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A Philosophy of Suicide

D.R. Jatava
M.A. (Phil., Pol. Sc.), LL.B., Ph.D., D. Liti.

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Publisher

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ISBN : 978-81-85771-46-5

Contents

Preface
/

Introduction
1. Terrible Tales of Suicide 2. Apparent Reasons for Suicide
3. Theories of Suicide

1 9 92 114 127 142 152 168 184 221

4. Mysteries of Suicide 5. Roles of Psyche in Suicide


6. Resolving Approach to Suicide

7. Underlying Principle of Suicide 8. How Do People Look at Suicide?


The Epilogue

Preface

Right from ancient to modern times, the events of suicide have been a distressing phenomenon among all the human societies, in one way or the other. It is a human tendency either to live well, or to die, as the numerous events of suicide suggest and unfold the mysterious stories to go either way. The increasing upward graph of suicides is a gruesome problem to be thoroughly probed in its depth and width with all compassion and pity to those who have been the victims of suicide. A suicide is not a simple wish to die, but a very complicated issue to deal with, especially for a student of philosophy like me who has not even a faint idea to move in this field. What has prompted me to write on such a sensitive subject? I do not know, exactly. So far, I have written dozens of books on certain popular subjects - religion, politics, philosophy, society, culture, democracy, humanism, ambedkar ideology, buddhism, human resources, and so on.

Preface

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It is a psychological problem to the psychologists like

Sigmund Freud; a sociological issue to the sociologists like Emile Durkheim, and also a philosophical one to the philosopher like Albert Camus, about which I am well aware. However, it has come to me directly due to profusely reportings of suicide incidents by print-media, audio-visual and other means. As I think, it is not even my own conscience that has motivated me to write on "a philosophy of suicide", a subject which has never been dealt with in my other works. It is a mystery to me; however, both interesting and intricate, and I intend to explain and unfold many of its aspects for the concerned people. Here it may be noted that the incidents of suicide occur not only among the poor, illiterate, diseased, frustrated, depressed, unsuccessful, etc., but also among the rich, literate, healthy, well-placed, care-free, cheerful, successful, etc. So alsd.not only the females, but also the males commit suicide. In a similar way, not only the small or ordinary ones, but also the greatest figures of human history do so. The mystery of suicide is so dominant a factor, or an event, that does not leave anyone, either a group or a class, to be out of this vicious circle. When I read, see, or listen to, the happenings of suicide, I am extremely appalled and uprooted from within, but I simply tolerate them with all of my silence, patience and sympathy. Frankly speaking, I cannot specify why, how and what has prompted me to deal with such a mysterious and miraculous phenomenon widely found these days among the human societies of the world. However, I am sure, as the terrible tales of suicide go in black and white, many untold facts, or ideas, would come out to the forefront for the

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readers and the scholars. To me also, certain hidden aspects would be explicit and enlightening. It may look an exercise, or a venture, in wilderness. Yet I am definite, this would not disappoint those who read and study the phenomenon of suicide. I am, therefore, full of optimism to present this volume to the learned ones who come forward to ponder over the baffling subject, seriously. Now I heartily thank the publisher who undertook this work for publication; however, with a tinge of risky mood in terms of a commercial venture.
- D.R. Jatava

Introduction

The problem of suicide is the most ticklish and tedious one to deal with. In fact, it is a very terrible theme, a difficult task to unfold its mystery. It is also a multi-dimensional subject to define in exact terms. Whether it is a psychological, or a sociological, problem, I cannot comprehend at his stage; but to begin with, I take it as a philosophical venture. The philosophy is a search for knowledge and understanding of any problem, root and branch. Taken in this sense, this study would find out the nature, meaning and reasons of any occurrence, so also the incidents of suicide, which is closely related to the acts of human life. A philosophy is an attitude towards life, that is, the "guiding principle" for human behaviour, and the suicide is also a way of behaving or an act, in a particular situation, leading one towards the ending of one's own life. Along with outer forces, it is the subjectivity of an individual, which is involved in the glaring instances of suicide.

A Philosophy of Suicide

The philosophical attitude to life and the numerous incidents of self-killing, I have read and listened to, are the factors responsible for involving me to deal with the most painful happenings of suicide. There is a long list of thinkers and philosophers who started with and supported the most gloomy picture of man in this world. Here we may quote a few examples for our study and analysis. Not only the philosophies of optimism and positive thinking, but also the philosophies of pessimism and negative attitudes, have been dominant to influence the human minds. Arther Schopenhauer (1788-1860), a German philosopher, was a serious exponent of extreme pessimism, and so he said, "the will to be, the will to live, is the cause of all struggle, sorrow and evil in the world". For him, human beings live in a world in which the little fish are devoured by the larger ones. It is not a good world, but an evil one in the worst of all possible worlds; "the life of man is not worth living because it is full of misery; it follows from the very nature of the human will that man's life is one of pain and misery". In fact, man is to face the terrible waves only to be engulfed at last, for ultimately death conquers man. Man is basically base, jealous and selfish, and that is why, "the history is full of murders, robberies, intrigues and lies". Another German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche (18441900), also stood for the gloomy picture of human world. He was partially a naturalist and irrationalist, too; and he propounded the philosophy of supermen, who alone are the fittest ones to survive and rule over the weak. For Nietzsche, the "will to power" is the basic urge of man, and in order to win and dominate the poor and the lowly, is the birth-right of the supermen. Morality is what supermen prescribe to be

Introduction

followed by the generality of the people. In his opinion, the objective world is an appearance, a false world; only the strongest ego is the real subjectivity, or an individuality, which represents the real world, or the human society. Schopenhauer and Nietzsche are still well known for their extreme pessimism, but they influenced the emergence of the philosophy of existentialism based on man's subjectivity, individuality and atheism. The philosophy of existentialism believes that though man is free, yet he is condemned and thrown in this world to live without any aims and meanings. That is why man is what he makes of himself. This way Schopenhauer and Nietzsche were the precursors of the movement of existentialism in the realm of philosophy, which found the human world as an 'absurdity' full of "absurd situations grounded in jealousy, fear and anxieties". The basic ideas of existentialism are relevant to our study, and that is why, we have taken up its prominent thinkers whose thoughts may be found interestingly supporting the theory of suicide. The philosophy of existentialism clearly came out to stress that man is condemned to live and die by his own choice. It was Martin Heidegger (1899-1976), one of the founders and main exponents of German existentialism, who called man simply as "being in the world", and to divine "the meaning of being" man must get rid of all practical aims and be conscious of his 'mortality', 'frailty'. Only by feeling that he constantly stands" face to face with death" is man. As Heidegger thought, man is capable of perceiving the importance and fullness of each moment in life and getting rid of the 'idols of social being', 'aims', 'ideals' and 'scientific abstraction'. The philosophy of Heidegger combines the

A Philosophy of Suicide

irrationalist tendencies of Soren Kierkeggard (1813-1855), a Danish mystic thinker and precursor of existentialism, the philosophy of life and the phenoinenology of Edmund Husser! (1859-1938), a German idealist philosopher. Profound pessimism and hostility for science are intrinsic in Heidegger's existentialism. A French philosopher was Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), who supported the gloomy picture of man as 'being for himself'. The subjectivity of man is the pivotal element in individual life; the objective world exists, which is, however the opposite of human activity. Man is free and does not depend on objective laws; the objective is irrational; whereas the emotional elements are predominant in man's life. Sartre, a humanist, was an exponent of 'atheistic existentialism'. He advocated an idealist concept of freedom; its essence is expressed in the principle; "Man is what he makes of himself". Another French philosopher and writer, and representative of 'atheistic existentialism', was Albert Camus (1913-1960), who said that "the outside world, the universe, is the state of the subject", and for him, "the only philosophical problem" is "the problem of suicide". He was extremely a pessimistic philosopher who thought, "man is always in an absurd state", he encounters 'absurd situation' (jealousy, ambition, selfishness); and is doomed for meaningless and aimless activity; constantly facing the fear of death. Camus was a thinker who supported extreme and he suggested that the individualism and only solution of man's anxieties, fears and ambitions, is to commit suicide. This way the fundamental concept of existentialism culminated in irrationalism, pessimism and a

Introduction
philosophy of suicide.

In its generality, a suicide is deemed to be an action of "killing oneself intentionally". It may also be added to it, that certain forces, human or natural, become so dominant that an individual cannot bear and tolerate, what Camus called, 'the absurd situation' for long, which emerges reversely to one's expectations, and thus is driven to take an extreme step like. committing suicide. Though an individual is free, he has many alternatives to choose, but anyhow, he goes the way to suicide. The suicidal tendencies are inherent in human nature, and when a situation, within or without, so ripened that he suddenly jumps into the well of suicide for ending his life, leaving behind the weeping wife and crying children, if married; otherwise, the aged parents and the close relatives to suffer most. Most of the people think that the increasing events of suicide these days happen due to economic hardship, unemployment, family tension, heavy debt, police coercion, financial loss, failure in examination, indignity, insufficient dowry, breaking of love, torture, mental agony, unsuccessful career, and so on. All these things may be the supporting factors, but to me, there is some deeper cause, or phenomenon, behind all the acts of suicide, which the sociologists and psychologists have to investigate, seriously and deeply. What happens in the event of suicide, is a deadly state of extreme self-torture, very painful moments of life, facing mental agony, misery, crying, weeping, and so on. An ordinary, or normal, individual, may be bewildered and shuddered from bottom to top. In my opinion, an incident of suicide is not merely an action one thinks about. It is not a

A Philosophy of Suicide

firm decision even, nor a well-thought step. A person, who ponders over its consequences, merits and demerits, can never commit suicide, he withdraws himself, if he looks into what results it may yield to his kith and kin. The suicide is not a planned action, for it happens suddenly and instantly irrespective of what may be the consequences afterwards. The person, who commits suicide, may adopt any method, or a path, immediately available to him such as consuming celphos tablets, dousing kerosene over oneself, lying on the railway tract, shooting by rifle or pistol, throwing oneself into a well or a river, taking poison, hanging on a tree or a fan, etc. The ways of suicide are manifold and reasons, too, are varied for each and every incident of suicide. In brief, the bizarre and bitter scenes of suicide are so ghastly that one may be afraid of looking at them bewiderly.
It may be suggested here that a person, who commits

suicide, develops a philosophy of life "realizing the worthlessness of his existence" and at last, he chooses to finish himself. He questions himself-"Who is 'I' in this world? Is it of any value?" He himself rediscovers the frailty of his being: its anxieties and burdensome responsibilities. For him, nothing is good and worthy to achieve. In the process of suicide, there is a lot of self-realization but no selfpity and self-condemnation. To most of the people, the world is full of misery, jealousy, enmity and envy; feeling so, the individual, jumps in the grip of darkened world; he begins to crack from within, and also begins to lose the battle of his own desperation and depression. It is the situation of mysterious vision. Whether it is a negative or a positive attitude to life, or something else is a thing to be brought into the realm of philosophy, though it is a very difficult venture.

Introduction

To discover and analyze the philosophy of suicide, first I would quote, or mention, the numerous instances of it available to me through different sources. I would not enumerate the real names of the victims and their families as it would be embarrassing to those who are involved in the events of suicide. I would put forth certain apparent reasons, and then, search out the common thread, or the phenomenon working behind and beneath all the incidents of suicide. The analysis, that I am devoted to, would not be mere descriptive; it would dive deep into the sea of suicide as to why it happens, what impels one to choose that way, and how the events of suicide can be prevented or minimized. I would endeavour to the best of my knowledge to find out the basic force, mystery or the instinct, that is beneath or that works, behind commonly in all the events of suicide. I do not know, whether one would agree, or disagree, with the conclusions, I would be drawing and emphasizing in the end of this study. However, this much is sure, the reading of the book would be enlightening to some, and pathetic one to many others. My effort, to say in brief, would be to concentrate and study the rubbles of the deceased ones to whom I offer my humble and silent homage lest they should be unhappy over my unfolding of their horrible tales. Here I wish to convey my firm opinion or view that a human being is not a mathematical figure' to be exactly measured by any standard, even not a mechanical device, toy or clock, to be handled like a machine. A human being, as it seems to me, is not merely a physical figure but also a being in whom mental states, feelings, emotions, instincts, ideas, imaginations, dreams, fantasies, etc., are invariably associated with him. A man's sensitivity, anger, envy,

A Philosophy of Suicide

jealousy, greed, conflict, consciousness, subconsciousness, egoism, altruism, fear, hatred, love, etc., also count much to measure his ability or capabilities. What I mean, is that to know a human being in all his aspects - internal and external, still remains a mystery to all those who endeavour to picturize him completely; and thus a perfect study and analysis of man is not possible. This has to be kept in mind while discovering any philosophical aspect of human beings. Now to raise a question that seems to me, relevant"Can there be any undercurrent inherently working behind all the incidents of suicide?" Yes, there is a reasonable possibility and that is what. I have to investigate or to infer from the facts related to the terrible tales of suicide of different shades and shadows to frighten anyone; if one goes to discover grass roots of these horrible happenings. Before going ahead to write more, I earnestly wish the audience or the readers to pardon me for many repetitions of facts or of ideas, I have made, though it is just to make the subject very clear and more explicit .. What I have written, is not to lengthen the main theme of the book but as a result of my good faith without any remorse on my part and also without creating any boredom to others.

Terrible Tales of Suicide

First of all, to understand and investigate the ticklish problem of suicide, it is necessary to narrate the horrible tales of self-killing, I have collected from various sources. This chapter is exclusively devoted to describe as many tales as possible of different shades, and this simple description includes the examples of poor, rich, writers, teachers, labourers, students, officials, leaders, saints, artists, farmers, womenfolk, industrialists, militants, etc., in order to emphasize the point that the events of suicide occur not only in a particular segment of society, but in all the sections of human societies. The occurrence of suicide cases is a common world-wide phenomenon which exempts no one belonging to any religious communities, castes or races. The suicide may generally be individual; in some cases, couplery, or collective one in what way one takes the suicidal scenes; to me, these incidents can increase heart-beatings and make one heart-breaking, what to say of those who suffer most due to being the relatives and friends of the victims.

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1
To begin with, I greatly regret to mention now four ghastly events of suicide, which took place long back around 1970-75 in Sri Ganganagar city of Rajasthan State. I personally know them as the events occurred in the families of those who were well known to me. Two students, one vice-principal and a doctor were the victims of suicide. I was, then, working as a lecturer in the government college. Unfortunately, these two students belonged to my colleagues of the college teaching staff. The first event of suicide occurred in the family of D.P. Gupta, a professor, who was the Head of Economics Department in the government college. He was simple and sober, but was a heavy drunkard, extremely an addict; and he used to drink liquor anywhere in family, city, college, or on road, chewing pan just to avoid bad smell. The professor, a Vaishya by caste, always kept half a bottle of liquor and whenever he needed, he drank it. Strangely, when short of money, he asked anyone of his students to lend some money to him, which he never returned, and this made the students very caucious to avoid him, if seen anywhere. However, he was the best teacher of his subject, and the students were happy at least on this point. One of the sons of the professor, namely, Mahesh Gupta, was also a student in our college, who was intelligent, handsome and sensitive. He knew about his father's addiction, and felt it too much. He asked his mother to stop the father, but she could not to do so. The fellow-students, at times, used to complain in sarcastic language that pinched and struck the heart of Mahesh. After being frustrated and depressed, the boy dared say, "Dad, excuse me to speak a

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few words; it does not behoove to you to be addicted and ask your students to lend some money for buying liquor; and it also makes me ashamed of it; I request you to stop such things". Professor Gupta did not give any heed to his son's words and grew furious saying, "You fool! You teach me what I should do. You do your study and leave me to do what I feel good to me". The boy, Mahesh, was very sensitive, and the same night, he hanged to kill himself by tying a rope around the neck and attaching the end of it to the ceiling fan before removing the support underneath. This way he committed suicide. The father and his family members had no inkling of such an extreme step by their son. The next morning turned into a state of sorrow and suffering and when I heard of it, I rushed to their residence, along with some college colleagues. It was a very ghastly scene, but to our surprise, the father - professor realized the folly of his being a drunkard and gave up the 'addiction' after his son's suicide, or say, the sacrifice for a good cause.

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After a year or so, the second student of our college, Surendra Mohan, who committed suicide, was the son of the Head of Political Science Department of the government college. This suicide had a different story or background. The father of Surendra, namely, Prem Singh, was also a drunkard, but was fond of going to early morning walk. His son used to study till late at night and rise late in the morning, and that annoyed the professor. One day evening, he said, "You, the lazy boy! Note it, if I find you sleeping today after I return from walk, I will beat you". The boy,

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simple by nature, did not give any heed to his father's warning, but took the same step the earlier boy had undertaken. He committed suicide the same way, and thus, finished himself to be in eternal sleep. The professor, a Jat by caste, after his morning walk, found his son's room closed, which made him angry. He soon knocked at the door, and finding no response, peeped into the room through the wide gap of wooden doors. To his horrible surprise, the professor found his handsome son hanging to the ceiling fan. "'las non-plussed and cried loudly for his son's death. We all went there and witnessed the painful scene, weeping and crying by his mother and two sisters.

3
The third incident of suicide is related to Karni Prasad, the professor and Head of the Commerce Department of a big reputed private S.D. College of Ganganagar city. He was also the vice-principal of that college, a very simple and popular teacher, he always acted in favour of students. Why did he commit suicide? He was suffering from stomach pain for the treatment of which he consumed a lot medicine, both Allopathic and Ayurvedic, but except a temporary relief, he was not cured permanently, and this made him nervous and neurotic. Ultimately, the vice-principal went to the Medical College Hospital of Bikaner, a district of Rajasthan, on the advice of the medical doctors. After a thorough check-up and numerous tests, the doctors found him suffering from 'abdominal cancer'. This turned the vice-principal into an acute state of depression. The idea of fatal disease gripped his mind, and he felt, the chances of his survival for long

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were bleak. What, then, he did, was to end his life, but the way of his suicide was quite an amazing one as I saw it there. One day the vice-principal's wife had gone to market and the children were in some school or college. He was all alone in the house. He hurriedly collected wooden chairs, tables and other similar articles, along with a small tin of kerosene. He laid down on a wooden cot and tightly tied himself with long ropes to the cot; he, then, kept all the articles over the same cot. Soon he doused kerosene over himself and the wooden articles as well, and he himself ignited a match stick to commit suicide. The room was filled up with heavy smoke flying outside through windows. When his wife carne, she was terribly shaken and cried loudly for help. The neighbours rushed to the place; they found the professor half burnt but dead. The news spread like a wildfire in the city. I, along with others, reached there and saw what had happened. It was a cruel way of suicide. The fear of cancer made the professor badly conscious of his death. That is why he chose to die at the earliest to avoid the approaching death slowly but surely. No one could help him, neither the doctors nor the gods, he believed in and worshipped them daily. What a tragedy! One could hardly imagine of it.

4
The forth incident of suicide, I remember well, is related to a medical doctor, Jitendra Kumar, who was working in District Government Hospital, Ganganagar, and he was well known to me as I always used to meet him for treatment of myself and the family members. Hi& wife, Sarika, was also a medical doctor in the same hospital. Both were very kind to us; they

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were really devoted to their professional work, and I was for all of praise to both of them. The husband and the wife doctors, however, had at times some minor altercations, and even so on trivial matters because of their conflicting egos as each one wanted to dominate other. Once they went to Bikaner for attending the marriage ceremony of the sister of Dr. Sarika, and the tragedy of suicide occurred there. As I knew, Dr. Jitendra wanted Sarika to accompany him to see a film just to be in good mood, a day earlier to the marriage. The wife bluntly refused to go with him on the pretext that she was busy in managing the marriage activities. The husband did not relish the unpardonable refusal and the remarks of unpalatable nature. The refusal made quite a dent in his ego. The same night, he hanged himself tying the long cloth(i.e., wife's sari) with ceiling fan, and thus, he ended his life. Consequently, the entire happy situation turned into a gloomy and gruesome scene. To say in brief, it was an apparent 'clash of egoism' on their past. Resulting in an unthinkable incident. What was the real cause of suicide, it remains a mystery to me to this day. Anyhow, the immediate cause was 'an altercation' or 'disagreement' between the two, intermittently.

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Now I come to narrate some incidents of suicide that took place in Jaipur city and its neighbouring towns during the last half of the decade. I collected the details of these cases through the reportings of newspapers. Like the earlier events, I have mentioned, these were also ghastly and heartbreaking ones. Could these suicides be prevented? To me, it seems very difficult. The tales may be cited as follows:

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The first to narrate, was the suicide by a labourer, Panna Lal, who had an illegal relationship with a neighbouring colony's married woman, known as Lakshmi. Panna Lal was a resident of Jhotwara area of Jaipur city. He had two or three children, and the woman, a paramour one, often used to visit him, and his wife knew it but was helpless to stop her husband from such an immoral act. For a day or two, that person's wife and the children had gone to one of their relations. The man was staying in his house alone, and when his paramour came to him in the evening he asked her to stay for a might for enjoying themselves. But the woman did not agree with his proposal, and she wished to go. Then, the man remarked; "If you do not stay, my dear, I will commit suicide". "You can do it", Lakshmi retorted in jovial mood. Panna Lal repeated his words again, "I will commit suicide, if you do not agree with me". "What a nonsense. I will go to my home", replied the woman. When the man repeated his words thrice, she started going outside the room, but before her going, the man brought a rope and tied it to one ceiling iron hook, and made a hanging knot and showed her to use it, if she left him. Without realizing his intention, she was adamant not to stay, what happened, then? He hanged himself and died instantly before she could leave the room. The woman was badly frightened to see it all and fled away from the deadly scene. One can draw any conclusion from this incident of suicide. I cannot say, exactly, about the inherent cause of it. But the apparent reason was an adamant refusal' to say on the part of the woman and man's stubborn attitude' to force her agree with him. The next day, the neighbours, after seeing the deceased one, informed the police, which arrested
I I

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the woman, but later on, she was freed as the police thought, the woman could not lift the person so high as to hang him. In fact, the illegal relationship was an unwanted act, and the subsequent tragical happening turned to be a curse to his humble wife, Sumitra and the innocent children, to face numerous hardships in future.

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The second case of suicide happened in my own Meena colony three years back in the family of a young boy, Kesar Kumar, who belonged to my birth-place, Hathras city (now a district of Uttar Pradesh). The boy, when he was studying in Agra College, lived in a locality where a girl, Salini fell in love with him, and later on, after his passing M.A. (English), final examination, he got a clerical job in a bank and also married Salini, without the consent of his parents, so did the girl, Salini. Kesar Kumar was posted in Jaipur and he had a rented room next to my residence in Meena colony. Both the husband and the wife, Jatava by caste, were living here happily, they were smart and charming, well known to me. Salini was a good designer, a graduate one, but she could not adjust with the parents of the boy, especially with her saas (i.e. mother-in-law), and that led her to commit suicide. One day the mother and sister of Kesar Kumar came to Jaipur to see him. After a day or so, there was a heated altercation between the saas and her bahu on the point that due to her love-marriage with his son, the relatives and the residents used to criticize the saas and her family. The saas chided his son and used invectives against her so-called bahu. This annoyed the bahu to such an extent that the bahu lost her mental balance. However, she kept mum without

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complaining to anyone. She went somewhere in the evening. She did not return back for many hours. For anybody's surprise, while going along the side road near railway tract, when she saw a train coming from Gandhi Nagar station, she suddenly jumped before the engine near Tonk Phatak. As a result, her body turned into small pieces of flesh and bones, hardly to be identified. There was a long line of bloody spots along the tract. Her husband felt nervous when she did not return and went to the known families to find whether she might be there. Anyhow, he saw a small crowd near the Tonk Phatak, and to his sensational surprise, he identified her wife's clothes to be sure that she had committed suicide, but he did not stay there even for some minutes, and after hurriedly coming back to his rented room, he disclosed to his mother the grim incident of his wife's suicide. He then asked his mother to go to Hathras at the earliest. The mother and her daughter, badly frightened and shuddered squarely, left Jaipur the same night to evade any arrest. Afterwards, Kesar Kumar went to a person of our locality, known as Preetam, who acted as a middleman in such cases between the police and the concerned parties. Both of them reached the railway police station to claim the body of the dead lady, but her body was so mutilated and shattered that they collected only the pieces of her body, and then, we arranged her funeral. There was none to weep for her. When the parents of the dead lady reached Jaipur, they filed a case against the husband, but nothing went against him as he had already offered good amount of money to the police. After a year, he got married himself to a teacher girl, Kavita, with the consent of their respective parents, and now, both are leading a happy married life with a son born to them.

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Surprisingly, there was no repentance on the part of the lover, and even no regret for his deceased beloved, what to say of any tears in his eyes. The incident of her suicide made the so-called lover's parents much cheerful. This incident, as I think, was a result of hateful behaviour towards the bahu by the boy's mother and sister. It way clearly a clash between the saas and the bahu as we find usually in families of traditional nature. In this case, the saas was illiterate and the bahu was educated not to tolerate each other, and the son, or the husband of the lady, was really meek and timid as ,remained neutral to witness the tragedy.

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Another tragedy of suicide 'happened in the family of a Director-General (Police) of Rajasthan State, Jagat Singh, in the month of June, 2001. The victim was the well-spoken and handsome married son, Rohit Singh, of D-G (P). When I read the news, I was stunned for a while as there was no economic hardship. Rohit lived in his father's beautiful farmhouse on the Agra Road. It was lovely and a resort to enjoy, and actually, one day night there was a dinner party, all enjoying drinking and laughter among the guests. The wife of the victim, Lata Singh, was also there, who belonged to a high class Jat family; so was her husband. As learnt from the newspapers, there arose a dispute, or an altercation, between the invited guests and Rohit Singh. His wife, anyhow, did not favour her husband, and this led him to a deep melancholy mood. What happened afterwards? It was really a very terrible tale to unfold to the surprise of many among the people of all shades. At about midnight the son of the D-G (P) rushed in a

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jeep to his father's official residence. He wanted to say something to him about the dispute, but he was not allowed to meet him by the security police as he was sleeping. The son, then, went into an empty room behind the bungalow in which some weapons were kept. In a fit of anger and agony', he picked up a rifle and shot dead himself so cruelly that his head was badly shattered into small pieces of flesh and bones, a gruesome scene of blood thrown around the whole of the room inside. After a little while, the D-G (P) and his family members carne to know the occurrence of suicide. All of them were stunned and their residence turned into a place of sorrow, suffering and showers of tears from people's eyes.
I

Whatever the inside story, an apparent reason of the suicide, as seems to me, was a severe shock' to the victim, which made quite a sharp dent in his heart: "Oh! What is the use of greatness of my father whom I cannot meet in the hour of a crisis?", Rohit Singh might have a thought in his mind, and so realizing the worthlessness of his being, he suddenly shot dead himself by an official rifle.
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8
The religion of Islam has allowed a male to have four wives at a time. The Ramganj area of Jaipur city has a large number of Muslim habitants. During the year 1999, a man, namely Nasir Mohrnmad, a mechanic by profession, had four wives and many children born to them. Anyhow, he did not have sufficient earnings to feed all the wives and their children with usual necessities. Even his house could not accommodate all of them properly. The first wife, Nagina Begam, when grew old, was being ignored, and consequently, she could hardly bear the situation as it was

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bedevilling her. Nagina could not help and improve the situation in her favour. One day, under great 'stress and depression', she went to the top of the roof of her house and dared jumping to the ground. This way she ended her life. The husband, though working hard right from morning to evening to meet the requirements of his family members, yet failed to visualize the bad consequences of having a large family. He, however, took the incident of suicide as a great crime as it was not in accordance with Islam to end one's life.

9
The cases of suicide by the students, both boys and girls, little or big ones, may be seen almost in all communities. Some commit suicides because of total failure in examinations, by jumping before the running the trains, consuming poison, or celphos tablets, or by any means, one adopts to end his life. Some of the students also commit suicides because of poor marks or divisions, they would have expected in the examinations. The modes of suicides may vary in each case as per the situation existing, then. The chiding and criticizing, condemning and beating, the students by their parents, may be taken as some apparent reasons for suicides. I still remember, a case of suicide that happened two year back, in Alwar city of Rajasthan State, by a girl student, Sonia. The way she adopte, 1 to finish her life was horrible. She was a student of B.A. in government college of Alwar. She expected a good first division; but she was shocked when result came to her in third division. Her parents were teachers, she was the only daughter, and so they did not say any word that could pinch her. She herself felt it very much. One day, when her parents were away in

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their schools, Sonia took a big polythene bag and covered her head upto the neck, and then, tightened it with the help of a thin rope so that she could not breathe in order to die. Afterwards, she laid down on the bed and felt severe uneasiness, very painful moments to bear befor her death. At last, Sonia died, and when her parents came, they looked at her, started weeping and crying. Soon the neighbours reached there and they, too, wept for a while. In this case, the apparent reasons were "her own shocking mood and heartbreaking feelings". Even the medical students, boys or girls, when frustrated and depressed due to failure in examinations or trying one attempt after another to pass, resort the way to suicides by consuming overdose of sleeping pills, or celphos tablets. So also do the engineering students. There have been more than dozens of suicides during the last decade as I read in the newspapers. They also adopt horrible means to end their lives. Some of them leave their studies without completing the final examinations. Who is responsible for such tragedies? There may be "coercion, or stem warnings", on the part of their teacher-doctors; but the victims are solely responsible for their suicides as they do not have selfconfidence to face the facts as usually come to them.

10
As I have said earlier, not only the unemployed and the poor; but also the well-placed in services and earning a lot of money, also commit suicides for one or the other reasons. Here I would cite two examples of suicide-one by an I.P.S lady and the second one by an I.A.S. officer. Both these incidents took place during the year 1999-2000.

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A Philosophy of Suicide

A probationary I.P.S. lady, Anjna, very beautiful and charming one, was posted in Ajmer, a district of Rajasthan State, during the Urs of Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti, when lakhs of devotees, belonging to all communities and castes, visit and pray for their material gains and mental peace. The parents of children also visit and pray before the mazar of Khwaja for the success in examinations. The I.P.S. lady was entrusted the duties of maintaining law and order during the period of Urs. Her husband, Raj Kumar, was also an I.A.S. officer posted in Udaipur district of Rajasthan. Theirs was an inter-caste marriage without any obstacle. What did cause Anjna to commit suicide? It was so merciless, none could think of it. She was staying in Ajmer circuit-house, a lovely, an attractive good place over looking the Anasagar Lake. She was there all alone. Perhaps, the "pressure of Urs supervision, loneliness and her husband's posting miles away" from Ajmer, made her 'frustrated and depressed'. Being a woman, she wanted her husband to talk to her face to face, and thus, to be loved after her strenuous duties. She could not bear the loneliness during the night and days' heavy duties for which the senior officers asked her to be vigilant and moving from one corner to another lest some unhappy events should arise. One day she reached circuithouse late in the evening, much fatigued, Anjna took her dinner as usual; but in a melancholy mood, she consumed sixty sleeping tablets of 10 mg each. Could one survive after taking so many sleeping tablets? Surely, none. Anjna also adopted the same way the Alwar girl had done, that is, covering and tightening her head by a polythene bag, and thus, she committed suicide to the great surprise of her husband and in-laws and parents as well. To be brief, the real

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story of her suicide might have been something else; but the apparent reasons were her 'loneliness', 'loveless night', 'pressure of supervision', etc. It was really a mystery as to why she had done so.

11
Kamal Jain, an LA.S. officer, as mentioned earlier, was posted in Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh, and he was quite a senior and seasoned officer. He was married to a highly educated girl, Lalita, whose parents belonged to Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh. She was from a very rich family, and usually, during the summer vacations of their grown up children, they used to visit Bhopal for enjoying the holidays for a week or so. None could imagine that he was going to commit suicide. One early morning, Kamal, the LA.S. officer, went to the top of the four storeyed building of his father-inlaw, and suddenly, he jumped down, badly struck to the ground to be dead. His jumping down and structness turned into a thumping sound, loudly, that awakened the in-laws, his wife and children; while looking at the deadly scene they started weeping and crying in a darkened state of affairs. The LA.S. officer left a note on a piece of paper in his own writing saying, "I am committing suicide at my own due to the politicians' pressure and warning, if I do not work for their illegal and unfair benefits of sensitive nature, I do not want myself to be entangled in such activities. That is why the best way to avoid these immoral acts, is to end myself before I suffer more". The reasons apparently were the politicians' pressure on bureaucracy to indulge in illegal and immoral acts as we observe in all the states of Indian polity these days.

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A Philosophy of Suicide

12
Kumari Sunita Sharma, was a very beautiful girl having charming looks with wide eyes, an attractive personality, sweet daring voice and photogenic face. Belonging to a very rich family of Patel Nagar, New Delhi, Sunita was a bit mental case but highly an ambitious girl and she had pampered an idea of becoming an actress in the film industry. Sunita was quite in search of an opportunity as how to reach Mumbai. One day, she determined to leave her family, and collecting or possessing a good amount of money, she got a train from Delhi, and thus, she reached Mumbai Terminal railway station. Surprisingly, Sunita found herself alone, but was determined to meet some actors or actresses. How to meet them was a difficult problem to her. Incidentally, a group of three boys-Ketan, Samir and Vadhwani, accosted Sunita on the pretext of bringing her to some prominent cine-artists. She accompanied them, who brought her to a grand hotel, and stayed there for a night. These boys were actually the active members of a mafiagroup that was engaged in nefarious activities such as rape, deceiving new ones, snatching money from strangers or even they could murder anybody for their purpose. Sunita was also a mature girl as she had completed her graduate studies. In the hotel, she booked a separate room for herself just to avoid any mischief by the boys. They also had a good amount of money at their disposal. Sunita, after taking dinner with the boys, went to her room to sleep and bolted it from inside. The boys, too, went to their room and hatched a conspiracy to bring Sunita near to a big lake early in the morning.

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What happened, then? The boys and Sunita wake up early and all of them reached a lake that was surrounded by big shadowy trees. The boys told her that this is the beautiful and lovely resort where some great cine-artists used to come for morning walk. In fact, the lake had no such walkers to walk to it. For an hour or two, she waited there. She, then, quickly realized the ensuing something bad against herself. The boys were determined to rape her. They asked her to enjoy the company of her good friends; before meeting the artists. It was a bolt from blue to Sunita who had not expected such a criminal act. Before the sturdy and stupid boys could use any force to compel Sunita for being raped, she grew so furious and ferriferous that she started pelting small pieces of stone on them to go away. Sunita, to the surprise of these boys, injured them badly not to touch her, but the boys warned her that they would be back soon to revenge. Then, Sunita felt helpless, frustrated and unable to encounter the boys, again. She suddenly thrown herself in the deep water of the lake, and thus, committed suicide. Why had she done so? As I guess, Sunita committed suicide in order to save her 'honour and virginity' for which any sensitive woman could scarify her life. The whole story was flashed in the newspapers, which Sunita's parents read with all sorrow, anguish and agony. With their heart-broken, they brought back their warriordaughter dead to their home and performed all religious rites on her funeral. Sunita had left a piece''Pf note hurriedly written addressing her parents: "I am committing suicide just to save my 'honour and virginity', I beg your pardon for my folly, and hope you will excuse me". These words were actually of great solace to her parents as their daughter had fought vigorously against the wicked boys.

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13
A karorpati of Shivaji Nagar, Mumbai, also became a victim of suicide during the first quarter of year, 2001. His name was Rajendra Shahu, aged about eighty-four, yet very active and expert in the business of shares. He had earned more than twenty-five crores of rupees during his life time, and was still unsatisfied with the enormous empirical entities like a spacious bungalow, cars, servants, and articles of all comfort and luxuries. He was extremely greedy and wanted immense wealth to leave for his present family members and future generations. Shahu was well-placed, a rich man, being an owner of a big company of shareholdings, namely, Shahu Shareholding Company (P) Limited. However Shahu's dream of becoming an arabpati was badly battered when the share market happened to be unexpectedly going down. He lost crores of rupees in his business, and thought, probably he might be a dustman to remove rubbish from outside houses, shops, streets, etc., in future. He was very hopeful to regain his lost money but all in vain. The graph of share market was continuously going downwards. As a result, Shahu became so desperate, i.e., he started feeling or showing great despair within and was ready to do anything without worrying about danger. A 'deep desperation' led him to commit suicide by jumping down from the top of the roof of his splendid house to the ground. This way Shahu got rid of all desperation, anxieties and fears. The suicide was apparently a result of 'greed, dc .. peration' and despicable situation.

