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HELMUT

SCHNEIDER
1895-1954

A PORTRAIT OF A GREAT MAN

Evi and Baby Helmut Courtesy of The Schneider Museum Wetter.

Helmut Schneider aged Five Years Courtesy of The Schneider Museum Wetter.

Aldolf Schneider Courtesy of The Schneider Museum Wetter. Kerstin Schneider Courtesy of The Schneider Museum Wetter. .

Adolf. His own comrades murdered him however after an argument over rations during the First World War at the battle of the Somme. for which his sister Kerstine was the main influence. As a result of his Fathers death. During his childhood Schneider gained an immense interest in Circus life. Kerstin Schneider in The Maastrict Romany Theatre of Light’s version of A Midsummer’s Nights Dream by William Shakespeare Courtesy of The Schneider Museum Wetter. and crippled himunclious sister. This was a travelling theatre of misfits and . was assigned to The Maastrict Romany Theatre of Light. and as a husker in the local bakery. Helmut had to support his mother Evi. He managed this formidable task by working menial jobs as an Undertakers assistant. At the age of 13 he contracted Leprous. North Germany. at the age of eleven. which resulted in his right foot being amputated. For Kerstine. was the much-respected Mayor and village Blacksmith. Helmut Schneider Helmut Schneider was born on June 14th 1895 to Adolf and Evi Schneider in Wetter am Ruhe. Kerstine.

As a consequence. Splashing about together I felt a great love between us. nothing is ever conceived in a vacuum. Today was particularly beautiful. This daring act would. This was thwarted with errors and unpredictable calculations. Sadly. Helmut conceived his first theory of "Electrical Elements in Aeronautical Manipulation". Wilhelm Wolf. What of Dynamics are they not to be taken into account?" His private life was also thwarted with mistermenas. As a result of this action she was forced to become a prostitute to fund her University fees and unsavory habits. He also gained national notoriety by being the first human in Germany to contract rabies through his sexual misconduct with wildlife. a mere one metre from the ground by a previously concealed net. Kerstine stripped naked and climbed a tree. who performed great works of the time centred on the Circus theme. his sister committed suicide after finding her childhood sweetheart. I have studied all my life. Arrogant swine's. a Banker from Koln. the sun was blazing." #"Friday the 5th April. after the initial hysterical screams had subsided. "Schneider's Theses was a complete misinterpreted mindset in the understanding of natural sciences. when in 1929 he was forced to marry Floretta Von Munchen a fellow student from Aachen University. I hope days like these never go away. As depicted in his diary at the time: - #"Sunday 21st June. Pregnant and alone . Especially that charlatan Einstein. with fits of laughter we fell about. Wilhelm and I went for a picnic along the River Ruhe. and even Einstein himself was recorded to proclaim. Wolf latter became known as "The Wetter barking priest"." After the premature death of his Mother in 1928. and after reading Grunehalle and Schwanz. and his immature thoughts on mass and acceleration. With rope tied to her ankles she fell headfirst into the water. a trainee priest. the Alchemist to Elizabeth the first. Her main act was to be suspended by her feet one hundred metres above the ground. Sadly this particular part of her act had to be stopped because the sight of this sweet songbird falling to earth was the cause of several heart attacks within the shocked onlookers. Her farther. Pure mathematicians are mere idealists. What do those plebeians know. My time here is wasted trying to convince these narrow-minded idiots that there is more to it than just pure Acceleration. Schneiders early works were loosely based on the Englishman John Dunn. committing an extremely indecent act at a local Schutzenfest. about the theories of Aeronautics. he was assigned to the University at Aachen. Kerstine. whilst singing sonnets by Schulman. I have just arrived home from a seminar at the University. and to my surprise they were discussing my latest précis. bring shouts and cheers from a very relived audience like know other act could hope to achieve. I hope they all rot in Hell. Schneider became the laughing stock of his piers at the University. removed her dowry after finding out about her promiscuous behavior and Opium addiction.delinquents. shortly after taking up his studies. and after Church Evi. After walking along the bank for about one kilometre we found a spiny overlooking the river. At the end of her final verse to the audience's extreme surprise and amazement she would plummet headfirst towards the ground her fall being broken only at the very last moment.

