Morphological Characteristics of Blood Vessels (Circulatory System



Layers tunica intima
endocardium (=endothelium, thin subendocardial connective tissue, fibroelastic connective tissue) endothelium with Weibel Palade granules, thick subendothelial connective tissue, a few longitudinal smooth muscle fibers endothelium, subendothelial areolar connective tissue, some longitudinal smooth muscle [internal elastic lamina] endothelium, thin or no subendothelial connective tissue [internal elastic lamina]

tunica media
myocardium (=cardiac muscle)

tunica adventitia
epicardium (=visceral pericardium and subepicardial areolar connective tissue with coronary vessels) thin to well-developed fibrous connective tissue, vasa vasorum, nervi vascularis

elastic arteries


40–60 spiraling fenestrated sheets of elastic laminae alternating with layers of smooth muscle/collagen/elastic fibers (=lamellar units) smooth muscle layers with some elastin fibers (not laminae) (large art: 20–40 layers; small art: 3–20 layers) fewer than three layers of smooth muscle cells

muscular arteries


[external elastic lamina only in largest arteries] mostly collagen merges with surrounding connective tissue, vasa vasorum, nervi vascularis very thin connective tissue, merges with surrounding connective tissue none very thin: mostly collagen



capillaries venules veins

exchange exchange, capacitance

endothelium (occasional none pericytes) endothelium, some pericytes very thin; 0–3 layers of smooth muscle

capacitance, endothelium, little returning subendothelial connective tissue, valves returning endothelium, thick subendothelial connective tissue, longitudinal smooth muscle

thin and loosely packed: relatively thick 1–3 layers smooth longitudinal collagen, muscle with associated elastic fibers, fibroblasts reticular and elastic fibers poorly developed; 3–12 layers smooth muscle loosely arranged with associated connective tissue relatively thick longitudinal bundles of smooth muscle and collagen fibers, vasa vasorum
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large vein


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Comparison of Capillaries, Sinusoids, and Lymphatic Capillaries (Circulatory System)
Continuous capillaries
common name typical location somatic capillary CNS, muscle, lung, many connective tissues continuous none (caveolae present)

Fenestrated capillaries
visceral capillary glomerulus of kidney, endocrine glands, most viscera continuous many pores, 60–100 nm in diameter; pores (fenestrations) may be in patches small (5–12 m), regular profile well-developed, continuous none

Sinusoidal capillaries Lymphatic capillaries
sinus liver, spleen, bone marrow, lymph node discontinuous may be present lymphatic in most tissues except brain, bone, cartilage, placenta continuous only in lacteals

endothelial continuity fenestrations

lumen diameter and profile basement membrane intercellular spaces intercellular junctions pericytes

small (5–12 m), regular profile well-developed, continuous none

large (30–50 m), fits in tissue spaces scanty or absent present, up to 0.5 m absent, except in spleen

large (10–50 m), irregular profile scanty or absent none usually absent

fascia or zonula occludens fascia occludens present present

absent (macrophages may be absent associated with the abluminal side)

Structural Features of the Lymphoid Organs (Lymphoid Tissues and Organs)
Thymus MALT* (Peyer's
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Tonsil (palatine)

Lymph node



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cortex and medulla lymphoid nodules capsule cords and sinuses lymphatic vessels HEV unique structures yes no yes no no yes no no no yes partial no efferent only yes located in invaginated mucosa yes yes yes yes afferent and efferent yes cortical nodules, subcapsular sinus no yes yes yes only some efferent no central arteries, red pulp

a few efferent only efferent only no Hassall's corpuscles yes located in mucosa of ileum

Vasculature of the Spleen (Lymphoid Tissues and Organs)

Red and white frame indicates borders of red pulp and white pulp, respectively. Bold arrows indicate open circulation path, non-bold arrows indicate closed circulation path. Click on names to load labeled image. Be aware that the diagrammed red pulp and white pulp areas are not drawn in proper scale with respect to each other.


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Structural Features of the Kidney (Urinary System)

Comparative Features of the Organs of the Alimentary Canal (Digestive System: Alimentary Canal)
system division
organ epitheliu m stratified squamous nonkeratinized

upper lower

cardiac fundic/gastri pyloric c

Small intestine
duodenum jejunum ileum

Large intestine
appendi colon x rectum anal canal transition to stratified squamous keratinized epithelium of skin

simple columnar

surface mucous cells

enterocytes, goblet, EEC, Paneth

enterocytes, goblet, EEC

lamina propria

cardiac glands

gastric glands

pyloric glands

occasional lymphoid nodules inner circular, outer longitudinal

mucous, neck, stem, mucous, mucous, stem, EEC, parietal stem, EEC, EEC, parietal and parietal cells cells zymogenic cells muscular scant, only only inner circular, outer longitudinal, is longitudina longitudina outermost circular mucosa l l submuco sa muscular skeletal is muscle

Peyer's patches inner circular, outer longitudinal Brunner's glands


standard inner oblique, mid circular, inner: pyloric two layers outer longitudinal sphincter

standard two layers

standar taenia d two coli

standar inner: internal d two anal sphincter
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externa serosa/ adventiti adventitia serosa a serosa serosa and serosa adventitia

layers serosa

layers serosa and adventitia adventiti a

Structural Features in the Respiratory Tract (Respiratory System)
trachea large bronchi small bronchi bronchiole pseudostratified " " transition to simple columnar

Epithelial cells
ciliated, mucous,* & basal* " " ciliated & Clara* as above, + type I & II* type I & type II* " +

Mucous cells
present present present few-tonone none none none none



Elastic Smooth muscle fibers
spans open ends of C-shaped rings

seromucous C-shaped rings present +++++ seromucous irregular rings +++ seromucous plates & + islands none none none none none none none none none none

abundan spiral bundles encircling mucosa t /submucosa " " + + + + spiraling bundles wide-spread spiral bundles sparser bundles minimal bundles with sphincter at end none none

respiratory simple columnar & bronchiole alveoli alveolar duct alveolar sac alveolus alveoli & simple columnar simple alveolar epithelium simple alveolar epithelium

* denotes a cycling cell


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Cellular Ultrastructure (Ultrastructure of the Cell)


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Hemopoiesis (from Bone Marrow and Hemopoiesis) Erythroblast Series
Nucleus very immature (large dispersed, chromatin, 2–5 nucleoli) Cytoplasmic granules very blue Name proerthroblast

Granulocyte Series
intensely blue basophilic erthroblast Nucleus Cytoplasmic granules immature (large, dispersed none (light blue cytoplasm) chromatin, 2–5 nuclei) Name myoblast

chromatin clumps fine

chromatin clumps very coarse

grey and blue patches

polychromatic erthroblast

only azurophilic granules


nucleus condensed

the color of reticulocytes

orthochromatic erthroblast

oval to slightly dented

no nucleus


azurophilic granules plus neutrophilic granules or eosinophilic granules or basophilic granules

n. myelocyte e. myelocyte b. myelocyte

c-shape to deeply indented

n. metamyelocyte e. metamyelocyte b. metamyelocyte

u-shape with some constriction

n. band or stab


polymorphonuclear neutrophil polymorphonuclear eosinophil polymorphonuclear basophil


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