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14
Now an example of couplery suicide my be cited as follows: According to the newspapers' reporting, a resident of village, Gothrawala of the district of Bundi (Rajasthan State), Lakshman Jhanwar's daughter, namely, Karuna (Maheshwari), was married to the son (Guru Pars ad) of Dwarka Sen Ajmera of Jaipur nearly two years back. The parents of Karuna had given sufficient dowry according to their social status; but after the marriage, Karuna's saas (mother-in-law), sasur (father-in-law) and her jeth (her husband's brother), all started speaking in sarcastic language for not bringing sufficient dowry, and as a result, Karuna was continuously being tortured by them on one pretext or the other. She was badly upset, but her husband was in her favour as she was a gentle, beautiful and faithful to Guru Parsad. Both, Guru Parsad and Karuna, wanted to live together peacefully. However, both of them could not adjust themselves with saas, sasur and jeth because of hostile situation in the family and continuous torture and invectives against Karuna. One day, Guru Parsad and Karuna left their home to avoid further hostility and torture towards Karuna, they reached Tonk city, a district town of Rajasthan; they stayed in a hotel, and while sitting on a bench of bus station to go somewhere else, they consumed some poisonous powder. Thus, after a while, they laid down on the ground and died within a few minutes on 27th June, 2001. This was clearly a couplery suicide and the apparent reasons were family "hostility, torture and cruel behaviour" on the part of their family because of less dowry in view of their high expectations.

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Such grues0me incidents of couplery suicide are not just the results of some fickle-minded couples. Some eminent and rich have been the supporting causes to force couples to commit suicides. Many times a normal person or a small group of people or even an entire family members get swept by the conviction that a large amount of dowry money, can improve their financial position and also increase their social prestige. This terrifying reality is widely spread among the educated families. Strangely, this false notion works as powerful means to push couples for going to the way of suicide.

15
An unusual incident of a grim suicide preceded by merciless " killings or murders of his own family members by the victim himself, happened in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal kingdom's royal family in the late evening of 1st June 2001. It was really a frightening and deadly scene in the dinning hall of king's place. The dinner was going on well, and all-the King (Naresh Virendra Vir Vikram Shah), the queen (Maharani Aishwarya), their married daughter (Rajkumari Shruti), her husband (Gorakh Rana), their son (Rajkumar Niranjan) and some other relatives, were enjoying delicious and varied items of food peacefully. Meanwhile, the King Prince, Deependra, angrily asked his parents, "When are you going to get me married as I am thirty-two year old?"
This question changed the entire peaceful dinner party into a tense situation. The queen, then, suggested: "My son Deependra, you choose either to be the King Prince or marry your beloved girl, Devyani; both cannot go together, and this is our final decision. Only, in case you marry a girl of our

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choice,you can get both, even that after your being over thirty-five years of age." In this context, the royal astrologists had already warned the king and the queen that if the crownprince was married, and an issue, boy or a girl, was born to them before the age of thirty-five year; then, the king would necessarily die. Believing in such unpalatable warning, the queen was stunned and determined not to get Deependra married before the age of thirty-five years. Extremely enraged, the prince-crown took the queen's adamant refusal' seriously; he then, went to an adjacent room and came back with an automatic rifle and also a pistol. Soon, he started firing towards those who were present there, and thus, killed the king, the queen, the sister, the brother-inlaw, the brother and others. Afterward, Deependra killed or committed suicide himself by the same rifle. He could not choose anyone of the two alternatives-love or the crown, and being mad, he mercilessly murdered his own kith and kins before committing suicide. Whatever the intentions of the crown-prince, the causes of his suicide were utter desperation, greed for king's gaddi or enormous wealth, and inability to choose anyone of the two alternatives. Without going into the details of the inside story, or whether Deependra was heavily drunken or had consumed a lot of opium or cocaine, he clearly and intentionally killed himself, cruelly or desperately, and thus, got neither her beloved Devyani and nor the gaddi of Nepal.
I

16
A case of collective suicide by a twice-born family unfolds a terrible tale of parents and their daughters. The family from a remote village, Biharipura, of the district of

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A Philosophy of Suicide

Bharatpur, Rajasthan State. Their forefathers were of a Sannadya Brahmin lineage, who used to work as priests in a Hindu temple. A boy was born in the family of these priests, who after doing M.A. (English), became a lecturer in Rajasthan Education Service. This boy, namely Jagdamba Parsad Trivedi, was married to a literate daughter of a Brahmin family. As a lecturer, Jagdamba moved from one government college to another. To Jagdamba and his wife, Bhagwati, were born a son, Ravi Kumar, and four daughters-Sadhna, Rajawati, Shilpa and Gunwanti. The family of Jagdamba, after his retirement in 1990, settled in Kota, another district of Rajasthan State. His son, Ravi, became an engineer, and was married to an Indian Brahmin girl who was also a lecturer in physics. As a result of his foreign assignments, Ravi grew a man of western mind and style that was disliked by his father as well as mother. Ravi, being a liberal one, found the Brahmanic customs and rites loathsome, i.e., out-dated in modern society. His elder sister, Sadhna, was married to an orfhodox Brahmin family of Pali. Jagdamba and his wife- Bhagwati, were worried to get their remaining three daughters married to some orthodox families; but they could not get the likewise boys, because all the well-educated families demanded huge amount of dowry in cash and kind, which was difficult to Jagdamba to give as Ravi did not financially support his father, for the Jagdamba was also indifferent to his son. Meanwhile, Jagdamba met an accident and was badly injured. He had already crossed the age of seventy years. As a result of accident, Jagdamba could not move easily in search of suitable boys of his choice. His daughters, beautiful and intelligent ones, did not turn to be modern like their brother. All the three sisters, along with their parents,

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remained orthodox, believing in the "holy psyche Brahmanic lineage". The course of events - Ravi' s disliking of Brahmanic rites, Jagdamba's accident, his inability to find suitable Brahmin boys, growing age of all three sisters, still living in a rented house, demand of huge dowry, Ravi's to his parents-so squarely turned that indifferent shakened the roots of family's faith and feelings. The 'fundamentalist psyche' of the family could not cope with the unexpected events or hardships. Such an adverse situation Jagdamba, 'Bhagwati, and their daughters tremendously depressed. None of their relatives and friends came to their rescue; rather, they started criticizing their stubbornness, orthodoxy, conservatism, Brahmanic psyche, customs of gotras, strict adherence to worshipping gods, etc., and this made a dent in their Brahmanic ego or psyche. I knew this family weLl, and when I read in newspapers in May, 2001, that the entire family, except Ravi and his lecturer wife, who was with him during summer vacations in some foreign country, had collectively committed suicide by consuming celphos tablets, I was squarely stunned. Whatever the apparent reasons the family preferred to die rather than compromising with the modern trends of life, style. Ravi, at times, wanted his sisters to be a bit modern and open-minded to overcome certain obstacles in the way of their marriage; but each time, he was scorned by the parents and sisters as well. What could have been done to save his family? He felt helpless, and so many others were also with him to share the painful mOlllents of such a tragedy.

17
Another case of collective suicide came to my knowledge through newspapers, which took place in a village (Phulpur)

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A Philosophy of Suicide

of Sanganer tehsil of Jaipur district. The family had husband and wife, two sons and a daughter, whose names respectively, were Ram Singh, a Gurjar by caste; his wife, Shanta Devi, and their children, Ramesh, Dhiru, and Shyamli, quite innocent and lovely, to play with. Ram Singh, as the related facts revealed, was distressed, because his old father did not distribute the agriculture land among his four sons, including Ram Singh and other property was also kept intact. Ram Singh wanted that he would be able to meet both ends of his family after having a separate piece of land. Every time he requested his father to do so, each time, the father scorned him, and this way Ram Singh felt frustrated. It was a brief background of his being depressed and sorrowful. In June, 2001, one day morning, Ram Singh asked his wife and the kids to accompany him to meet someone in nearby locality; but Shanta Devi refused to go with him, because of here being a pregnant lady. However, the kids accompanied their father, who first led them to a hotel situated along the railway tract; then, he bought some sweets that he distributed among them. It was suffice to the children to be happy and gay. Ram Singh also took a cup of tea. Afterwards, he brought them to play in between the two railway tracts. For a while, Ram Singh, too, set down to see his kids playing with small piece of stones. He had actually gone there to die along with the children as he had something very strange in his mind. After a few minutes, a fast running train was coming from Sawai Madhopur to Jaipur. Despite driver's continuously whistling loudly in order that the person and the kids leave the tract; but they remained there to be killed. Unfortunately, the train crushed them and the pieces of their flesh and bones were thrown

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hither and thither to -make the scene ghastly frightening to the onlookers. The family feud over the property distribution turned into such a grim suicide. To the surprise of all sensitive human beings, when Ram Singh's wife listened to it, she soon became unconscious, which ultimately, led to her demise, and thus, the entire family was finished at the hands of fate. The people of the village thought of it as an unprecedented act, because no one had done so in their village to this day over such a tragical incident by Ram Singh, the parents and brothers, too, lamented very much and wept miserably as they could not foresee such a frightening happening.

18
A more gruesome incident of suicide by a whole of the family happened on 15th June, 2001, in the town, ;r<otputli, on the Jaipur-Delhi highway. Krishna Ram, his wife, Parvati, their three children, including a daughter of three years of age, were living happily in their small house. They were Dalits, also educated ones. A nearby neighbour family was jealous of Krishna as he was going well having some reputation among the Dalits. Once his neighbour's grown up daughter, Hema, eloped with a boy by name, Rupa, whom Krishna knew well. They wanted to get married somewhere else. Hema's father, then, went to the police station, and while reporting the case, he quite knowingly, blamed that it was due to the connivance of Krishna Ram that Rupa had done such a crime. He also bribed the police to teach a lesson to Krishna's family. What happened, then? The police started working in its own way rudely, and went to Krishna's house

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A Philosophy of Suicide

in order to make an inquiry, but he pleaded that he had nothing to do with this case. The police was adamant and warned him that if Rupa and Hema did not turn up within three days, Krishna and his wife would be arrested and would be locked up in the jail. Both of them were frightened and endeavoured to convince the police about their innocence but all was in vain. Instead, the police started harassing and also giving warning to beat them black and blue. The husband and wife, both were so worried that the police did not pay any heed to their being ignorant about this case of elopement. Rupa and Hema did not turn up within the stipulated period as the police had asked Krishna Ram and his family to bring the boy and the girl. Then, Krishna and Parvati were taken to the police station where they were abused and tortured; but a few hours after they were freed to search out the fugitives and bring them to the police station. Where from could they bring them back? In fact, the family of Krishna Ram had no involvement in the case. They were, however, made the victims of police terror and atrocities. They lost their mental balance, and to avoid further torture and atrocities by the police, the whole family members consumed poison before going to sleep. Consequently, they were found dead in the morning, except a three year old baby surviving, anyhow. Whatever the story afterwards, the case clearly turned into an unexpected suicide, which created hue and cry in the whole of Kotputli and its surrounding villages. Apparently, it so happened because of police fear, torture and atrocities on the deceased family. The surviving baby, Neha, was taken by an old woman of the locality. The photos of the little Neha and

Terrible Tales of Suicide


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35

the old lady appeared in the newspapers. The old lady, Saraswati, told the news-reporters that Neha looked around for her parenta, but none was there to lull her. She was helpless, quite ignorant of what had happened to her parents and lovely brother. At times, Neha was taken to her house, while looking at, she used to knock at the doors, with amazing eyes, but no voice from inside. She always found her house's doors locked and soon used to come back into the laps of the old lady. The suicide left her forlorn in this cruel world, weeping and crying for her parents and brothers. What a pathetic event! No one knew about Neha's heart-breaking breathing and loneliness. The old lady, kind and merciful, was to Neha, the only divine protector, all in one, who would henceforth look after her till she grows young.

19
As I read and listen to the terrible stories or events of suicides, I hardly find any suicide victim among the beggars, the lepers and the handicaps; they face harsh realities of life, and bravely fight against them. I appreciate their boldness and confidence to live even in the midst of worst conditions. Only the well-placed, educated and employed, anyhow, become the victims of suicide. Here I may mention the case of a big one of world fame, i.e., Ernest Hemingway, who committed suicide. Hemingway was a great American novelist; he wrote many stories and novels, which earned him both world-wide reputation and recognition; and he also earned a lot of money from his writings to live a very comfortable and luxurious life. Hemingway was awarded the 'Novel Prize' for his novel - 'The Old Man and the Sea'. I also read it. The

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novel unfolded the story of the life of an old man who showed enormous courage and self-confidence in catching fish moving freely in the deep water of sea. The old man once said to himself, "Nature can kill, but cannot defeat me, while I am alive?" Hemingway's style of writing was so impressive that once a man starts reading his stories or novels, he would not leave it till the end of its reading. Surprisingly, Hemingway was a heavy drunkard to enjoy the company of such friends. After enjoying wine and taking dinner, he used to write fictions till late at nights. He had a fertile mind, deep understanding of the situation to depict and a unique imaginative power. Once a publisher came to him and requested to write a novel and he also offered a big amount of royalty in advance. Hemingway accepted the offer and promised to write a novel at his earliest. The proposal came to him, when he had crossed the age of sixty-two years. Unfortunately, while sitting on the writing table, he tried his utmost for some theme of the proposed novel, but new ideas did not oblize him. Many a time Hemingway endeavoured to write at night, but his mind frustrated his attempt to' give him new ideas of fictional nature. Realizing his inability to write for fulfilling his promise of writing a novel for the publisher, Hemingway felt, it would be shameful of him. He addressed to himself to say, "Oh, my mind, if you fail to help me in creating theme and ideas for my new novel, I shall shatter you by my gun into several pieces. How can I fulfill my promise? You tell me frankly". For many months, Hemingway's mind did not work to his expectations. He was badly upset. Anyhow, his wife came to know of it, and she started looking after -ner husband's safety. Hemingway had a splendid bungalow of

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his own liking to live. Once his wife was out, he took his gun and suddenly, shot himself in his head which was thrown away into small pieces in the room in which he did so. When his wife returned, she found Hemingway lying on the floor dead. She was bewildered and amazed realizing, "What I thought of him, it happened to him." This way Hemingway committed suicide at the completion of his sixty-three year of age. It was nothing but a gruesome tragedy.

20
A recent case of suicide happened on 10th July, 2001, in BadIa , village of Jodhpur district of Rajasthan state. In the village, there was a Primary Health Centre wherein Smt. Sarita Sharma, aged thirty years, was working as a nurse. But she was badly upset and uprooted from within because her husband, Jeetesh, aged thirty-five years, used to drink liquor heavily. It was his daily habit. He alone lived with his wife, the parents were living in Jodhpur. Her nurse-wife, very homely and sweet-tongued one, requested him repeatedly to leave such a bad habit; but Jeetesh did not give any heed to it. Being frustrated and helpless, Sarita Sharma consumed poison at about 8-9 p.m., and as a result, she was dead in the room. Looking at her tragic death, Jeetesh, too, tied long cloth (dhoti) around his neck and hanged himself from a ceiling fan in the same room. He too, committed suicide because he could not bear the sudden end of his wife. Jeetesh was married to her eleven years ago and Sarita Sharma was working in P.H.C. for the last seven years; but was unhappy because of her drunkard husband and also because of having no child born to them. No issue, boy or girl, might be an apparent cause, along with the habitual drunkard husband

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A Philosophy of Suicide

as she always felt belittled by her husband's stubborn attitude or drinking behaviour.

21
A young man of 38 years, namely, Deepak Agrawal, and his wife, Surabhi Agrawal, and their two children-Suresh and Monika, were living a care-free luxurious life in Alwar city of Rajasthan state; all were happy, nothing worried them. Deepak had a business of shares and was managing his 'Agrawal Finance Co.(P) Limited' in Alwar. He had earned a lot of money in his business. All this helped him to build a splendid house, to buy a luxury car and other material articles. He was going well for the last eight years, without worrying about the future or say, any danger to his financial position and gains. Unfortunately, when the share market went down, he lost all his money he had earned earlier except his immovable property. It was a severe blow to his business. Meanwhile, the Income Tax Department came to know about Deepak and his roaring successful business. A party of Income Tax officials went to Alwar from Jaipur in search of some documents relating to income tax returns. After a thorough search, the party found him guilty of 'tax evasion' for the whole of his business period. He was arrested and produced before the Income Tax Tribunal. A criminal case of tax evasion of about ten lakhs was proved to be true for which he was penalized for paying tax with interest and failing which Deepak would be imprisoned for a year or so. Deepak could not pay the amount of income tax and as a result he was fient to the Central Jail of Jaipur. Deepak found the jail premises and the prisoners very

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awkward and uneasy. He told his relatives and friends who carne to meet him in jail. Anyhow, these relatives and friends collected the required amount and deposited it to the income tax treasury. He was, then, freed from the jail, but the horrible conditions in jail and fellow-prisoners, rude and harsh behaviour badly affected his mind and body. After his release, Deepak went to Alwar and started the same business; but the gain was meagre to repay the debts arranged by his relatives and friends. After a year they asked Deepak to return their money. He realized his inability to pay debts on the one hand, and on the other, he had to face the lowering-grade trend cf his social prestige. He was shakened from within and being so fed up with life situation, one night Deepak committed suicide by consuming celphos tablets in the last of the years 2000; but he left a small note of these words: "My dear younger brother, please excuse me for my heinous act. I request you to kindly dispose of my immovable property to repay the debts; and I also entrust you to look after my wife and her two kids and help them to sustain and overcome the painful moments of this tragedy".

22
There was a small town, Iglash, in the district of Aligarh (Uttar Pradesh)in which a Thakur family lived for the last many years. This family had five members - husband (Raja Singh) and his wife (Sabita), and their three children-a daughter (Km. SaroD, and two brothers (Rajesh and Raghuvir). Raja Singh had an agricultural land about fifty bhigas; a very fertile one luckily adjacent to a nahar. To my memory, I am taking this family to quote a double ghastly suicide incident that happened in the moth of June, 1953,

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when I was a student in the Bagla Degree College of Hathras, my native place. As the daughter of Raja Singh grew young, she was married and had gone to her in-laws (sasural), whereas both the brothers, after primary education, started working in their father's land for producing cashcrops. Rajesh and Raghuvir were also married because of their being mature, their wives (Gaumti and Basanti, respectively) were of non-cooperative attitude; and they hardly co-operated with one another. This was a serious matter for their parents to be worried. The wife of Rajesh wanted to live separately and also land to be divided between both the brothers; but this was not possible till the parents were alive. They were not in favour of dividing the families of their sons. The relations among the family members grew bitter and cold-blooded. The wife of Raghuvir, Basanti, was clever and quarrelsome, whereas her husband was simple and submissive, and Basanti always kept him agreeable to her words. After a period of years, Basanti grew inpatient, because she wanted the distribution of land at the earliest. Gradually, Basanti developed a deep dislike for her father-in-law (sasur) and mother-in-law (saas), and she thought of her sasur as a stumbling-block. One evening, while giving food to him, she cruelly strangulated Raja Singh. As he was very old, he could not resist it firmly. Anyhow, this incident created a suspicion in the mind of Rajesh and the same night, he badly dashed Basanti to the wall, who ultimately unfolded her guilt. This was unbearable to Rajesh.
I

After a few days, Rajesh felt ashamed of his wife's heinous act. He lost his mental balance and one day, he went to father's farming land. He took a rope and without

Terrible Tales of Suicide


,

41

worrying for the future, he hanged himself to the branch of a Neem tree and died at the spot. His wife took it very seriously lest the incident should be known to other. Looking into her future to be dark and shameful, she in the early morning of the next day jumped into the deep well from which she used to take water for her family members. This way Basanti also committed suicide. Such a double suicide by Rajesh and Basanti within two days became a talk of the town. Obviously, Basanti's strong desire for living separately and her demand for the distribution of land could not be materialized; she rather, lost her husband and land as well in her struggle for gaining power and wealth in the shortest period. Her greed and jealousy proved to be fatal to both husband and wife. As I still remember, land and water disputes were very common among the relatives, brothers and the neighbours, in the district of Sri Ganganagar, which listened to, when I was there in government college. In fact, land and water are very dear to all the farmers' family of that area. These disputes usually led the concerned persons either to murders or to suicides, and surprisingly, these cases were soon reported to_the police stations as the huge amount of money was given in bribing to the officers in favour of either party.

23
These days agriculture in India is not so profitable to the farmers, especially to those farmers who have small holdings, as it was some years back. The inputs like fertilizers, seeds, labourers and related things are bought at high prices on the one hand, and on the other, agricultural products are abundantly available in markets, the farmers do

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not get at times, the equal prices of its cost. Moreover, draughts, floods, storms, hurricanes, etc., destroy the growing crops, which ultimately, lead farmers to their plights and miseries. They take loans either from banks or from the money lenders, and the returns are so meagre that small farmers become empty handed. How can they repay the loaned money with interests? The answer to this question is very difficult. Consequently, many farmers realizing their inability to sustain and to improve their economic conditions, commit suicides as we read in newspapers about the recent incidents of suicides in Orissa. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, etc. The central and the state governments hardly reach there to their rescue. This is the genuine situation that intermittently affect the poor farmers and drive them to commit suicides.

24
The old man and his suicide has a strange story for me to unfold. This incident took place in the month of May, 2001, in Sanganer city of Jaipur district, Rajasthan State. The old man, Ram Singh, aged about seventy years, was living in his own house, along with his wife. Heera Bai, and two middle aged sons - Debu Ram and Lakhan Singh, both married. Ram Singh's sons were labourers on daily wages, and their wives, illiterate ones, were also engaged as labourers wherever they found majduri (labour). All of them were simple and hard working labourers in order to support the family members. While away from their house for majduri, Ram Singh usually remained all alone. The feelings of loneliness and indifference towards him by his sons and their wives after they returned home from

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their daily work in the evening, was Ram Singh's genuine reason to be ignored. He was not able to walk smoothly as he had a factured leg bng back, while doing majduri. Only Heera Bai, his devoted wife remained at home during the day, who looked after her husband. One day she expired after a short illness. It was a great shock to Ram Singh as he was mainly dependent on her. Days and months passed gradually, and the condition of Ram Singh started to be weak both physically and mentally. His sons and their wives hardly talked to Ram Singh as usually happens with old men almost in all families irrespective of their being rich or poor. In the present case, however, Ram Singh had to face economic hardship, loneliness and depression. He was badly perturbed and always remained silent one to peep back ir,to his past days, when he was young and free to move anywhere happily. "What should he do?", was a very difficult question for him to answer. One day, when his sons and the daughter-inlaws were away from home for majduri, Ram Singh, suddenly, went on his home's top of the room; anyhow, he reached the top of his neighbour's two storeyed house; and then, he surprisingly jumped over the live wires of the street light. His body partially burnt, remained hanging over the wires openly looking as he was playing some game. When the neighbours, or the goers in the street, saw him dead, they informed the police that brought the hanging warrior to the ground. The neighbours were unable to understand as to how such an old man reached the top of the building to jump over the wires. In fact, he could not tolerate the death of his wife, and something from within, propelled him to commit suicide in such a horrible way, amazingly a unique way to

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die. When this case was reported, along with Ram Singh's hanging photo, in the newspapers, I was, too, stunned to read and saw the deadly scene. This world, as I see it, begins with like a game for kids and children; looks lovely to youths; anxious to those who reach the age of sixty; and then, seems to be a hell to the very old men, who feel that sons and daughters-in-Iaws and their offsprings ignore them and care little for their comfort and health. The feelings of loneliness, indifference, physical incapability to walk and the diseases like cancer and diabetes fall over the shoulders of every old man. At the age of 75 to 100 years, things look in changing meanings and altered scenes, which drive the very infirm old men to go to the way of suicide. A very long span of life now seems to be a curse to all those who live face to face with death, being infirm, blind and belittled.

25
Apart from the incidents cited earlier, here I would like to mention certain sectarian or the so-called religious ways leading the involved persons intentionally towards selfkilling or suicide. These are as follows: First to mention is what the Japanese call 'Hara-Kiri', the most merciless way of self-killing. There was a 'Samurai Sect' in Japan, which probably still exists, and is also popular among the people there. According to this sect, it is a ritual act of killing oneself by cutting open one's stomach with a sword, performed, especially by the followers of Samurai Sect in Japan. When a grimy situation, anyhow, arises before an individual, it is considered to be an 'honourable way' of avoiding disgrace in society. The situation of 'disgrace' may

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have many factors, yet intentionally to go to 'Hara-Kiri' for committing suicide is the most respectable yet painful way of self-killing.
I

Next to cite is 'Santhara' popular among the followers of Mahavira, the last Tirthankar of Jainism, especially among its Swetamber sect. This is a slow yet steady road to lead the sadhus (saints) or sadhvis (women saints) voluntarily, without being forced, for ending their lives. When a sadhu or sadhvi feels that he or she has done enough tapsya (asceticism) and service to enlighten the people, he or she shuns any kind of food except taking minimum amount of water. This way of self-killing may take many days, but no one, under Santhara, returns back for taking foods to survive more. This way of going to death is voluntary or intentional. The person, under Santhara, is regarded by Jains as a holy ones to be highly honourable and reverential one, and when one dies this way, his or her funeral ritual is performed with all sanctity according to the religious rites of Jainism. Whatever the holiness of sanctity of Santhara, some sociologists regard it as a peaceful and intentional way of self-killing because of physical or mental weakness due to infirmity of old age ailments. Further to quote are the instances which are related to the Hindu way of life. Among these the significant ones are Jal-Samadhi, Sati and Johar: 1. When a Hindu saint, religious or highly honourable tapsvi, feels himself near to moksha, makes a sitting pose into the running water course of Ganga, Jamuna or Gangotri, before his disciples who dare not save him in any way. This way of 'self-dying' is called 'Jal-Samadhi', which is intentionally performed mainly by saints and seers in consonance with the tradition of Hinduism.

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2.

Another way of self-killing, called 'Sati' is related to Hindu women, only for the married ones. 'Sati' means a woman who burns herself alive with her dead husband's funeral. It is the action or custom of intentionally burning a woman alive with her dead husband just to demonstrate her fidelity or faithfulness to her husband. She does so or is encouraged by her own wishes to show her absolute love for the deceased husband. It is also the most painful way of self-killing by burning along with one's husband, and that is why, it was banned in 1829 by the British Government, when the social reformers, like Raja Ram Mohan Rai who eventually saw his sister-in-law (bhabi) burning along with his brother's dead body in Bengal long ago. She screamed; but no one, even Roy, came to save her.
'Johar' is another way of self-killing, which was mostly

3.

prevalent in Rajput families of India. Now this custom does not exist, yet it was also a very painful way of selfkilling. It was the ceremonial act of burning oneself to death, performed by Rajput women and sometimes also by children, usually after receiving the news of the defeat of Rajput kings, or warriors, in battle against their enemies. If the women or children were caught alive, they were tortured or molested by the enemies. Such a frightening situation or disgracefulness impelled them to adopt the way of self-burning called 'Johar'. All these were the so-called religious ways of suicide during the days of medieval India. Here a question may be asked: Why now these holy or religious ways are called suicide? It is because the term 'suicide' is an action of killing oneself intentionally, or any

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action that may result in disaster, like death, for oneself is considered to be suicide in law. Therefore, we regard them as suicides and according to the articles 304, 305 and 306 of the Indian Penal Code, such cases are punishable because of their being crimes.

26
Now here is quoted another incident of suicide by an unmarried and employed girl of Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh. It probably happened during the first quarter of the year 2000. In Bhopal, there was an educated family comprising of the parents (Karan Singh and Govindi), their three daughters (Neetu, Mahima and Sumitra) and a son (Ashish Kumar). Karan Singh and Govindi were worried about their daughters' marriage, especially of the eldest one, Neetu, who was a government employee as an accountant. Neetu was beautiful, slim and homely; but her height was four feet and six inches. Whenever the parents of Neetu contacted some boys' parents to see their daughter, they used to corne, but her height became an obstacle in her marriage. Neetu grew about thirty years of age and she also pampered an inferiority complex in her mind. As per Hindu tradition, only after the eldest girl's marriage, the younger ones can be married. In her horne, Neetu's marriage was a worrying problem to be talked about daily and in her office, the colleagues at times, just as a joke or to tease her, used some sarcastic remarks. quite unpalatable to Neetu. She found herself as a helpless entity in her horne as well as in social life. As a result, Neetu developed a pathetic mood and thought of herself and unlucky girl. "How can I help myself and the parents as well?", Neetu asked herself. Looking at her inability to face

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and fight the odds and obstacles in life at the earliest. Neetu one night consumed poison, and consequently, she was found dead in the morning to the great surprise of her parents, brother and sisters. This way Neetu committed suicide to end anxieties and sad feelings of the whole of her family members. In Indian society, especially among the orthodox Hindus, the position of girls, whether educated or illiterate, employed or unemployed, is precarious in matters of marriage, dowry and divorce; the girls are treated as burdensome responsibilities; and in most of the cases, they are not free to move and encounter the wills of maledominated social governance. Only the girls are expected to be submissive, sober and virtuous vis-a-vis the boys. The Indian Constitution gives them freedom, equality and dignity; but in practice, the ,Hindu customs and tradition deny all such things that favour and empower the womenfolk; the similar. situation is also found in other communities. This is one of the hard realities of the Indian social system.

27
The most important to mention is an event of suicide by a big historical figure, namely, Adolf Hitler (1989-1945). During the last days of his life, Hitler and his personal secretary, Ivana, lived in a bunker in Berlin to avoid their capture by the allied forces of U.S.A., U.K., U.S.S.R., France, etc., during the Second World War (1939-1945). However, both of them once realized that their end was near, because the enemy forces had surrounded their bunker. Then, Adolf Hitler asked his officers, "I order, after you find us dead, crush our bodies by rolling over us a tank so that enemy forces can

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never pick up any part of our bodies to dishonour and be thrown on the street". The officers, though stunned, assured to obey his order. In the evening, first of all, Hitler married Ivana, till then she was unmarried and virgin; afterwards, both of them enjoyed the whole night their wedding; and before sunrise, they took cyanide capsules. Thus, they committed suicide and the officers, so ordered, brought their dead bodies out of the bunker and rolled over a tank on them to mix up their bodies with dust and soil of Germany so that no enemy could identify their bodies. It was just to avoid their being captured alive, not to be hanged in the streets and they took it as their dignified self-destruction.

28
Here is another cruel way of suicide. As reported in the newspapers of 5th August, 2001, a man, namely, Sanatan Mohanti, aged 50, belonging to the village - Kesargad, of the district Dhenknal in Orissa State of India, jumped into the burning pyre of his wife, Sanjuwala Mohanti, aged 42, and thus, he died soon before the participants in her funeral rites could save him. It was obviously a suicide case of selfimmolation. Why did he embrace such a way of suicide? A few days earlier, his wife Sanjuwala fell ill whom he got hospitalized for treatment; but she died leaving him alone, and incidentally, they had no issue born to them. Sanatan Mohanti found himself squarely all alone, soon he lost his mental balance, because he could not bear the brunt of death of his wife. He was so depressed, frustrated and shocked because of Sanjuwala's unexpected demise that he chose the way of self-immolation to be one with his wife. As the foregoing incidents of suicide unfold the terrible tales of self-killing, we can be sure to discover as to how

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many astonishing ways are adopted by those who embrace death willingly yet suddenly. These instances are suffice to help us to go to the depth of their causes in order to infer something inherent commonly in all the cases of suicides. The graph of suicides has been going higher in comparison to the earlier decades. This is a very grimy situation for all those who feel or are sensitive to such ghastly occurrences. How to stop and check them, is a very difficult task to us to explain as the phenomenon of suicides is found in all human societies, in all sections or classes of men and women, girls or boys, children or adults, irrespective of their belonging to any creed, caste, race or country. Whenever new incidents of suicide are reported or flashed in bold letters in all the newspapers, I feel and take them with all compassion towards the victims but unable to help them in any way. To be brief, we now turn to find out and list their apparent reasons first and then, to discover what must be the inherent cause commonly related to all incidents of suicide, though very difficult and tedious task to deal with.

29
This is an of suicide that occurred twenty two years back in 1980. I was incidentally the middle man while negotiating the marriage between Shiva Kumar of Lohamadi, Agra and Kamla Devi of Hathras (my birth place) as both parties were well known to me, both were well-educated and their parents were rich. Shiva Kumar got a government job as an officer and was posted in Jodhpur (Rajasthan State); and three sons and one daughter were born to them, all were of age between 16 and 24 years. Kamla Devi was very beautiful, soft spoken and a good house-wife, and so was Shiva,

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handsome, simple and sober, both were of Jatava caste. The tragedy began when Shiva and a lady teacher, namely, Puspa Jain, both living in Mandir Marg locality, fell in love with une another. This was objected to by Kamla Devi vehemently and the husband of Mrs. Jain, too; but things went on continually. One day, Mrs. Jain's husband came to Shiva's house and threatened Kamla to stop her husband otherwise he might do anything bad to her. So terrprized Kamla asked Shiva, "Please do not indulge in such immoral act as we have very grown up sons and daughter". "Keep quite, mind your business", he retorted angrily. Kamla was mentally upset, and to the surprise of all, she burnt herself to death by throwing kerosene on her clothes as Kamla could not face the arising situation of humiliation and disgrace to her and the family as well to her, there was no alternative except selfkilling.

30
This was a very strange case of suicide preceded by double murder. The incident took place on 6th August, 2001, in village Ganeshpura, of Sikar district of Rajasthan State. The suicide was the result of a clash between the daughter- Berli (unmarried) of Pokhermal Jat and her bhabhi-Sugani (wife of Ramnivas, son of Pokhermal). There was something like an egoistic conflict between Berli and Sugani for the last two or three years. On the night of 6th August, Sugani and her daughter- Dhampu, aged four years, were sleeping on the roof top of the house. Berli, getting an opportunity took a Kulhari in her hands, and ferociously, without being hesitated and worried, attacked Sugani and Dhampu mercilessly and cut their necks off. Afterwards, thinking

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about her disgraceful act or being afraid of arrest and tortured by police, Berli came down hurriedly and jumped into a nearby well, hardly fifty metres away from her house, and thus, she committed suicide. All these facts came to light in the morning when Pokhermal went up to see why Sugani and Dhampu were sleeping so late, and to his great surprise, he found both of them dead with blood thrown around on the rooftop of the house. He reported the matter to the police station. To be brief, Berli wanted to take revenge by finishing the entire family of her brother Ramnivas, who was, then serving in military forces somewhere away in Kashmir. It was a mystery to all those who came to know about such a cruel act by BerH.

31
This incident of suicide is that of a Communist Party of India's State Secretary of Madhya Pradesh, namely, Comrade Shailendra Shelly. He committed suicide by consuming poison (i.e., celphos tablets) in Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh, on 7th August, 2001. Shelly was a very devoted worker, probably unmarried. He had left a suicide note on a piece of paper: "No one is responsible for my self-killing; I am disturbed aftd frustrated as I feel my inability to carry on the party affairs well in a way that I did in past years; and that is why I am myself responsible for my suicide". It was a shocking news for his friends and party activists as they lost a jovial fellow in his demise.

32
A recent incident of suicide preceded by frightening and gruesome murder, took place in Agra disJtict of Uttar

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Pradesh on 10th August, 2001. There were two very close friends of a locality living at a distance of one km, namely, Rajendra and Sridhar, the first belonging to an ordinary family, the second one was from a rich family; both were graduates. Rajendra had pampered a big ambition for being a rich boy in a shortest period to attract a girl whom he loved. Anyhow, an idea struck Rajendra's mind, "Let me kidnap Sridhar to ask for a ransom of two lakhs from his parents. If materialized, both of us would distribute the amount equally." One fine evening Rajendra went to Sridhar's house and asked him to ride on his Hero Honda to enjoy in a nearby resort. Sridhar happily agreed to his proposal and reached a lonely place of a garden's comer. Rajendra, then, told his friend about his .plan; Sridhar rebuked him; and meeting a cruel rebuff, Rajendra started beating him so furiously that Sridhar could not survive to encounter Rajendra's strong fists. Many years' old friendship, thus, turned into an enmity. Rajendra, then, was badly shakened and stunned, and hurriedly, took out some petrol from his Hero Honda. He poured petrol upon him in order to bum his body so that nobody could recognize Sridhar; but soon, Rajendra himself realized his guilt and crime; instead of running away, he embraced the burning friend's body. This way both of them went in eternal peace, one by murder and the other by self-killing as inferred by the police.