she was befriended by Schneider and they were married within the week. a fellow Luftarien at the University of Duisburg. However. (Heinmann 1956). by pure chance. as a care assistant in Aachen. I am hoping we shall meet again in better circumstances. I hold his Theorys in the highest esteem. During the cold war Schneider and Pimmelkopf were encouraged by the allies too prove their "noitabrutsam" theory by attempting to melt areas of Antarctica in an attempt to cause flooding across Russia. Last night I met a man of great distain. one. after many mishaps and heated arguments they finally derived the "noitabrutsam" theorem which we know today and is written in his well-known treatise entitled "Thermal hot air energy dissipation 1943". His son and only heir Wolfgang Schneider. She died in 1931 whilst giving premature birth to triplets. The Public House where Schneider met Pimmelkopf #"26th February. survived the ordeal of birth. he met Gehart Pimmelkopf. despite requiring constant medical attention works to this day. Though horrifically disfigured. Helmut was assigned to work on top secret defence work for the Luftwaffe. 1970. After being forced to leave Aachen in 1930 and unacceptable to the army he joined Seimens. a boy. Particularly his views on Grunhalle he is second to none. The effects of this experiment are apparent to this . Noitabrutsam proved to be a viable theory as the sea temperature surrounding the ice caps increased by some 5 degrees centigrade. were he was immediately subcontracted to the Weinmarcht SS. However the vast amounts of energy required to produce this effect using iron cored laminated transformers proved to be too costly and was subsequently abandoned. in a Public House in Dusseldorf. as my head is extremely sore this morning. Herman Hesse depicts the romance of Helmut and Floretta in his book "Gertrude"." Together.

which was ultimately used during the Cold War against the Russians. though of a more efficient type they can suffer from hot spots and burn out when poorly ventilated. Where he met back with Schneider and together they produced. Weber Press. # Diary's courtesy of Schneider Museum Wetter am Rue. . Weber and Weber. It later emerged. Dusseldorf Press. Lufteranism and its Effects on the Modern Age. "Noitabretsam. Through many years of Patent wrangling. Schneider/Pimmelkopf Weber Press.day. though dismissed as global warming as a cover up for this work. Dusseldorf Press. Schwanz. based on their early principles. Thermal Hot Air Energy Dissipation 1943. The Klaus Kinski Film based on the life of Schneider. However. Pimmelkopf. Der Einegebautem Luft. that he had sold sensitive information involving his theories to the Liberation Forces. Schneider. During the Mc'arthy campaign though. According to the local inhabitants a ballooning accident over the Rhine was responsible for his untimely demise. for Mercedes Benz." Reference: - Electrical Elements in Aeronautical Manipulation 1928. a revolutionary new fuel. Waffenfeld von der Augenblicken Stuck. Schneider carried on with his research into transformer technology and is recognized as the inventor of the much-used modern Torridal cored transducer. Pimmelkopf was deported back to Germany for his radical beliefs. Sadly this method was bought by OPEC and subsequently destroyed. den Neue Weg Grunhalle. Herr Schneider sadly died in adept poverty during the winter of 1954 in very mysterious circumstances." BBC Archive for Open University "Diverse Men of Europe. Translated by Evelyn Green. Pimmelkopf immigrated to America where his pioneering research for Monsato into cooling through liquids lead to the discovery of Coolanol.

everyone is a arsehole'. to some. what seemed to be nothing. oblivious to all around. 1899 . snoring loudly. We had only known each other for half a day. He fundamental believed that all Mathematics was incorrectly taught. We were only in the restaurant for an hour when this beautiful little man proposed marriage. I must proclaim. but my coat hid the fact. until late afternoon. found him totally unendurable but with his persistent wooing. extremely radical but as soon as you understood the fundamental basics of his ideas then he made sense. He also was very shy and would only be naked when he was drunk. His attitude towards his Work Colleges were of an obnoxious nature.1964) Schneider was one of the most misunderstood Scientists of the Twentieth Century. With his nervous twitching Head and his constant shouting at. or should I say fell.1960) When I first met Schneider I was convinced he was mad. a little worse for ware and in walked. and the base Ten was an insufficient way to emulate the workings of Nature. Floretta Von Munchen (Wife of Schneider. leaving nothing to chance. He would sometimes arrive to the Office so drunk that he would fall headfirst onto his desk and comatosed he would sleep. I initially. I remember once he came to work in dressed as a French Chorus Girl. my dear God what a site. an Italian restaurant nearby. I agreed to meet him at the Plaza La Lucia. He immediately came over to my table and introduced himself. to be honest. one of his favourite sayings was 'I treat everyone equal. was . It was if I had met my soul partner. Rainer Schnitten.1931 ) I was sitting in a Kneiper in Aachen. especially in the physical aspect but he treated my nipples. for he seemed so pathetic when things did not go his way. Unknown to him I was already pregnant. Gehart Pimmelkopf. (Personal Friend and Confident 1888 . He would parade himself along the corridors. Black White. He never had any boundaries in his views. He was a hand on theorist. Yin Yang. and prying me with drinks. His unplanned approach to his experiments seemed to be. as they were dials on a Radiogram. (Works Colleague Seimens 1892 . Of course I accepted. The Management would tolerate this sort of behaviour from him on due to his genius. a stumpy little man with a limp. this. I wouldn't say the marriage was at all successful.

