped dental papillae e. neck – gingival covers ( and is inserted to the ) - formed when the crown is completely alveolar bone ( a cancellous/ loose bone) developed; the cervical loop grows surrounding the tooth ( as the alveolar socket) apically - composed of the fused outer and inner 1.5 to 3 cm width enamel epithelia  Periodontal ligament/ membrane - w/ collagen found at the transition between the esophagus and stomach - for anchorage of tooth to underlying lamina propia: contains simple tubular cardiac glands ; periosteum secretory cells w/ c produces mucus and lysozyme - allows movement of tooth during - parietal cells w/c secretes HCl chewing - endocrine cells - prevents tooth’s stress - oxyntic/ gastric glands  gingival – stratified squamous epith. Adherent to bone  Fundus and the body - cervice of crown and neck of tooth are prone fundus – dome shaped at the left side to infection lamina propia: filled w/ branched, tubular gastic or fundic glands 8. Pharynx – transition from oral cavity to digestive cavity (esophagus) isthmus – mucus secreting cells are present - communicates w/ resp. sys. Via the nasal neck- consists of stem, parietal and mucus neck cells cavity - bet. The oral cavity and digestive tract oxyntic (parietal cells ) – present mainly in the upper half of - keratinized pseudostratified ciliated the gastric glands ; rounde or pyramidal cells w/ one centrally columnar epithelium at the nasopharynx placed spherical nuclei. - no muscularis mucosae Chief (zymogenic) cells – predominant in lower region of - (+) pharyngeal tonsil; bec. Adenoids, tubular glands ; basophilic ; granules contain inactive enzyme hypertrophies when infected pepsinogen - (+) small mucous glands and mixed Enteroendocrine cells – found near the base of the gastric glands gland - (+) constrictor and longitudinal muscles serotonin/ 5 hydroxytryptophan – one of the principal ESOPHAGUS TO ANUS secretions or secretory products in the fundus of stomach  Pylorus 1. Esophagus – muscular tube - transport foodstuffs from the mouth to the terminates at the gastroduodenal junction stomach means gatekeeper - covered by non-keratinized stratified has deep gastric pits into w/c the branched tubular pyloric squamous epithelium glands open - esophageal glands are found in the submucosa oxyntic cells (+) - muscular layer : smooth muscle cells Gastrin cells – release gastrin - has 3 divisions : - intercalated among the mucous cells of pyloric glands a. upper 3rd – striated ms. Gastrin - stimulates the secretion of acid by the parietal b. Middle 3rd – mixed cells of gastric glands c. Lower 3rd – smooth ms. D cells- other enteroendocrine cells - secrete somatostatin 2. Stomach – mixed exocrine and endocrine  Muscularis externa – composed of smooth muscle fibers oriented organ in the three main directions - digests food - increase surface area - secretes hormones - dilated segment of digestive tract 3. Small Intestine – site of terminal food digestion, nutrient - continues digestion of CHO initiated in absorption and endocrine secretion the mouth, add an acidic fluid to ingested - process of digestion are completed food, transform it by muscular activity - products of digestion is absorbed into a viscous mass (chyme) - relatively long= approximately 5m w/c - promote the initial digestion of CHON permits prolonged contact between food with the enzyme pepsin and digestive enzymes as well as between - produces gastric lipase the digested products and the absorptive - has 4 regions: cells of the epithelial lining a. cardia - consists of three segments: b. fundus a. duodenum c. body b. jejenum d. pylorus d. ileum - mucosa has rugae Mucuous membrane – lining of the small  Rugae- longitudinally directed folds intestine - where mucosa and submucosa of - show a series of permanent fold undistended stomach is found Plicae Circulares - lined by simple columnar epith. (kerckring’s Valves)  Opening of gastric pits – numerous small circular - consisting of mucosa and submucosa ovoid invagination of the lining epithelium - have a emilunar, circular and spiral form - lined by simple columnar epith - most developed in and consequently a - secretes the mucus characteristic of the jejenum  Cardiac Region Intestinal villi – projects narrow circular band into the lumen Glanda or crypts of lieberkuhn – found between the intestinal villi - small opening of simple tubular gland Absorptive Cells – tall columnar cells w/ oval nucleus - has striated border Microvilli – cylindrical protusion of the apical cytoplasm - consisits of cell membrane enclosing a core of actin filaments Columnar intestinal cells – absorb the nutrient molecules produced by the digestive process Goblet cells- interspersed between the absorptive cells - less abundant in the duodenum - increase in number as they approach the jejenum - produce acid glycoproteins Paneth’s cells – found at the basal portion of the intestinal glands - exocrine cells - has secretory granules - have lysozyme M (Microfold cells) – specialized epithelial cells overlying the lymphoid follicles of Peyer’s patches - can endocytose antigens and transport them to the underlying lymphoid systems - represent an impt link in the intestinal immunologic system 4. Large intestine – consists of a mucousal membrane w/ no folds except in its distal (rectal portion - no villi present - has crypts of Lieberkuhn - intestinal glands are long and characterized by a great abundance of goblet and absorptive cells and a small number of enteroendocrine cells - absorb H2O - forms the fecal mass - production of mucus Absortive cells – columnar - have short, irregular microvilli Mucus – hydrated gel - covers the bacteria and particulate matter - lubricates intestinal surface Teniae coli – congregation of the outer longitudinal layer - 3 thick longitudinal bands Rectal Columns of Morgagni - found in the anal region - series of longitudinal folds - from mucous membrane - about 2 cm above the anal opening - lined by stratified squamous epith. - Contains a plexus of large veins that when excessively dilated and varicose produce hemorrhoids 5. Appendix – an evagination of the cecum - characterized by a relatively small, narrow and irregular lumen - contains fewer and shorter intestinal glands - has no teniae coli - blind ended