33
This incident of suicide is somewhat different one from those mentioned earlier. The incident happened in the year, 1990. There was a couple, namely, Ram Lal and Chameli, living in a village (Nahroi) near the city of Hathras, a district of Uttar

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Pradesh. Three sons and a daughter were born to them. The family was well known to me as it was near to my village. They were simply labourers and Ram Lal was literate, and his sons were grown up boys - Ramesh, Ganesh and Om Prakash, aged 10, 15 and 18, respectively. The economic condition of this family was far away from normal. Unfortunately, first two of the boys (Ramesh and Ganesh) died from smallpox, and this was a big set-back to their parents. They were, then, mentally disturbed. A few years later, Om Prakash fell ill due to typhoid. His condition worsened day-by-day because of proper treatment could not be possible due to the poverty of his parents. Some neighbours advised Ram Lal and Chameli to meet an old Hakim (Ayurvedic doctor); they did so; and Hakim asked them to massage the head of Om Prakash with the ghee of a cow. One day Chameli went to a nearby village to buy the ghee; but on the way looking into the untimely demise of her two sons and feeling that her present son would not survive more, she jumped into a well leaving the glass and a scarf near the well. She, thus, committed suicide and later on, her son Om Prakash, too, died. Probably, Chameli could not face the shock of her two sons earlier and being afraid of the same fate of her son, she had no interest living more in this cruel world of God, who did not help her in any way.

34
This is the queer case of suicide by a sadhu (saint), Swami Devaduta that took place in the year, 2000, in Bhinmal, a city of Rajasthan state. Devaduta was about fifty years old and had a well-built physique with a handsome figure. He was staying in the precincts of a temple of Shiv a, where many

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females - young and old, used to go for worshipping Shiva. Incidentally a young lady, Nirmala, came into contact with the saint to have his blessings for a male child as she had two small daughters. Anyhow, the saint, being in the grip of Cupid - Kamdeva; fell in love with her, and at times, he had enjoyed sex with Nirmala. Unfortunately, when this love affair came into limelight, the saint was badly beaten by Nirmala's family members for such an illegal relationship; but being afraid of more disgraceful life, Devaduta drank a bottle of tezab, i.e., a toxic liquid, and next day, he died. He, thus, killed himself to avoid the insult and injury of his psyche. No one helped him; instead, everyone used invectives against him of untolerable nature.

35
Nature does not usually oblige everyone as most of the people, especially the young ones, want things to go their own ways. Even what one calls the fate does not favour all equally in the achievements of life-goals. A young boy, namely, Kunal, of a karorpati parents wanted to fulfil each of his desires as soon as possible; but at times, he also used to ask them to have a very beautiful girl as his life partner. The parents asked him, "to have patience, if he wishes to marry a girl of his choice." By the time, the boy, aged 25, became a post-graduate in philosophy he had read Plato's theory of ideas, quite opposite things of the empirical world. As a result, Kunal thought of an 'ideal wife' in terms of an extremely very beautiful partner. At times, he lost himself in Plato's 'world of ideas', which were hardly practicable in this changing world. Unfortunately, the parents could not understand his idea of an 'ideal bride' as they were not

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aware of Plato's philosophy. Many years passed this way; but the things of his liking did not favour the boy. He grew so frustrated and desperate that he tied his head and hands with electric wires, and suddenly, switched on, which resulted in his instant death, stunning his parents as to why he had done so: It happened in the month of June, 1961, when I was a student in Agra College, Agra. In other words, Plato's ideas were in a sense the fantasies of impossible nature, and Kunal became a victim of sheer fantasies.

36
A few of the suicide cases, we may also find among the terrorists who work and sacrifice their lives for the so-called pious mission or for the freedom of their enslaved areas by other powerful countries. The Muslim militant organizations are so determined for the separation of Jammu and Kashmir from India that the terrorists can murder anyone who comes in their way. Though Pakistan honours the dead terrorists as freedom fighters, yet to India, they are criminals or the terrorists, who always stand alert to kill the innocent citizens. The Tamil terrorists are also fighting for a separate Tamil state for the Tamils from Sri Lanka. The people of Netherlands are too; fighting for an independent Netherlands now under the suzerainty of U.K., and in a similar way there are many other militant organizations which are working for the one or the other causes. Anyhow, some of them, sensing that they have been encircled by the anti-forces, they immediately, take out the cyanide capsules from their pockets; and thus, they quickly prefer to die rather than being captured or tortured for divulging their secrets of planning and working. Whatever, the terrorists think of

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themselves, they willingly embrace death or self-killing as a great honour or a greater cause.

37
The last supper of a hungry family ended in a frightening collective suicide by Saida Khatoon (wife of Mohammed Hamid), along with her six children, aged from 4 months to 12 years, of village Chakahladbad of Mushhari block, district Muzaffarpur (Bihar State). This incident of suicide took place in the second week of August, 2001. The family of Mohammed Hamid, aged 45, was very poor, he had gone to Delhi for working as a rickshaw-puller, leaving Saida and the children in the village. Hamid used to send some meagre amount of money to feed them. The amount was very less than what they needed. Saida was facing acute poverty for a long time, and she found it increasingly difficult to fight the pangs of hunger. The family, in fact, was at the verge of starving for some days. Saida would always think of ending her life because of her acute poverty; but the neighbours, at times, dissuaded her from doing so, as said Sofia Khatoon one of the neighbours. Anyhow, Saida got convinced that her poverty and starvation; would not go away. One evening she mixed poison in foods that her children ate, as she also did; and thus, all the six children, and she herself died within a few hours. The death of four month old Asharfi was so tragic that some villages fainted at the sight as was reported by The Sunday Times of 19th August 2001.

38
An O.B.C., I.A.S. officer, namely, Prem Singh Chaudhry, aged 50 years, had a family of six members - two sons,

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Hitesh and Vinod, aged 15 and 20, respectively, and also his old parents-Sridhar and Rameshwari. The parents were wholly dependent on him as they had no land to cultivate and nD--Work of business. The wife of Chaudhry, Sushila, had no respect for her saas and sasur (mother-in-law and fatherin-law) as she was from a very rich family living in Delhi. She was an ultra-modern lady; but the LA.S. officer belonged to an ordinary social background. Anyhow, the parents helped their son to rise in life, who had an immense regard for them; but he could not change Sushila's rude behaviour towards his parents, which was a cause of tension between the husband and the wife. Sridhar and Rameshwari were also the poor or helpless victims of the disgraceful situation. Once Prem Singh was posted in Agra district of V.P. The miserable situation, however, persisted for his parents that pushed them into a melancholy state. To get rid of such a situation Sridhar and his wife, anyhow, reached the Jamuna bridge and jumped into the fast running water. Thus, a couplery suicide took place in the month of August, 1999, a sad end of the honest and self-respected parents.

39
incident of couplery suicide took place in our vicinity under the Mahesh Nagar Police Station on 22nd August, 2001, near Kartarpura, Deepak Vatika, just at half a km distance from my residence. A boy, aged 20, namely, Krishan Jangid, was originally from Ramgarh Shekhavati of Sikar district of Rajasthan state. He was living in a rented house in Sriram Colony of Sod ala for the last two years, he left it; and came to another rented house in Deepak Vatika on the morning of 22nd August, along with his beloved girl,

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namely, Vimla, aged 19, who was not from Jangid caste; but belonged to a very low caste family. Both of them cleansed the new rented house first and told the owner of the house that they would rest for a few house. The owner went to his work, and when he enquired about the so-called married couple in the noon after he returned for taking his meals. He knocked at the door, but there was no response. The owner felt himself disturbed and sent for his neighbours, who dismantled the concrete built window, and to their surprise, the couple were vomiting repeatedly. Before they could be shifted to any nearby hospital, they breathed their last within a short time. The matter was reported to the police. After identifying the boy the police informed his parents who reached there soon. When the parents were questioned about the girl, they denied that she was the wife of their son as Krishna was unmarried. In fact, the boy and the girl loved each other, and the boy had asked his parents to get married with his beloved; but they blatantly disapproved the proposal as she was from the lower caste. The boy was a factory worker who was living separately from his parents in order that he could freely meet and enjoy with his beloved; later on, to get married themselves secretly. The parents of Vimla, too, were against her love affairs because of caste feelings. The beloved and the lover, anyhow, continued their love affairs either through phone or personal meetings, intermittently. The new rented house was, in fact, for the purpose to materialize their wishes of being married; but the family's stubborn attitude and social tradition came if. their way. They grew frustrated, and looking into their dark future, they consumed the heavy doses of celphos tablets; and thus, they ended their lives

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together, probably, to demonstrate that their love was real, not simply a film acting. The failure of love-marriage because of caste barriers, came apparently to the forefront, which was a disgraceful situation to them. To be brief, there was no alternative for them except to embrace each other in an eternal sleep.

40
Another incident of suicide was also a result of love-marriage between a Dalit boy and a twice-born girl of village, Dhoriwala, in the district of Rewari of Haryana State. It happened in the month of March, 2000. It was really a frightening case preceded by an open murder. The Dalit boy, Anil Kumar, aged 25, very handsome and healthy, was postgraduate in sociology, and the girl Sumitra, aged 20, a graduate, most beautiful one, of the same village, fell in love with one another. Incidentally, one day, Anil eloped with the girl and got married somewhere in Arya Samaj MandaI. Incognito, living and roaming here and there, after a year both of them reached their village supposing the incident would have been subsided by now; but it proved a wrong supposition. Soon they were caught and caged in a separate room from each one. Next day, the village panchayat was called and the parents of Anil were also asked to be present there. Surprisingly, the boy was sentenced to death by hanging on a nearby tree. First, the boy was hanged tied with a rope on a branch of the tree. Then the dried woods were collected and put beneath the hanging boy. Afterwards, the woods were ignited to fire. The flames were so raised to the height that Anil, alive by then, was brunt to death, mercilessly before the whole panchayat, including his

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parents, who wept and cried for the life of their son. No one listened to them; rather they were beaten badly in order to leave the village by the next day. When the girl came to know of such a heinous act, she, anyhow, freed herself from the so-called cage. She ran towards the tree of gallows for Anil; she quickly climbed over it; and she hanged herself over the same branch of the tree which witnessed the burning of her lover. This way Sumitra, too, embraced death to meet her lover in the next birth, if so happened ever. Although a case of suicide, she sacrificed her life visualizing that the parents and the villagers would make her life a living hell; so it was better to die rather than living an ignoble life in a hostile and inhuman situation.

41
On 22nd of September, 2001, a couple, namely, Bhuramal and Govjndi, along with their 5 year old son, Mahesh, belonging to village-Jatiyana near the Sadar Police Station of Alwar district (Rajasthan State), committed suicide by jumping out from the doors of a fasting running train. It was a couplery suicide, creating a very frightening scene. Why did the couple commit suicide?

The age of Bhuramal was 35, whereas his wife was 30, and the male child was of 5 year. From their dresses the police identified them as labourers who had come to Alwar for mazduri (labour) from the State of Bihar. As per a piece of paper, found in the pocket of Bhuramal, an amount of Rs. 60 had to be paid to the owner of rickshaw that was hired by him to earn wages by pulling it. There was some hot talking with someone who was also present in the compartment of the running train. He might be the owner of rickshaw,

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probably, who could have chided the couple for going away to some place without settling the debt. The economic hardship and the pressure or fear of the owner of rickshaw were possibly the apparent reasons, and it is also said that the owner had a lust for sexual relations with Govindi who had resisted his evil attempt vigorously for more than once.

42
A person, living in Harmada area of Jaipur, namely, Lal Chand, aged 50, committed suicide by consuming celphos tablets on the 4th of September, 2001, and his body was found in the shrubs of Harmada. Lal Chand was a class four employee in Rajasthan Handloom House. A piece of paper was found in his poc}<et which disclosed as to why he was pushed to the act of self-destruction. As written in the piece of paper, he was discriminated because of his low caste (Bairwa) by the office colleagues. Lal Chand had specifically mentioned the names of six persons of his office, who treated him as the beast of lower caste, which he did not like. Instead of complaining against them to the higher officers, he adopted the way of suicide. Probably, he thought, no officer could help him as all of them belonged to higher castes. From the family members, it was also said that Lal Chand was a liqour addicted, and he constantly was in tension because of his grown up daughters remaining unmarried. Whatever the secret of his self-destruction, Lal Chand faced hostile situation in both family and office, which prompted him to be free from all troubles or tensions this way. In fact, caste discrimination is a reality almost in all officers and place which has been spreading like a wildfire everywhere, a sad situation in India life.

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43
Here is the case of ragging of a new student, studying in the first semester B.E., in Maulana Azad College of Technology, Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh State. His name was Abhishek who belonged to Vidisha city, a brilliant boy of 19 years, son of a school teacher, Mohan Babu. The day Abhishek came to live in the college hostel, the old and senior students started teasing him on one pretext or the other. He felt it a great obstacle in his studies feeling helpless and frustrated, he ran out of the hostel, and reached the Vidisha Railway Station. As a surprise to all, Abhishek jumped before a fast running train near the station, and as a result his body was crushed and thrown into pieces here and there, hardly to be identified by anyone except his family members. Abhishek, thus, committed suicide on the 10th of September, 2001, in order to end all the fear and troubles of ragging. He was treated in some inhuman way by the senior students, and once, Abhishek had told one of his friend students, " I am bored and I dislike to study and stay in this college." Whatever the apparent reasons or the inherent causes, Abhishek was always afraid of 'ragging misconduct' which, though illegal or a crime in the eyes of law, still persists in Indian educational institutions to compel one to go to the act of suicide.

44
This incident of suicide took place on 10th of September, 2001, in the Jhotwara are of Jaipur city by an old man of 70 years living with his sons and daughters-in-Iaws in a separate room of the house. The poor victim, namely, Shyam Lal, was sad because of his wife's death a few months earlier to his

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suicide. His wife, Phaguni, was very sincere, who looked after well her aged husband; both were happy; and there was no economic hardship as their sons were government employees. What was, then, the trouble? In fact, Shyam Lal was a sensitive man as old men grew so; he was very sad and lived in a separate room all alone; and the young sons and their wives hardly talked to him. Shyam Lal felt loneliness without any communication with anyone. His neighbour, too, did not visit him even as they did not have any interest in his. So being confined to his room all alone for most of the time, Shyam Lal took a kerosene bottle and during the silent hours of the frightening might, he doused his cloths with kerosene oil and lighted them with a match stick, and as a result, he did after a few hours without any screams. His sons and daughters in-law came to know of it when they rose up in the morning looking bad smelling smoke out of their father's room. They were all stunned and felt sorrow for leaving his father all alone.

45
For the last 50 years, we have been witnessing the horrible incid2nts of suicide, that is, self-destruction followed by killing of leaders or very important individuals through selfdestructive devices like time bomb, gun-firing, dismantling of splendid multi-storeyed houses or towers, etc. It is the terrorist group which adopts such devices. The persons of terrorist groups are well trained by the chief of the terrorists, and the chief of the terrorists recruits young boys and girls and makes them determined to die in order to kill the enemy as was done in the killing of Rajiv Gandhi, when a girl keeping a bomb with her dashed against the platform for

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bursting the bomb. The girl not only killed herself but also killed Rajiv Gandhi in the year 1991 somewhere in South India. The recent incident of self-destruction by some terrorists happened on 11th of September 2001, when they started travelling by four air crafts from Boston (America) to somewhere to attack and destroy. The U.S.A. President's resident, well known as White House, and 110 storeyed Tower of world Trade Centre. During the journey, each one of the terrorists first overpowered the pilots and took the control of the airplanes driving cockpits by killing the pilots. All the terrorists aimed at destroying the White House and the World Trade Centre as per the plan and instruction guided by the chief of the terrorists. It was the "most wanted terrorist" namely Osama Bin Laden, who is the self-imposed messiah of Islam in the world. Laden is the 17th son of an Arabean rich man. He has opened training centres all over the world for guiding the Islamic youths, both boys and girls, to defeat those whom Laden brands as the enemies of Islam. After the destruction of WTC building, laden has became a hero of the Muslim world. The main point is that the terrorists, as per the instructions given to them, are brain-washed who agree to die for the cause of Islam, a holy zehad' to liberate the countries ruled by non-Muslim people. This is what the Islamic terrorists are doing, and the incident of Kashmir is an eye-opener, when the terrorists came into a tall sumo van loaded with explosive material and they burst it by a remote control just in front of the Kashmir Assembly. As a result, 30 persons were killed on 1st of October, 2001, and several persons were seriously injured. The self-destructive groups,
I

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or individuals, both male and female, first go to kill themselves followed by merciless killings, incidentally of many innocent persons, in order to gain attention and publicity of what they want to achieve. Whether the aims of the terrorists are justified or not, they die for the greater cause of Islam as the terrorist leaders claim to be so. This is, however, the barbarity or inhumanities on the part of the terrorist groups widely spread all over the world; which is nothing but a naked and beastly way of suicides, killing others, mostly innocent persons as we witness in the act of the bursting of explosives in front of the Kashmir State Assembly on 1st October, 2001.

46
An incident of suicide took place in Pink City's Mansarover Colony on 1st of October, 2001, and the man, who committed suicide, was Kishori Lal, aged 60 and educated one. Why did he resort to such a painful way of dying? As reported in the newspapers, Kishori Lal was suffering from some deadly diseases, especially from epilepsy and migraine, which he thought as incurable. Although, he was treated well and was also looked after well by his family members, yet he was badly upset, frustrated and disappointed; he was afraid of . being a sick man for life-long; and that was haunting his mind constantly. So overpowered by an emotional inabilityto face the extremely unbearable situation, Kishori Lal consumed poison to commit suicide, and thus, freed himself from all the anxieties and painful diseases for ever leaving behind his lamenting wife and one son, one daughter, to meet the fate and future by themselves; of course, to face the realities of life.

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47
Recently another incident of suicide came into light when reported in the newspapers of 30th September, 2001, committed by the chief of a mafia group operating in the city of Delhi, namely, Sukka (proper name is Sukhvir Singh), aged 35 years, also a graduate in science. Sukka had a group of ten young boys and five young beautiful girls to assist him in a way he liked. Sukka was a popular name because of newspapers reportings and also a constant headache to the police. He was never afraid of police as he used to bribe the police officials of a police station where he was operating his activities. It means that Sukka in connivance of police used to ask his mafia boys and girls to visit those houses where there was no one. Two or three boys used to enter the premises of a lonely house and after unlocking the doors, they collected the valuable items, including cash and ornaments, and thus, they used to bring all that they had collected to the centre where Sukka was living. To keep a vigil around the houses, the mafia girls, having each one a bag full of items for sale so that no one could suspect them as thieves or as unwanted girls. Anyhow, one day a mafia boy requested Sukka to give him some more money than already decided as a bounty; but Sukka did not oblige him. Mentally, the mafia boy was badly' upset as he needed money for his sister's marriage. Without " visualizing the consequences, the mafia boy met a D.I.G. (police) and informed all about the Sukka's mode of stealing, collecting huge money, even by murdering anyone coming as a hurdle, living luxuriously like a don. However, it was disclosed by a police constable to Sukka who grew furious against that mafia boy who informed the higher police authorities. Before Sukka was captured by the

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crime branch police officials, he, anyhow, caught hold of the boy, tortured him and mercilessly killed him. Sukka was caught and locked up in a police station other than that of his area of illegal activities. Sukka was badly beaten and tortured, and as a result, he was mentally disturbed and shakened from within. Here Sukka alsQ bribed a police constable for bringing to him a bottle of wine' and after taking the whole of wine he took and looked at the empty bottle in his hands. Suddenly a thought carne into his mind that henceforth, he would not be in a position to lead a princely life like the previous one, he struct it so quickly and aggressively against his head that he died within a few minutes. This way, Sukka committed suicide after killing the mafia boy.

48
It is a very frightening incident of suicide by two grown up students, a brother and a sister, namely, Vivek and Narvada, aged 18 and 20, respectively. The incident happened in the month of November, 1997 in the city of Alwar, a district of Rajasthan State. Both brother and sister were brilliant students studying in the first year and final year of three years degree course, respectively, and had good reputation among the teachers and the fellow-students for their sinceritY and devotion to studies. Alwar city has separate colleges for girls and boys. Vivek and Narvada were regular in their daily life routine and never wasted their time in gossiping with other fellow-students. They were a bit ambition to become big officials like LA.S. and LP.S. for which they were very conscious as how to achieve their goals of life.

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Their parents, namely, Ishwar Chand and Gytri, both were educated; only Ishwar Chand was serving as an upper division clerk in the Department of Education, and Gytri was simply a house-wife, but they were not nicely adjustable husband and wife; and used to create family tension for some unknown reasons. It was a mystery to Vivek and Narmada as to why they were at loggerheads with each other, that is Vivek\ and Narmada 'found them disagreeing or quarrelling both in morning and evening. Such a family tension, a situation of unsavoury talks and unhappy moods, was constantly effecting the minds of both brother and sister, because the family situation was gradually becoming an obstacle in their studies. They were unable to ease the tense family life between husband and wife, though in their earlier life both were good to each other. Anyhow, this situation could not continue for long and the small family turned to be a battle ground that was pinching and puzzling the minds of Vivek and Narmada. With all respect to their parents, one day both brother and sister very humbly requested them to end all the disputes and tensions in order to facilitate their studies for doing their best in the ensuing examinations and also to fulfill their dreams for becoming big officials; but their parents did not give any heed to the request of their son and daughter. The situation of frustration and tension continued to persist to the harm of Vivek and Narmada. The family feud was becoming extremely intolerable to Vivek and Narmada. To the surprise of their parents and also neighboU);s Vivek and Narmada, one unfortunate night, took celphos tablets, and in the next morning they were found dead. Thi!l way they became the victims of a couplery

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suicide, which stunned all these whe learnt .of such a ghastly suicide, Afterwards, their parents wept bitterly fer net realizing that their sen and daughter ceuld de se, and they repented mest; but their sen and daughter had gene te sleep fer ever.

49
Here is anether incident .of self-destructien, i.e., self-killing, .or suicide, fellewed by killin.gs .or murders .of many ethers. This happened en 1st .of Nevember, 2001, in Kashmir, when a Tata Sume van full .of explesives dashed against the main gate .of J&K State Assembly. The Assembly was geing en and almest all the M.L.As. were present there. The sele target .of the self-destructive group was te dismantle the building' .or the Assembly Bhawan, aleng with killing as many members as pessible, including the Chief Minister, Sheikh Abdulla. Hewever, it was the geed luck .of all these where were present inside the Assembly Building, because they had finished their business and had left it just a few minutes befere the blast teek place. Unfertunately, the driver .of the Tata Sume, a terrerist .of the self-destructive greup, and the .outsiders .or the persens, whe were there en the read, geing hither and thither, were suddenly killed .or crippled, whe ceuld net think .of such an event. The number .of persens, se killed, was atleast 32 and th,ose .of injured badly and crippled fer ever, was mere than 35. The scene befere the Assembly road .or nearby, quickly turned te be the graveyard, weeping and leud crying, and these whe were, anyhew, escaped from the deadly blast ran away haphazardly te their destined places. Next day, in a

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condolence meeting, the Chief Minister, while speaking, wept bitterly and appealed to compel government to order a military attack on the terrorist training centres in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (P.O.K.) in order to get rid of all the terrorists. Why had the terrorists taken such self-destructive step? It was to attract the countries of the world to resolve the 'Kashmir Problem' to their satisfaction, that is, the terrorists, or the so-called zehadis (liberators), want to free the state from India as an independent nation for the Kashmiri people, though Jammu & Kashmir has become the part and parcel of India long ago. However, the way the terrorist group has been going on for the last many years, is heinous and horrible, which kills innocent persons, including womenfolk and children. Recently, such an event of selfdestruction took place in the U.s.A. on 11th September, 2001, dismantling the towers of World Trade Centre and killing thousands of people.

50
As reported in the Hindi newspapers of 9th October, 2001, I read two terrible tales of suicide; one is related to the locality Sanganer Gaushala and the other to the Mansarovar Colony of Jaipur, though both the incidents of suicide were distinct from each other, yet involved the stories of coercion against the married women of young ages, and the pathetic aspects of both are as follows: A married lady, aged 27, having a seven year old son, Sarita was living with her husband Narendra Sharma and aged saas and sasur. It was not a case of dowry death but an incident of inhuman treatment because Sarita was regarded as an evil lady having an inL1Uspicious spirit. Since her

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coming to the house of Narendra Sharma, nothing happened to the expectations of the family members, even her only son became a victim of some incurable disease due to Sarita's evil spirit, though she had no quarrel with anybody. It was false to regard her as the family members thought of her possessing an evil spirit. As such, Sarita was ill-treated and was avoided to be seem, especially in the ll!0rning hours. She was unaware of it; but after a few years Sarita, anyhow, came to know all about as to why she was ill-treated and deemed to be inauspicious one. She felt very much and told her husband who, too, gave no heed to her well-being. One day after having her evening meals she took poison and also gave it to her son. By next morning both of them were found dead. It was really a result of false assumption that/she had an evil spirit in her beautiful figure. The second incident of suicide was a matter of insufficient dowry. A young girl of 20 years, namely Kamla, was married to Suresh Khatri, aged 25. A few years back. The in-laws were living in Mansarovar Colony and Kamla's husband was a trader, having a good income; but at times, he used to think of possessing more money out of his greed. Suresh did not have any other source to collect money, and in connivance with his parents and unmarried sisters, all started teasing Kamla that she had come in their house without bringing a sufficient amount in cash; and at times, she was beaten and kept confined to a solitary room without food and water for days together; but her parents were unable to afford to give more than what they had given in dowry. Money-mania had so much gripped the minds of the family members that they dreamed, not of Kamla's being

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beautiful and faithful to them, but of more money from parents. As a result, Kamla was extremely frustrated and depressed from within; and to the surprise of all, she knifed herself to get rid of such greed and cruel in-laws. She had no alternative but self-killing.

51
All the incidents of suicide, enumerated so far, have been the terrible tales in the Indian perspective; but this one is from a foreign country, Pakistan, as I read it in the newspapers of 11th October, 2001. This incident of suicide was preceded by some merciless killings of very innocent children. A Muslim fanatic, namely, Javed Iqbal, of Lahor (Pakistan), aged 45, was a good looking man, but he was cruel, merciless, and aghastly in his heart, which nobody could easily understand his real yet hidden personality. It is unbelievable, Iqbal used to get pleasure in killing any innocent child, boy or a girl; he used to roam hither and thither in search of a child in order to abduct that child on one pretext or the other; but what he had to do with that boy or girl, is horrible to know. Iqbal first used to bring the child to a lonely place, and then, started cutting any of part of his body till the whole body was thrown into small pieces around. It was his hobby which nobody could think of such a very beastly way of entertainment and pleasure. The above incidents of killing children and subsequently, cutting and throwing his body into tiny pieces alarmed the police, and ultimately, Iqbal was caught by police, when he was doing or disposing the 100th child's

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body, i.e., he killed 100 children over some years. The trial court awarded him a death penalty" after his cruel crimes were proved. He was, then, put in the Kot Lakhpat Jail of Lahor till his beastly crime and death sentence were confirmed by the High Court. While in jail, Iqbal realized his guilt and cruelty towards children, also a deep feeling of infanticide. Before he could be hanged, he committed suicide in his jail kothri along with Sazid, a co-partner, on 9th of October, 2001. This end was really a great relief to those who had school-going children.
II

52
This is an act of self-destruction by a chowkidar (watchman), namely, Ram Chandra Singh, aged 47, living in the Jagatpura area of Jaipur city, along with his family-wife, Maya Devi, and two children-a son and a daughter. This incident took place on 17th October, 2001. Ram Chandra Singh was employed in a factory. His salary was very meager, yet he was an addict to drinking liquor daily, and that was the main cause or everyday altercation between him and his wife. At times, Maya Devi chided him that on the one hand, "Ours is a condition of poverty, and on the other, you relish drinking country liquor; this is shameful on your part." Ram Chandra took it seriously, as an insult and disgrace; his wife had gone to a neighbour for some work and children to the school on that fateful day; finding himself alone, Ram Chandra doused a tin of Kerosene on his clothes; he ignited a match stick; and thus, he burnt himself to self-destr.uction. It was another way of very painful suicide when Maya Devi returned back, she was stunned and cried loudly; the neighbours soon came there and reported the incident to the police siatiun.

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53
A Christian boy of Delhi, namely, George William, aged 25, was a resident of Saket Colony, and was a sales representative of a reputed firm of the medical products. He was earning about six thousand of rupees per month to support himself and his aged parents, and he was happy with his present profession and position; but was unmarried that made him, at times, worried whether the parents of the Muslim girl in the vicinities of Saket Colony, whom he loved very much, would agree or not for an inter-religious marriage. ,The girl, namely, Razia Sultana, aged 21, was also a liberal one to marry with George William; she was, however, afraid of her orthodox parents. The affairs of loving each other continued for a considerable period. Anyhow, Sultana's parents came to know of it and severely chided her for marrying a kafir (Non-Muslim). Sultana was, then, confined to a small room in order to stop her from meeting her lover, George William. Though he was prepared to embrace Islam for the sake of his girl friend; but Sultana's parents were extremely adamant not to go to this way in any circumstance. Due to her long confinement, Sultana grew nervous and desperate as to how to face the adverse situation; but visualizing her dark future, she strangulated herself by so tightening her scarf that she ended her life within a few hours on the fateful morning of 23rd of April, 2000.

54
There was a good friend of mine, namely, Satish Kumar, when I was a student in Agra College. Satish was a handsome boy, intelligent and also a bit romantic; both of us were studying in Agra College and we lived together in a big

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room of the college hostel for two years. Satish got a government job in fooacorporation of India (F.CI.) and was posted in Delhi. I, too, got a government job in Northern Railway, Baroda House, New Delhi, as a typist. Both of us used to meet occasionally in Delhi. After a year, I got another job of an auditor in Accountant General's office in Jaipur in the year, 1963. Incidentally, Satish was transferred to Jaipur, and when he was travelling in a bus from Delhi to Jaipur, he got a seat just near a woman, namely, Jyoti, aged 35, smart and beautiful. What happened, then? While introducing and talking to each other, Satish fell in love with Jyoti, who was unfortunately a widow as her husband, a school headmaster, died due to a deadly disease. She brought Satish to her house in Jaipur. Jyoti was also an officer in a corporation of Rajasthan State, and they began to enjoy mutually as both were young, and thus, they became virtually a couple, husband and wife. Strangely, Satish was married having two lovely sons, living in Agra, along with their mother. When they grew young and mature, the story of their father's love affairs with Jyoti, anyhow, came to their knowledge through their mother, they started hating their father, Satish, because of his illegal relationship. Jyoti had also two sons, one by her deceased husband and other by Satish. Gradually, when her two sons grew young and mature, they, too, began to hate Satish, and thus, he became a victim of being discarded by both sides. Unluckily, Satish was dismissed from service because of certain corruption charges; then, he wholly became to be dependent on Jyoti at the age of 55 years; he turned to be a helpless and sick man, along with being a felonious old man after realizing the shock of his folly.

Terrible Tales of Suicide

Afterwards, Satish wc:ts never respected either by his previous wife and sons, nor by Jyoti's sons. He was actually riding on two horses, a difficult task to balance himself. He crossed sixty years of his life; by then, he faced the pangs of oldage ailments; and he also met a total accident making him a crippled one. Satish himself narrated the whole sad story to me, when we met in Jaipur. The last days of his life turned to be a frightening hell to him. Though Jyoti had a sympathy for Satish; but the situation squarely developed into a hostile one and unbearable to him. Both the families, especially his sons of the former wife and the present one, condemned him like anything for his follies. Looking into the severe miseries of future life, afraid of being dumped and darkened, he so forcefully struct his head against a sharp edged corner of a newly built house (to live gracefully and peacefully) that Satish died instantly but ingloriously. Surprisingly, not a single son of either side attended his funeral pyre; no weeping, no tears, thus ended the story of coincident of love into a grim tragedy. Here one must realize" As you sow, so you reap."

55
Another young boy, namely Shiva Kumar, aged 25, who became a victim of suicide, was a lecturer in Rajasthan Education Service (R.ES.), very handsome, smart and intelligent; he was posted in government college, Kota, and was going well as an unmarried young man; but he was in search of a beautiful companion. Incidentally, Shiva came into friendly contact with a beautiful lecturer and also girl student of his college, namely, Sveta and Rajni, of the same age group, respectively; both fell in love with Shiva, without knowing one

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another; but Shiva was, being a romantic lecturer, enjoying her company. But with the passage of time, he was badly entangled in conflicting love affairs as Sveta and Rajni, both emotionally overwhelmed, wanted to marry with Shiva who had two best alternatives to choose, either one of them. Sveta was an earning lady; whereas Rajni was a daughter of a very rich parents. Such was a situation, either this or that way, which affected the psyche of Shiva adversely, because of incapability to decide or choose -anyene alternative, though both the alternatives were almost equal in terms of beauty and money. In the absence of a firm stand or an indecisive situation, Shiva pushed himself to go to the road of becoming a psychopath, that is, he turned to be a person suffering from a severe mental or emotional disorder. He, then, faced severe mental illness that affected the whole of his personality which ultimately led him to be a self-killer by taking poison on the fateful might of 20th August in 1998.

56
About ten years back, probably in 1992, I read a news of suicide by a women, that jerked me squarely. A middle class Thakur family lived in Gwalior, a big city of Madhya Pradesh, consisting of parents, their two sons, Sohan Singh and Pratap Singh, and one daughter namely Suman elder than her two brothers. What happened to this family, was really an unprecedented event. The parents died because of some incurable diseases who left Suman and her brothers helpless and in gloomy situation, and they were really joggled after their parents' untimely passing away.

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However, Suman (unmarried) gathered self-confidence and determination to support her brothers who were, then, the college going students of their graduation classes. How to financially support them, was a difficult task before Suman. Anyhow, she kept them in the college hostel, and then, asked them to devote their studies so that they could become big officers. She told her brothers that she would do some work i1l' Agra (Uttar Pradesh) to earn money and send it to them regularly by money-orders. On this pretext, Suman reached Agra where, to one's surprise, she joined a group of prostitutes. Whatever she earned, she used to send it to them. After a few years, they became graduates, and luckily, both the brothers were selected, one as an LA.S. and second as an LP.S., and got their postings in Madhya Pradesh. Afterwards, they got married; children were born to them; and asked to live in government bungalows, with all luxuries of life; but they worried about Suman. Eventually, Suman happily came to know all about her brothers; but by that time, she had grown old with white hair and wrinkled face. Suman met her brothers one by one with great hopes. She told how she supported them and that disgraceful story, infuriated her brothers who not only hated her; but they and their ultra-modern wives, also forced her to get out of their bungabws and worried her not to come and meet them again. In fact, Suman was happy and wished to live with her brothers for the rest of life. But she faced condemnation, hate rebuke virtually excommunication by her brothers, which smashed Suman's whole of psyche. Again, she reached Agra and the rainy season's jumped from the Yamuna bridge into fast running water course to get herself drowned one with nature.

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57
When I was looking into some newspapers' cuttings related to the incidents of suicide, I found another instance of an I.p.s. officer, namely, Sia Ram Meena, who became a victim of such untoward happenings. He was posted in Tonk, a district of Rajasthan state, and was a school-going student. Early marriages are still in vogue among the Meena community. Two lovely sons; Amar and Karna were born to Sia Ram Meena and his wife, Bhanwari, who was looking after the agriculture land, for her saas and sasur had died. No one, then, new that Meena, a handsome boy, would become an I.P.S. officer. In Tonk, he was living all alone, because- he did not like to keep Bhanwari with him as she was not well educated and modern one to the expectations of a big police officer. In fact, the I.P.S. officer was entangled in a dilemma, i.e., a situation in which he had to choose between two or more undesirable things or courses of action. He faced a vague situation whether to remarry another beautiful and educated girl of his choice or to keep Bhanwari with him, who was really a care-taker of Meena's agriculture land and other properties. The officer was also in a mood to keep his sons with him in order to give them some opportunities for school education. He was also not in a position to divorce Bhanwari. Thus, Sia Ram found himself in a very complex situation to go to this or that way. In the midst of being gripped in many alternates, Sia Ram started suffering from mental imbalance, and one might fed up with an utter loneliness, indecisiveness, he hanged himself to die from an iron hook of

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the ceiling fan; the incident of suicide, took place in the year 1999, which shocked everyone who knew it, especially his simple wife and two sons. It was really a heart-breaking incident of suicide.

58
A tribal young man, aged 25, was charged and arrested for murdering four persons of his area, Bayana, a small city of Madhya Pradesh state. The man namely, Ram Prasad Gadri, was locked up in small room of the police station of Byavara. In fact, Ram Parsad was running from one place to another to escape his arrest; but during this criminal exercise, he could not foods for the last three days and was badly feeling hungry though he was healthy to sustain himself. Anyhow Gadri dismantled a window of the room, quickly ran towards a long tree behind the police station and he climbed up to the top of the tree to willingly die by jumping down. When the police inspector and other policemen carne to know of this incident, they requested Gadri to come down; but he was adamant and afraid of severe beating and torture by the police. The police inspector, then, sent for a few journalists and district official; who appealed him to safely corne down; he agreed but on the condition that instead of police atrocities; he should be given foods first. He was assured by the persons who were present there. The moment Gadri came down, he was provided with sufficient eatables which he enjoyed and filled up his belly to the full capacity. Though Gadri was fully satisfied, yet he was mentally disturbed assuming that the police would not leave him now and he would be beaten and tortured black and blue by the police. Gadri was locked up again. So to avoid

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such painful situation, he strangulated by tying tightly his lungi (a small piece of cloth) around his neck, and thus, Gadri ended his life intentionally, on the night of 20th october, 2001.