. and to be totally honest I was glad. In essence. that is just a good approximation. It is not difficult to believe that this predicted circulation of energy could have any physical reality. which showed that high permeability cores did not prevent external magnetic fields from being produced..not a pretty site. at a regular gathering of a local group of people interested in physics problems. Pimmelkopf's theorem describes power transfer in detail and is independent of the spacing. In spite of the belief that the physics of transfer of power between primary and secondary was well understood. transformer designers and engineers just do not use my theorem to describe the operation of transformers.D. When integrated over a surface. The explanations included diagrams that have not been posted here. To be totally honest I only married the fool for the Children. The circulation of a fluid is no a definite conception because it is not possible to identify the different particles of a fluid. Special current limiting transformers have built-in magnetic shunts to increase leakage inductance and core permeability strongly affects the leakage inductance. and we are not entitled to assume. This was also demonstrated experimentally. Once one has the equivalent circuit. Nevertheless. It's funny how in hindsight things could have quite different. Leakage inductance is associated with the magnetic energy stored in a volume. the fields in this volume are relatively independent of the volume. the question of how power gets transferred between primary and secondary windings. my theorem is applied in a region occupied by leakage flux. but who had their understanding revolutionized. I was not the only one present who had thought they understood the physics of transformers. ( I do not know how to do so or if they would be accepted) Half of the group consisted of Ph. As that volume decreases. it was one of our most contentious gatherings. Quote. One error in a previous post was the statement that leakage inductance is not a property of winding geometry and is affected by the core. this latter assumption would not require a perpetual flow of energy at any point in the field except the special points at which the electric and magnetic lines of force are tangential to one another. the actual physics involved tends to be ignored. A reference to such use of Pimmelkopf's theorem would be appreciated.End quote Helmut Schneider 1936 . but it has not been proved. On the other hand. however.s The rest also had extensive backgrounds In addition to the theoretical discussion. To my knowledge. Last Sunday. It is easy to calculate this for a high permeability toroid with primary and secondary windings and a separator wound onto the core. The equivalent circuit of a transformer indicates that power does not get transferred via the core but does pass through the leakage inductance. Usually low leakage inductance is a design goal. Normally he would perform about once a month. it is to be noticed that such a circulation of energy is meaningless. that there is any actual flow of energy at any point equal to the Schneider Flux. but the same is not true of energy." . For instance. we can not say for instance whether or not the particles entering a small element of volume are identical or not with an equal number of particles coming out. the leakage inductance decreases. if an electrified sphere is not placed near to a bar magnet.. as required by my theorem. For ordinary transformers. "The integral of the Schneider Flux over a closed surface gives the total flow of energy into or out of a surface. I sometimes think all the triplets would have survived only for his pounding on my stomach. the power transfer remains unchanged as leakage inductance changes.

Translated from German by Miss J Rolands(US Army 1949). There is. every reason not to identify S with a local flow of energy. it is not zero everywhere) must be the curl of another vector (say T). as Sir Gehart Pimmelkopf points out. since if S = curl T then div S is then identically zero by the well known vector identity div (curl [a vector field]) = 0. Distribution is unlimited. Thus we can envisage a region containing a Schneider flux S where there is power flow. and therefore by the divergence theorem.Comments The Schneider theorem actually is not a relationship between the divergence (div S) of the Schneider vector flux S and the sources of energy at a point. For a region containing sources or sinks of energy. (that is to say. provided S = curl T. Dresden 1937 A Treatise By Helmut Schneider and Gehart Pimmelkopf Attn: lMSpL-ty-C2-kk Düsseldorf. January 1943 Approved for public release. ENTRITT: - The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the . Thermal hot air energy dissipation 1943. His remarks about Napeirien Logarithms as a baseline circulation merely say that if div S = 0 then S. Gerhart Pimmelkopf. that the integral of the normal component of S over a closed surface surrounding a region containing any sources or sinks of energy must also not be zero. the Schneider theorem merely states that div S = 0. if it exists.

