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November 2007
Time allowed 1 hour
.Sec. No .Pn. No :(‫السم )بالعربى‬

‫ المتحان يقع فى أربع صفحات‬:‫ملحظة مهمة‬

{1} Complete the following with suitable scientific words: (2 marks)
1- The study of food and feeding is called nutrition.
2- The energy coin in the biological system is called ATP.
3- Act as selective transport channels and carriers or Act as
enzymes or Act as receptors or Act as markers (cell identification
markers) or Cell adhesion is one of the main functions of the
protein in the cell membrane.
4- Endocytosis and exocytosis are examples of bulk transport
(vesicle-mediated transport).
5- Mitochondrion is the site of chemical reactions and cell
6- Peroxisomes contain enzymes that degrade fatty acids and
amino acids.
{2} The following sentences may be right or may be contain one
wrong word. Put (√) in front the right one and a line under the
incorrect word then write a correct word above it. (3 marks)
: (
1- Sponges and coelenterates such as Hydra reproduce
sexually by budding. {asexually}

2- Plant cells lack chloroplasts, large central vacuole and cell
wall. {have}

3- Integral (intrinsic) proteins are loosely attached on surface

of the cell membrane. {Peripheral (extrinsic)}
4- Facilitated diffusion can takes place through pores and
gated channels. {√}
5- The unbalanced charge across the cell membrane which
result from sodium-potassium pump is important for conduction
of nerve impulses, muscle contraction … etc. {√}
6- Vesicles of endoplasmic reticulum are divided into
macrovesicles, microvesicles and intermediate vesicles. {Golgi
{3} Mention one difference between the following scientific terms:
(4 marks)
(1) Autotrophic nutrition Heterotrophic nutrition
Make their own food by a Obtain their food from other
process called photosynthesis. organisms.
Such as green plants. Such as animals and humans.
(2) Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction
Showing little or no genetic Showing great genetic
variation from the parent. variation from the parent.
Needs one parents. Needs two parents.
Takes place by different ways. Takes place by one way.
(3) Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell
Absence of a distinct membrane- Presence of a distinct
bound nucleus. membrane-bound nucleus.
Absence of membrane-bound Presence of membrane-bound
organelles. organelles.
They are unicellular organisms. They are unicellular or

multicellular organisms.
Smaller than eukaryotes. Larger than eukaryotes.
Most primitive. More complex.
e.g. Bacteria. e.g. Plant and animal cells.
4) Heads of phospholipids Tails of phospholipids
Formed from phosphate groups Formed from fatty acids
Polar Non-polar
Hydrophilic (water loving). Hydrophobic (water fearing)
They found on the outer and They are directed inwards
inner surfaces of the cell face to face.
(5) Passive transport Active transport
It does not require energy. It requires energy.
It takes place according to the It takes place against the
concentration gradient. concentration gradient.
(6) Rough endoplasmic Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum reticulum
Covered by ribosomes. Lacks by ribosomes.
It is involved in the synthesis of It is not involved in the
proteins. synthesis of proteins or
steroid synthesis or
regulation of calcium levels in
muscle cells or the break
down of toxic substances in
the cell.
(7) Cis face of cisternae of Golgi Trans face of cisternae of
apparatus Golgi apparatus
Immature face. Mature face.
Facing the ER and nucleus. Directed towards the plasma

(8) Exogenic intracellular Endogenic intracellular
digestion digestion
Digestion of the taken Digestion of some parts of the
substances by endocytosis. cytoplasm of the same cell
e.g. mitochondria.
The process is known as The process is known as
heterophagy. autophagy.
{4} Define the following: (1.5 marks)
1- Glycocalyx (cell coat):
It comprises both glycoproteins and glycolipids
2- Osmosis:
It is the diffusion of water (solvent) through a semi-permeable
membrane from an area of high water concentration (less solute)
(hypotonic) solution to an area of lower water concentration
(more solute) (hypertonic) solution.
It does need energy.
It takes place according to the concentration gradient.
3- Plasmolysis:
When the cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, water diffuses
out of the cell till equilibrium is reached. If the cell loses too
much water, it will shrink and die.

{5} Draw a mitochondrion with complete labels. (1.5 marks)

Explain shortly the mechanism of sodium-potassium pump.
(3 marks)
1- Binding of cytoplasmic Na+ to the protein stimulates
2- Phosphorylation causes the protein change its conformation.
3- The conformational changes expels Na+ to the outside and
extracellular K+ binds.
4- K+ binding triggers release of phosphate group.
5- Loss of phosphate restores orginal conformation.
6- K+ is released and Na+ are receptive again, the cycle repeat.

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