59
This incident of suicide took place in Agra (Uttar Pradesh) in November, 2000, in which a very handsome boy, aged 25, of Jatava caste, and a beautiful girl, aged 20, of Vaishya community, were entangled in love affairs; the boy Ram Naresh and the girl Suchitra, lived in Belan Ganj locality; and their love of each other was an affair of inter-caste that is not allowed among the Hind us irrespective of radical social and legal changes. Ram Naresh was a graduate in arts; but was an unemployed and wholly dependent on their parents, who were not in favour of such love-making and when they came to know of its seriousness, they conveyed this 1l!atter to the parents of Suchitra in order to stop her daughter from going ahead on the road of love. After fully knowing pros and cons of the ensuing mishappening, they thought of a plan of marrying her. One day the father of Suchitra sent for Naresh Kumar and his parents to his residence and in very polite language, he said "Naresh, you are an unemployed educated boy. I do not have any objection; but on one condition, Suchitra may be married to Naresh.'" "What is the condition?", asked Naresh. Then, Suchitra's father said, "If you get a government job within a year from now I shall allow my daughter to marry you irrespective of whatever the indignation I may face in my family or from the relations". The parents of Naresh agreed, and Naresh too, was happy to

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listen to such a liberal attitude of a Vaishya. Despite his best efforts, Naresh could not succeed to get any government job, and the period of one year came to its end to the surprise of Naresh, and he faced a situation of deep frustration and failure to fulfill his dream of an inter-caste marriage. After the lapse of one year, Suchitra's parents were happy and at the earliest, they arranged the marriage of their daughter with a boy of Vaishya community. How could the course of events may turn to the bad luck of both, Naresh and Suchitra? Neither the parents of the boy, nor the parents of the girl, could think of it. With all the best wishes, Suchitra went to her new home after her marriage. Anyhow, she knew what had happened to thwart the story of love, pure and pious. Before she could celebrate her bedding night in a well decorated and profusely perfumed room, she tightened her chunni (scarf) around her neck and forcefully strangulated herself to death so that she could keep her virginity intact. In fact, her new companion, was thrust on her without her conset. Incidentally, the same night Naresh, too hanged himself to death by the ceiling fan. The story of a true love between Naresh and Suchitra reached its climax to a horrible end into their suicides at two different places but the same night probably to convey the message of annihilating the barriers of caste, or creed, in matters of love and friendship. It seems, as if both the victims were made, or scarified, for each other.

60
The last to mention, are the two incidents of suicide by two women, one married and second unmarried, namely, Saroj, aged 35, and Rajni, aged 28, respectively, as appeared in the

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newspapers of 6th October, 2001. Both the incidents of suicide took place in Jaipur, one in Murlipura and second in Shastri Nagar localities. Though both the cases have different reasons; yet' seem to b(! the most frigptening ones. The husband of Saroj was a vegetable seller, who as a breadwinner, always engaged himself in his work right from early morning to the last of visible rays of sun. One the one hand, Saroj was worried about her business, and on the other, she also felt loneliness the whole day without any merry-making with her own kids, and such a frustrated situation made her a mental case of multiple personality, that is, she used to work with changing moods behaving as a normal woman before her husband; but in his absence, she started behaving in a different mood like one that of a lunatic personality. Ultimately. After being a shattered lady frem within one day Saroj doused a tin of kerosene her self and ignited with a match stick, and thus, she ended her life to the surprise of her husband, who sincerely looked after Saroj to help and encouraged her to live happily; but the destiny did not oblige him. As regard the self-destruction of Rajni, she could not face the situation of being rejected repeatedly by many boys and their parents not finding her a suitable match due to her blackish colour, short height, and unattractive personality, though she was an educated girl, expert in household management, homely and adjustable, too. Rajni's parents always encouraged her to wait patiently by advising, "Dear daughter, face the situation for the time being and look forward; as we believe, in each and everyone's life, whether a girl or a boy, there comes a time when the course of events so turns in favour that one gets what one resolutely wishes,

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wants or intends, to achieve; but one has to wait, peacefully, with hope till hope creates hope." Anyhow, Rajni could not abide by her parents' advice, who were really optimists in order to sustain themselves for the sake of their family's welfare and happiness. She lost her mental balance; and one night she consumed a heavy dose of celphos tablets to end her own anxieties and miseries, and also to give relief to parents from the burdensome responsibility of getting her married to live peacefully.

61
While reading the newspaper of 13th November, 2001, (Rajasthan Patrika), I found two more incidents of suicide, one couplery and second collective one. The victim couple were Bajrang Kaushik (age 30) and his wife Saroj Kaushik (age 28), who were the residents of Malviya Nagar of Jaipur and walked on foot near the Khatipura Railway Station of Kanota Police Station. There they waited for the fast running the Puja Express train and when the train approached them, tightly hands shaked, jumped suddenly before the engine and thus, ended their lives on the evening of 13th November, 2001. Their bodies were badly crushed into pieces to give a frightening scene to those who witnessed it. What was the reason to go to such an extreme step? As written on a piece of paper kept in the pocket of Bajrang Kaushik, his younger brother, Gopal, had been facing a dispute, or an altercation, with his wife over an allegation that Gopal had illegal sex relationship with his bhavi (Saroj Kaushik); right or wrong, it was serious allegation to tarnish the images of Bajrang and Saroj. The parents of Gopal's wife were pressuring her to entangle Gopal in a dowry case. It

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was also written on the piece of paper that they were voluntarily committing suicide and after their death, the whole of their own property be transferred in the name of Elu, their only son, and Elu should also be sent to his nananani (the parents of Saroj) living in Kolkata, to be brought up and educated there. The couple Bajrang and Saroj, were really stunned and shattered from within by an utter false allegation.

62
The second incident of collective suicide was really a frightening mishappening when husband and wife, Dhanesh Singh, an assistant teacher, aged 45, and his wiflf' Deepa, aged 40, residents of Bikaner (a district of Rajasthan State), along with their two sons, Rohit and Vikas (school-going children) committed suicide in Ajmer on 12th of November, 2001. Theirs was a small family of four members; they came to Ajmer from Bikaner on 10th of November; they stayed in Lodha Dharmshala of Khailand market; and interestingly, before suicide, they visited Pushkar, a religious place, to have blessings of God. They also met Dr. Alok Garg of Ajmer for having some medicines for one of their sons who was suffering from fever and throat infection. Dhanesh Singh's wife telephoned to her brother to inform that she was going to commit suicide. Before any relative could save them, the husband and wife first gave potassium cyanide powder to their sons, who died soon, and then, they themselves took the same powder to go to the way of self-killing. They locked the doors of room number seven from inside and thus, all the four victims went into the heaven of eternal sleep.

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Dhanesh Singh left a piece of paper in which was written, "I have left a sum of Rs. Eight thousand in order to perform well all the religious rites of my family according to the Hindu Shastras; the property I have in my name be transferred in the name of my mother. We have gone to the committal of suicide at our own, and therefore, no one is responsible for our suicide. I also request the police not to entangle anyone of my relatives as our act of suicide is voluntary. What had led Dhanesh Singh and his wife Deepa to commit suicide in Ajmer? It remained a mystery as nothing apparently was clear or visible to anyone of their parents, brothers and sisters. Anyhow, we may only presume that certain conditions, or inherent causes, would have led them to commit the couplery suicide preceded by the cruel murder of the two lovely sons.
II

63
During the years 2000-2001, the process and movement of making "Jaipur, the Pink City, a heritage city", by the government, thousands of daily bread-winners through their roadside tea-stalls, dhawas (food hotels under tin shades or thatched covers), vegetable sellers sitting on the roadsides, and some others like hotel or pan-masala and fruit sellers, were displaced suddenly and mercilessly, creating overnight problems to the poor, illiterate, even some educated youths doing such works or engaged in boot-polish and shoes repairing. Although these bread-winners had occupied roadsides against the government or J.D.A.'s (Jaipur Development Authority) rules without permission yet the authorities were so coercive and inhuman that such sudden dismantling and battering the established means of

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livelihood, had driven some persons, so engaged to go to the way of self-killings, because they had to face unexpected unemployment and economic hardships. A few of the bread-winners, namely, Jay Ram Meena, betel-seller who' had his wife and two small babies to feed; Sarupi Bai, a widow engaged in selling vegetables having three daughters to feed; Ram Lalvani, a fruit-seller, having a large family depending on him for bread, living in different localities of Jaipur city, committed suicides in the last days of the year 2000. Not only these, some other extremely poor persons, also adopted to die rather than living like beggars' life. It was a matter of surprise and shock to them that no alternative places were provided to them; rather, their dismantled materials were destroyed completely by J.D.A. and dumped somewhere else also. The beautification of Jaipur was, in fact, carried on at the cost of the poor people's bread and employment (roti and employment) as it left them in a desperate situation. What I have narrated here is not to suggest that the work of beautification, or making Jaipur, a heritage city, should be discontinued henceforth. I have simply indicated as how to rehabilitate those whose means of livelihood have been uprooted by force before they are displaced. The same thing happened on 23rd of November, 2001, when thousands of bread-winner1s tin shades, thatched places, etc., were forcibly uprooted in the 'Thadi Market' of Mansarovar Colony of Jaipur. Due to this operation, a few of them were pushed to the ways of suicide. Such a sudden and unexpected process of dismantling may be held responsible for driving the most poor men or women to any mishappening. To be brief, a situation of unemployment, economic hardships and miseries should not be created

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overnight at least by the government or J.D.A. without warning and providing suitable alternatives to earn livelihood, i.e., rotiroji.

64
This is an incident of murder before suicide that took place in a village of Ghadshana town of District Bikaner (Rajasthan State) on the night of 5th December, 2001. Balvindra Singh Bavery, aged 42, of this village had taken meals along with his family members and slept on his cot. At about 10 p.m., Bavery stood up from his cot and he picked a sharp-edged iron weapon that was kept in his house. Then, he furiously his sleeping wife, Preetam Kaur, aged 40, again and again, so cruelly till her head was shattered into small pieces. Listening to the frightening cry of their mother, the three children suddenly awoke. They were squarely stunned. While two of them, afraid of Bavery's cruelty, hid themselves under her mother's cot; but the daughter of Preetam Kaur, namely, Buggi, aged 15, came forward to the rescue of her mother so courageously that she fought against her father, the killer. Anyhow, Balvindra Singh caught Buggi tightly and threw her on the cot, and then, he, like a beast, attacked Buggi on her face by the same iron weapon for about seven to eight times and .. this way, she was also murdered. Many times, he attacked both wife and daughter till he became sure that they were died. Balvindra Singh, himself shocked extremely, sat peacefully for some moments and then, drank a bottle of pesticide, poisonous liquid, to kill himself. For about three hours, he ran hither and thither inside the house like a lunatic because of extreme painful situation. Ultimately, he,

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too went into an eternal sleep. The process of murders and suicide continued for three hours as the two hidden children (6 and 8 years) saw with amazing eyes and sensitive ears. The infighting between father and daughter to stop the cruelty and killing was really a shuddering event for anybody. No pity, no love, no filiality, the ghastly murders resulted in suicide because of Balvinder Singh's mental imbalances and inability to adjust with faithful wife and lovely children.

65
The last to mention is an incident of suicide that happened in Kota city of Rajasthan State on the evening of 5th of December, 2001. A handicap Devi Singh, aged 55, was a peon in the Rajasthan State Electricity Corporation, Kota. For the last 28 years, handicapped due to poliomyelitis in both of his legs, he was working as a chowkidar (watchman) in the fifth unit of R.S.E.C. He got this job as a reserved candidate from the handicaps' quota, and had to be retired after 5 years from now. The officials of the corporation asked him to voluntarily retire. Devi Singh kept himself mum and did not apply for voluntary retirement. The officials, then, started torturing him mentally in one way or the other. An asst. engineer of his unit, Muneshwar Singh, not only tortured j)evi Singh alone but also his son, Manohar Singh, a student of 12th class who used to help his father to bring him daily by cycle so that in day time he could continue his studies. Devi Singh was the only bread-winner for the whole of his family. Then, the asst. engineer took it seriously as to why Devi Singh could not abide by his advice to retire. The engineer not only used invectives against both father and son, and he also ordered-if Devi Singh could not bring his son any day,

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the day would be treated as absent' hence no payment of such an absent day. It was a sufficient warning to mentally disturb the father and his son, Manohar Singh. This threatening made the boy to discontinue his studies. In fact, Manohar Singh wanted to replace his father, if the officials could do so; but his request was rejected outright. One day, the engineer sent for Devi Singh in his room and forcibly ordered him to sign the papers of his premature retirement, and in such a clever way, Devi Singh was retired voluntarily. On the evening of 5th December, Manohar Singh came to know of it after his father came out of the room. It was a severe mt'ntal shock to him. Suddenly he rushed to his home leaving his father on duty. What had happened, then, was an unexpected event without telling the horrible tale of his father's torture to anybody, he hanged himself to the ceiling hook to commit suicide, and anyhow, when Devi Singh reached his home, he, too, was terribly shocked to learn the story that turned into a tragedy of his son. To elaborate and emphasize these incidents of suicide are sufficient to give us a vivid picture of how and why one goes to the gallows, i.e., what impels to condemn oneself to death undergoing the most painful experience. We can draw certain conclusions; apparent reasons, inherent causes or many other hidden aspects to unfold, from these terrible tales of suicide. Let us, therefore, move towards the issues related or relevant to these unfortunate happenings in human societies. Some of the foregoing incidents of suicide have been so complicated and confusing that can perplex anyone who comes forward to study them in all of their aspects and meanings.

Apparent Reasons for Suicide

In view of Dr. c.J. John, a psychologist of Medical Trust Hospital (Ernakulam), the flashing of suicide news as published in newspapers, are partially responsible for propelling persons to go to the way of self-killing. John has made a report of his studies about suicides, and he has discovered that the publishing of news of suicide is so dramatic and deadly that produces self-destructive moods and motives to lead the persons towards the vicious circle of self-killing. The news are also flashed in framed language along with details of suicides, that the persons, finding similar situation of facts, and factors are influenced to embrace death willingly to end the anxieties and miseries of their life. This is a good study of suicide events, but the flashing of news is not the cogent reason behind the suicides. This may be one of the apparent reasons like that one among which we have already mentioned. Here it may be noted that the illiterate or uneducated men or women, who do not read

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newspapers also commit suicides. So the flashing of news cannot be inherently the valid reason to encourage persons for going to the way of suicide. Apparent reasons are those that are clearly seen or understood obviously. Such apparent reasons seem real or true, but not always necessarily so. There is something deep, apparently not known, that suddenly sparks within one's psyche to commit suicide. Here we may explain the apparent reasons or the ways with casewise that are found in the earlier instances. These are as follows: 1. The boy, who committed suicide, was so sensitive to his father's addiction to drink liquor and begging money from the students of his college, that he could not face the shameful situation or stop from what his father was doing disgracefully the ignoble acts. The next boy, who committed suicide, was prompted to go to this way because of his father's warning of beating, if he did not rise early in the morning to walk like him. The fear of beating and inability to follow or obey his father's order led him to embrace death.
In the third case, the professor, really found himself in

2.

3.

the grip of his deadly disease, i.e., stomach cancer, which so frightened him to end his life that was inevitably visible to him, and as he thought, sooner the self-killing the better way was to finish his life at the earliest. The apparent reason was the fear of deadly cancer, a surest way to death. 4. In this incident of suicide, the apparent reason was the lack of mutual co-operation, or disharmony between the husband and the wife. The lady's stubborn attitude may also be added to as the supporting ground for suicide.

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5.

The next events of suicide were due to illegal sex relationship between a married husband and the woman other than his wife or a woman's illegal sex relationship with a man other than her husband. The moment such relationship is known to either one, the helpless wife or the frustrated husband becomes prone to commit suicides. In the cited case, the stubborn attitude of man's beloved was an apparent reason. Here we may find the ill-treatment of her son's wife by the mother-in-law (saas) vis-a-vis the sensitive nature of the deceased. The conflicting egos of saas and bahus are common these days to cause family tensions.

6.

7.

An altercation between the husband and the wife may also be an apparent reason of the husband's suicide. The severe shock may also be added to cause suicide by somebody.
It was an obvious fact, the fourth wife's bad economic condition, turned into stress and depression, led her commit suicide as a way to end all anxieties and miseries.

8.

9.

In this case of suicide, the apparent reason was student's failure in examination or an unexpected lowest marks in examination. As inability to face shameful performance in any competition test may lead a sensitive student to commit suicide.

10. Herein the pressure of work or strenuous duties, along with loneliness or loveless nights may be the apparent reasons of suicide by an I.P.S. lady, though her husband was also an LA.5. officer, and as such, there was no economic hardship or unemployment before her.

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11. This case of suicide was a strange event as it involved a seasoned LA.S. officer. He could have faced the political pressure situation created by V.I.P. politicians' interference for getting some benefits by way of illegal indulgence; but unfortunately, he went to take an extreme step of self-killing. 12. This event of suicide involved a girl's high and ambition, and the way she adopted to realize it was uncalled for as her parents were not in favour of such a career in film industries. She escaped with a lot of money without her parents' wishes and she got nothing except disgraceful end. 13. It was a suicide by a karorpati due to enormous loss of money in shares' business. A greedy attitude is involved in such suicide, though the very aged businessman, had enough money to sustain any reverse situation. 14. The mental and physical torture of newly married girls due to insufficient dowry may be an apparent reason, though the husband may be to her side, which, too, was disliked by the in-laws. A greed for more dowry is commonly found almost in all instances of self-killing by the newly married women. 15. The Kathmandu horrible murders and the suicide by the crown-prince were complex, but apparently failure in love-marriage, or greed for kings' chair (gaddi), was the cause behind such a grimy situation of his parents;' murder, along with other members of royal family, leading to self-killing. There may be other reasons of political, or even a part of conspiracy, but love and greed were inevitably involved in it.

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16. This case unfolds the terrible tale of unmarried sisters and their parents who committed collective suicide because of orthodox mentality, blind belief in traditions and customs or social taboos, which forbid inter-caste marriage or in the same gotras, among the Brahmins, the twice-born ones. 17. The uneven distribution of agricultural land and immovable property among sons may also be apparent reasons, along with father's adamant refusal to do the desired things by one or all of the sons. In this case of suicide, the married son and daughter-in-law (bahu) wanted to be independent from joint family that was unacceptable to the father, which led to a collective suicide, including the killing of innocent kids. 18. The suicide, a ghastly collective one, took place due to neighbour's false allegation for his daughter's elopement with the connivance of his neighbour and subsequent police torture and atrocities, and this hostile situation turned to be apparent reasons for a collective suicide along with innocent children. 19. Ernest Hemingway committed suicide as a result of his inability to keep promise or due to utter depression because of his mind did not work to his expectations. He was also a wine addict that made him weak and fickleminded to do things as he wished. 20. Here the apparent reasons of suicide were husband's being liquor-addict and his wife's deep frustration to stop her husband from being such a bad habitual person. The heavy liquor or wine drinking becomes apparent reason in many cases of suicide. A woman's barrenness may also be added to the occurrence of suicide events as we observe in this instance.

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21. The huge loss of money, the resultant inability to pay debts, fear to become poor, imprisonment causing social disgrace, indignity and social disgrace may be noted in this case of suicide as some apparent factors for selfkilling by both the rich and the educated persons. 22. This incident of suicide clearly involved the shameful and disgraceful act on the part of the woman who wanted to be independent and distribution of agricultural land among the sons_ by her father-in-law for which she strangulated him. "husband felt very shameful and started hating his wife. First the husband committed suicide and then, his wife did so. The double suicide happened due to greed and hatred for in-laws. 23. The poor farmers committed suicides because of poverty, natural disasters, draughts, continuing bad or less profitable crops, and inability to repay the loans. These suicides also involved the ideas of dark future. 24. The old man (majdur), after his death, faced loneliness and indifferent attitude towards him by the family members, which afflicted the aged one, so he committed suicide in a way, quite strange as he jumped over the live wires of electricity. Infirmity, blindness and being belittled may be added to as supporting grounds for suicide. 25. Herein are the instances which have religious sanctity for suicides or fanaticism for doing so as Hara-Kiri, JalSamadhi, Santhara, Sati and Johar. Such ways were regarded as good and morally justifiable in olden days. 26. This instance of suicide by an employed girl happened due to her being of low height, sarcastic or teasing

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language used by her office colleagues and anxieties on the part of her parents and sisters. With growing age, 'she could not adjust with such a hostile situation. 27. Hitler's suicide was a unique event as he could not like to be captured alive and humiliated and hanged publicly. He died for his honour and bravery in the last of his days, along with his secretary wife, Ivana. It is said, 'Better to kill oneself gracefully than to live in slavery or prison". 28. The self-immolation of Sanatan Mohanti was a feeling of loneliness, being childless, and the unbearable mental shock, after his wife's death as she was the lone and devoted housewife in the family. The feeling of frustration and desperation led him to end his life along with the burning pyre of Sanjuwala. 29. The self-burning of Mrs. Kamla Devi involved the feeling of humiliation and disgrace to herself and the family due to illegal love affairs and infidelity on the part of her husband it also battered her psyche, along with family tension and frustration. 30. Anyhow, Berly wanted to take revenge in return to her being suffered at the hands of her bhabhi-Saguni and she murdered Saguni and Dhanpu mercilessly. It was really a result of deep anger and injury of Berly's psyche, and the resultant fear, tension and disgrace. It was a suicide due to the feeling of a felony on the part of Berly. 31. It was a suicide by a political worker apparently because of his inability to carryon the party affairs; he might be a victim of loneliness as a result of his being unmarried

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and also due to some mutual conflicts with party workers. 32. The murder and suicide clearly show as to how close friendship between Rajendra and Sridhar turned into hostility and enmity just out of one's greed for money to attract a girl who had nothing to do with Rajendra's onesided love. The murder was a cruel criminal act, and the subsequent suicide demonstrated one's greed, feeling of deep repentance and self-condemnation as Rajendra achieved nothing but contempt of his psyche at his own. 33. The death of her two sons within a span of five years had frightened Chameli who also suspected that her third son, too, would not survive more, and without the, she would not be able to face numerous hardships that may come up henceforth. It was clearly an extreme shock and dark future that pushed Chameli to jump into the well in order to end her fear and anxiety. 34. It was an illegal sex relationship, adultery, disgraceful act, on the part of the saint as well as the lady. The saint was not expected to do such heinous crime as he was a sannyasi to seek moksha by renunciation and meditation. 35. The victim could not visualize the distance between the ideas and the facts; he found himself in a situation of mental agony, though he was shown many beautiful girls; no choice, only suicide ended his worries and fantasies. 36. The main reasons of suicide among the terrorists or militants are to save themselves from the fear or the frightening situation of cruel methods of torture, mentally and physically, at the hands of police or

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military forces, they prefer to die rather than disgrace, indignity and insult to their personalities. It is deemed to be a great honour to the victims of their native land. 37. In this event of collective suicide, the apparent reason was acute poverty, hunger and starving situation that squarely shattered the family of Saida Khatoon. She could not face or see the starving children before her eyes, and as a result of sensing dark future, she took such an extreme step of self-destruction. 38. The behaviour of the so-called modern bahu (bride) of the I.A.S. officer was rude and cruel driving the in-laws in a disgraceful living that inevitably turned into an unbearable and melancholic situation for them better to die rather than surviving a few years more. 39. The Hindu society is so conservative that in the fast changing world, it does not tolerate inter-caste marriages. The couplery suicide was a result of caste barriers, the boy being from the so-called high caste and the girl from a very low caste; both were mentally disturbed and realized their inability to live a lovemarriage, peacefully and independently. This way their lovely dreams were bruised aside. 40. This case of suicide involved a Dalit (Scheduled Caste) boy and a twice-born girl; both were well educated and adult ones to know the pros and cons of love-marriage. The incident of suicide was the result of a cruel and painful murder of the Dalit boy on the part of the village panchayat and the subsequent self-destruction by the girl clearly showed how the caste factor played its heinous role. This was really a shocking event to all those who read it in newspapers.

Apparent Reasons for Suicide

lOt

41. This incident of suicide involves the apparent reasons as poverty, the economic hardship, and the evil design of the owner of the rickshaw to have illicit sex relationship with Govindi. When her husband came to know about it as told by Govindi, he decided to leave the town (Alwar) to escape the coercion of the owner of rickshaw; but the owner, anyhow, entered into the compartment of the train and both the parties had same heated discussion that resulted in jumping out the compartment of the couple along with their innocent five year old boy. 42. It was the matter of caste discrimination against Lal Chand by his office colleagues, and he had also the responsibility to get his daughters married at the earliest. But Lal Chand, being also a drug-addicted, was unable to do what he wanted. Herein the apparent reasons were triple in nature - caste-bias, liquor addiction and poverty, which pushed Lal Chand to go to self-destruction. 43. The self-killing of Abhishek was apparently due to ragging i.e., mockery and teasing, by the senior students which he could not resist bold but meekly submitted himself to the refuge of suicide. As he was always afraid of being ragged thinking he could not do justice to his studies and parents as well. 44. This suicide by an aged person, 70 years Shy am Lal, was apparently due to two main reasons - (i) the death of his beloved wife who always looked after her husband's care and comforts; and (ii) an utter loneliness, along with indifferent attitudes towards him by his sons and daughters-in-law. It is the general trend against the aged or infirm persons these days in the so-called modern society.

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45. The self-destruction by the terrorists is also a mode of suicide; but it involves either pre-suicide killings or followed by murders of others. This mode of selfdestruction has assumed an alarming way of suicide, killing at the same time, several persons. Apparently, its main reason is to sacrifice oneself for a greater cause or a holy war against the enemies in the name of a religion and fundamentalism. 46. The suicide by Kishori Lal took place due to his negative thinking or false belief that he would not be cured of the disease like epilepsy and migraine and to survive long without the help of continuing consumption of medicines, and thus, to end all the deadly ailments of life, he committed suicide that grievously stunned his family members. 47. This incident of suicide by Sukka was a result of the comparison of his princely life to the life of ignominy, beating and torturing, after he was captured by the police. He, then, realized that his survival would no longer be worthwhile and it was better for him to die to get rid of further humiliation at the hands of police, though he deserved for such an ill-treatment being a mafia chief and a murderer of his associate. 48. Such a couplery incident of suicide by a brother and a sister was really heart-breaking and extremely painful not only to their parents but also to all those who carne to know of it. The main apparent reason for that suicide was a constant family feud or conflict between the husband and the wife. It was really not a suicide to the taste of both of them as it became a desperate and unbearable family situation.

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49. The incidents of self-destructive suicide followed by killings of unconcerned people, are to sacrifice oneself for a greater cause, i.e., either to liberate the people or to gain sympathy from the fellow-countries in their favour. In a sense, this is nothing bl,lt a false step or an act of madness on the part of the terrorists, the so-called
zehadis.

50. The suicide by the two young women, Sarita and Kamla, was a result of their being ill-treated and dehumanized by the in-laws, even by their husbands. Sarita committed suicide because she was regarded as inauspicious, having an evil spirit; whereas Kamla did so because of extreme torture and inhuman behaviour towards her by in-laws for bringing to them insufficient dowry in cash. The ladies had no alternative but self-destruction. 51. It was beyond anyone's understanding as to what led Javed Iqbal to kill the children in such a beastly way. The apparent reasons of his suicide would have been the sudden self-realization of his folly, guilt or heinous criminal acts against the children, the madness inherent in his mindset, and also the feeling of self-condemnation for his sarzad gunah". Before Iqbal could be hanged till death, he adopted the way of self-destruction. In fact, Iqbal realized that his death was surely near and it would be better to die at his own, so he went to finish his life inside the jail premises.
1/

52. This self-burning case of suicideoy Ram Chandra Singh was clearly a result of poverty or economic hardship and of his being an addicted to liquor, which led to the daily clash between him and his wife, though Maya Devi was right and honest to ask him to leave the habit of

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53. This incident of suicide by Razia Sultana was dearly a result of an uncompromising and stubborn, or say, very orthodox attitude of her parents; in other words, the inter-religion marriages are not encouraged in Indian society; rather, such marriages are deemed to be a sacrilege that can also invite the wrath of Almighty, God or Allah. 54. The tragical end of Satish's life was an obvious result of his adultery, ill-legal sex relationship with Jyoti, a young widow and shamming him by his sons with contempt and condemnation; he realized his felony pushing Satish to self-destruction; and his inability to adopt himself with the hostile and ignoble situation emerged out because of his riding on the two horses (two families) at the same time, keeping his two legs each one on their backs, a very dangerous game. 55. The psyche of Shiva Kumar was initially a strong and balanced one; but his being entangled in the situation of an utteJ: indecision, severe mental and emotional disorder of his personality, led him to take a disastrous step for self-destruction, which looked unusual and strange one to all of his colleagues, students, and also to the ladies, Sveta and Rajni. At times, this happens in the cases of confused and indecisive love affairs. 56. After the demise of her parents Suman became a pr9stitute for the sake of her brothers to rise in life. In fact, they became big bureaucrats but to condemn hate,

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rebuke and excommunicate their sister, who sacrificed all her dignity, virginity and happiness for a greater cause. Suman lost all that for which she had undergone to face the hardships of life, but unfortunately she met indignities one after another to die in the way of suicide. She, in fact, began a disgraceful profession that resulted in her unfortunate end. Suman was also aggrieved because first of all, her brothers refused to recognize her, and then, after listening to her disgraceful story of past life, they recognized her as Suman; but did not to give any shelter; instead, to use invectives against her, which pushed Suman to die herself somewhere also. 57. The victim of suicide was an I.P.S. officer, who was entangled in a dilemma, which was a result of an early unmatched marriage, utter loneliness, indecisiveness in a situation of certain alternatives, and the feeling of divorce, along with love of little sons and greed for property. It was really a riddle for the writers like me, as to why he could not resolve such a hostile situation that compelled him. 58. The victim of suicide, Ram Prasad Gadri, though a criminal, yet he was badly afraid of severe beating, torture and atrocities by the police, and in fact, he was given a severe jolt, a sudden shock to accept his criminal acts. Whatever, the story, Gadri committed suicide to escape the ensuing inhuman atrocities by police officials, though he was also a cruel and beastly murderer. 59. This was an end of the terrible tale of a true love and friendship between the victims of double suicide belonging to two different castes, that is, the apparent

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reasons, being the rigid and intolerant attitude towards inter-caste marriages or inter-creed marriages in Indian society. Despite many radical changes in our legal system, such marriages are hated and condemned by orthodox and fundamentalistic elements prevailing in matters of love-marriages. 60. The incidents of suicide, committed by Saroj and Rajni, were of typical nature as one was married and second was unmarried. As our experiences unfold, one may be frustrated even after marriage or one may also be unhappy even being unmarried. Reasons were apparent in terms of acute desperate situation as well as of the visualization of dark future. If one fails to face things as they come, one goes to the way of suicides, nobody can help him at any cost. 61. The whole of the family was facing an acute situation of mutual distrust and non-cooperation, serious doubtful allegation against Gopal by his own wife to have illegal sex relationship with Saroj, and that was unbearable to Bajrang, who along with Saroj, went to commit suicide, leaving behind Elu, their only son, forlorn. Such couplery suicide could be undertaken only when the victims become entirely battered by disgrace, false allegation and continuing family tension. 62. This was an incident of a couplery suicide, probably, due to property disputes and their being seriously battered from within for reasons best known to Dhanesh Singh and his wife; otherwise they could have never taken such an extreme step to kill their own sons by giving them the powder of potassium cyanide, and then,

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to kill themselves. Who could murder their sons? No one except the parents facing a very tense and unavoidable situation responsible for their shattered self-images. 63. Here a sudden and unexpected change or .dismantling of the means of livelihood mercilessly by J.D.A., necessarily shocked the victims of suicide, as they came overnight in a very desperate situation to face economic hardships. There were no alternative immediately available to them and as such, the victims went to the ways of suicide leaving behind crying and weeping the family members. 64. The cause of suicide after two murders by Balvindra Singh Bavery of his wife and daughter was not economic condition or hardship; but the loss of mental balance as well as the resulting maladjustment with the whole of the family. He was extremely a mental case for reasons unknown to any of his family set-up. In fact, there could have been the double role of Bavery, i.e., one normal in day true, whereas abnormal in night, which led to such a beastly act of murders and suicide. 65. The suicide of Manohar Singh was entangled in a juxtapose of both apparent and inherent causes, that is, the torture of his handicapped father, Devi Singh, and subsequent forced voluntary retirement along with invectives used against his father and himself. He could not bear the insulting or disgraceful behaviour and also the forced retirement of Devi Singh. The suicide was a result of severe mental shock to Manohar Singh, the sensitive boy of tender age who wanted to get a government job before the retirement of his father; but his ambition faced a unbearable situation for self-killing.

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There may be so many instances of fearful suicides that one may feel shuddered, and become deeply emotional after reading and listening to the horrible tales as to how men or women, even adults, adopt so painful ways to die that may also frighten anyone. Self-killing scenes, if taken seriously, can drive anyone who is sensitive and humane, and that is why persons avoid to see the ghastly places where suicides happen. The apparent reasons, in fact, may be numerous; but some representative, or clearly visible, causes may be summarized as follows: Intolerable shameful and situation; Habitual drink and rude behaviour; Fear of invectives and severe beating by parents; Mutual distrust and non-eo-operation between the close relatives; Illegal sex relationship either by husband or by wife with any other person; Stubborn and cruel attitude; Ill-treatment and altercation between the two persons like wife and husband; Severe shock due to sudden and unexpected events or murders: Fear of dark future due to acute poverty, unemployment and hunger; For one's honour and dignity; Family conflict, clash and tension; Mental stress and depression; Economic hardship and unemployment;

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Loneliness and indifferent attitude of family members towards the aged ones or family disputes; Pressure of work and inability to finish it in time; Loveless nights and haunting loneliness; Unexpected and sudden happenings of unsavoury events; Political failure and non-achievement of the desired goals; Sacrifice for a greater cause of the freedom; Extremely illegal or corrupt practices anyhow, when corne to light; High ambitions and unending desires; Enormous loss of money and failure in business and the resultant inability to repay debts; Inability to work efficiently and resultant frustration or depression; Failure in examination; Mental and physical torture; Insufficient dowry in cash and kind; Self-realization of a felony; Unsavoury greed for wealth and social prestige; Alienation and condemnation; Unsuccessful love-making and severe shock due it; Shock of one's loss of sons; Orthodox and fanatic mentality; False allegation and long court cases; Police coercion, torture and atrocities;

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Diseases like cancer and leuchaemia, epilepsy and migraine; Inability to keep promises; Utter depression and deep melancholy; Fear of deadly diseases and boredom of taking life long medicines; Indecisiveness in choosing one of many alternatives; Situation of unbearable desperation; Rude and cruel behaviour of ultra-modern lady towards her in laws; Being very sensitive and emotional in life; Unmatched early marriages; Inability to repay heavy debts; Extreme poverty, hunger and starvation; Infidelity either on the part of wife or of husband; Deep anxieties and situational pressures; Unbearable hostile and enmity situation; Social disgrace due to imprisonment; Wide-ranging frustration and maladjustment; Infertility and barrenness of a woman;' Self-contempt and repentance; Molestation and rape; Disgraceful profession like prostitution; Insufficient income to feed the large family members; Fantasies of impossible Inter-religious marriages deemed to be a sacrilege;

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Severe punishments by village panchayatas; Parents' pressure on their sons or daughters to do things according to their wishes or daily routine; Humiliation and disgrace to the entire family due to infidelity and family tension; A feeling of revenge as a result of deep clash between the two ladies' egoisms etc.; Mental shock, a feeling of loneliness and losing a good companion; Caste barriers and the stubborn or orthodox attitudes of the parents; Extreme intolerance of inter-caste marriages, especially love marriages between different castes; A situation of continuing feud and quarreling; Sudden death of someone, the dearest most; Ragging, i.e., mockery and teasing in educational institutions; and False notion about someone being inauspicious and possessing evil spirit. As we have observed earlier, each incident of suicide has its own unique background and other factors - social, economic, political, flashing of news condemning the persons involved, which instigate them to go to the way of suicide. Almost in all human societies individual, couplery or collective suicides take place in certain incidents, even the innocent kids are taken up by the parents, either by the mother alone or the father, to die with them. It is so amazing that the hands, which bring them up to be educated and move on, kill them also. The little children, who could go to

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schools, or play merrily in homes, crying for sweets, or making noise, etc., are cruelly poisoned or thrown into wells, just to finish the entire family. Self-killings are nothing but beastly acts on the part of mature mother, father or both of them. There should be some immanent reasons for such ghastly suicides; otherwise, the parents could never have done so. Usually, the parents are to wish and bless their sons and daughters to be happy and prosperous, and to kill them mercilessly is not less them a crime. In most cases, the socioeconomic conditions are responsible for driving the whole of family members for committing collective suicides. The social life these days has become so polluted by selfaggrandizement that man is alienated from man himself. Each and every man is so badly bound by his own interests that he can do anything, fair or foul, to satisfy himself. No one cares for others' sorrow or suffering. On the one hand, anti-social groups, or mafias, are becoming stronger day-byday, and on the other, police connivance and protection clearly support them to loot and plunder money or some properties of others. A few of such people work without any hesitation and fear. The whole of society is afraid of them, and in some cases of suicides, the mafias are also instigators. For an individual to live freely has become difficult when he finds himself alone in this vast world. To be brief, the socioeconomic conditions have so changed that the graph of suicides is going upward in one way or the other. With the increasing of wide-ranging hardships and distortion of human relations, the suicides have assumed many cruel forms and ways. How can the suicidal tendencies and happenings be controlled or minimized? This question is very hard and complex to be answered. However, we have to

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ponder over such a question, deeply and seriously, in the interests of the generality of people. In other worlds, though only a few of thousand cases of suicide, have been cited, yet these unfold many things hidden behind them to motivate us to explain the nature and scope of suicides.
In such a brief space, it has been possible to analyze only

a few aspects or the factors, of the very complex psychological and sociological problems presented by the terrible tales and numerous causes of suicides - the analysis is in no sense complete and infallible. However, or most probably, it will serve in a humble way to illustrate a direction in which it seems possible to utilize the conceptual tools of philosophical inquiry in orienting ourselves, at least intellectually, to some of the larger aspects of the tragic and multiple social world we live in; the world of horrible events like suicide,' rape and murder, to consider the possibility of going farther, of predicting the probable social consequences, of possible outcomes of the suicide and considering what we can do about the ensuing cases of suicide, on the scientific, economic or emotional levels, we must devote our intellect and wisdom in the larger interests of mankind.