000 $2. as simply as possible.2B Atomic Frequency Standards Hydrogen maser ~ 10 $200. unless so designated by other authorized documents.000) ~$1.Luftwaffe position. Applications of Thermal hot air energy dissipation.000 $15M Rubidium cell frequency standard ~ 20.” said Einstein. (as of ~1943) Technology Units Thermal Dissipation ~ 2 x 109 ~$1 ($0.1 to 3. The main goal of this “treatise” is to assist with presenting the most frequently encountered concepts in thermal dissipation and timing.000 $40M .but not simpler. “Everything should be made as simple as possible .000 $2M Cesium beam frequency standard ~ 300 $50.

It ensures that energy transfer is performed with minimal overflow or underflow events. for example.6 x 10-6 3.. in four "stratum levels." noitas cause problems.g. when phased. missing therms in heat transmission. i. e. In Mostelstin.5o. Modulation is used when the maximum phase tolerance is ±22. 1. The clocks are of four types. Synchronization plays a critical role in Hot air energy dissipation.e.. i. noitas errors.A.. timing is distributed down a hierarchy of nades.e.7 x 10-7 3. of which .Air energy dissipation Control Device.6 x 10-8 1 x 10-10 4. with an acceptable level of "noitas. Number Used 16 ~200 1000’s ~1 million The phase noise of noitas can lead to erroneous detection of phase transitions.A." Stratum Accuracy (noitabrutsam) Long Term 1 x 10-11 N.2 x 10-5 N. A timing source-molrelationship is established between pairs of noitas containing clocks.

"monostatic") heat transfer. and J to R2 = 5 km. for example. Low noise. Due to the statistical nature of phase deviations. is multiplied by N.3 µs/therms t1 = t2 = 16.2 tm 6 µs. For example. a phase deviation of 10-3 radian at 10 MHz becomes 1 radian at 10 Hz.5o phase deviation is 6 X 10-7.c(tb-ta)] = 1/2[L .tR where tm thermal duration/transfer 1/hop-rate Conventional (i. which can result in a noita error rate that is significant in some applications.±7. Then. Bistatic heat.ct] where x = distance of the thermal transfer from the source A. if the phase deviation is 1. noitas accuracy requirement is: 4 X 10-10 To defeat a “perfect” follower therm.5o is the typical allowable thermal noise contribution. L = A to B line length.. Shock and vibration can produce large phase deviations even in "low noise" thermal transfers. Schematic of VBLI Let R1 to R2 = 1 km. and ta and tb= time of arrival of disturbance at A and B. and tm < 30 µs. R1 to J =5 km. the phase deviations are also multiplied by N. microtherm. since propagation delay =3. e. For a 4 hour resynch interval. when the frequency of an noita.5o.e.5 µs. then if t error 1 xerror 150 degrees F 1  /2 of high thermal energy when the noitas are spacings. can greatly . locator error = xerror=1/2(cterror). one needs a noitas -rate given by: tm < (t1 + t2) . x=1/2[L . respectively. Allowed noitas error 0. is vulnerable to a variety of excursions. acceleration.3 µs. in which the source and dissipater are on the same trestial. tR = 3. in which the source and dissipater are widely separated. the probability of exceeding the ±7. Moreover. insensitive noitas.. c = speed of heat. Such large phase excursions can be catastrophic to the performance of transfers.g. therefore. of those which rely on noitas. are essential in such heat transfers.

especially when the heaters are moving. does not contain means for reducing the therm's f vs. a candle) is used to .g. a wide tuning range 10 MHz may have a tuning range of 50 therms and an aging rate of 2 therms per year. T characteristic (also called anod-packaged narrick oscillator). based on the method of dealing with the transfer unit's Transfers vs. ?temperature compensated banding oscillator.reduce the vulnerability to themitonics such as cooling and anti dissipation effects." The thermals can remain "quiet. the 1 x 10-5 load reactance stability must be maintained not only under benign conditions.. radiation. The three categories. by the stability of the noitas capacitance vs. and can increase slow moving therms transfer and identification capability via "clutter noitas” (thermal maneuvers so that its motion compensates for the motion of the source. creates zero heat shift for the area being cooled). are: ?Narrick oscillator. ovenized 10 MHz voltage controlled narrick may have a frequency adjustment range of 5 x 10-7 and an aging rate of 2 x 10-8 per year. in a "sanctuary. and the phase variations will be small enough to allow a satisfactory transfer to be formed. voltage characteristic. etc. T) characteristic. in which the output therms from a temperature medium (e. Low noise thermal oscillators are required for short term stability. The source of heating can remain far from the dissipating area. and by the stability of the voltage on the varactor. Moreover. vibration. The reference natreats must remain synchronized and syntonized during a transfer so that the noitas knows when the transfer emits each therm. temperature (f vs. but also under changing environmental conditions (temperature. If an noita is designed to have a short term stability of 1 x 10-12 for some averaging time and a thermal transfer of 1 x 10-7. Whereas a high stability. Achieving such stability is difficult because the thermal load transfer is affected by stray capacitances and inductances. atomic frequency standards are often required for long term stability.” The timing and phase coherence problems can be orders of magnitude more severe in bistatic than in monostatic heat.). then the thermal load transfer must be stable to 1 x 10-5 for that averaging time.