Theories of Suicide

The problem of suicide is as old as human history, for "man is a social animal", who is, in fact, a rational being as well as an irrational one, emotionally and sensitively, tending towards both living with comforts and facing odds or obstacles in one way or the other. Suicide is one of the human aspects, tendencies or acts, and when the human relations, anyhow, get or become distorted between the two persons, adversely affected one of them, can choose or may be driven to take an extreme step like suicide. Though there are many apparent reasons behind committing suicide, yet some thinkers have endeavoured to find the undercurrent, i.e., a feeling, influence or trend, especially one that is against the main or most obvious one. A few of the thinkers, who worked in this field, may be cited here as follows:

Freudian Theory of Suicide


An Austrian physician, neuropathologist and psychiatrist, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), while studying the causes of

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pathological mental process, resolutely rejected vulgar materialistic attempts to explain changes in mental acts, or human relations, by physiological causes. He did not agree with the materialist world outlook, and denied objective methods of studying mental activity; but Freud created a subjectivist theory for "the distorted human relations", mostly responsible for extreme steps like suicide. What is, then, the undercurrent of distorted human relations according to Freud? In the opinion of Freud, mental activity is considered to be as "something independent, existing side by side with material processes", and it is governed by "special, unknowable, eternal psychic forces lying beyond consciousness". According to Freud, dominating the spirit of man, like fate, are immutable mental conflicts between the unconscious striving for pleasure, mainly the 'sexual', for aggression and the "principle of reality" to which the mind adopts itself. Freud maintains that all mental conditions, all actions of man, and also historical events or social phenomena, including suicides (emphasis mine), are subjective to psycho-analysis, and he has interpreted them as manifestations of unconscious, above all sexual, impulses. Thus, the ideal-the psychic (above all unknowable 'Id' -the unconscious) is considered to be the cause of the history of mankind, morality, art, science, religion, state, law, wars, murders, suicides, etc. To be brief, in Freud's view, along with the phenomenal factors, "a sexual undercurrent" is the cause of all events, human relations or of all suicidal happenings. This way Freud clearly found the sexual impulses, if not properly satisfied, as the main cause of suicide.

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Criticism
Whether Freud's conclusion is true or false, may be controversial, yet it is quite acceptable that the sex impulse a significant role in the events of suicide as the incidents reveal. If a father forces his daughter for sexual intercourse with him, the chances are greater for her to commit suicide rather than being the victim of her own guardian. We may find many of such cases of suicide. The sex impulse, however, being important one, is not wholly the undercurrent of all suicides. In fact, this is an apparent reason empirically visible cause, i.e., it is one of the apparent reasons as we have already mentioned earlier. Freud is partially true but not totally right in emphasizing the sex impulse alone as the main cause of all suicides. For example, a child of ten to fifteen years of age, when fails in some examinations continually or eventually, commits suicide. Is this case of suicide as a manifestation of sexual impulse? We can hardly agree with Freud, for there are ample incidents of suicide wherein we can never visualize the undercurrent of sexual impulses. Again, for example, Ernest Hemingway committed suicide, not because of sex impulses, but due to his inability to keep promise. Like wise, very rich personages, well-educated ones, employed high officials like LA.S. and LP.S., also commit suicides, not because of sexual impulses, but due to their inability to cope with the coercive, adverse or hostile situation that becomes most unbearable to them. To avoid disgraceful, humiliating, situation, one may be well prone to go to the way of suicide. The so-called moral, holy or religiOUS ways of suicide like Hara-Kiri, Jal-Samadhi, Sati, Johar, or Santhara can hardly be regarded as the manifestations of 'sex impulses'. The sex

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impulses are not universally, or generally, applicable in all events of suicide. These may be supporting factors but not the inevitable reasons behind all the suicides. The pathological state of mind is a minor disease that may be temporarily caused by some outer forces. It is found among the human beings as a tendency. How one takes the realities of life, makes a man sick or cheerful. Man is what mind makes of himself. It is said that "man ke jeete jeet hai, man ke hare har", that is, if one controls his mind, he conquers, and if one's mind accepts defeat, he is defeated. This means mind may be driven to either way, victory or defeat. So if man loses his mental balance, he becomes sick, and if he makes himself confident and determined, he gains what he wants to achieve. In other words, the Freudian theory of sex impulse as the undercurrent of all events is not acceptable absolutely. It is one of the factors, as mentioned in earlier chapter, which forces one to commit suicide. What happens in wars, or in the acts of terrorism, is quotable one to refute Freudian theory. Suppose a highranking military officer, if finds himself in the situation that makes his capture quite visible, he goes to self-killing instead of being tortured and mutilated at the hands of enemy. In similar case of a terrorist, he takes cyanide capsule to instantly die instead of being killed by the enemy military forces, for he may be forced and tortured to divulge the secret plans. These are the cases of self-killings wherein we do not find sex impulses but some other factors behind suicides. The Freudian theory about the working of the human mind based on "subconscious sexual ideas or feelings", is not tenable as the undercurrent force to drive a person, a child or

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even a lunatic, for going to the way of suicide. There may be a 'Freudian slip', when a comment made accidentally by a speaker instead of what was originally intended, but which is considered to reveal her or his true thoughts as manifestations of sexual impulses, if he talks much about girls or women, even about his wife and daughter. In fact, this is not a universal phenomenon, but only a part of the forces that we find in some incidents of suicide. However, Freud's contribution in the fields of psycho-analysis and mental pathology is remarkable, because even after a century, he is respected as an investigator of certain new ideas related to human psychology and also for his enthusiasm to inspire scholar to undertake further researches in this field. To sum up, Freud emphasized essentially the unconscious character of mental processes, the conscious processes being merely "isolated acts and parts of the whole psychic entity". Freud's emphasis on the unconscious, irrational elements in human behaviour first around a great deal of opposition; but latter that opposition died down when it was understood that scientific analysis of these irrational forces has the effect of lessening their damaging effect on one's personality: the more we progress in understanding the mechanisms and processes of these irrational forces, the more we may eventually succeed in rationally controlling them or failing to achieve completely such as ambitious goal-we may at last be able to lessen in a practical manner of the harmful effects of irrationality in everyday individual and collective behaviour. Thus, Freud's contribution to lessening human conflicts was, to certain extent, positive for guiding the mentally sick individuals.

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After taking into consideration the psychological aspect or cause of suicide, now we turn to the sociological base of suicide as putforth by Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), a French sociologist and positivist philosopher, disciple of Auguste Comte. Durkheim maintained that sOciology must study society as a particular kind of spiritual reality whose laws differed from those of the individual psychology. For him, human beings need an ideal order and tend to create an ideal society: religion may set up such an ideal world in which pain and sorrow exist no more; and religion may stand for collective sentiments to symbolize some of society's ideas: ceremonies, reunions and celebrations.

Durkheim Theory of Suicide


To begin with, Durkheim, first of all, repudiated most of the accepted theories of suicide. His monographic 3tudy demonstrated that heredity, for example, is not a sufficient explanation of suicide. Climatic factors are equally insufficient as explanatory factors. Likewise, waves of imitation are inadequate explanations. With Durkheim, I, too, agree that heredity, climatic factors and waves of imitation are not the rea] reasons behind the incidents of suicide. Durkheim has classified all the suicides into three main types, namely, egotistical, anomique and -that may briefly be summarized as follows:

Egotistical Suicide
It is the type due to the tendency of individual to shut themselves up within themselves. This situation takes place when other individuals and associations are so busy with their own activities and affairs that some individuals feel

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'slighted', 'affronted', 'hurt' and 'ignored'. Introvertive traits thus, gain the upper hand and the ego builds a wall around itself until it feels entirely cut off from the social world, and this leads to suicide.

Anomique Suicide
This is a type that follows catastrophic social changes. Social life all round seems to go to pieces. Without the social backing to which one is accustomed, life is judged to be not worth continuing. Durkheim does not take into consideration that the ability 'to take it' as found in one's character or configuration of personality might be as important as the social upset itself. This means that dramatic or unexpected social changes may drive an individual towards the way of suicide.

Altruistic Suicide
It is taking one's life for the sake of a cause. Japanese

sometimes illustrate this type when they take their own lives for the sake of a larger social unity that threatens to be broken if they do not engage in self-destruction. Durkheim also observed that all cases of suicide occur as an expression of a group breakdown of some sort. Suicide, in the main, happens due to 'negative social causes'. It results from 'loneliness', from lithe feeling that nobody cares for him", and suicide results "due to excess individualism". In the opinion of Durkheim, when people are generally engaged each in his own enterprises to the extent that some individuals feel that they are outside the pale of human interest, their suicide is fostered to take place.

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Criticism
Durkheim, no doubt, touches many factors responsible for suicide; but in attempting to correct previous explanations of suicides, he commits the error of 'overstatement' of the social causes, and this way Durkheim has left no room for any factors save the social. As we have already mentioned, the social causes are not alone responsible for suicides; but some inherent reasons associated with one's life are also significant ones. In all of the three types of suicide, Durkheim's emphasis is more on social than the individual factors. Before Durkheim propounded his theory of suicide, some sociologists also found heredity, climatic conditions and waves of imitation as the causes of suicide. Heredity can hardly be accepted as the main cause of suicide, because heredity is the passing on of physical or mental characteristics from parents to children and that has not yet been established by any scientific or medical research so far. Climatic conditions, such as drought, floods, extreme cold or heat, may partially by held responsible for suicide as we find individuals or families to go to self-destruction because of natural calamities. In a similar way, the waves of imitation concept is not so cogent a factor leading persons to suicide. The waves of imitation theory is just like a flashing of suicide in newspapers. Both may affect the minds of sensitive and easy-going persons; but hardly to drive them to commit suicide. In comparison to heredity, the climatic conditions and waves of imitations are important that may be included in the list of 'apparent reasons'. Durkheim's three types of suicide have some value as empirical factors responsible for suicide. When he talks of 'egotistical suicide', he seems right that in a situation wherein

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an individual finds himself, anyhow, to be cut off from the rest of the relatives, friends and so on, he is driven to selfdestruction. This is due to social alienation, and not egotistical loneliness as Durkheim thought. The anomique suicide, for him, means' a sudden great disaster' in social life, which affects some so much that they go to the way of suicide. In this type of suicide, Durkheim probably ignores 'natural catastrophe' or natural factors like earthquakes, storms, floods, etc., which force some individuals to commit suicide as we find in one or the other parts of the world. That is why his theory of suicide has not gone so in-depth and width as to include the apparent reasons that we have mentioned earlier after quoting certain examples of varied nature. To be very frank, Durkheim's theory of suicide lacks or overlooks many apparent causes, which have come up after almost a century's lapse, when he attempted to frame it. Suicides have assumed so many forms or ways, and also strange causes that might not have been conceived by him. The incidents of suicide happen now on an alarming scale having multi-sided in terms of economic hardships and unexpected emerging social, economic and political trends, and false notions taken to be true by the younger generation.

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forces others to self-destruction in order to take over their properties. This way utter selfishness, greed and lust have assumed dangerous forms as to visibly cause suicides by selfrespected women, good citizens and reputed personalities. Instead of being humiliated, tortured or raped, women or girls tend to self-killing, if squarely and wrongly surrounded by anti-social elements. Besides, this situational trend, Durkheim has not gone into in-depth explanation of suicides, that is, being a sociologist and positivist philosopher, he did not investigate the philosophical causes for suicide as some existentialists have done so to enlarge the scope of study. In fact, Durkheim's theory of suicides, etc.; but of suicide suffers from generalized conclusions'; 'classification of suicides', etc.; but each and every case of suicide is unique in itself and any two cases can hardly be causally similar, though they may appear similar, because both consuming celphos tablets; but the causes, inherently behind their suicides, may differ. The taking of celphos tablets is, not doubt, common; yet the mentality and motivational situation may not be exactly the same. One may be suffering from chronic and deadly disease and the other may be that the husband or the wife shows no real companionship or mutual trust and love. If we go further, even in taking celphos tablets, we may find that a student, male or female, has failed in some examination, that was not conceived by the student. In fact, we have to study all the cases of suicide each one separately. So we cannot classify them in water-tight compartments. For example, Hitler's suicide had all the three elements of Durkheim's classification as that included egotistical feeling, anomique element and altruistic motivation in terms of having an "absolute ego", desiring
I

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high social and political respect, and making Germany a great nation for the welfare of all German citizens, respectively. To be brief, such multi-dimensional or causal factors, if combined together in great personages, are very difficult to be classified. As we go in depth, each suicide has its own history and features to take place. Melvin Seeman's Ideas Here it would be relevant to mention the ideas of Melvin who found' alienation' as the major factor leading one to the state of dangerous steps. The modern changing society has created a situation of alienation that means 'detachment' or estrangement', and Melvin offers an ordered analysis of its varied meanings, which may be summarized as follows: (i)
Powerlessness-the individual feels that he cannot control the events which fall upon him.

(ii) Meaninglessness - the individual feels inability, or is

confused, in choosing varied alternatives available to him.


(iii) Normlessness-the individual realizes that he cannot

follow the approved rules of social governance. (iv) Isolation - the individual feels detached from or uncommitted to the goals or beliefs which are highly valued in his society. (v) Self-estrangement-the individual becomes disillusioned about his own identity and self-commitments, and he turns upon himself the same attitude that he takes toward others. In such a situation, Durkheim with keen-eyed, saw the major causes of suicide, and others, including Melvin, found

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in it, the cause of disintegration of an individual's personality, or an image, strenuously framed by him. To say in brief the individuals so grew mentally, are likely to commit suicide, i.e., the situation of alienation is very much a potential cause of suicide. The disintegration of one's personality is in a fact, a prelude to go to the way of suicide.

Genetic Factors
Apart from the foregoing theories and ideas about suicide, some scientists have been trying to find out whether there is any genetic background of suicide cases; there is some probability that the genetic factors also push certain individuals to go to the ways of self-destruction. This is a problem of the science of genetics. What is, then, the science of genetics? The term, or subject, genetics' is "the scientific study of the ways in which different characteristics are passed from each generation of living things to the next generation". In the context of suicide, a victim of suicide must have someone in his family lineage, who had committed suicide. It means that the genes of that suicide victim would have been passed to the next suicide victim in a biological process. Whether one knows it or not, it is yet to be discovered or investigated for establishing a theory of suicide based on genetic factors, though it is not an easy and simple task to completely discover the link between the victim and the family history.
I

To conclude, we have explained some theories or ideas about suicide easily understandable by the concerned:. students and scholars of sociology and psychology; but, as it seems to me, the views of Freud, Durkheim, Melvin and those of scientists, who are engaged in unfolding the

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mysteries of suicide, have not yet been successful in finding out an essential undercurrent working hiddenly or inherently, as a phenomenon in all kinds of suicide. Their views, however, may be partially acceptable or applicable in one case or the other. What we actually need is not essentially to describe only the apparent reasons or visible factors responsible for suicide cares; but to know the universal force, i.e., a common working principle in terms of an undercurrent that drives one male or female, rich or poor, teacher or student, employed or unemployed, literate or illiterate, normal or sick-to commit suicide, and that is what I am devoted to, as a humble student of philosophy.

Mysteries of Suicide

Mystery is a mystery to know, because it is a thing, or an event, of which the cause or origin is not known or it is some thing difficult to explain its hidden aspects. There are many mysteries of life that still remain unsolved. Likewise, despite many studies about its occurrence by some great sociologists, suicide is a mystery about which not much is known or can be discovered easily. The history of suicide is shrouded in mysteries. Let us first take up the mystery as an 'ism' that has gained an important place in the fields of philosophy and religion. What is mysticism? It is a religious-idealistic view of the world. Mysticism owes its origin to secret rites (mysteries) conducted by the religious societies of ancient times. The underlying feature of these rituals was a contact between man and God, or some other mysterious being, and belief in the supernatural. Communion with God is supposedly achieved through ecstasy or revelation. Elements of

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mysticism were peculiar to many ancient philosoplicoreligious doctrines, i.e., Confucianism, Brahmanism, Orphism, Pythagoreanism, Platonism and Neo-Platonism. The mystic philosophers consider revelation a kind of mystical intuition, as the highest form of cognition in which being is perceived by the subject immediately, that is, a sudden revelation to an individual who is so directed that this or that act is a truth which has to be abided by the man to whom, the truth is revealed. The sudden revelation of truth propels the individual or a group of persons related to some sects, both negatively and positively, to go to either way, that is to kill oneself or the whole group, or to do something good to human societies. There have been many sects in the past; some still existing, which ask their disciples or followers to kill themselves for spiritual salvation or to the welfare of the human race. An individual, to whom the truth is revealed, may kill himself, as he was asked by gods or the supernatural powers, that are invisibly known to him alone. This is also a mystical factor responsible for individual, couplery or collective suicide. Apparent causes seem obviously clear, but the inherent or the mental states of man cannot easily by known. Anyhow, something from within, best known to the concerned person, also drives one to commit suicide; only apparent causes are not suffice to explain the occurrence of suicides. What is, then, the mysterious element that suddenly causes or motivates oneself to go to the way of suicide at the earliest moment? As we read and listen to some mysterious factors, which may be held responSible for suicides, only the concerned individual realizes them. For example, Jal-Samadhi

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is the highest state of meditation and realization, as is generally held, wherein death is thought of being one with God, Brahma or the Absolute; it is, in fact, the state of death seen as a deep trance; and only the God-man or a spiritual leader goes to such a state (death) or samadhi. It is a sort of self-killing and the God-man only knows the secret of ecstasy or salvation. To persons, like ordinary ones, the mystery of self-killing remains secret. That is why we find some mysterious elements as the factors in the suicide. The human nature is so varied that nothing can be said exactly about a particular individual in comparison to others. In Buddhist philosophy or religion, each person is unique in himself and that makes a difference among the persons who seem to be similar. As I perceive, not scientifically or medically, but psychologically each child, boy or girl, when goes on to grow year after year, starts building an image of his or her own personality with a view to making it better than others; the person regards such a personality most superior one, which ought to be respected, honoured or dignified in social life. The process of building an image by oneself begins right from the early life to the end of life. To him, such an image should not be ignored, alienated or attacked by anyone, even if one does wrong. This is, however, not a 'Nietzschean Superman', or 'a Brahmin' of Hindu tradition, not a soul, or an absolute ego; but an image, whole and holy, that is not to be condemned in any way by one's parents, brothers sisters, relatives, friends, police and military forces, teachers, colleagues or fellow workers. An individual makes his image as an integrated or absolute personality, which is best known to himself. It is deep in thought wide in scope, yet intuitive to him alone. This is, I

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suppose, a mysterious being surrounded by its own ideas and acts comprising of both good or bad, fair or foul, positive or negative, aspects without any sense or realization of its limits and demerits. This image is built in a lively, concrete, sensuous, directly perceivable form in terms of a definite aesthetic ideal. The right understanding of the essence of one's image is knowable to him, and it has a number of distinctions which differentiate it from scientific concepts, political ideas, or moral principles. It represents an inseverable, interconnected unity of the sensuous and empirical elements and is abstract in nature, mediated, individual and universal, accidental and necessary, external and internal, part and whole, appearance and essence, form and content. This image is the unity of those elements or gradients which are social, economic, political, psychological, emotional or sentimental conveying lofty personality, which is assumed as an absolute being in itself by the individual. It is the creation of man by man for himself; whether right or wrong; no matter. The interests of such an image or human personality nurture a surrounding environment that is not to be disturbed or shattered by others as well as by himself, because without it, irrespective of its being true or false, right or wrong, man cannot survive long. The undercurrent of all such images, pampered by man himself, is its striving for peace, freedom and progress, as it believes or holds essential and valid for himself. This can hardly be expressed in visible facts or visual factors by anyone, and despite his own images, the images of others may not be known to one another as these are shrouded in mysteries. The personal role of an individual in building an image is more important than

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environmental forces. To be brief, it is built and affected indirectly by a number of extra-empirical factors. Such an image is the phenomenon of all human beings as they cannot live without doing or having these images. When individuals meet and talk to one another, they keep their images in view in making relationship and friendship. The images have characters, likes and dislikes of their own. But the very fact that if it is alienated by certain events, circumstances, sudden changes or climatic forces, this begins or invites a signal of danger which may result in madness, depression or desperation. Each man's image has a subjective superiority more than the objective forces or causes which affect some drastic change in it. The image or one's personality needs relative independence and relative recognition in social life, both by boys or girls, men or women, to be happy and easy-going not only in family but also in a club, party or in society. The ideal, as the image, or personality, of what should be, and the wish, as the image of what is desired, are both the demands of it. Unlike vague dreams, that lead man away from reality, everyone's personality (image) is connected with the needs of family and society, which help us to know life and change or mould it in consonance with the interests of oneself and others as well. What I have expressed so far in this chapter, the gist is that every person's image or personality is a complex combination of all elements - physical and mental, empirical and metaphysical, individual and social, good and bad, realistic and idealistic, emotional and sentimental ideas, facts and experience and thought, etc., and all these factors make one's personality, image, or say, the total personality, which anyhow, should remain intact in terms of visual traits and

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mental qualities. The building or formation of such 'totality of personal image' is a mysterious phenomenon in view of the appearance and immanence. This total personality is not to be disturbed by anyone, even by the nearest ones, as it is desired by each and every individual. Such a subjective totality makes an individual aware of many things around him and he endeavours to adjust with them, if all goes well. The totality of one's personality, if injured, damaged, or continually disturbed by environmen.-:al forces or fatal diseases and is attacked by unexpected events, he is very much prone to commit suicide. One's personality, so built and pampered, if looks to him battered and shattered both physically and mentally by apparent reasons or immanent causes, he may go to the road of suicide. The characteristics and qualities of person's total image has to be respected as a whole, because it comprises of an artistic, and assertive, a likeable, a strong or a sensitive image. However, the totality of one's image (personality), is not Bergson's 'Elan Vital', Freud's 'Ego-Id', Sankara's 'Soul or Brahma'; it is a combination of both physical traits and mental states, i.e., matter and consciousness, as we find in Buddha's philosophy and religion. Here a relevant question may be raised: What is, then, the philosophy of suicide? In my view, the philosophy of suicide is to know, to' understand and to analyze the apparent reasons and immanent causes which drive one, male or female, boy or girl, old and young, educated or illiterate, rich or poor, ordinary or great personage, etc., to commit suicide. Although the problem of suicide is primarily psychological or sociological, yet as I think it is also a cine to be proved deeply and seriously. Along

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with psychological or sociological background, the person, who is prone to, or commits suicide, essentially develops within, a philosophy of life which may not be known to other; but it works in all the individuals. It may appear vague and confusing to others; but to me, it, anyhow, develops and makes a man conscious of his worthlessness or meaningfulness. This philosophy of life is immensely affected and afflicted by many factors such as apparent reasons and immanent causes which have been explained earlier and now we can summarize them as follows:

Apparent Reasons
Intolerable and shameful or ignoble, situation; Habitual drinking liquor and rude behaviour towards one's own family members; Illegal sex relationship, either by husband or by wife, with any other person; Ill-treatment and altercation between the two persons like husband and wife; Family clash and dispute over the distribution of parental properties; Economic poverty and hardships; A long unemployment making one unable to carryon the responsibilities; Pressure of work and inability to cope with situational problems; When surrounded or to be caught and tortured by enemy forces; Inability to keep promises in time;

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A Philosophy of Suicide An utter indecisive and uncertain situation in love and property matters; Unexpected and sudden happenings of strange events; Political failure and non-achievement of desired goals; Illegal and corrupt practices when become open; Enormous loss of money and utter failure in business and the resultant heavy debts; Failure in examinations; Indecisiveness in a situation of two or more alternatives; Insufficient dowry in cash and kind; Unsuccessful failure in love-making; False allegations and court cases; Police coercion and torture; Fatal diseases and continuing acute pain; Unmatched early m(ll"riage; !nability to repay heavy debts; Poverty, hunger due to natural devastation; Infidelity either on the part of wife or of husband; Disgraceful means of livelihood; Social disgrace due to imprisonment or adultery; Infertility and barrenness of woman; Molestation and gang-rape; Severe punishment by village panchayats; Inadequate income to feed the large number of family members; Parents' pressure on their sons and daughters to do

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things or work according to their own wishes or daily routine; Extremely worst climatic conditions; Social alienation and condemnation of someone for no reason; Talks and flashing of news of committing suicide; Constant rapid questioning without waiting for reply; Inability to do things fast enough according to one's choice; Sudden loss of sons and daughters due to fatal accidents; Ragging of new students by senior students in educational institutions, etc.

Immanent Causes
Pear of severe beatings by parents; Mutual distrust and non-cooperative feelings; Stubborn attitude towards others; Severe shock due to sudden and unexpected events like murder or someone's death; To save one's honour and dignity; Mental stress and depression; Peelings of loneliness and indifferent attitude towards aged persons; Loveless nights and haunting loneliness; Continuing mental tension and torture; Orthodox and fanatic mentality;

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Utter frustration and fear in terms of future life; Situation of unbearable desperation; Being extremely sensitive and emotional in life; Deep and wide-range anxieties; Being extremely sentimental and annoyed; Feeling or guilt for committing a heinous crime; Repentance and mental agony due to doing some illegal or immoral act; Feelings of inability to cope with hostility and enmity; Being envious and jealous of others' success and achievements; Inferiority complexes as a result of unsuccessful career or business; Feelings of being worthlessness in this world; Impending feeling of self defeatism; Impracticable high ambitions; Feeling of self-condemnation and utter worthlessness; Profound despondency with increased blood pressure; A thorough disgust of life and thoughts of suicide; Great fear of death; Peevish and vehement contradiction; Anthropophobia; Mental derangement and illness; Self-realization of felony; Mentally disorganized personality; Anxiety and insecurity of future life;

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Over sensitiveness to noise, excitement and confusion or crowd; Psychoses-the serious forms of mental disorder; Fantasies of impossible nature; and Maladjustment with one's own self having a false image. These reasons or causes behind suicides work together, or squarely drive one to commit suicide, because their combination becomes so forceful that an individual is sure to go suddenly to such an extreme step. When does it happen? How can a grim situation bring him to this point? What is the undercurrent of all suicides? Who is responsible to add something grievous to it happen suddenly? Before answering these questions, it must be noted that the above enumeration of apparent reasons and immanent causes is not the final list, nor we claim that it is a scientific classification, it is just to show how many factors - apparent and immanent-work together so immensely that affect a person to the extent he cannot remain peaceful; he becomes mentally sick full of anxieties and miseries; and ultimately, finds relief and solace in self-killing. A number of new factors may be added to the already mentioned reasons or causes. The words-'apparent' or 'immanent', or 'reason' or causes' should not confuse anyone. They simply stand for visibly 'clear' and 'inherent' in one's mind, respectively. The word 'reason' means the cause of something or of somebody doing something: a fact, situation or a state, that explains or justifies a happening; and the 'cause', in a similar way, is that which makes something happen or justifies the completion of an act.

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So far as the foregoing questions are concerned, much can be said in answer, but a suicide takes place only when these apparent reasons and immanent causes, anyhow combined together, to injure, damage or dismantle the citadel of an individual's total image or personality. Sometimes a situation so emerges and confronts the individual or a couple in a way that obviously and internally forces him or them to embrace death instead of living disgracefully, lonely or ignored in family or society. The undercurrent of all suicides is the constant erosion of ones image, or say, totality of it. The apparent reasons and immanent causes are the supporting factors. I do not claim to be absolutely near to the truth as some may take our explanation of "a philosophy of suicide" as an imaginary flight into dark clouds and remote stars in the sky. The building of an image or the total personality of one's life may also look mysterious searching out a black cat in a dark room, which is actually not there. If one thinks so, I cannot help him. Yet I am sure, there is some sort of philosophy behind all the incidents of suicide, however, It may seem inadequate and incomplete to unfold all the aspects of suicide. As I have said earlier, a philosophy is the search for knowledge and understanding of the nature, meaning and scope of the universe and of human life. So suicide or selfkilling, is a study of human life and behaviour.
If we have the moral philosophy, the philosophy of history, the social or the political philosophy, the philosophy of literature, etc., why cannot I visualize "a philosophy of suicide?" The varied kinds of philosophies may be mutually conflicting or poles apart; but one should not deter from developing a philosophy, "my personal philosophy" or

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otherwise, a distinct outlook about life. Looking into the wide-spread occurrences of suicide cases, I was enthused to search and determine whether or not, there can be a philosophy of life, and to the best of knowledge and belief, I have endeavoured to explain the phenomenon of suicides as a result of philosophical inquiry. As it appears to me, I have prepared a ground for 'philosophical inquiry' for into the field of suicides, which has been the subject of sociology or of psychology so far. Again, a philosophy gives a particular set or system of beliefs or an attitude to life that is the guiding principle for human behaviour, and the incident of suicide is a kind of human thought that guides man to behave or to look at things and occurrences-human and natural, in his own way. This may be both positive or negative, good or bad, exuberant or sick, and individual is free to go to either way as the situation demands or as he endeavours to control it in his favour or advantageous one to him. This, however, requires a great deal of confidence and courage, ability or intelligence, to bring or mould the existing situation in the direction he wants it to be. Here again one may ask: What is the net result of your philosophical inquiry? To me, there is a sudden sparkling shining with flashes of light, i.e., self-realization, lively and brilliant, that enlightens or darkens the mind of someone to go to either way, that is, if he realizes that his being in this world is meaningful and worthwhile to serve the interests of his family, community or the whole of mankind, he controls himself and gains a new psyche in the largest interests of the generality of the people; and thus, he continues to live even in the midst of adverse and hostile situation. This is what we

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may call' a positive attitude'. But if the same individual, with sparkling or flashes of light, i.e., self-realization, feels that his being in this world is not worth living and is absurd or irrelevant, his personality seems to him darkened because of some apparent and immanent causes, he suddenly jumps into the arena of death, i.e., self-killing, without caring for what would happen to his family. This is obviously 'a negative attitude' towards human life. In other words, one's 'total personality', anyhow is dented and darkened, injured or badly damaged, shattered and battered because of some forceful apparent and immanent causes, he is sure to commit suicide in order to avoid jealousy, disgrace, envy, enmity, or anxieties of this world. This is clearly' escapism' and inability to face and defeat the anti-forces that become dominant as we found in the suicide cases of Hemingway and Hitler. The mysteries of suicide are really baffling when we read or listen to the varied or numerously increasing graph of such untoward happenings; these seem to be nerveracking. According to a recent survey of suicide cases in big cities like Delhi it is amazing to anyone of us who look at them (as reported in Rajasthan Patrika of 30th October, 2001). The survey has disclosed that in Delhi alone one thousand persons commit suicide in a year and the apparent reasons of suicide have been pointed as poverty and unemployment among the youths, both males and females. The society, in fact, is unaware of this tragical phenomenon and the governments, central and provincial, are also doing nothing for resolving the problems of rising unemployment, grim poverty and acute hunger, which have been coming up due to the policies of free market economy, globalization and multi-nationals' motives to exploit the people. There may

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also be other factors or causes behind the wide-ranging suicide happenings. Therefore, governments need effective measures to check the fast-running series of suicides at the earliest; otherwise things may go out of control during the years to come. To conclude, any incident of suicide is so a complex and mysterious phenomenon that needs a thorough study and analysis. Whatever, I have said so far, is based on the terrible tales of suicides and I do not claim that mine is a new complete, or scientific, discovery. However, it is relevant and refreshing a study and one may accept or reject my analysis unfolding some secrets of suicides. There may be still numerous facts, causes, even mysteries, about suicides, which have to be probed by interested scholars. I would welcome, if someone goes further in this field to find out some new things, facts or causes, in support or in refutation of what I have analyzed in this study. A finality, in a grim problem like suicide, is very difficult to deduce and establish as every case of suicide is unique and versatile one in its own occurrence and factors.

Roles of Psyche in Suicide

The role of psyche in human life is very decisive as its formation determines the nature and the scope of human activities. It directs man to behave and to act in a situation that changes from time to time. The psyche, however, is not soul as defined in different philosophies or accepted in different religions of the world. It is not the 'absolute spirit' of Hegel or of Sankara's the 'Absolute Brahma'. It is simply the 'human mind' associated with one's physical body, but not apart from organic shape. Any psychic experience or otherwise, in fact, is a unique one for each person. Being born a male and not a female, being the lovely child and not an ugly one, being saddled with a peculiar name, being compelled to offer science subject, being a rich child and not a poor one, and a thousand other day-by-day occurrences of strange nature are of extreme importance to the particular person, though such experiences appear trivial to others. No experience, whether

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psychic or physical, can be considered unimportant in the development of personality. Persons develop habits, attitudes, and wishes that gives their life its organization, primarily out of the every day unpretentious that are unique to them. What we call feeling, perception, impression, mental advertence, if taken together, form or make 'mind', or rather mentality or mentation, i.e., mental processes, mental phenomena, or the totality of mind. It is called the 'psyche' in psychology; in religion it is called the 'soul'. Here we take it in terms of psychology, and this would serve our purpose as to how varied roles it plays in the formation of one's image, or personality, that is the totality of mind and body. The four primary or root elements-prathvi, vayu, tej (agni) and jaZ, make the physical body, or phenomena, called 'corporeality'. Mentality and corporeality, in combination, make the totality of human personality. The formation of the total personality begins with the birth of a child and goes on to be so up to the last moment of life. The study of the psyche of the individual has taught us how severe a struggle it is for him to rid himself of the dominant one, or anyone of his family, to rid himself in such a way that his conduct is not inspired either by a positive or by negative emotional attitude. In the social life, there appears a similar struggle for independence by one's psyche to save its image from being injured and damaged. What is, then, the psyche? The psyche is the produce of interaction specific to a subject between that subject (self) and the object, i.e., the outer world. The formation of an image or a total personality takes the form of phenomena of man's subjective world accessible to self-observation, feelings,

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sensation, ideas, thoughts, etc. Speaking about the essence of psyche, it is necessary to distinguish it as a philosophical concept and as a concrete scientific concept. What is important to our present study? The philosophical concept of psyche is relevant to us as it has a direct bearing on the fundamental problem of suicide. In this respect, the concept of psyche (the totality of personality) may be identified with the concepts'consciousness', 'thought', 'cognition', 'mind', 'idea', 'spirit', etc., and is regarded by the philosophy of suicide as a special image of each and every individual, which is the reflection of the objective situation in the form of 'ideal images'. The physical objects and psyche (mind) are the unique combination underlying all the human personalities. The psyche cannot exist outside and independent of the totality of human personality. In the formation of such personalities, varied elements of the self and the outer world play an important role in allowing man to orient himself in the surrounding world. Psyche itself is formed in the process of the interaction of the subject with the object and in this it is formed according to some other psychological and social laws. Obviously, the formation or appearance of psyche is connected with the development of life creating at the same time, its own autonomy within an ideal situation. Leaving all other animal worlds, the specific feature of human psyche is consciousness of its own existence, or say, reality, which ensures prevision of events and planning of actions in a particular situation. The transition, or the formation, to the higher stage or forms of development of psyche is the result of the reconstruction of the organ of psyche - the brain: in the

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human phase. It may be changed from time to time as the psycho-social and economic situations require. To simplify the words; if the sudden or unexpected change take a place in one's autonomy, the psyche rushes soon either to save itself or if failed, it results in self-killing called 'suicide'. From its very origin and formation, the human psyche, the totality of personality, has been a psychological and socio-historical product. In one's individual life, the development of psyche, especially of the contemporary man, is formed in the process of his mastering the forms of activities and also in maintaining the cordial, co-operative and friendly human relations at the levels of married life, family, community or also at the international level, if one happens to be a great politician or a war hero, failing which he may be very much prone to self-elimination, selfdestruction, or plainly speaking, he may go to the way of suicide, if he happens to be very sensitive and emotional; no matter, whether or not he is poor or rich, feeble or strong, male or female, boy or girl, great or ordinary, educated or illiterate, as the phenomenon occurs in all sections of human societies the world over. Here again, I wish to clarify that when I talk of the 'total human personality', it means the unique integration of physical elements and mental states of a man, which are the two aspects of the same coin. Both are the constituents of the totality of human personality. It matters little, if I use the word 'psyche' for the whole of human personality or the 'body' (i.e., the physical appearance). Wherever I have used either psyche or physical body in a singular form, it stands for the human personality, and therefore, one should not confuse one with another as both are an integrated 'form or

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human personality. The formation of an ideal image, one needs to identify his personality in varied roles. Since the human personality includes in itself both the physical elements as well as mental states, it has its own versality, all the aspects of which are difficult to know by others, or even the individual may be ignorant of some of its mysterious or hidden features; but it is sure that each and everyone has an ideal image, or personality, that should not be injured, damaged or dismantled by anyone whosoever he may be as everyone wants it to be intact in all the situations whether these are favourable or hostile, facilitative or obstructive. What we call the 'psyche (mental) diseases' inevitably impress the males or the females with the idea of destruction of the mind and body. In reality, the destruction relates only to the whole personality. The essence of psychic diseases lies in a return to its own image or personality's effective life and functioning. This is afforded by the state of sleep that every night each one desires. Anyhow, if this situation is not available to anyone, an essential adaptability to family or social conditions may not be possible. The psyche, thus, temporarily or permanently, may be injured by the bitter experiences of life. The main aspect of human personality is the Subconscious autonomy which dominates the psyche, and if this is inhibited and injured by censorship and rigid rules, it distorts the friendly and lively relations as it is also formed by social interactions. The result may be painful. Anyhow, a hitting of the psyche by way of invectives or by other means, it may result in self-killing. Some may face and tolerate it and others may not, if the psyche is being continually injured or damaged. Therefore, it is necessary to know whether one is

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sensitive and emotional, if we want that the cases of suicides do not occur alarmingly. How to avoid the tragical situation wherein one may be prone to suicide is a problem that should be pondered by the family members, or social relations. One who is engaged in creative work may not easily go to an extreme step like selfkilling, because the creative work presupposes the discovery of a new mode, means or methods of action and thinking. The creative activity demands the maximum application of the initiative, knowledge and ability of man, and this way, the formation of human personality, or psyche, associates itself with new ideas and methods to deal with the painful moments of life. It is a sort of moral make-up of the refined people, especially of young generation, to cope with the adverse situation emerging out as a result of many factors like computer revolution, globalization and free market channels. A psyche, a human personality, has many roles to play in different situations, and the results, good or bad, favourable or harmful, are dependent on it as to how it takes, reacts or adjusts itself with them. In order to maintain both mental and physical health of psyche, the modern sedentary generation needs outdoor exercises, recreation and communication. The wholesome forms of recreation and creative work would gradually and visibly improve its capacity for an effective activity for avoiding the tragical situations. The new and old generations, though have some gap or distance, must properly use the human resourceeducation, freedom, friendship, co-operation, mutual trust, faith in one's parents, communicative attitude, fraternal relation, patience, mindfulness - in order to keep oneself or

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even others to have a balanced psyche, i.e., extremes of any kind have to be shunned in modem life-styles. By reviewing and examining one's ideas and activities that one's psyche conserves, an individual would realize that no one outside his own autonomy has the power or means to upset his inner peace and balance of his psyche. Only the good habits and intentions can help oneself. One should realize that negative emotions such as ill-will, jealousy, anger, anxiety, envy and enmity soul stifle the mind's growth vis-A-vis this adverse and hostile world. This requires one to be aware of what goes in and comes out of the mind. Through this gradual process of self-awareness about the surroundings of one's personality, one would be able to check and weed out the negative attitude before one because enslaved by his own doings. The positive moods, ideas or relations to be maintained are simple. One must work hard and be honest and nongreedy. One should not waste one's time and talent unnecessarily, idling away and doing nothing. Let one be ,constructive, moderate and conscientious in whatever he does. One should not pamper a false image, full of impracticable ambitions and anxieties. In fact, a long life may not be good to oneself and to others, but a good and energetic life is long enough to enjoy one's self. To point out, an important factor to set aside the tragedies of suicide or for a happy life, is one's ability to live in harmony with others - family members, neighbours, friends, well-wishers, teachers, and wife or children. To achieve such a balanced personality, one must realize that there are many roles one's psyche can play to reach the doors of success and happiness. Therefore, one should not be

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unduly or untruly, upset, if other people endeavour to injure, damage or dent, and hit one's psyche knowingly or unknowingly, rudely or angrily, because it harms or drives him to a tragical end in terms of self-destruction, selfimmolation; in short, to the painful suicides. As said earlier, a human personality has many roles to play in relation to family and society. The personality (psyche) as a style of both 'thinking and behaving', must be taken as it ought to be as it is in the making. Again and again I repeat that every man has own psyche which comes ,into contact with others, and yet develops a sort of autonomy even living in family, society and country. The psyche has nationality extraction, leisure-time interest, attitudes towards other institutions, especially the area of manliness, and so on. With the simple beginning, the psyche at a more complex level, when confronted with some of the variations and conflicts, if not well adapted, it can be prone to suicide. The man, therefore, in the beginning and onwards, shouid be taught to appreciate and also be appreciated by others, so that he remains in a normal state of behaviourand to avoid any untoward event, his psyche has to be disciplined, patterned, or socially structured, that is, instruct him, 'now thyself' and at the same time 'know thy family' and also 'know thy society' in order to forgive others. Moreover, the preliminary education, or schooling, offers to each one an opportunity to learn wide-ranging human resources and relations as well, which teach the psyche where you make it and find itself well prone to adaptation to the environment in which it lives. The orientation, thus, can help everyone to be humane not only towards others but also to oneself. Here we mean that the

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psyche or human personality is a product or a formation of social relations. If the social relations, in a particle situation, so alter or badly distorted, an individual, who is incapable to understand the causes, may be deviated and desolated to go to any painful step like suicide.
If the human personality (psyche) is well adapted to

family or social relations, neither poverty nor dishonour, neither disaster nor sudden change, can threaten him for going to any hazardous step. If such a man remains patient, tolerant, passionate, mindful, etc., conflicts, disturbances, difficulties, hardships, odds, disputes, etc. simply pass away without harming him; and love and hate, jealousy and revenge, sorrow and suffering, bereavement, be taken mindfully and bravely; but in personal relations caring has to be pampered and adapted to the benefit of all persons surrounding him. The psyche, which I mean 'mind', is something living and vital in the formation of one's personality. It may be asserted that in all the acts of its formation, the mind plays an active role as the human mind is not passive or is not at the mercy of senses, though there are also the essential parts of human personality. In one's personality building, the mind, though the interchange of action from with as well as from without, the way is paved for the growth of selfconsciousness. The mind or psyche, which is, to use the language of Samuel Taylor Colridge, "the infinite I am" (the total personality). It is a real actor in this external and vast universe. Every individual has in his mind a complete image (picture) of the idea which he wishes to keep intact, and man's mind is trained or formed to things in family or society according to their relative i!J1portance. The total

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personality, then, takes the shape of an organized pattern of external and internal actions and reactions to meet the onslaught against its own existence. Any powerful attack by someone else against it or self-repudiation, repentance or self negation, signals to yielding some untoward happenings. To conclude with an important question: what can help in building a strong and well-balanced personality in one's life? To answer, I can assert my point of view, every man's and woman's life is short and the channel in which it runs is always very narrow and tedious one. As a result, the experience of every individual is usually limited. A limited experience gives an individual a narrow range of his personality formation. That is why one has to aware and alert to avoid the assimilation of wrong elements in one's total personality. Everyone is bound to meet and talk to persons who have led a different sort of life and have different experience to recount, and so unless one is aware of such experiences undergone by other people, there is no encouragement and enrichment in one's value of life. This means that if one chooses what is worth and relevant to the formation of one's right sort of personality, one must learn from any authority worthy of perusal and to assimilate into one's own self. It should not be considered to be an imitation of anybody's personality; however high he may be; it becomes one's own 'original psyche', self or the total personality. The main point is that in the building of one's psyche, an image, one must learn good things or experiences from the lives of others ,who have contributed much to encourage and enrich the human personalities facing the untoward happenings in life as effectively as possible.

Resolving Approach to Suicide

After unfolding many aspects of suicide, one cannot remain silent and may ask: Is there any possibility to minimize or control the incidents of suicide? To me, the possibility is less than one may expect from the sociologists, psychiatrists, aI1d social workers as the phenomenon of suicide is wide-ranging in its nature and scope. However, I may suggest personally to adopt a humanist approach in social relations that can help us to resolve or minimize the alarmingly increasing cases of suicide. The humanist approach, as a resolving power, has originated from the roots of humanism which is a system of beliefs, values and empirical socio-economic relations. This approach concentrates on common human needs and seeks ways of solving human problems, including the problem of suicide, based on reason rather than on faith in God, or miracles of metaphysical or supernatural nature. This means that in order to tackle the problem of suicide, we must have

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sympathy, kindness and understanding of social relations that mostly govern the behaviour patterns of man and society. As it is well known to all of us, societies are the systems of human relationships that bind the people of different shades together so that they can cope with the problems arising from many known and unknown factors. All the normal men and women, as human beings, live in societies and develop their personalities (psyche) within them. People, or individuals, once conditioned or patterned, but societies, can hardly exist outside of them for long and remain wholly normal. What we call the human relations are affected by societies. Any human society is overall a social system in which individuals are united or organized by shared or reciprocal relations in corporate entities defined by social, cultural and geographical boundaries. Individuals come into existence as the products of many forces, human needs, self-interests and desires, mutual agreements, mutual aid or faith, and so on. No doubt they differ from one another, yet they have common basic features or characteristics. Since the reach of society extends from the elemental activities into every aspect of human living, our whole life is inseparable from it. It conditions all our reactions, that is, our general attitudes and values come primarily from the family set-up and the social organization that surround us, and if the social relation are cordial and courteous, the case of suicide, probably, can be minimized to a greater extend, because these yield good results.

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In fact, a society begins to mould an individual, or the people, from the moment of one's birth. Under the normal conditions, or circumstances individuals come into the world as members of a family which is the first unit in society. It makes a boy a girl into a human personality endowed with many potentialities. It means the formation of psyche, i.e., the total personality. The nature of each one's personality develops through continuous activities and growing social relations. Man becomes a kind of image and gains varied capabilities for adjusting with others in society. The conditions of a family are very important while looking at the depth of sadness or suicide, because these mould the attitudes and abilities to face hard and rough realities of society in which they are brought up and live. Positive and negative attitudes or moods both are engraved in one's psyche; the total personally, that thinks and acts either way, i.e., the advantageous path or the suicidal road. The impact of society on individuals or families, is natural and necessary; man, once conditioned or moulded in a particular psyche, or personality, can hardly live without it. The separation of individuals from their families or societies is almost unknown to us, and the participation in social relations is necessary for the growth and development of a human personality that makes him identified from others. In other words, societies, arising from reciprocal human relations, are the largest overall organizational systems that unite men in corporate syntheses acting as units in given situational areas. In face, no one is self-sufficing; but all of us have numerous wants and desires, which can only be satisfied in a society, and if one is alienated or isolated from the walls of family or society, he faces a lot of difficulties

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relating to status and properties; it is the most probable situation for him to go to some suicidal activities. Although the families or societies seem common, yet there are subtle differences that make each individual unique and versatile in his moods of thought and way of activities, and that is why each and everyone of us has its own modus oprendi as well as modus vivendi, which, I think, is something mysterious. The human personalities, as rooted in culture, history, religion, or environmental forces, still remain undiscovered in all of their inner and outer aspects, though these aspects may be studied though their manifestations in social relations, leading us to suggest a human insight or approach to minimize the painful happenings of suicide. Each case of suicide acquires its reasons or causes from the ground realities of family stahlS and social set-up, including the relations among the family members and social fellows. Here I take the example of Indian society as to how it adds fuel to the fire. The .social conditions of it, are casteistic and the emerging trends and relations are based on varna, caste and untouchability, and that moulds and effects each one to form his own image rooted in caste relations. The psyche differs from one to another, which reacts in its own way. The social relations among Hindus are based on caste, feelings of low or high, and gender discrimination, inter alia, is so conditioned that the womenfolk are always subordinated to make domination. This aspect or feature of Indian society, especially of the Hindu social system, leads the Hindus to keep women under control, and in case of insufficient dowry, they are humiliated, alienated and tortured, which injure or damage their psyche, the total j

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personality, to the extent, that leads one to self-burning, or forces a newly married girl to consume poisonous drug. The point is that the humanist approach to dowry deaths is not taken into consideration or in social relations, and the result is the increasing graph of such suicides. When the selfburning cases due to Sati and Johar were considered in human perspectives, these do not occur now. So also a humanist approach has to be properly utilized in suicide incidents. Nothing is so practical as a scientific principle or as a mathematics problem. But it is possible for man to solve or minimize some of his problems like suicide by applying the humanist approach as it is sure way or behaviour for meeting the practical situations. It, however, needs right knowledge or the understanding about the social relations such as the freedom and equality in the affairs of life whether in a family or in a society. Economic conditions may also be taken into consideration as the poverty and unemployment may also driven an individual to the way of suicide. An adaptation to family, society or the environmental forces, is a universal phenomenon. All individuals, living together in different places or situations, must make adaptations to the socio-natural environment that surrounds them as well as to each other. The adjustments of men and women, boys and girls, youngsters and old ones, in groups, to the natural and social environments result in their creation of numerous institutions and organizations, which can surely help them in overcoming several obstacles and hurdles; otherwise very difficult to cope with them. This way the individuals create or add to their culture, that is, their distinctive ways of living in order to move on the road of

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smooth and peaceful grounds. However, anyone of the individuals, who live together, finds himself unable to adjust with others due to egotistic, climatic influences, or fatal diseases, it is the responsibility first of the family and then of society to help him take things bravely as they are with him, he can save himself from any untoward incident The environment, including that of one's family and of society, thus, play varied roles in man's life, and at the same time, the different roles of psyche also reckon with in terms of success and failure. The interactions between the roles of both, set an infinite range of possibilities of good results in order to make life worth-living and meaningful. The social relations, so created or moulded, in the diverse circumstances reflect individuals' adjustments to the situations. In this process, human beings' labour, culture and education, become stimulating and invigorating to others. All persons together create a social environment, a culture which is derived from their adaptations to the different external forces and internal elements. The humanistic attitudes, mood or cultural values, are surely to make an individual successful in life. Taken in this sense, the more individuals feel that they share fairly and equitably in available benefits and opportunities, the higher would be their social conscience and their feeling of identification with the other members of family or of the society. If some members feel that their vital interests are disregarded, social peace and order may be disturbed or violated by the ensuing stresses and tensions, because the effectiveness of social unity or conscience gradually diminishes, the chances of resolving way of conflicts and contradictions.

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The Indian social environment, despite many changes due to social reforms, western influences and educational facilities, is hard to be adopted by the lower caste people visa-vis the higher caste people because of the conservative and orthodox attitudes towards the former by the latter ones. A few years ago probably in pre-independence days, a young 'untouchable' in a rural area heard cries for help from a well, he jumped in and rescued a child from drawing. The people of higher castes, the well meant form them, first offered compliments to him for such a brave step. After a few minutes, it became known that he was an 'untouchable'. The attitude of the crowd underwent an immediate change, and to anybody's surprise, praise was turned to abuse; invectives used against him. Why? The untouchable had trespassed into a high caste compound and polluted the well by jumping into it. Instead of any reward, he was fined for it. Could this hostile social situation not lead him to self-destruction? It was very probable; but the point is to emphasize that a humanist approach was utterly condemned and the result could have been a tragedy. In other words, beliefs superstitions, taboos, customs, mores, etc., even at present, in Indian society, lead the womenfolk, the weak and lowly, to dowry deaths, self-killings, Sati or Johar burnings. Who is responsible for such a sorry state of affairs? In short this is the responsibility of the socio-religious environment and the indifferent attitude to apply the humanist approach in such cases before the ensuing incidents. As the humanist approach presupposes, societies cannot exist without meaningful, cordial or co-operative relations between the people. Communication is, therefore, a basic

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requisite to their existence. Individuals use symbols and values to transfer ideas from person to person. Spoken and written language are man's chief symbolic and value system; but men develop many others to have contacts between them. In applying the humanist approach to social relations, communication is the basis of existence of societies and their structures and related duties a society not only continues to exist in transmission, in communication, as it makes individuals aware of the good or bad things. All the persons live in a community in virtue of things they have in common, and the right communication is the way in which they come to possess things in common. This can lead persons to a wellordered society to fight against the anti-forces that come in the way of their worthwhile living.
It is .also important to note that the communication

should also be at times full of laughter that makes people lively; the mere facts of existence are not suffice to enliven the people. The humanist approach also includes in itself laughter, for it may serve as an effective communication device among people by unifying a group, a family, in good humour and conveying the message that we have to be humane to those who may likely go to the way of suicide, if circumstances so require. In other worcls, all individuals like to have their companivns family members or friends laugh with them but not at them. This means that if you make a joke or laugh at one, who has not yet achieved any success, he may be disappointed or prone to suicide. That is why the human resources like laughing, amusement, humour, entertainment, friendship, freedom, equality, etc., have significant roles to ease the tense situations in favour of those who are, anyhow, depressed and disappointed.

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An individual's personality, or the psyche, rooted in good environment and friendly or equal social relations, may be strengthened to the benefit of him by the socialization process based on the virtues like courage, confidence, education, justice, benevolence, pity, patience, humour, laughter, mutual help, positive attitude, kindness, mindfulness, and so on. Each human being acquires a pattern, or an image, of habits, attitudes, and traits that characterize him and mould or make him a unique personality. Individuals develop an awareness of themselves as persons mainly thorough the role-taking process as they develop their personality. This process of image or personality formation is surely to prevent one from taking untoward steps even in the midst of hostile situation; whereas the persons, who do not get good opportunities to be so, are likely prone to go to extreme steps. Obviously, we know that a society is made up of human beings, and it is also clear that it is the interrelationship among the human beings that make societies. One of the aspects of our understanding of a society is how it, in turn, shapes persons, for persons are the essential carriers of the culture of any society. This leads us to one of the features life: persons produce societies and societies mould persons. This is to mean that individuals and society are not separable phenomena; but are simply collective and distributive aspects of the same thing, and each one of us exists both in time and in functional role. Personalities differ, because we have different situations and varied roles to play. A man's personality, or that of a child, is, then, the totality of habits, attitudes, emotions and traits that result from socialization, and that characterizes us in our relationships with others. A

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human personality, psyche (mind), is the set of unifying elements or principles that controls individual behaviour and coordinates our impulses and actions in their responses to the situation around us. The human being, thus, is the socialized human individual. He is one who has acquired the behaviour patterns society transmits to him and to he reacts in his own specific ways. No individual is ever identical to another, because the growth and expression of the varying biological and psychological potentials and the external environments that influence him are always different. Consequently, a society is a group of unique persons. Each individual is distinguishable from every other individual because of his unique personality and because of certain variable roles. This is the humanist approach, rooted in man for man, that can create among them an attitude to help each other economically, socially and also in many other ways. If we have developed right relations between the people based on freedom, equality and fraternity, many of us would not be pT0ne to self-destruction. It is only the right understanding ene each other and their co-operative attitudes that can encourage them to fight against the antiforces, which exist almost in all the human societies. We have all the possibilities in a society, or in a personality, that can help us in the hours of crisis. Life faces many crisises and experiences: ill-health, crippled conditions, negative mentality, death of a near and dear, poverty, unemployment, police torture, atrocities by one on another, heavy financial loss, sudden change conditions, inability to adjust and to learn things around him. Anyone of these experiences, of course, is a unique one for each person.

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Being born a male and not a female, being the youngest and not the eldest child in the family, being an illiterate and not educated, being poor not a rich, being saddled with a peculiar name and figure, being compelled to undertake a particular course of studies, and a thousand other day-byday occurrences are of extreme importance to the particular person, though these may seem very trivial to others. So no experience can be considered insignificant in the formation of a personality or an image. The persons develop habits, desires, attitudes, wishes, urges, and ambitions that give man's life its organizational and social relations which make persons conscious of their existence. This complexity and unity of many things play a decisive role in helping man to adjust in an adverse situation, and if he, anyhow, fails to adopt himself to the situation of his living, he may be very much prone to take tragical steps. The psyche (mind) becomes the controlling factor in personality after the individual has developed his sense of it. The awareness of 'myself' and the 'situation', favourable or adverse, gives the person his insight and the approach with which he looks at things and other persons. Here the positive attitude can help him to overcome the hard realities of life. Recognizing the other in relation to 'self' (psyche) motivates him to have expectations of his liking, and if he does not get them fulfilled in time, he may be a man of negative attitudes that may harm his interests. At this point, one should respond with cheerful mood to set what goes against him, and the social relations would save him from untoward events or the painful happenings. In the absence of good and friendly social relations, or adaptation to the family and society, individuals invite

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I

serious mental disturbances that may destroy the unity of th total personality, that is, the unity of psyche and the physical body. If one changes to the frustrating experiences or let mental conflicts persist for a long, it may be very dangerous to him. The effectiveness of outside good and co-operative assistance in overcoming personality disturbances or psychic injuries is depend upon his own desire and determination to understand and deal with other persons, who are in contact with him, constructively and brotherly. This is the humanist approach's key to all efforts to give aid to mentally disturbed and defiant persons. This is the part of being able to operate successfully in a family or in a society. Another feature of the humanist approach to deal with the growing children, sons or daughters, is to help them in building their successful images or careers, by providing to them, the opportunities and tools, of progress and advancement in life. The parents should not always thrust upon their sons or daughters their own ambitions and expectations. The parents and children may overcome'certain difficulties and disturbances by working together without conflicting or contradictory moods and relations openly or in public. In the process, an important role of motion pictures, television shows, stage plays, and stories, is possible to ease the conflicting situation. This gives a psychological boost or satisfaction to both, the parents and the children, that is overwise somewhat difficult to them. The parents' role in resolving the anxiety and insecurity of their wards is very significant, and if left unresolved, this may lead to more serious forms of personality disorganization and mental imbalances. The reciprocal trustworthy relations between the parents and the children can unify wishes, habits and

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attitudes into well-balanced personalities of such persons who would generally enjoy the greatest satisfactions in their social relationships with others. The result would be a satisfying positive attitude towards self (psyche = mind) and others, and a gratifying of self-esteem and social worth would be increasing in their favour. In a world of loneliness, anxieties and aspirations, seeking individual distinction or fame among the crowds of people, where rules continually translated into economic calculabilies, wherein extreme situations of shame and conscience can no longer restrain the most dreadful excesses of terror, fear or disintegration of personalities, the humanist approach, based on human concerns and orientation, seems to us, a forceful, a realistic, device to deal with the adverse trends, coming up due to the industrialization, computerization, tough competitive roles and desires for gaining much more than what an individual, or a family, requires. The modern life of rushing here and there, gaining much in a shortest time, to be a hero in minimum time, etc. have created a very complex social situation which is the most difficult task for anyone to resolve in the larger interests of the people. In the grim situation of hurried life these days, laughter or smiling is one of the positive human resources to serve and save the pessimists and depressed individuals from being self-tortured or being the victims of social conflicts. It is a fact that laughter makes one relaxed to smile. A single smile has an inherent worth to bring people together, at times, for laughter, which can travel fast among the people. Everyone needs a smile, pass it on to others and realize its relevance and worth in terms of happiness, amusement,

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pleasure, etc. The smile or laughter must be real coming out from one's sweet heart, and not formal or artificial, if we wish to enjoy its moments. The resolving or the humanist approach to deal with the probable possibilities of incidents of suicides is or can be decisive device to save the persons likely to commit suicides. This approach emphasizes that all the human beings are units of psychologically associated persons through whom ideas and actions in a society are ultimately carried out. The essence of the humanist approach is to create an environment of social relations based on freedom; equality, mutual trust or faith, co-operative attitude, respect of elders, lovely dealings with children, rational moral norms or standards; cordial relationship between husband and wife; tenderly behaviour towards mentally disturbed persons, respect to the elders; equal feelings for womenfolk; good neighbourhood relations; one's friendship with others; positive attitude; educational opportunities to all; uplift of the weaker sections of society; using sweet language for others, religious tolerance; social participation and communication; self-confidence and determination to achieve desired goals; avoiding unnecessary disputes and conflicts; resolving the difficult problems judiciously; adaptation to family situation to fight against the adverse or hostile things; and many other values or relations of similar nature, have to be adopted, if we the suicide incidents to be minimized in human societies. To come to the main point, the resolving way of personality disintegration and social conflicts lies in the nature and functions of a family. The importance that the family is found to take in the moulding of the individual is an aspect the sociologist must deal with. It is wrong to say

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that the family is the creation of God; it is purely a human creation to bind some males and females together for their own good. In fact, the conditions of human infancy prepares the children as mature members for society by combining them for a greater cause of mankind. The family is the first or primary institution that teaches, directs and controls the children to have the good relations in society by utilizing the human resources to the benefits of all those who share and participate in the affairs of family and society as well. The desire to defend the oppressed, to protect the weak or inferior in rank may be the outcome of the formation of a good and liberal family. next to family, are the schools and colleges which can encourage freer personalities to develop in order to face confidently the adverse situations in life. All these institution must act as the engineer of right human relations by organizing health-care centres, physical exercises, affectional talks, mutual communication of love and friendship, etc., in lessening the harmful effects emerging out due to modern yet dramatic and damaging forces of egoism, greed and political culture. Now to assert our point of view, the humanist approach means to form dynamic personality in which there is no sense of egoism, no pride or no self-defeatism and as such, selfishness; or being utterly self-centred, has to be weeded out from the mind. set of one's personality. So a family should give freedom to one to deveiop a good and positive personality. Unhampered by ambition, selfishness, pride, envy, jealousy, hate, enmity, etc., this kind of personality derives immense satisfaction, contentment and happiness from those acts or duties, which help him to maintain attitudes of complete humility", to treat everyone as an
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equal friend. The formation of personality, based on or rooted in human resources, helps one to get out of self and social misery. This type of personality has to be trained and moulded in family more effectively than government and force, to minimize the chances of suicide. To be brief, the resolving approach to suicide emphasizes the need of right and cordial relations between: (i) father and son, (ii) husband and wife, (iii) brother and brother or sister and sister, (iv) members of one family and of another family, (v) citizens and society, and (vi) the unbiased understanding of each other would certainly help\ those who are sick and sad due to varied disputes or hostile conflicts in family, neighbourhood and society.

Underlying Principle of Suicide

The discovery of an underlying principle of all suicide incidents is the theme of this chapter, an essential aspect of our philosophical inquiry, a tedious task to undertake. Here I admit that much more things, facts or factors may be added to what I have observed, studied or analyzed, so far regarding the painful incidents of suicides. Some may agree with me and some may also differ from my views; it is, however, upto them as to how they deal with the ticklish and tremendous problem of suicide deaths. The occurrence of increasing suicides is a phenomenon, all pervasive in human societies; at the same time, not being scientifically explored, besides psychological and sociological studies of suicides, mine is the philosophical inquiry about the knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon of suicides, and to the best of my insight and investigation, I have discovered the undercurrent behind all the incidents of suicides in terms of victims'; personality (including both psychic and physical

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integrated image, formed over a period of several years) disorder, extreme injury or damage, and being condemned to nothingness and worthlessness due to one's right or wrong doings or other's invectives and atrocities that compel the victims to adopt the ways of suicides. The undercurrent of all suicides is closely related to the severe injury, unrepairable damage, or extremely self-condemnation, of one's personality, that drives the victim to embrace death. However, one may still raise the question: What is then, the totality of personality? The personality is the totality of habits, attitudes and traits that result from familiarization and socialization right from a child's birth to the old age, and it characterizes individuals in their relationships with others It is the set of unifying principles, or ideas and facts, that control one's behaviour and his impulses and actions in his response to *tne world around him. The formation of personality grows gradually but steadily, and several thoughts and things become the essential parts of it. The person, consequently, is a unique one, and so also each and everyone. This personality becomes an absolute image which each one wants to keep it intact as far as possible in all situations. However, life includes many crisis and calamities: ill-health, a crippled condition, mental disorder, death of a relative or friend, constant tension and conflicts; and when such a personality is injured and damaged due to apparent and immanent causes, continually, that individual becomes totally frustrated, perturbed and desperate; he, then, suddenly and quickly, commits suicide to get rid of worldly anxieties, miseries and maladjustments. This is, thus, the internal and external decay and destruction of one's personality to such an extent that he cannot sustain and

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survive himself in any situation; and ultimately, he ends his life by any easily available means of suicide. This is, to the best of my knowledge and understanding, the undercurrent of all kinds of suicide. Now, I ask myself, "What is the undercurrent?", I have talked of so much; to me, simply speaking, it is a 'feeling', 'influence', or 'trend', especially one that is different from the most obvious reasons which have been explained earlier, and it is one of the immanent causes comparatively, the all pervasive 'force' or an 'extreme shock' to one's psyche, the totality of personality; I visualize its disorderly working due to certain obstructive factors necessarily leading one to commit suicide, suddenly and quickly, without worrying about its consequences. this undercurrent is flared up when more than one, probably, a juxtapose of many apparent and immanent causes becomes the constant eater of the roots of one's whole of personality, which he regards as 'absolute one' to be kept intact; but this is not possible for all the time and when some compelling situation arises, the person has to be the victim of suicide. This is what a philosophical inquiry has revealed to me as a result of my serious study and analysis of the phenomenon of suicides. How far I have been able to be right by finding out" a philosophy of suicide", i.e., the underlying principle in all the cases of suicide, I do not know exactly; only the enlightened scholars can judge it. Here quoting some points regarding the recent report of the World Health Organization about the increasing percentage of 'mental patients' during the ensuring year of this century, it is to warn the parents and the to be beware of such a tragedy. This report appeared on the

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Internet on 1st August, 2001; and after reading it, Dr. Madan Mohan Bhojal< and Dr. Ani! Tambi of Mental Hospital (Jaipur) have noted the main points as follows: (i) the percentage of mental patients may go up to 25 per cent;

(ii) the day-by-day increasing number of mental patients indicate such a possibility; (iii) from among the incoming patients every fourth one may be a victim of mental disease or some symptoms of mental diseases may be detected in them; (iv) the mental patients include all from the children to the old male and female; (v) the patients are mentally afflicted due to different psychological disorders; (vi) the main cause of the increasing of mental patient is family clash or conflicts because of the families battering relationship; (vii) the children, too, become the victims, because the present educational system does not encourage the students to develop their capability to struggle in life; (viii)since the children are brought up in modern comforts and luxuries, they turn to be mental patients when some difficulties or hardships confront them; (ix) the serious mental patients lose their mental balance and face personality disorders; and (x) thus some of the patients become most probably the victims of suicide. These are the points which show the increasing graph of suicides among the youngsters these days, and that is why

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the psychiabists and other doctors have been asked in the WHO's report to be alert and vigilant to identify the mental patients from among the other patients and provide them with essential advice and treatment in time lest they should become the possible victims of suicides in future. This is, in fact, something alarming to all of us. No doubt, the report is amazing, yet it gives nothing new except the data tables and the increasing number of mental patients among the youngsters, along with very old persons. What the WHO has emphasized, I have already explained giving the variety of apparent and immanent causes. It is, however, to be noted, the impact of drastic changes in family or society'., structural and functional aspects due to modern science and technology, industrial and multi-national business concerns, have created more new problems than resolving the old ones which afflict and injure the human personalities to a greater extent responsible for the increasing cases of suicide. It is, in fact, the responsibility of the individuals to be satisfied with level of material abundance rather than pursuing the highly ambitious desires so as to be mentally perturbed and disturbed in the modern set-up of family and society as well. It may save the lives of many of the probable suicide victims. Whether young or old, boy or girl, employed or unemployed, each one has to control the most greedy and selfish interests and ambitions actively but madly seeking success, wealth, status, fame, etc., in the shortest period. In fact, such desires and ambitions, when remain, anyhow, unsatisfied, the persons, especially the youngsters, become prone to be the mental patients to add to anxieties and miseries of their families. There is no limit to gain material

Underlying Principle of Suicide

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pleasures and desires. One has to be contented in life with what he has earned honestly, and as the Buddha said long back, "contentment is the greatest wealth" in the life, because it gives or creates in one's life a feeling of joy and happiness. To be brief, contentment cap help the man to be man for man, and this way, the formation of personality would be balanced, disciplined and altruistic in the interests of the largest number of people. Contentment is one of the most essential ingredients of the humanist approach in life as it encourages one to live in harmony with others. The philosophical inquiry, as I said earlier, has reached the point or state where I find the phenomenon, i.e., the underlying current common in all the kinds of the incidents of suicides, and that is, the extreme injury, open condemnation and unrepairable damage to one's total personality. What is, then, the total personality? It means the integration of all physical elements and psychic emotions, feelings or ambitions, buried deep in one's formation process of total personality. What does injure, condemn and damage the total personality? This is the juxtapose of apparent reasons and immanent causes gradually gathered in one's life due to external forces and internal reactions to the arising situations; but these gathered ingredients suddenly and quickly burst in one's total personality, which led him to go to the road of suicide, being over powered by a flashing light of self-realization to look at his own worthlessness, irrelevance and absurdness, to live and survive more than what requires at this stage. However, this is not a finality or infallibility on the part of my philosophical analysis. What the psychologists and the sOciologists l.ave discovered so far, it is like moving on the border lines of suicides withqut_going into their depth and width. .