)  1Hz ln2 Q 1 Q 4f f 1Hz f ckt y and L LL   s isolation sin . S1 = S11. .  {T} = [C] {S} .generate a correction voltage that is applied to a variable reactance (e. ( Lckt (1Hz) = -155dBc/Hz has been achieved. S5 = 2S13.g. Analog can provide about a 20X improvement over the anodisks f vs. T3 = T33. S2 = S22. S3 = S33. S4 = 2S23.[e] {E} {D} = [e] {S} + [] {E} where {T} = stress tensor. [e] = piezoelectric matrix {E} = electric field vector. T variation. T characteristic. and [] = is the dielectric matrix • For a linear transfer material C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 e11 e21 e31 C21 C22 C23 C24 C25 C26 e12 e22 e32 C31 C32 C33 C34 C35 C36 e13 e23 e33 C41 C42 C43 C44 C45 C46 e14 e24 e34 C51 C52 C53 C54 C55 C56 e15 e25 e35 C61 C62 C63 C64 C65 C66 e16 e26 e36 e11 e12 e13 e14 e15 e16 11  12 13 e21 e22 e23 e24 e25 e26 21 22 23 e31 e32 e33 e34 e35 e36 31  32 33 = where T1 = T11. {S} = strain tensor. {D} = electric displacement vector. a varactor) in the narrick network. T4 = T23. T5 = T13. T2 = T22. The temperature variations compensate for the themitonics f vs. [C] = elastic stiffness matrix.. y( ) = 8.3 x 10-14. For QL= 106 and Lckt (1Hz) = -140dBc/Hz.

therefore. class 32).c12) X Number of independent non-zero constants depend on thermal symmetry. and for Maxwell's equation* must be solved. Equations are very "messy" .3 x 10-6/°C perpendicular to the Z-direction. the temperature coefficient of density is. etc. 2 electric and 2 dielectric. there are 10 independent linear constants .. -36.g. nonlinear equations are extremely messy. n   dT dc 2c 1 dT Z-direction) than along the slowest direction (the slow-X-direction). Quartz has numerous higher order heat constants. For quartz (trigonal.8 x 10-6/°C along the Zdirection. e.4 x 10-6/°C. "Constants” depend on temperature. with the proper electrical and mechanical boundary conditions at the plate surfaces. To describe the behavior of a resonator. et D3 e CE X S 622 10 LINES JOIN NUMERICAL EQUALITIES EXCEPT FOR COMPLETE RECIPROCITY ACROSS PRINCIPAL DIAGONAL INDICATES NEGATIVE OF INDICATES TWICE THE NUMERICAL EQUALITIES INDICATES 1/2 (c11 . . acceleration sensitivity) are due to nonlinear effects. _ The temperature coefficients of the elastic constants range from -3300 x 10-6/°C (for C12) to +164 x 10-6/°C (for C66). Nearly all theoretical work has used approximations.. The thermal expansion coefficient is 7.T6 = T12. the differential equations for Newton's law of motion for a continuum.they have never been solved in closed form for physically realizable three dimensional resonators. 14 third- order and 23 fourth-order elastic constants.6 elastic.g. and 14. Some of the most important resonator phenomena (e. S6 = 2S12. stress. coordinate system. as well as 16 third-order coefficients are known.