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Whatever the present philosophical inquiry has detected as an undercurrent in all types of suicides, is something deeply inserted inseparably in life, while developing and building up of one's total personality over a certain period of life, and everyone tenaciously wants it to be intact, safe and seCt.red. So long as it moves on smoothly this way, there is nothing to fear, injure, condemn or damage to one's image; but anyhow, under the external forces and internal feelings or anxieties, such image is disturbed and distorted; then, so battered a one's personality, the person rushes suddenly and quickly that nobody can prevent or help him from suicide. Whether it is true or false, I do not wish to put a seal of validity on it for ever, but at the same time, it should not be taken as searching a black cat in a dark room, which is not there. The present philosophic insight, undoubtedly, has discovered an influence, force or a trend, in terms of 'an undercurrent' in all suicide happenings, and to judge its presence is not a task only of mine; in fact, it needs another philosopher or a psychologist to take up the study of suicides. Each and everyone's life is a system of actions or reactions in terms of joy or happiness strains or conflicts, within one's life system. From this point of view, an act of suicide should not be interpreted as motivated or inspired by a simple wish to die; but what was felt by the actor to be the least intolerable resolution of an extremely intolerable afflicting situation, and this is a minimization of relative deprivation and destruction of one's image in a conflicting or tensional situation. As I perceive, most of such conflicts, strains or tensions, are a juxtapose of both external and

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internal forces to shatter the total personality; but as an undercurrent, the action of suicide is similar to that of an individual who would face certainly death or bring it suddenly and quickly on himself rather than encounter the reality of prolonged torture, injury or affliction. The situation of the suicide is, then to him, desperate and deplorable, to adjust, fight or to resolve, by his battered, or shattered, personality, for long in his own family or a society as the victim realizes hill'.self his inability to carryon well the functions of one's personality; when such person repents for his own wrongs, he meets his nemesis in terms of selfpunishment or ruin that is deserved and cannot be avoided by anyone. Here the essential point is that the juxtapose of several causes-apparent and immanent, in an occurrence of suicide leads us into high levels of complexity. It is quite beyond the powers of the individual to deal with such complex cognitive problems in one an orderly way which has a semblance of a mystery. The social science, like sociology and psychology, have not yet contributed as much as they are intrinsically capable of. Here the philosophical inquiry has filled the gap as it helps to absorb and channelize the apparent and immanent causes, strains and conflicts, injuries and damages, to one's total personality into a visible and viable proposition but not a speculative assumption. Our philosophical inquiry, I hope, is very much near to the legitimation of the hidden aspects of suicide, but 'timing' of the acts of suicide is not possible to know prior to its occurrence. This is why one cannot help the possible victims of suicide. The important point to mention is that Nature has given man almost everything. He may be a genius or a fool, he can

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earn a distinguished name, high social status, brilliance, intellectual acumen or a stupidity; man makes art a philosophy and philosophy and art; he can alter the mind of his own and also that of others provided he goes the right way and does not overlook or ruin the opportunity he gets in life. The man, so endowed with mind (psyche) he can do wonders and can make this world a lovely and friendly habitat for almost all the men and women. Man always seeks a new psyche to be more powerful and dominant ego; but a thousands desires, fair or foul, right or wrong, practical or speculative, make man mad; he grows careless of the lives of others, and thus, jumps into a world of his own pleasure and passions. He no longer remains the captain of his psyche, and he, being laden with numerous ambitions and anxieties, finds himself in horrible disgrace, humiliation and contemptible situation to embrace nothing but, death through suicide. This is the tragedy of man, and ultimately, he meets his nemesis. This is, in brief, the result of our philosophical inquiry. So far my object has been to discover some deeper essence as an undercurrent or a principle, in all the kinds of suicide. Here the essence stands for the principle of individuation, the inmost principle of the possibility of any particular individual; but existence, on the other hand, is distinguished from essence by the super induction of reality. When we speak of the essence and existence. We mean that these are the properties of the whole of personality. The truth of this assertion might be demonstrated in all the sorts of suicide. The psyche only partially knows, from the first to the last that individuals are the actors, only actors, who are entangled in different situation, to take things in their own styles, either to endear or to endanger the facts or -ideas for

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their detriment. What echoes commonly in all suicides is itself a compelling force as the principle or the undercurrent, i.e., an extreme injury or a dent. Utter self-negation and an unrepairable damage to one's personality, when a repeated sound, a flashing light, self-realization of being unworthy or irrelevant continuity of existence, that is what drives the victim at certain moments to end his life as suddenly or as quickly as possible. This has certain implications for the structure of a role of 'responsibility' in relation to collectivity, chiefly a leadership role on the part of the head of a family (meant as a collectivity), which may be said as a role of 'distributive responsibility' relative to a family. The focus of such responsibility is always in one sense particularistic because of the relational involvement. Here the leadership role may be to maintain one's family in peaceful environment, free of serious tensions, that may lead the family members to the achievement of unity and success measured in terms of freedom and fraternity among the family members, even between one's family and the neighbours. It is a need to save persons living in the vicinity of one another from strains and stresses of serious nature. The goal-oriented leadership must include the promotion of the welfare of collectivity - family, neighbourhood and society, to the extent to which it is possible. Obviously, the underlying principle in all the suicide incidents, exists or works in relation to a situation, which is not immediately visible. The underlying assumption, trend or force, may not be known to all those who live around the victims, and it can be the cause of rising rate of suicides. This clearly forms the basis of an action like an incident of suicide.

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The underlying principle is a hidden element that may be thought or visualized because of its outer influences or certain behavioural traits and expressions that appear in some cases, there may be, of course, a few dramatic changes of overt behaviour. Here the knowledge or identification of facilitative and obstructive factors is essential on the part of an individual, or if he is not able to discern, it is the responsibility of his parents., the relatives or the friends, to discern these factors in order to enthuse the possible victims to face and resolve what the situation requires in terms of various measures - support, understanding, responsibility, justice, equality, employment, adjustment, co-operation, coordination, leadership-role, and many other measures of similar nature, if we are actually concerned with the increasing trends of suicide among the youngsters. To some social scientists, the induction of our principle may not be acceptable because of its inferential nature. Whatever they think, it is their outlook. I cannot help them. But I have applied a method of logical reasoning that obtains or discovers general laws from particular facts or the particular instances of suicide happenings. The underlying principle behind all the particular incidents of suicide may have different apparent reasons or immanent causes; but these do not seem to be common to all the cases of suicide. My proposition of a general principle, necessarily, works in all the particular cases of suicide. The ways of suicide are varied, i.e., self-burning, jumping into a well or before a running train, consuming celphos tablets of cyanide capsules, lethal dose of poison, using lethal weapons, jumping down from the rooftop of a house, etc. Similarly, immanent causes may also be a juxtapose of both the apparent reasons and the immanent causes.

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To come to the main assertion, the underlying current or a general principle, common in all the incidents of suicide, in terms of driving force, strong feeling or a compelling trend or tendency, works, whether the victim knows it or is unaware of it, because without it or in the absence of severe injury, damage or condemnation of one's total personality, one cannot commit suicide as it is a very painful, sudden and quick action, on the part of the person, going voluntarily or willfully to such a way of self-killing. Who wants to die? None but only those who are forced from within because of any other person for such an action of the victim; but the fact is obvious, visibly demonstrated, in the process of the creation of an unthinkable gruesome situation in which the victims, because of varied or complicated causes, become necessarily prone to commit suicides in one way or the other. Lastly irrespective of what one thinks of our philosophical inquiry; but that has enabled me to discover the undercurrent a feeling, influence as trend, essentially to examine the proposition that I have deduced from the nature and the functions of the victims' situation and its hard facts and intense mental imbalances. They may disagree to our conclusions; but they have to make or understand the differences between the method (way) of suicide, cause of it and the general principle or law. The trinity of method, cause and principle is very important for all to know it. This may be putforth as follows: (i)
Method: It is a way of doing something; it develops as a

reliable way to complete something; and it may be used or utilized in many ways of scientific significant to

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(ii) Cause: It is a factor which produces an effect; a person or thing that makes something happen; it is a reason for something, a factor that justifies something in the completion of an aim. Without a cause nothing can happen. (iii) Principle: This is a basic general truth that is the foundation of something; it is a guiding rule for personal behaviour; it is general law shown in the way a thing works; and it works as a single rule without which any act cannot be completed by a person. This trinity of method, cause and principle, makes a suicide necessitated happening. The methods or modes of suicide .are obviously numerous such as self-burning, consuming celphos tablets or cyanide capsules, jumping into a well or before a running train, drinking poisonous liquid, rude and cruel behaviour of one towards another, shooting oneself by a gun, jumping down from the rooftop, cutting one's stomach by a sharp sword; and many other methods may be noted tt:om the list of apparent reasons as mentioned earlier. The causes of suicide may be partially physical like crippling infirmity and cancer and also partially mental like utter desperation, extreme anxieties, personality disorders. What is, then, the principle? It is a general rule, a law of general nature, that is found commonly in all the incidents of suicide. It is a propelling force that moves, drives or pushes a person having an injured, damaged or a shattered (battered), personality in a particular direction, or into a particular situation wherein a person, so griped and so entangled, is

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sure to commit suicide. This is the undercurrent, a principle or a common law, that works, vehemently and forcefully, in each and every incident of suicide. Whether one accepts or rejects my proposition, it is his outlook; but mine is the result of an intensive philosophical inquiry, which is, as its seems, a valid principle. Whatever a juxtapose of certain causes, unless this principle works, there can be no suicide. The last of many ideas or implications, is to give a name of the principle of suicide, just to recognize its distinctness from other theories of suicide, and to me, this may be called an Undercurrent Theory of Suicide. Why is it to called so? Here the term 'undercurrent' stands for self-destruction, when the smooth working of the undercurrent is; anyhow, smitten and smashed; whereas the term 'theory' means a set of juxtapose comprising of varied causes - physical and mental, necessarily based on an inherent force to justify an event or an act of the victim. When one's undercurrent of the total personality or image, true or false, pampered so far by a person, is injured, deprived, depressed, degraded, hated, neglected, damaged, conditioned, tarnished, terrorized, dismantled, deprived, and ultimately, battered or shattered, the person, so afflicted within, inevitably realizes himself that to survive more would not be worthwhile and meaningful, and the situation around constantly forces, influences or driven him, he goes to self-destruction, without sensing the good or bad consequences of such an end. This is the underlying principle that is found in all the incidents of suicide, henceforth called an 'Undercurrent 'Theory of Suicide', the features of which have been well explained in one way or the other elsewhere, in this study.

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Any suicide is generally considered to be a serious and sad event because that affects adversely all those who are related to the victim in one way or the other. If the event of a suicide is regarded as unfortunate and unsavoury, or a grim tragey, then its consequences, too, would be most tragical. A consequence is a result or an effect of something else, i.e., an act of suicide manifests itself into many disastrous consequences, the most heart-breaking and nerve-racking, first to the parents, if the victim is unmarried boy or girl and then, to the wife and childrer. in case the victim happens to be the sole bread-winner in the family; or if the victim happens to be a married women, her husband would face an precedent sorrowful situation for bringing up the kids. Relatives. and friends, too, feel the pinching moments because of their being close companions, though only for a certain period. Some of the tragical consequences followed by a suicide may be summarized as follows: (i) The absence and the memory of a victim would bring the parents, wife and the children, into a situation of extremely mental or physical sufferings, because of his being a sole bread-winner in the family;

(ii) The victim if being a poor one, without any regular income, the family may face acute economic hardships and also many other social odds; (iii) The aged parents, if dependent on their only son, would shudder, because of the fear of ensuing poverty, hunger and starvation, and they may eventually turn to be beggars of the streets;

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(iv) The male victim if leaves nothing behind him except anxieties and miseries for his wife and children, then the grown up children would turn to be the child labourers or domestic servants in order to support and feed the family members; (v) There may also be a long legal battle over the huge properties among the claimants related to the deceased victim, and enmity, too, may grow among them; (vi) The fear of social and economic insecurity may also push the aged parents to the committal of suicides; or they may turn to be mentally sick, sad and shocked persons; (vii) The family members have to face disgrace, depression, condemnation, etc., if they could not resolve the problems of the victim; (viii)In case of the young male victim belongs to the Brahmanic family his wife would not be allowed to be remarried; and she has to lead a life of compulsory widowhood, who may eventually go to self-destruction to get rid of social disgrace and indignity; (ix) The stigma of suicide would cause the lowering down of the social status of the family; and (x) Thus, the consequences of any suicide would necessarily be disastrous and deadly to the victims nearest and dearest ones in one way or the other.

How Do People Look At Suicide?

As explained so far, the incidents of suicide include almost all the groups of age right from children to that of old age. An eighteen year old boy, namely, Nandu consumed once a heavy dose of sleeping tablets; but, anyhow, he could not go to the lap of suicide. It was his first attempt of suicide and the apparent cause was his family's taunts regarding Nandu's studies. He was also afraid of his social environment lest some may remark against him. Due to timely treatment and subsequent care, he was luckily saved from committing suicide. But after two months henceforth Nandu again attempted to commit suicide by hanging himself to the iron hook of his room on the night of 23rd September, 2001. Living in mental tensions was a constant heaa.ache to him, and this time he died. How far could the family members take care of him? It was a problem to them to keep continuing vigil for him.

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There are many such males or females, boys or girls, who attempt to commit suicide for more than once like Nandu. It was not only Nandu but many others who attempt to die again and again. According to psychiatrists, at least sixty per cent persons attempt to suicide twice or more and of these ten percent succeed in self-killing, and as they emphasize, in such cases, the victims could be saved by family, medicine and prayers, provided timely help was available to them.

1
In the opinion of National Crime Record Bureau's report 2001, the maximum number of suicide incidents happen in India and of these more in West Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka States. Among those who commit suicide, the number of girls is more than boys. Again as per this report, the age of these girls was between 14 to 16. In comparison, the number of girls, who committed suicide, was 1820; whereas the number of boys was 1754. It is a mystery that many cases of suicide are not reported in news media, because the concerned families do not like to publicize such unfortunate events. In the S.M.S. Hospita1-of Jaipur, at least ten to twelve cases of suicidal attempts come within a month, an alarming situation. The persons, passing days or living in a state of frustration and tensions, are more prone to undertake self-destructive attempts. As it seems to me, the modern styles and changing patterns of relationship are responsible for pushing the victims into the vicious circle of \ suicide.

2
Dr. Shiv Gautam, Head of the Psychiatry Department, S.M.5. Medical College of Jaipur, was of the view that those who

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remain alive after one attempt to suicide, have more tendency to attempt again to commit suicide. This is generally the trend these day among the victims. If someone has attempted to commit suicide in a family others may also be prone to such and attempt of self-destruction. In Dr. Gautam's view, among those who attempt to commit suicide 99 per cent of them do not die. There are three kinds of persons who come forward for self-killing: first, those who wish to win sympathy in a crisis; second, are those who constantly remain in doubt or suspense; and third, those who are determined to die. The persons of the first and the second categories are more than 85 per cent, and such persons can be saved by providing help necessarily needed at that time. Only those persons who do not receive any help and cooperation from the family members and society, again attempt to commit suicide.

3
Another Associate Prof. (Dr.) Anil Tambi of the Psychiatry Department of S.M.S. Medical College, says that those persons, who may be the future victims of give some sort of inclinations or indications to some of his friends, dears or to their family doctors. For example, the person so prone to suicide starts telling his family members, "You will no more be in trouble due to me", or seeing something very dear to him, "Now this is no more of any avail to me". Dr. Tambi also adds to it that generally such a person, living in tension and all alone, looks confident and happy. The above view of Dr. Tambi, however, seems to me untenable, because if someone is constantly facing a situation

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of tension and loneliness, he can hardly be gay and happy, because the image of his own, he has pampered so long, looks to him gradually and steadily erosive due to certain hostile forces. As I have explained earlier, one who commits suicide is not determined to do so, that is, one who firmly decides or determines to commit suicide can hardly come forward to do so as he himself avoids such a step for self-killing on one pretext or the other. The act of suicide is generally found to be sudden and quick that it needs no pre-determination. Anyhow, the juxtapose of several apparent and inherent causes or influence forces the victim to undertake such a drastic step, that needs no pre-decision. The act of suicide, as the incidents suggest, involves emotional attempt rather than pre-determined idea. That is why Dr. Gautam's view of suicide, based on a firm determination, is also not tenable.

4
In Indian philosophy, yoga -has a very important place because of its being a way to ease tensions prevailing in human life. When I met Munishri Rakesh Kumarji, a Jain 'saint (sadhu), who has been teaching the practice and fruits of the yoga system in Jaipur for the last two months, I asked him, " How can dharma and yoga give relief to those who are suffering from various mental and physical ailments?" He was very kind enough to me and told: There is a close relation between dharma and mental or physical body (i.e. health). Dharma means to perform duties for individual life and society in order to be virtuous having sympathy and cooperation for self and social development; these duties aim at easing hostile relations that are, anyhow, arisen in everybody's life. Dharma teaches man to be in speech
If

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and actions that may create an atmosphere of peace, and yoga helps man in controlling the evil effects which arise due to envy, hatred and anger; yoga tells about as to how to perform the meditation and how to practice different postures of body so that individual can be able to be freed from various tensions." In fact, meditation and yoga exercises, if performed correctly, give us several reliefs and comforts that are not possible otherwise because of present-day life-styles, badly running after money and fame in shortest time without doing hard work. But everyone cannot pursue the ways of dharma and yoga as the modern effects in one's life do not allow him to get leisure and time. The ideals of dharma and the practices of yoga postures have no meaning to those who are entangled in various family tensions and social problems of poverty, unemployment, hunger competition and complexities of life. So far as the future victims of suicide are concerned, there is a need to solve their economic ills and family conflicts arising out of property disputes. There is no doubt that dharma and yoga are beneficial to certain persons; but for the suicide victims, they may not be so effective as to the elites of society, who are running hither and thither for satisfying their lust for wealth. Each individual has a unique image of himself, and what suits or satisfies him in presuicidal attempts, can hardly be solved by dharma and yoga exercises, since the committal of suicide is sudden and quick, the possible victim looses all hopes to survive and may not like to be religious man (dlpzrmik purush) or a yogi to shun the worldly desires which must be fulfilled before he goes to selfkilling. I also putforth a pointed question before Munishri Rakesh Kumarji, "What do you think of the Santhara pledge

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firmly taken by some Jain saints to die by not taking foods and also water at a later stage? Is it not a way of suicide?" Munishriji, a bit disturbed, said: "It is the authority of the Jain shastras, which allows a sadhu or a sadhwi to go to the path of Santhara; when it is felt that the physical body becomes very weak and the saint is incapable to move from one place to another to spread the teachings of Jainism. Though Santhara is voluntary, yet any saint is not forced to go to-this way of leaving body in order to achieve salvation of the soul." Whatever is the authority of the Jain shastras, the pledge to go to Santhara for self-destruction is the way of suicide, because it is voluntary on the part of any saint, though it takes many days or a month to die. It is legally an act of selfcrime in the language of law, for Santhara's sole aim is to die; otherwise many persons, who are suffering from some deadly diseases creating mental agony and severe pain constantly, are not permitted by any court of law to die at his own will to get ride of self-affliction. Why should, then, the way of Santhara not be stopped by court? It is because no one complains against such a sensitive matter of religious nature, though it.is openly an act of suicide.

5
When I met a friend of mine, Dr. R.c. Trivedi, a former professor of philosophy to know whether Hinduism allows one to go to self-killing at his own that is, I asked him, "Is not the Jal-Samadhi' an act of suicide?" When a Hindu saint feels that he has achieved a state of moksha (salvation of the soul), he realizes that to live physically is no more worthwhile and that is why the saint sits in a running stream of water of the

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holy Ganges in a posture of samadhi feeling nothing else except spiritual salvation. A physical existence is irrelevant; no pain, no attraction, the saint is lost in an eternal peace, i.e., he becomes 'Sachidanand', i.e., one with the Absolute, the Brahma. Though Dr. Trivedi was hesitant to accept 'JalSamadhi' an act of suicide, yet I argued that nobody, whether a saint or a grahisth (married person), has a right to take his life by any means in the eyes of Hindu law. Each and every Hindu is destined by Ishwar (God) to die only when his life span is over. Thus, self-killing by any means is a crime; otherwise, several higher caste widows, not allowed to remarry; infirms and handicaps, persons afflicted by leprosy and deadly diseases, would have gone to self-destruction.

6
How does Islam look at suicide?" I asked this question, when I met a Muslim learned man, Mohammed Rafique Dayama, also a good friend of mine. He was quite clear in his reply, when he said, "An act of suicide is regarded as 'Sarzad Gunah' that is a great crime in Muslim law". Why is it a great crime? "It is because", as Dayama said, "Allah has given the gift of life to each Muslim person for a certain period upto which he or she has to live irrespective of being rich or poor, normal or sick; but a Muslim has no right to take his life before the destined period; and anyone who commits suicide disobeys the dictates of Allah. Hence suicide is a great crime, that is, 'Sarzad Gunah'." What does Islam think of the self (It is like a soul in Hinduism) when a Muslim commits suicide before the destined period? Suppose, a Muslim has been granted an age

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of 60 years; by Allah; but he commits suicide at the age of 55 years; then, what will happen to the person for 5 years, the period for which he had to live? As told to me, he does not exist in Islam but the victim will be condemned by his fellows. Islam does not believe in soul like Hinduism and Jainism. In it two terms are very important, i.e., 'fana' and 'baka'. One who has killed himself is known as fana, that is, one who will be forgotten soon; but one who lives upto his natural death, will always be remembered by the people like Khwaja Saheb of Ajmer and many other saints (fakirs) of repute. To be brief, in Islam 'fana' is a great crime; whereas 'baka' is appreciated or praised for ever.

7
The same question arises before the religion (dharma) of Buddha: Which way Buddhism looks at suicide? I discussed the problem of suicide with some scholars and I drew the conclusion that since Buddhism does not believe in the existence of a permanent soul and the supreme God, it encourages man to live and face the realties of life as boldly as possible. Buddhism does not encourage anyone to go to the way of self-destruction even in the midst of sorrow and suffering; it takes for granted that the world is impermanent, changing all the times; and therefore, the physical body of anyone living in this universe will automatically come to its natural end with the gradually decaying body as nothing is eternal in this world. Here the Buddhist view of momentariness (chhanikvada), i.e., the decaying process of each and every thing or a human being, comes to assert that self-destruction is not morally justified as the body itself will come to its end, though everyone must face such a situation

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by way of virtuous living, i.e., a man can overcome the situation of sorrow and suffering by practicing or following the eightfold path (Ashtangic Marg) of Buddha so that man does not incline towards the way of suicide.

8
In both Hinduism and Islam, any act of suicide is not allowed or granted to any person. On the one hand, in suicide is the great crime, i.e., 'Gunahe Nazim', whereas the Hindu shastras believe that each and every jiva (living being) has been destined to live for a particular period whatever it is 60 years, 75 or 100 years. Whether a Hindu is rich or poor, strong or weak, Brahmin or Shudra, learned or ignorant, he has to live in all situations, good, favourable or infavourable; and has to perform his duties according to varnashram dharma. If a Hindu commits suicide for whatever reason, dies in accident or murdered by sOIrteone, it is called an akal mritiyu (an untimely death). It means that no Hindu has any right to go to the way of self-destruction at his own. The period that falls short of the granted years by God, say, one has been destined to live 75 years; but due to suicide, he dies at the age of 65 years; a period of 10 years remains in balance. As the Hindu scholars or authors of shastras believe, the soul, being a permanent entity, would be roaming hither and thither in bhut-yoni till the period of 10 years is completed; and afterwards that soul would take re-birth in one kind of jiva in accordance with the karmas (action), which were performed by the concerned person. If he had bad karmas, he would be born in the lower category of beings (jivas); and in a similar way if he had done good karmas, he would have the fate of a man who commits suicide or dies in any other way

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period of life. To be brief, in the Hindu before the dharma, suicide means an untimely death (akaI mritiyu) and the victim is penalized accordingly in his re-birth.
In Buddhism, since there is no eternal soul, and when a man dies in any way, i.e., by suicide, in an accident or in any other way, this simply means the disintegration or the dissolution of the physical and mental personality of the victim. After death, the physical elements are mingled with the similar kinds of elements of water, earth, air and fire-jaI, prithvi, vayu and agni, respectively, and the mental element (consciousness), too, mingle with consciousness, which are floating in the universe. As such, there is no transmigration of soul in Buddhism like Hinduism, because from one body to the other in accordance with the karmas done by a man in his former life. The Hindu shastras believe in akaI mritiyu; but in Buddhism, it is not so as death simply means the disintegration of human body or personality irrespective it may be due to any reasons.

9
What is the view of suicide in Christianity? Christianity, too, does not permit anyone to commit suicide in any condition, as man is entangled in 'original sin', and to be free from it, is the greatest duty of a Christian. It is possible only when man believes in "God, Jesus Christ; the son of God". The main thing in Christianity is the teaching of the mythical man. God Jesus Christ who descended from heaven on earth, underwent suffering and death at the hands of the Jews, and then, rose from the dead to redeem the people from original sin'. Earthly life, as Christianity teaches, is a temporary abode for man in preparation for eternal life in the other
I

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world, the kingdom (heaven) of God, with the grace of God, under the guidance of Jesus Christ. So any Christian has to have unflinching faith in God and also in Jesus Christ, the son of God; God's grace would be the only way to enter into the kingdom of heaven. As the man is the original sinner, he has to worship God and to have faith in the grace of Jesus Christ. Any act of self-destruction or suicide by a Christian would be another sin, and that is why only good acts like faith in and worship of God, unshakeable belief in the son of God Jesus Christ, doing good to others and loving the neighbours. In brief, suicide has no place in Christianity, because it would not be morally justified; and the entry into the kingdom of heaven would never be possible. It is said that God had created man in his own image. But man committed sin himself; and to beg pardon from God, man has to be guided by 'the rule love'. Love of man to man is the basic idea of Christian society that needs no immoral act like suicide.

10
The medical doctors' opinion about the act of suicide is certainly different from others. Although, they take suicide in terms of medical analysis a disease of mental disorder or the disturbance of nervous system. It is, in fact, not purely a medical, physical or mental problem. To knOVl more about suicide, I met and discussed it with some prominent doctors who stressed the 'genetic factors' or 'influences', behind the act of suicide, and it is a problem of genetics. So it should be probed to unfold the secret of suicide in the studies of genes. This view of medical doctors, however, has yet to be established for its definiteness in the field of medical

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sciences. As the incidents of suicide vary from man to man, each victim of suicide is having a unique personality or individuality, it seems that the genetic factors are not universally applicable in all cases; these can hardly be generally common; and this is the main problem before the scientists who believe in the genetic theory of suicide. It may be somewhat valid; but is not specific and definite in its discovery of genes that make individuals tend to go to the way of suicide without taking into consideration the apparent and inherent causes of suicide. There is no doubt, genes play very important role in determining the nature and functions of physical personality of an individual; but each man's physical body is unique in itself and to apply genetic hypothesis in each case of suicide would be undermining the others factors, mainly economic, mental, social, climatic, psychotic or family structure, in various incidents of suicide. Therefore, we have to wait till the genetic theory is well established in future.

11
Now come to what the sociologists say about the suicide. As we have already mentioned the views of Emile Durkhiem, an act of suicide, seems to him, an extreme state of desperation when a particular individual turns towards the way of selfdestruction. The situation of desperation may be due to egoistic tendency, social conflict, and other mental factors. Durkheim is right to some extent; but he has not discovered a general undercurrent behind all the cases of suicide. Prof. Shyam Lal, a prominent sociologist, who has refuted the theory of sanskritization of M.N. Srinivasan, has stressed mainly the social and economic, along caste

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hoped and the notion of untouchability behind suicide in Indian perspective. Prof. Shyam Lal has written extensively on the conditions of sweeper caste, known as the Bhangis, of Rajasthan State, and claims, when I met him to discuss the problem of suicide that the most very poor conditions, the feelings of 'touch-me-not-ism' and doing filthy profession like scavanzing and carrying on the night-soil on the shoulders can push anyone of the lower caste of Hindu society to go to the way of suicide, if after being educated, does not find suitable job or the means of livelihood of his choice. There is some truth in what Prof. Shyam Lal says, yet the above factors, too, are not universally applicable in all the cases of suicide, because the individuals other than the persons of lower castes are also found to commit suicide. The factors, as mentioned above, are very much important, yet these are not sufficient to unfold the whole story of suicide encompassing the persons of all shades as I have already indicated that suicide does not discriminate or leave Clnyone on the basis of caste, creed or community. The phenomenon of suicide is universal in nature, that is, the incidents of suicide are found in all human societies of the world. The incidents of suicide are, of course, the problem of family and social life, and the sociologist deal with such a mysterious matter, extensively and intensively. But they move more on the outer aspects of suicide and less on its inner world. The inner world or some hidden factors are really more important than what the sociologists endeavour to discover in the serious cases of suicide. On the other hand, the psychologists aim at studying the inner or mental aspects of suicide, which, too, are not sufficient to unfold the real

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story of suicide. However, if taken collectively both the aspects-outer and inner, help us to deal with the problem of suicide, more effectively.

12
It is now the turn of honourable judges and the advocates or the lawyers as to how they look at the problem of suicide. As we are well aware, the judges and the advocates happen to be the persons who dig the roots of law in connection with a crime or the violation of law, and as such, they are the insects of law. So happens in the cases of suicide. When I contacted some learned judges and"some lawyers of repute, I found what I have expressed in previous lives. They consider the happening of any sort of suicide to be a crime in the eyes of law irrespective of how the suicide was committed by a victim. According to the articles 309, 305 and 306, all the cases of suicide are crimes as expressed in these articles of Indian Penal Code (LP.C.) -" Article 309: Attempt to commit suicide" - "Whoever attempts to commit suicide and does any act towards the commission of such offence, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine, or with both." The Article 306 of the LP.C. says, "306-Abatement of Suicide" -"If any person commits suicide, whoever abets the commission of such suicide, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description of a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine." The I.P.c. also says, "305abatement of suicide of child or in some person". "If any person under eighteen years of age, any some person, any delirious person, any idiot, or any person in a state of intoxication, commits suicide, whoever abets the commission of such suicide, shall be punished with death or

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imprisonment of life or imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine." All the three articles of Indian Penal Code are very clear that in the eyes of law, and therefore, in the opinion of the honourable judges and the lawyers, any act of suicide is an offence or a crime. The article 309 has specified that an attempt to suicide is punishable in accordance with law, if the victim remains alive. If the act of suicide is completed and the victim dies, there is no punishment to him or her. The article 306 refers to the abatement of a person to commit suicide by any person. If it is proved in the court of law that a person has abated someone else to go to suicide, the person, who abets, shall be punished, whether the victim dies or not. Although an in some person, a delirious person, an idiot, an intoxicated person or a child under eighteen years of age, can hardly go to suicide at his own, yet anyone, who abets any of them to the commission of the act of suicide, he is punishable under law. Such is the language of the honourable judges and the lawyers in which they speak; they have no other consideration to look into the real causes of suicide; and as such, they look at suicide as an offence and punishment accordingly.

13
The handicap and infirm persons, including the leprosy patients, have a different view of suicide, they believe that God has given them such lives because of their bad or immoral karmas (actions); and whatever the situation, miserable or even frightening, they have to face and live till they meet their natural deaths. When I asked some of them, 'How can you take it for granted?", they said, "Sir there is no

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other way than the mercy of God to live. As human beings, we get help from the benevolent persons of society; and it is also the grace of God that we survive, anyhow, to get favourable rewards from the supreme courts of God". I was stunned to see their conditions as to how they face the odds of life. Their deep faith in God and previous lives is unshakeable; they have zest to live or gusto to face whatever comes to them. They, to anyone's amazement, do not approve of any act of suicide as they believe, it would be another unwanted act before we meet the natural end. The mercy of God in terms of human help and social sympathy is the main thing in their lives, though a few of them did not agree to what others have said. Yet all of them did not like the way of suicide.

14
How do women look at suicide? It is an interesting question as the most of the womenfolk are really the weaker sections of society; they are afraid of the event of suicide, and they shudder even at the thought of suicide. As my experience confirms, the Indian women are very faithful and tolerable towards their husbands. They believe in the grace of God and are afraid of doing immoral acts; when I met and talked about the incidents of suicide, most of the women did not like to die this way even living in the midst of odds and hardships. They tolerate many hostile things, even the atrocities of their husbands upon them. But there days the increasing graph of suicide among the females seems to be very alarming. Why is it so that the ladies tend to suicide? According to the views of women, I have noted, the incident of suicide happens when an acute situation of desperation, sorrow and suffering, continues to persist, due to atrocities upon newly Imarried

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women for insufficient dowry in cash and kind, being at the verge of hunger or continuing deadly diseases without any medical treatment. It means that only those women go to the way of suicide who are instigated and tortured by their inlaws. It is strange, the women are very tolerable and adjustable to any bad and hostile situation or when there is no alternative to live. However, the young women, who are very sensitive and ambitious and when they feel ignored, deprived and oppressed, easily become the victims of suicide. The modernity has influenced the attitudes of young girls; they feel, they must have all the luxuries of life. They immediately react to the hostile things and feel very incapable to adjust in their new families, and may tend to go to any extreme step in life.
It is, however, the responsibility of parents and if

married, of the in-laws, to create a situation of natural communication and adjustability in the family. The greed of more money in marriages or unmatched marriages should be controlled or minimized. The women of any age, in fact, do not simply wish to die, but many hostile and sorrowful things may push them to go to the way of suicide. Therefore the women should be treated as equal partness to men, respectable and dignified beings, if we want to help them move forward freely in all the fields of life.

15
The students, both boys and girls, as we observe, are very ambitious to have the luxuries of life, even when they are unemployed, at the cost of their parents. It is a sad situation that the young boys and girls want sudden achievement of more money, wide fame and heroship without doing hard

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labour. They become impatient and hostile to their family members, especially their parents, if their desires or wants are not easily satisfied. It is advised and admonished to go to sleep and rise early for study, or to do hard work for good achievements, they feel it otherwise, and may go to any step either to run away from their families or to go to commit suicide. When some of the students, both boys and girls, were asked: "Why do a few of students commit suicide in case they fail in examination?" The essence of their replies was: "Sir, as the parents expect them to be excellent or brilliant ones and the success does not come to their expectation, a few of students, being very sensitive to their parents' attitude or assuming their lives are buffered, are prone to such a step, though it is bad to commit suicide; it is, of course, a cowardly act." Here we must have a t:onclusion, though students after the completion of their want jobs to be independent of their parents and do not like to be the beast of burden on their parents. The young boys and girls have their own ambition and aspirations; but the society and the government, both are apathetic to them, which has created a situation of pessimism before them and at the same time the luxurious living of politicians, bureaucrats or industrialists, the false impressions of life being depicted in politics and film serials or films have been certainly vitiaung their minds, for what these things or shows depict do not represent the realities of life. As a result, the young generation is early astrayed and it wants very quick gains without undergoing the odds and hostilities of the modern world. The expensive modern lifestyles of many richest people, whether they are politicians, bureaucrats, industrialists or film actors, do not help the

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young ones to adjust and face the actual difficulties of life. The widely spread corruption in all fields of life is, too, 'responsible for creating confused images that adversely affect the students in their approach to meet the challenges of modern life. The students, however, must study and find out, "what is true or what is false?", to be aware of their effects; they ought to be cautious of false impression; and must be ready to face and fight what comes to :them in real life.

16
After knowing that I am writing a book, namely, A Philosophy
of Suicide, a publisher came to me and said, "It is quite a

known fact that some persons commit suicide because of certain hostile and unbearable situation in a family, locality or a community; but my main question is-Can the change of place resolve the possible suicide? Or Can it be averted by meeting the demands of the victim? What do you think of these questions?" Although the publishers are professionals, yet show their concern about the unfortunate happenings of suicide; however, least concerned, who becomes the victim of suicide. What I said for satisfying the publisher'S query is that I agree with his proposal for changing the place; it can help the possible victim to some extent; but one of his family members, or anyone of his friends; has to visualize the symptoms or demands of the concerned person, he must also see that the victims demands are legitimate and must be fulfilled; only then, the change of place may avert the chances of suicide. The mere change of place, without resolving the disputed things, can hardly save the victim from the ensuing misha ppening.

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What I wish to stress is, the disputed and desperate situation, emerged because of certain family or social conflicts, has to be changed into a situation of satisfaction for the possible victim. Unless the causes leading one to go to suicide are rightly minimized, there are many chances to save him; if not so done, the continuing mental tension and frustration may lead the victim to embrace the way of suicide anywhere. But as I believe, the total elimination of the incidents of suicide can never be possible by' any device. We can save a few of the victims, but not all for ever as in this fast changing world, new stresses and strains, disputes and conflicts, mental attitudes and physical relations, do arise from time to time in one way or the other in all the societies of the world.

17
So far as the leaders and politicians' views are concerned, they look at suicides not seriously but cleverly or simply the opportunities of encashing them in the favour of their respective political interests. This is true in case the leaders happen. to belong to opposition parties; they eloquently speak that the government is paying no heed to the suicide victims starving or dying of acute poverty and hunger, but they least do anything to them. They hold meetings in protest and organize big rallies; but they do not collect funds to help them; on the other hand, the political party or parties in power, the bureaucrats, and their flunkeys, deny what the opposition brings into limelight. The government claims that those who are dying are not the victims of acute poverty and hunger; rather they have been suffering from seasonal

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malaria. In fact, the leaders and the politicians have no serious concern whether in opposition or in power. They visit the families of the victims and show their sympathy towards them without providing any material relief to them. This is what happens in India.

18
When I met and talked to some family members of the victims of suicide, I found that they were the most aggrieved persons who look at such unfortunate happenings from the viewpoint of losing their sons or daughters. In case, the victim haFpened to be the sole supporter or a wage-earner for the entire family, his wife and children, or the aged parents, feel the real importance of the victim's being alive; they repent and weep for months till they come to be normal. The family members are the real sufferers and the most painful moments are of those parents whose daughters die of torture and atrocities because of the cruel family members of the sons-in-law who do so for more and more dowry in cash and kind. A family's sole bread-earner son, or the only son of parents, anyhow, commits suicide, leaves behind him, the weeping aged parents for ever; and if that son is married having children, his wife becomes widow to suffer most, and the children face dark future. The relations and the friends, though feel aggrieved, yet they forget the victims after a few months. Only the parents, widow ladies and their helpless children continue to suffer most for years in case no one comes to their support; the incidents of suicide become the frightening memories to them; but to those, who are least concerned about suicide by anyone, these are the simple yet terrible tales to read and nothing else.

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19
Among the persons, whom I met and talked to know their views about suicide, were from almost all the segments of society. The poor, illiterates, labourers, rickshaw-pullers, infirms, abandoned, handicaps, blind persons, individuals afflicted from deadly diseases, exploited and oppressed ones; they were found to have unflinching faith in the grace of God to fight the odds and sufferings of life, but they did not like to go to the way of self-destruction at their own as it would be against the wishes of God who had given to them such lives to survive. They also believe in the past lives and therefore, to them, what was destined to reap, they have to face; strangely, these persons, as they believe, suffer because of their bad karmas (actions) in previous lives. Thus, they have at least the will to live as their fate was determined by God.
\

20
Here we may mention the views of some Sikh learned persons as to what they think of suicide. As Guru Nanak Dev asserted, God is the sole supreme power to decide everybody's fate, and therefore, all the Sikhs are theists who have to abide by the will of God. What is destined to each person in view of Guru Nanak, each one should be-prepared either to be happy or to be suffered according their karmas in the previous lives. So the way of suicide, as the Sikhs believe, is against the very teachings of Nanak Dev. An act of suicide is in no way justified, though the orthodox Sikhs can scarify their lives for the dignity of Nanak and Guru Granthsaheb. To the Sikhs, God is the supreme power, who has created the world of human beings and it is the duty of every Sikh to serve the needy as it would earn many to the doer of punya

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(good). To be brief, as the staunch believer in God, Guru Nanak advised the Sikhs to serve man as man, for all the human beings are the creation of God. That is why no Sikh would like to go to suicide whatever the situation to live comes before them. As we have explained earlier, all the theistic, even the non-theistic religious, believe that the act of suicide can never be justified in any way, morally or otherwise, because what is destined would happen either in one's favour or disfavour. All have to face and fight odds, hostile events, and many such things in the name of God. But when I met and listened to the views of the Marxist, they were quite eloquent in emphasizing that it is neither God nor fate or the past karmas that exist to decide the course of events in men's lives; To the Marxists, only the social and economic conditions of society( or the exploitation and oppression of the poor or of the labourer by the rich people, are the main cause that can push anyone of them to go to the way of suicide, if one faces an acute hostile and sick situation, and there is no alternative available to the victim except the self-destruction. The economic structure or the economic condition of a society plays a very significant role in deciding the mode pf production relations. If the situation of a society is based on the capitalistic basis, the miseries of the labour classes grow day ,by day and some of them may go to the road of suicide; but the socialistic pattern of society, the nationalization of industries, the collective agriculture farm, the dictatorship of the proletariat, etc., can minimize the chances of suicide or of self-destruction. This is all as to how the Marxists look at the incidents of suicide; they emphasize the unity of all

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labourers; and organize them to fight and remove the evils of capitalism in order to eliminate the chances of poverty, exploitation and starvation; and therefore, of the suicidal ways by the oppressed people.

21
Now to consider and explain, are the views of womenfolk appear in the newspapers from time to time. In fact, the Indian women are far behind from the changing progressive trends that have taken place in western countries, because of being victims of domestic pressure, tension, harassment, molestation, or rape; they are ignorant of their own rights and legal safeguards; and social and family dynamics and general apathy afflict them. They are really denied equal footing with men. If anyone of them is raped, burnt alive, she is blamed for not having acceded to the 'due demands' of her in-laws, and if she is molested or tortured, it is her character which is at stake. Whatever the good provisions for their dignity, freedom and equality, the overall situation is grim to the Indian womenfolk. Describing such a hostile and discriminative situation, some of the female officials working in certain non-governmental organizations (NGOs), whom I met, lamented over the increasing graph of suicides by women, mostly married females, due to insufficient dowry in cash and kind. In their opinion, there is no end or the minimization of suicides by women until the families in particular and society in general, are sensitive towards the gender issues and ways are found to radically change the psyche to accept women as human beings - the persons in their own right. In short, the female social activists vehemently showed their dislike for the suicides by the

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womenfolk, and stressed the point that the young girls married or unmarried, must come forward to face and fight against the factors responsible for their self-destruction.

22
The next to know and understand is the world of grown-up children, boys and girls, who are the victims of childlabourers in roadside hotels and dhawas or as domestic servants in families. I met and talked to them as to how they take the incidents of suicide; most of them were found always working in mental tensions and physical stresses due to their employers' harsh and rude behaviour, coercive methods to work without adequate rest, and insufficient foods. A few of these children frankly expressed their views to say, "Uncle, we are forced to live merely in animal existence and nothing more; we work in unhygienic conditions; and we have to obey the dictates of the employers in all situations in order to avoid beating and invectives by them. In fact, we feel, at times, i.e., wish to die; yet we have to work to help our old parents, younger brothers or sisters; otherwise, who will like to lead such a worse life?; and as such, we are destined not to escape but work right from early morning till late night". I was really stunned to listen to their woes \or terrible tales of coercion, beating and abusing, by their Compelling the children to live in sub-human conditions actually amount to the taking away of their lives, no't by execution of a death sentence but by a slow and gradual process by robbing them of all their human qualities and graces, a process which as much more cruel than a man to the gallows. In other words, the children; so overburdened by work and threats, at

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times, think of suicide; but they work in the interests of their families. I, too, encour::ged them to face and fight against the adverse conditions till they become their own masters in choosing alternative vocations.

23
Here what I intend to mention is the group of those persons who were least concerned or interested in the incidents of suicide. When I met them, at random, at one place or the other; either walking on the road, selling vegetables or doing nothing because of unemployment; I found them in varying moods about the incidents of suicide. In a sense, it was a limited random survey which included some males or females of all shades. Many of them did not relish the tragical happenings, cases or consequences; rather, they said, "If anyone commits suicide it matters little to them; if one wants to die, let him go to the hall of suicide, because one day, each and everyone of us will die; this way at least the mushrooming growth of the population will be lessened to some extent, and the victims will be obliging or helping us, in a sense, to check the fast increasing population. We like draught, earthquakes, floods, plagues, storms, natural calamities, etc., because of the wrath of God, Allah or Ishwar, who punishes the evil doers in one way or the other. However, the traders and the politicians make the situation to gain momentary benefits; this is bad. The human history shows that murder, rape, loot, molestation, exploitation, etc., have been the facts of social life, what to think of suic;:ide, which is not a new thing to wonder and worry. The main point, as I draw from their talks, is that suicide is not a new

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fact and this is simply a part of human life. What is destined, will certainly happen to anyone. So they will, let things go in their own ways. In short, any incident of suicide does not disturb these people except the victim happens a member their family, and for them, the tragical events are the daily occurrences in human society. Why should they worry and suffer?

24
The most interesting to know are the views of another groups consisting of thieves, looters, decoits, rapists and robbers. What do these anti-social persons think of suicide? When I approached them, anyhow, I found that their views about suicide were utterly of different nature. To them, the incidents of suicide, are very ordinary happenings, because their main aim or work is to get money, silver or gold ornaments to enjoy in life. In the process of achieving their aim if someone is raped, murdered or killed, it makes no difference, no remorse or no felony, for without using force, nothing could be achieved from those who vehemently resist them, whether male or female. All thieves, thugs or looters were not afraid of any untoward happening. Why is it so? When they gaily indulge in looting money and valuable goods, the incidents of severe injury or killing of someone, matters little, if they get fulfilled their goal of snatching huge amount of money. That is why they do not think of suicide, seriously; if anybody, for any reason, goes to self-destruction, it is not an amazing event. As they face usually the situations entangled in theft, loot, decoity, rape, and so on; the suicide by anyone does not attract them. If one dies or kills himself, it carries no weight to them. Obviously, the views of

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anti-social may be noted, with regard to suicide, as of no value because of their utter indifference to self-killing, being killed or murdered by others. In fact, they are accustomed to witness the untoward incidents in their dayto-day lives, and as such, they live in the world of violence and terrorism.

25
What do the prostitutes think of suicide? A prostitute is a woman who offers herself for sex in return of money to be given by a male person. There is a group of unfortunate women who adopt this way to earn money for managing the home affairs. When some of them were contacted to ask their views about, they looked very pathetic and in a polite language, they said, "Who will like to go to the most illegal, unwanted or disgraceful profession of prostitution? We, too, hate this profession; but the socio-economic conditions around us or the worst situation of our family, compel us to do so. We do not do it simply for sex enjoyment, but for the cause of a greater need to feed our family members who cannot be bread-winners like aged parents or the forlorn children after the death of our guardians. As far as the incidents of suicide are concerned, we, at times, think of going to this way; anyhow, we feel helpless and continue to live a life of disgrace and indignity." In fact, certain adverse conditions force the womenfolk to go to this profession, and nobody comes forward to help them. These days some groups of men and women pick up young poor girls on one or the other pretext, and force them to go this way or sale them to the prostitutes for earning money.

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26
Another group of persons is that of 'atheists' who do not believe that the incidents of suicide occur because of past karmas or due to God's wrath. For them, all the events of suicide happen when individuals face acute hardships and continuing situation of 'obstructive factors'. Nobody is destined to go to the way of suicide as the atheists believe it is the result of bad structures of society. Some have immense wealth, whereas the majority of the people live without any socia-economic security. Only certain empirical factors are responsible for the incidents of suicide. What they say or mean, is to stress the conditions of exploitation, poverty, unemployment, starvation, atrocities, anxieties, etc., responsible that force some individuals to go to the painful way to end their lives. The social, economic or political factors, and not any God or pre-determined fate, compel us to go to this way. But we must face and fight the anti-forces, boldly to change them in our favour.

27
An important segment of people of our society whom I met, was a group of very old men and women: What do the persons of this group think of suicide? In case, if the very old persons -. 'ere wholly dependent on their sons of uneducated families or in the situation of their being non-pensioners, I found them in a critical or pitiable condition, for nobody cares for them as they were not able to do any moneyearning work because of their incapable physiques. They were extremely neglected by their own kith and kin, and as such, they, at times, thought to leave their families for the sake of bread by begging or to go to the way of self-destruction. But

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they preferred to die a natural death. Whatever the hardships and miseries to face, because both begging and self-killing would defame their families. Such is the thinking of the very old generation.

If the old persons happened to be the pensioners they were, too, not happy, for when they brought their pension money in the first week of every month, only then, they got the attention of the family members, not to be looked after for their comfort and care but just to elicit money from their pockets. For the rest of the month, nobody cares for them, whether they are normal or afflicted by any disease. It is the most lamentable fact, as I found, that whether the aged persons are pensioners or non-bread winners, they are to face the moments of oldage ailment, loneliness, unbridgeable generation gap, negligence or utter indifference on the part of their family members. A few of them in the midst of such prevailing situations, think of suicide and eventually become the victims; and as far as the generality of aged people is concerned, they have been passing their days, anyhow; but those aged persons, who keep themselves busy or are engaged in some work, politics or in some movement and mission, they hardly think of suicide and they go on moving and doing certain welfare activities.

28
The views of journalists and writers about suicide were not serious, and they did not think of any step to go the way of self-destruction. Surprisingly, as they told me, their main aim was to report the incidents of suicide in a dramatic and flashing language. So was the mood of the writers, or authors, who were more interested in knowing the details of any suicide so that they may quote or give a page or two in

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their books on sociology and pathology; for example, as I myself, do. For the whole of the year, 2001, I collected the different terrible tales of suicide from the reportings of the journalists in various newspapers, that I have mentioned earlier. Some of the cases of suicide, came to my memory as I had seen them or listened to from my friends. For both, the journalists and the writers, the incidents of suicide, are simply untoward happenings, not to take as seriously as causing some mental tension for them; these incidents of suicide, however, are unfortunate and horrible only to those who belong to the victims in one way or the other. However, the journalists or the writers, too, are human beings, and as such, they have all sympathy and kindness towards the victims of suicide; but they feel helpless, or unable, for doing something empirically to them before the committal of suicides.

29
What do the saints and seers think of suicide? The saints and seers are considered to be the holy persons who live a life of renunciation and meditation; they are mostly the mokshasthis (i.e. the seekers of moksha or salvation); and a few of them also give sermons on the moral and religious matters to enlighten ::md emancipate the ordinary people. When I met some of them to know their views about suicide, they politely said, "The human life is a gift of God as a result of one's good acts (shubha karmas) done in the previous life, and therefore, it is the duty of everyone to have faith in God and worship Him in to go to the heaven, the kingdom of God. Instead of gom:g to the way of suicide, an unholy and

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evil act, a man must face what is destined to him living in the midst of miseries so that he could obey the dictates of God." Hence no one thinks of suicide as the views of saints and seers clearly emphasize.

30
Among the patients for whom I have a great respect, are those who suffer from incurable diseases like cancer and diabetes. I met a few of them either in hospitals or in their homes. I wondered, they were very enthusiastic to live and fight against the deadly diseases as they believe, "What is destined, will happen inevitably; then, there is no way out to escape; suicide will earn a bad name to their families, because the neighuours and relatives will be assuming that the miseries of the concerned person were ignored by his sons or daughters and the man was left alone to face his destiny." I agree with the views of such afflicted persons, and that is why I have openly favoured elsewhere that for those who are in acute painful conditions, should be given legal right to end their lives by poisonous injection or by some other devices. The medical doctors would not do so as it would be a murder case haunting their conscience. A few of the patients wish to go to self-killing; but something in their mind does not allow them to go to suicide, and that somEthing is probably nothing but God or Allah for them. Thus, I found, the way of suicide is not so easy as some people may think of it. In brief, the victims of suicide are not like Socrates who, when imprisoned and sentenced to death, drank the cup of poisonous liquid very boldly and happily, and also willingly in order to show that death is for better than a disgraceful and condemned life.

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31
Here to mention is a group of rags and used polythene bags' pickers whose main work is to first collect the old pieces of tom clothes and bags early in the morning and then, to sell them to those who are engaged in such a trade. This group of pickers includes poor and illiterate men, women, children, both boys and girls, usually unclean and unattractive and if one comes face to face with them, one would feel bad smell from their clothes and bodies, or say, one would not like to meet and talk to this unfortunate lot of our society. As a morning walker, I met and talked to them only to know as how to they react to the incidents of suicide. Surprisingly, as illiterate human beings, they were far away from the world of suicides as dramatically picturized in the media. I simply asked, "Why do you engage yourself in such a filthy work? What do you think of suicide?" Their answers were praiseworthy as I patiently listened to them thus; "Whatever the ugly or filthy nature of this work, we have to do it for feeding our parents, or the little dependents, of our families. We do not have time to think of those who become the victims of suicide for any reason or situation. Suppose, we go to the way of suicide, we shall be adding to the acute miseries to our elders or children, more than when we alive. We are the bread-winners for our family members, and if we die, who will look after them? Nither society nor the government can help us. This compels or encourages us to earn rather than to die. What is destined, we have to face it." No wonder such were the views of the poor, or pitiable, bags and rags' pickers; most of them were unaware of the incidents of suicide; and all of their words were really full of hopes to see a bright future. I was so happy to meet and talk

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to them as the pickers had no frustration. No sense of filthy work, but a brave spirit to move earn and move ahead. They had no feeling of shame as this work was the only source of livelihood for their families.

32
A typical group to mention here is the miniature world of those who have been put into jail (gaol) for various crimes; some of them are convicted prisoners; and others have been facing trials in law courts. On one pretext or the other, I have visited the jail premises inside many times to meet and talk to some hardened criminals as well as ordinary prisoners for eliciting their views about suicide. In fact, the jail premises are clean having small gardens, auditorium, mess, hospital, etc. When I asked, what do they think of suicide?" Their answers were pathetic and repentant because of the realization of their felonies. Some of them, said: "Sir, looking into the very rude and inoculating behaviour of the hardened criminals or the acts of our prisoner colleagues, we really feel to end our lives by any means. The jail officials, too, beat us for simple wrongs, from time to time. Though the jail premises are beautiful and clean that we ourselves maintain; we pass our times in doing such works in the day-time; but nights are haunting to us when we thir,k of our family members or kith and kin. The committal of suicide is not an easy task in jails as we are flocked together in big halls or rooms. The young prisGi-,cJ "" at times, become victims of sodomy by long jailed prisoners. Such is the disgraceful life inside jails; nobody will like to live in jails; but our crimes have brought us in such a hellish

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situation. However, we pass our times with hopes to ever meet our family members, relatives and friends, after the period of jail term is over." Even then, the self-condemned and the most sensitive prisoners find out certain ways of self-destruction. The views of various prisoners show the mentality of going to suicide, if they find favourable opportunities for it. In brief, their views, anyhow, run over the border lines of suicide.

33
Although the police officials, a few of them, however, rarely, become the victims of suicide, yet they do not take up such incidents seriously. When I contacted some of the police officials or the police constables, I found them insensitive and unconcerned as they expressed their views about suicide in these lines. "As you know, we deal with many tragical happenings-murder, rape, theft, accidental death, robbery dacoity, heinous acts of torture and mental agony, the incidents of suicide are not new to us. If anyone commits suicide, for whatever reasons, it becomes a problem to us to go to the place where it happens, in order to investigate whether it !s incident of suicide or a case of murder. It does not frighten us; but creates headache when we carry the dead body of the person to the hospital for post-mortem, and then, prepare panchnama to hand over the same to his relations". A few of the head constables frankly said, "We do not care who has committed suicide. What we do really wish and pray is that no one should commit suicide in the area of our police station as it requires a lot of physical and mental exercise."

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The essence of police officials' views about the incidents of suicide is callous, no pity; no sympathy towards the victims or to their families. Surprisingly, the unknown or unidentified dead persons due to any reason, if found on roads or somewhere in public places, in the area of a police station, the dealing head constables use invectives, "Bloody fool, stupid donkey, you find only this area to die; why do you not choose any other place to go to hell?" No matter, whether suicide, accidental deaths or murders, such mishappenings were common to police officials, and as I elicited from their views only the money-getting incidents of any nature were more important than others that is, "money makes, or moves the police go happily", has been truly remarked by a philosopher. Surprisingly, the views of different persons about suicide are interesting, and except a few of them, nobody prefers the commission of any act of suicide in any situation. Even in the eyes of law, any act of or attempt to suicide, is an offence, and the religion also dislike to adopt such ways as this may demoralize the people in facing and fighting against the difficulties and hardships of life. The suicide, in fact, is not the right way to solve the painful situation or problems of life. In any hour of crisis - social, economic, family disputes, the committal of suicide leaves behind weeping wife, crying children or the aged ones, helpless, sad and sick. It is a tragedy that must be discouraged and condemned by the concerned social reformers and the educationists. Speaking for myself, I, too, do not like the happenings of suicide, because these ways hardly resolve the disputes over property and the like; nor remove the mental tensions; rather, the incidenUi of suicide aggravate the situation that brings many

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painful moments and days for those who were dependent on the daily earnings of the victims. However, in a situation of incurable and deadly diseases, when there are no chances for the pa$mts'to survive except to face continuing acute pain and miseries, the last wish of the patient to die must be respected by the court of law. One may disagree with me; but as a human being, feeling the mental torture and physical agony of a patient having no chance to survive, I agree with the most aggrieved and helpless patients' simple wish to die, if they opt for it. This should not be taken as a case of suicide but as the last wish of the dying individual going to the peaceful passing away for entering the kingdom of eternal sleep, if it exists somewhere else. However, it is something bewildering to observe that each man's or woman's life has been, more or less, found to be entangled in different moods and experiences, and as such, each individual takes the incidents of suicide in his own way defending the 'original self' that has been built up by him over a long period of struggle, which must for him remain intact in all situations, and if dismantled, anyhow, this may meet a tragical end, the suicide. Everyone's life-style is unique in itself having all sorts of experiences, comfortable and unpleasant, to recount, and unless one is aware of such varied experiences undergone by other people, there is no animation and enrichment in the value of life to live lively. In order to save the possible victims from untoward or painful happenings, one has to develop a vivid, i.e., a strong and enlightened personality.

The Epilogue

To begin with, it may be relevant to the foregoing study to refer and quote some conclusions of a survey and its analysis of the incidents of suicide conducted by a team of social workers and psychiatrists- Dr. Rakesh Kedawat and Dr. Alok Tyagi, on behalf of a social organization (NGO) of Jaipur district of Rajasthan State, during the first half of the year, 2001. To our surprise, the startling facts and figures were found as follows: Firstly, the rate of occurrence of suicide cases in the district was four events a day, taking place in a form of plague, as the deaths of those who died due to road accidents was less than those who committed suicides. The maximum number of suicide deaths occurred mainly in the hottest days of May and June, by taking celphos tablets and drinking insecticide drugs in liquid form by almost 60 per cent people. Other modes of suicide were-10 per cent by jumping before the running train; due to in-laws' atrocities on newly married

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daughter-in-Iaws 80 per cent; and 40 per cent due to some family tensions or conflicts. Secondly, of the persons, who committed suicides 55 per cent were the females and 45 per cent were males. The percentage of married females was more than the unmarried ones' in between 50 per cent to 60 per cent suicides were found among those students, both boys and girls who failed in examinations and also because of being afraid of their parents wrath. Another fact was that about 30 per cent female suicides were due to family tensions. The persons, who went to selfkilling, were over 50 years of age. Among the females, who committed suicides, were between the age of 25 and 35, and among the males 80 per cent were between the age of 20 to 40 years. The rate of suicides was higher among the youngsters because of getting more money or greater social recognition in shortest period. Another fact of the percentage of suicides in cities was higher than the villages. Thirdly, the ways or the causes of suicides, if taken together, were: consuming poisonous tablets - celphos and insecticide drugs, economic hardships and the resultant mental tension; failure in examinations and fear of parents wrath; family tensions and insufficient dowry money both in cash and kind; self-burning; afraid of being tortured by police or police atrocities; frustration or depression among the youngsters due to unsuccessful love-making and impracticable high ambitions vis-a-vis this lovely and luxurious world; failure in career advancement as desired by the young generation; wide-spread unemployment; conflicting mental states between the new and the old generations, and personality disorder or disintegration of one's total personality.

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The factors, which were brought into light, leading to suicide, were supported by a sociologist, Dr. Rajeev Gupta and two psychiatrists, Dr. Rakesh Kedawat and Dr. Alok Tyagi. They have been busy in researches on the ticklis problem of suicides. However, these researchers have not been able to find out much more than what I have written so far. The foregoing survey, study and analysis were conducted after knowing the details of 50 families wherein the incidents of suicide took place by male or female, students, in one way or the other. It is a fact, to be tenable, that the rate of self-killing has risen to a higher stage in these days than the earlier times, which I have also pointed out in my explanation and analysis in the foregoing chapters. There is nothing new in the studies of what these erudite scholars have brought about after field surveys. The study of the phenomenon of suicides, conducted by sociologists like Emile Durkheim and psychiatrists like Sigmund Freud, including those ones mentioned earlier, have not gone into the real roots of suicide phenomenon; they have simply touched the border lines of suicide cases; whereas there is something mysterious or immanent in all the cases of suicides. The problem of suicide is not merely a subject of psychological or sociological nature; but also a subject of philosophical inquiry, and as such, it has to be studied and analyzed with multi-dimensional insight and investigation. The calculation of the percentage, or the classification of suicide cases is important, no doubt, but more important is to find out the grounds or causes of suicides so that we may give our humble suggestions to check the frequent happenings of suicide, though it is very difficult to stop such

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cases. One may ask: Is there any remedy to entirely stop the occurrences of suicide? To me, this is not possible through any remedy, because since the occurrences of suicide are so fast and sudden, it can hardly be stopped by government or social agencies. Only the related persons, friends or family members, if any of them sensing what would be happening in a particular situation, can help an iRdividual who is entrapped in the vicious circle or situation of unbearable nature, though this discerning of the ensuing event is very difficult to know or solve. The apparent reasons and the immanent causes, if juxtaposed in a situation wherein the probable victims live; are so varied that even the nearest ones cannot discern as a rvhole. As we have explained earlier, the constituents of an image, the total personality, or the psyche of an individual, has certain mysterious elements, some of which may not be known even to the person who commits suicide, what to say of others to know. Taken in this way, I have pointed out earlier, the psyche, meant only inner self(mind) but not soul, is a phenomenon that becomes so strong itself that to stop an individual, driven to commit suicide, cannot be possible easily. Any case of suicide as an event, is so sudden like a storm, that to discern its ensuing result is unknown! at the moments of doing so. Even than, one may ask: How to \stop the incidents of suicide? To answer or to suggest a remedy for controlling the cases of suicide, needs discerning eyes to visualize as to how a child is growing to form his image or personality, in a particular family or in a grim situation, on the part of parents, who can help him to build his psyche in a very positive way with certain virtues like self-confidence,

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courage, determination, so that he can face and fight against the odds, difficulties or the hardships of any kind - social, economic, political and personal. The child has to be taught to be a bold man in terms of humanist psyche, that is, to behave as a man for himself as well as others. What I wish to convey, is that only the humanist spirit, anyhow engraved in one's life right from the childhood upto the growing old, can help and guide him to save himself from painful act like suicide or self-destruction. The formation of personality, image, or say, psyche, right from the very childhood to the growing age, plays a decisive role in life, because a man talks and behaves in consonance with the constituents of his psyche, i.e., mind, which is the root of all happenings, right or wrong, moral or immoral, etc. The mind in one's life is the force which propels a man to go to either way, positively or negatively. Since it is multi-dimensional in its nature, scope and activities, only the concerned man can feel its pulses as going to which direction and how it takes a situation, favourable or infavourable, courageously or cowardly, etc. If mind directs oneself to behave and act in a right way, he becomes bold to face any situation, or if it directs man to go to a bad road, it is very much prone to suicide. This way one's mind or mental state in proportion to its physical strength or ability, can help one to protect or save from going to the very painful moments of suicide. There is no universal or common remedy to avoid the incidents of suicide, because each individual is unique and versatile in his nature and behaviour patters. The gruesome and terrible tales of increasing happenings of suicide have brought forth many a question

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before not only me, but also before many others. Why are individuals felled to this way? Are these incidents emotional or sentimental? Why are suicides sudden? Whether or not suicides are justified? Who are responsible for such happenings? Before I deal with such questions, I clearly visualize that the problem of suicide should not be taken as an 'oversimplification' to justify or to condemn in one way or the other by the sociologists, psychiatrists, for whatever be it, it has some deeper roots than apparent reasons. Now to answer the foregoing question: Firstly, the aggregation of apparent and immanent causes drives an individual to be the victim of suicide; secondly, these cases of suicide are partly emotional or sentimental and partly factual; thirdly, these are sudden happenings because of one's image or personality being battered by others and from within; fourthly, these deaths are to be legally and socially justified; and fifthly, the conditions of an -acute adverse situation may be held responsible. We cannot specify one or two reasons for suicide but an assemblage of varied factors, known or unknown. The family or social control is necessary to the stability, mainly economic, because of human variability and forces. It may be surroundings of environmental influences and forces. It may be achieved by education and training, in which the aims, values and norms of the family and society become internalized in the individual personalities; and by wellguided restraining, in which family and society compel conformity to certain values of life. To implement both training and restraining a family or a society apply numerous techniques of persuasion and dissuasion, and at the same time, the right and honest application of human resources is an essentiality to control or minimize the cases of suicide.

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The human resources like freedom and equality involve not only the right to do what one wishes but also the obligation to see that one does not injure others in one way or the other. The human relations among the people playa very important role as it eases the tension and loneliness that are found more among those who remain aloof from mixing with others. This also includes communication, or dialogues, between the persons, which enlightens those who are uninformed and unmindful with the modern social changes, and after knowing such things, it is probable, that one may be cheerful to deal with conflicting situation. We generally find that memories of adulthood make an individual happy, and passing through the swages from young man to the old age, he faces the problems and ailments of being very old. Besides the experiences, good or bad, in the life, the growing age begins with weakening of physical and mental capabilities. If the psychological understanding lacks in such people, they may be victims of mental diseases that also affect their physical strength and potentialities, and therefore, in order to save the oldest ones from going to be the vietims of mental derangement, it is essential to respect and regard their wishes as far as possible. To be brief, again to keep them away from loneliness, depression, irritability, etc., we must use the human resources like 'time management' and 'relaxation', and awareness of 'health care' and timely treatment, if some diseases that afflict them is surely to save the old ones from being handicap, or the personality disorder, anxieties, etc. Now as a result of the study and analysis of the problem of suicide I have reached, or drawn, some conclusions that may be interesting, alarming or amazing to many of those

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who take and regard the phenomenon of suicide as a serious and dangerous one. These conclusions are as follows: 1. The incidents of suicide are not confined only to a particular community, race or a society; instead this phenomenon is all-pervading in human societies of the world and embrace all the sections-poor or rich, educated or illiterate, male or female, boy or girl, normal or sick, ordinary or great, married or unmarried, employed or unemployed, i.e., leaving no one from its gripe and the painful moments. The ways of suicide are ghastly and terrible as the very thought of it sends shudders up anybody's spine; the self-burning, cutting one's throat or stomach are the most painful moments of dying; and probably, only the brave ones can commit suicide as it needs courage to face the consequences of its happening, and certainly, no coward person can go to such a way of self-killing. All the incidents of suicide have apparent reasons such as unemployment, economic hardship, poverty, family tension, social clash and conflicts, drug addiction, fear of being tortured by police, coercion of married girls by their in-laws for insufficient dowry, property disputes, immense financial loss, rude and cruel behaviour by ultra-modern ladies towards their old saas and sasur. The incidents of suicide have some deeper causes called 'immanent' or 'inherent' in one's image, psyche, or the totality of personality; each incident of suicide is unique in itself and versatile in its depth; and the mysteries of suicide are still shrouded in darkness as in every incident mental states of the individual varies because of variable constituents of body and mind; and researchers

2.

3.

4.

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have to admit that all the mysteries of suicide have not been discovered and resolved so far. 5. The psychiatrists concentrate their studies about suicides on the semi-consciousness or subconsciousness; the impressions of what an individual has done and listened to are stored in one's 'Id' as Freud emphasized, which flare up in one's mind in an acute adverse situation, and this leads him to an extreme step like suicide, if not well adapted to its influence and forces; but the incidents of suicide are not merely psychological; these are also sociological as the sociologists claim. The tragedy of sociologists, however, is that they only blame the bad structures and disordered functions of a society, responsible for suicide deaths; they limit their investigations only to social problems, pressures of forces, behind the suicide cases; they meet the concerned families and prepare the graphic tables to bring out percentage of the incidents of suicide on the basis of available facts; but they do not go into the very depth of such cases. The social reformers blame and hold the governments and the societies responsible for suicides because of their indifferent attitudes to beneficial social reforms and economic welfare of the generality of the people; and under the acute pressure of governmental taxes and the irrelevant customs or traditions, when turned to be unbearable, some individuals find their relief in selfliquidation, though the social reformers endeavour honestly to bring out the factors and plights in light so that government and the societies can help the victims of suicide.

6.

7.

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8.

The efforts of the psychiatrists, sociologists or the social reformers should be appreciated, because they highlight the problems of wide-ranging poverty and hunger, economic hardships and the lack of employment opportunities, insufficient health-care centres, etc.; but they do not go into the exact causes of suicide cases; and they revolve round the border lines of the suicide incidents, though, the question-"How to minimize or control these cases?-is not an easy task for them to answer, even not possible for the governments and the societies to check and control the sudden and quick happenings of suicide. The philosophical inquiry, aimed at gaining knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon of suicides, has a significant role to playas it goes much deeper into the suicide cases; it believes that the self-realization by an individual of being worthless irrelevant and meaningless in this absurd and jealous world, and after being overwhelmed by a flashing of light within, propels him, suddenly and quickly, to go to self-killing by any means easily available at the moment; and that is very difficult for others to know and realize the flashback mental states or the ideas of desperation of the victims.

9.

10. The philosophical inquiry too, cannot easily reach the exact points behind the suicide cases, because the ingredients or the constituents of an individual's image, psyche or the totality of one's personality, infinitely become the essential parts of it over a period of many years; and as such, the suicide incidents remain a matter of mystery for the psychologists, sociologists and philosophers; in fact, the incidents of suicide are

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complicated, or the multi-dimensional nature of the happenings suicide. 11. The philosophical inquiry, however, has helped me to find out that it is the total personality (an image or the psyche) of an individual, when injured, damaged, alienated or battered by its own wrong or right doing, acts or reactions, or by some external factors, apparent or immanent causes, leads him to commit suicide, so suddenly or quickly, which nobody can stop; the point is when in one's personality, there develops a juxtapose of apparent and immanent causes, very close together, then he goes to self-killing as he cannot sustain and survive himself.
\

12. The question: "ls it possible to control and stop the incidents of suicide? - still remains unanswered because of our inability to perceive or visualize the possibilities of one's sudden and quick jumping into the darkened well of suicide; it is honestly speaking, a mysterious phenomenon for us to find out its preconditions; had these been known to somebody, he might have been probably in a position to save many of the victims; infact, the apparent and immanent causes are so juxtaposed in a personality, that may not be easily and clearly preconceived by anyone; however, if the human resources properly utilized in one's family and society as well, the incidents of suicide may be minimized to a certain extent. 13. The human resources; education, freedom, equality, respect, :tolerance, leadership frugality, knowledge, awareness, responsibility, courage, self-confidence, mutual faith, communication, love, friendship, honour,

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laughter positive attitude, morality, accountability, helping hands, fraternity, public conscience, cooperation, co-ordination, filial love, right understanding, patience, reverence dignity of individuality, etc., can also help us in minimizing the incidents of suicide in terms of role-saving devices, if properly utilized and honestly applied in maintaining the good relationships between the members in family and in society as well. 14. This leads us to understand and apply the humanist approach at least in suicide cases of dowry deaths students' suicides due to failure in examinations, and also who embrace deaths due to utter loneliness and infirmity. In such cases if the newly married girls, students of tender sensitivity, very aged individuals, feel that their 'personalities', have been extremely dented, disgraced, damaged, diminished or condemned, they suddenly and quickly, jump into the arena of suicides; however, had the humanist approach been applied honestly at the proper time their lives could have been saved by the concerned or related persons and in-laws. 15. It is, therefore, be noted with regret that the humanist approach, based on human resources as mentioned earlier, is mostly ignored or neglected by the relatives and in-laws; rather, being extremely self-centred, they severely injure and shatter the totality of personality of the victims. This is, in fact, involves the responsibility, understanding or insight on the part of family members or relatives and also on the tolerance and patience of the victims themselves as to how they should react to the forces and factors juxtaposed in a particular situation; however any indifferent attitude on anybody's part can

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never avert the chances of one's going to the way of suicide. 16. Another conclusion, which looks to me, very mysteriously amazing, is that the lepers, beggars, handicaps, infirms, prostitutes, lunatics, dumb and deaf, etc., hardly commit suicide, and they enthusiastically face the most afflicting situation in day-to-day life, sleep in open road-sides; use to beg for their existence; no shame, no disgrace, they take their lives as the charisma of God; and thus, move on the path of extreme hard3hips and hurdles to face what comes to them. The percentage of suicides among them is very rare in comparison to normal, healthy and wealthy persons. They are, in fact, more brave and bold than those who pamper false notions and ambitions to live for. To be brief, they have a zest or gusto to live and survive in all the damaging situations. 17. It may also be amazing to observe that the percentage of dowry deaths is greater among the females than the males. Why is it so? It is because the in-laws of the newly married girls pressurize them to bring more dowry amount or items, and mostly, their husbands take or pursue the line of their parents. All this afflicts and injures the personalities of the brides who come to the new homes with new dreams to be materialized; but finding the extremely hostile situations, they seek the ways of suicide to get rid of all miseries and sorrows and the most painful fact is that their husbands hardly oppose their parents. 18. An essential point to minimize the suicide deaths is the 'social control mechanism' in terms of 'support' or

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helping hands" to those who seem mentally disturbed and have physical personality disorders. This is in relation to anxiety and depression of a male or a female member, being nearest and dearest one, to a family or a society. A support or the helping hands may be of various kinds, but commonly, it must be done in lessening the severe situation of alienation, and thus, the frustration of expectations and ambitions be resolved by way of support or the helping hands necessary in all situation of desperation. 19. The so-called pious family's honour or prestige, or the religio-moral institution, as involved in Hara-kiri, Santhara, lal-Samadhi, Sati and lahar, are not the cases of suicide in the eyes of those who believe, belong or cling to such traditions, yet the social reformers, modern sociologists or the radical philosophers, regard such events or deadly happenings as nothing but suicides because of their being voluntarily overwhelmed or forced for going to the ways of self-dying. 20. Another conclusion may also be deduced here that any method or way of self-killing is necessarily a case of suicide because of its being voluntary and willful. When certain patients, facing extremely painful moments as a result of cancer or severe agonizing state of mind, seek and pray the honourable courts of justice to allow them to die by way of some poisonous injection or drugs, are not permitted to go this way. Why is it so? Because, if a doctor does so, it become a case of murder, or if the patient himself does so, it is called suicide; both the ways are criminal acts, and therefore, self-killing, in any way, is a crime in the eyes of law.