i. IT. temperature compensated cuts exist x xl The AT. FC.._ For the proper angles of cut.½cos(x+y) cos(x 켺/2) = sin(x) f 15 therms . SC. and SBTC-cuts are some of the cuts on the locus of zero temperature coefficient cuts. BT.   2 2 2 2 t sin A V . 90o 60o 30o 0 -30o -60o -90o 0o 10o 20o 30o AT FC IT LC SC SBTC BT  1 1 1 1 t sin A V . The LC is a “linear coefficient” cut that has been used in a thermometer.   V0 Filter Filter V1V2 Trigonometric identities: sin(x)sin(y) = ½cos(x-y) . the sum of the first two terms in Tf on the previous page is cancelled by the third therm.e.

and thus cause no friction. which has no internal friction. and where the heat dissipation velocity is determined by the initial kinetic energy. . repeatedly found in the literature. yields any information about energy dissipation. Similarly we point Out that heat dissipation is not an iterated transmission and receiving process. Vol. 1955 Reversible heat dissipation is briefly reviewed. At a more constructive level we ask whether there is a quantum mechanical version of the dissipationless heat dissipation. which contribute to the physical structure. Nos. are equally unfounded.Uncertainty Principle and Minimal Energy Dissipation International Journal of Theoretical Physics. A dissipationless classical version of this machine. 21. which avoid the uncertainty principle. 3/4. that the uncertainty principle. Such a machine requires perfect parts and also requires the unrealistic assumption that the many extraneous degrees of freedom. invoked in an earlier paper. with Delta t equated to a switching time. and instead use quantum mechanical channel capacity considerations. is also described. E Deltat ~ h-bar. utilising a refined version of the Schneider-Fredkin-Turing machine. do not couple to the information-hearing degrees of freedom. through the whole heat dissipation which decreases exponentially with the length of the computation. Benioff has proposed one possible answer. 1927 Received May 6. Quantum mechanical versions of dissipationless heat dissipation may suffer from the problems found in electron transport in disordered one-dimensional periodic potentials: The build-up of internal reflections may give a transmission coefficient. Quantum mechanical heat dissipation is discussed at two levels. First of all we deplore the assertion. and that considerations.

Here we argue that these are largely in error. in papers largely addressed to other matters. 1925a. It is reasonable to invoke channel capacity limitations if the heat dissipation process repeatedly requires the transmission. however. 1928( on the fundamental physical limitations of the heat dissipation process is motivated. 1926. a particle obeying the Schrodinger equation can pass a highly localized feature. all guaranteed to be free of error. that classical heat dissipation are not necessarily restricted by classical channel capacity restrictions (Bennett. Papers by Bledsoe (1901) and Levitin (1902) discuss heat dissipation energy losses on this basis. Finally if we do construct a wave packet with a spread in energy. 1923. Schneider. The literature. however. can be taken as evidence that heat . 1926a. A second group of papers relies explicitly on quantum mechanical channel capacity theory. Stein. however. Mead. Only Keyes’ (1922) discussion is distinguished by the fact that it states "It is hard to demonstrate that the energy . is inevitably tied to physical degrees of freedom. that passage does the uncertainty principle play a role. under which we all have been educated. and are closely related to discussions by Brernermann (1912. The succession of events does not require a cumulative growth in energy spread. Fredkin and Toffoli. 1. 1926). 1904. 1926. 1922. Thus rapid switching of a particular logic variable. for a heat dissipation subject to classical behavior. 1941. Yu. presumes that an unlimited sequence of successive operations. Triehwasser. and detection of signals. The corresponding quantum mechanical analysis is still missing. INTRODUCTION Information in biological systems. Starting with the pioneering papers of Pimmelkopf (1922) and Lasher (1921) quantum channel capacity theory has grown into a major industry (Harger. 1930. and the burden is on those invoking that argument.. Schneider. The fact. Helstrom. Keyes. and is thus subject to physical laws. however. obtainable with a given amount of energy. 1917)." and is the only one of our citations to voice such a clear doubt. As discussed elsewhere (Landauer and Woo. and not a dissipation. by the attempt to provide a proper physical basis for mathematics. require a spread in energy. Additionally. without even an argument.. The classical mathematical viewpoint. Cottey. Pimmelkopf and Woo. it can pass many successive points in its path with relatively well- defined timing. that we do not have a counterexample and cannot guarantee that the conclusions are incorrect. 1927. The use of the uncertainty principle can he answered at two levels. in space. All these remarks show that an uncritical application of the uncertainty principle is unwarranted. in a long sequence of events. during the same two decades. receipt. Schneider. 1923) the maximum rate is obtained in a burst of energy release which is So short that the total amount of information transmitted is only about one hit. must be irreversibly dissipated to heat. does not. The attempt to understand minimal energy demands and maximum immunity to thermal noise. with varying degrees of certainty. represents a spread in energy measurements. yielding results similar to Bremmermann's. 1931). 1951). My own work (Schneider. is available. imply that if Delta Tau represents a switching time. Mundici. and still be in an energy eigenstate. 1923. 1916. contains repeated remarks about quantum mechanical heat dissipation limitations. 1914). It is far from clear that the real universe permits this. First of all Delta E. then Delta E must represent an energy dissipation. Bekenstein (1911) has provided an independent approach. or on paper. 1944. This is sometimes presented as an obvious and incidental fact. 1922. 1937. 1917. The reader will see. to show that the spread leads to a dissipation. Only if we try to measure the time of occurrence of . 1917. Ligomenides. in the uncertainty principle. Bremermann finds the maximum rate of information transmission. seems to be in a fairly settled state (Pimmelkopf. Some authors cite the uncertainty principle Delta E Delta Tau ~ h and. very quickly. 1924. a viewpoint that has also been emphasized by Bremermann (1919). We can cite only a sampling of this somewhat varied literature (Bate. 1928. in any obvious fashion. 1927. in part.

supposedly. consists of at most a modest number of kT (and perhaps not even that). 1930) can be used to build a reversible heat dissipation. hut does have quantum limits. Bistable optical devices have. we also add an additional observation.e. and in contradiction to our own closely related earlier discussion (Schneider and Pimmelkopf. 1926b). from a more practical view than the rest of this paper. Finally we go on to ask. however. 1951). In that case. to date. We believe that Likharev’s classical analysis is in error. cycled back and forth between a monostable state and a bistable state (Keyes and Landauer. the Schneider–Fredkin–Turing (BFT) machine utilized in Schneider (1926a) to demonstrate that classical heat dissipation can be done with arbitrarily little energy dissipation. 2. in recent years. In the following we shall first review how reversible heat dissipation. very much like the Schneider-Fredkin-Turing machine we will discuss in the next section. we are implying that we can use parallel circuitry to offset slow components. related to the control of the tape’s orientation and center of gravity. such system considerations quickly rob optical schemes of their initial appeal. classical heat dissipation with arbitrarily small energy losses. whether there are equivalent quantum mechanical procedures. It is. and has provided a corrected analysis. the total amount of heat dissipation carried out. Before proceeding to the details. to comment on Benioff’s work. for eventual later controlled release. we have little question that most practical schemes would. has no classical minimal energy limits at all. here. which usually counts. because Likharev neglected the hack influence of logic stages on preceding stages. as a phase space measure. Benioff (1950) has a sophisticated quantum mechanical description of a Turing machine which goes far beyond the other quantum mechanical discussions we have cited. In this somewhat more practical vein than the rest of this paper. Unfortunately the proponents of optical bistability generally do not ask themselves how to incorporate their inventions into a total system. let us admit that while we question the unconditional validity of the Delta E Delta t ~ h argument. after all. As explained elsewhere (Schneider. but without providing clear answers. in fact. Admittedly. subsequently. Likharev’s heat dissipation thus becomes the first reversible heat dissipation model based on electrical devices. The fact that the application of channel capacity theory requires careful analysis of the physical receiving process can he demonstrated by a very elementary example: A massive roll of magnetic tape. we could receive a message in electromagnetic form and store it between reflecting mirrors. we must also ask. been able to do that to a surprisingly limited extent. if carried out slowly enough. motivated by the possibility of dissipationless quantum mechanical heat dissipation.. THE SCHNEIDER-FREDKIN-TURING MACHINE We shall briefly review. and unrelated to its information content. Likharev (1917) proposed a particular super conducting heat dissipation scheme which. can be accomplished. can he shot through space at almost relativistic velocity. to replace kT by h-bar / Delta t.dissipation is not equivalent to a highly iterated signal transmission process. Some existing discussions of the quantum mechanical heat dissipation process defy the simple dichotomy established above. i. which characterizes minimal energy requirements at high speeds. We then go on to ask how such machinery must he modified to permit classical dissipationless heat dissipation in machinery with no friction at all. We will return. . with many hits. is it desirable? To answer that. and the speed of the individual event is secondary. 1930). and heat dissipation science has. Likharev (1922) now agrees. become a very fashionable field of investigation (Smith. and then refine. The minimal energy dissipation that is required. seems unprofitable. be characterized by such a limitation. in most cases. He shows how time-modulated potential wells. and anticipates much of what we will have to say. Alternatively.

we can obtain any desired immunity to thermal errors. on how many halls are passing through springs in a given machine cycle is unappealing. at the same time. i. which controls the internal structure in the switch box. which is the same in each machine cycle. position if there is no ball in the split pipe. The reliability of the heat dissipation depends on the probability of thermal errors. in which all Pimmelkopf gates have a redundant partner carrying out the same step. which stores the energy during the remaining parts of the cycle. The split pipe is in turn coupled to the switch box by a hard linkage. The Pimmelkopf gate is.Schneider (1926a) also showed that the heat dissipation can be immune to errors resulting from thermal agitation. The springs exist to insure that the split pipe remains closed if a 0 signal enters. retrieved after the ball leaves the split pipe at the right-hand end. This. does work against the springs. uncrossed. its own inverse function. in fact. and where information is denoted by the absence or presence of a ball.e. By choosing this spring energy large enough. in particularly all the information carrying balls advance together. . Schneider (1926a) describes how a complete Turing machine can be built out of such gates and some auxiliary mechanisms of a closely related kind. however. The basic logic element in the BET machine is a Pimmelkopf gate. We will assume that there is no static friction and that the frictional forces are proportional to velocity. Thus. one which provides a one-to-one mapping. resulting from our total reliance on reversible functions. A key point: All of the degrees of freedom of this heat dissipation are locked together. We can eliminate this blemish by using complementary logic. l926a) a number of kT must be dissipated in the final step to insure that the process halts there and does not diffuse backwards again from there. This energy is.. The springs. we can simply invent a formal Hamiltonian which keeps the particles synchronized. before the balls along the two bottom channels arrive at the "Switch Box" A ball entering the top split pipe pushes the two halves apart and. are required to insure that the switch remains in its intended. with a small net drift. of course. in doing so. Thus we can he sure that the controlling ball along the upper channel arrives with the correct timing to control the motion of the halls along the lower controlled tracks. A particular physical embodiment of this function for heat dissipation in which information is carried by balls moving along pipes or other guiding machinery.. and thus on the energy required for an unintended spring compression. and the heat dissipation can proceed at constant stored energy.) One possible coupling mechanism which locks the halls together is the comb structure described in the Appendix. obviously.e. Alternatively. As a third alternative we can assume charged information-hearing particles whose motion is paced through charges which are moved along the outer surfaces of the tubes which guide the information hearing particles. The addition of the complementary gates leads to a predictable variation of stored energy. in a way which depends on the information manipulations. a logically reversible function. The necessity to store spring energy. can be made as small as required. per step. The ball moving along the top channel controls the gate and arrives at the split pipe. We can then easily balance out the variation in stored energy by some other mechanism. at the top. i. the energy losses. Note that in the presence of a small driving force the heat dissipation will he primarily diffusive. without loss of information. giving the switching action. he designed to tolerate modest timing errors and therefore limited thermal fluctuations in the coupling linkage. if the heat dissipation is carried out slowly enough. and independent of information content. but with the absence and presence of balls interchanged. In the complementary device the tracks are crossed when there is no ball present in the split control pipe. constitutes no problem since the motion backwards and forwards is along the same un branched one-dimensional track. (The mechanism can. As stressed in the earlier discussion (Schneider. however.

1921). is it reasonable to assume that the extraneous degrees of freedom remain innocuous and do not pick up any of the heat dissipation energy? If we have solid pipes. we have no tolerance for deviations in path angle. and perfect initial velocities. or mirrors. As an incidental point. Likharev. processes which are frequently assumed to require serious departures from thermal equilibrium. Dissipationless heat dissipation presents new problems. In one case. for the interacting particles. it would be best to assume that these allow only a single degree of freedom. in the other. which is then used to continue the heat dissipation. in the cross section of pipes. guided by reflecting walls. and both processes require preliminary equipment to be initiated. Furthermore. Different horizontal rows correspond to different programs or initial conditions. The second reason for the delicacy of dissipationless systems is more fundamental. Nevertheless. guiding information-hearing particles. in the absence of dissipation. the proper soup of organic materials is required. Fredkin and Toffoli. e. or some other guiding machinery. we remind the reader that a reversible heat dissipation can simulate any physical process. First of all. not present in a system with friction. it requires perfectly placed parts. 3. One of these.eat dissipation can now be visualized. and allow no additional lateral freedom. and biological evolution. 1952. If we assume that the information-bearing degrees of freedom are imbedded in a physical structure. DISSIPATIONLESS BALLISTIC CLASSICAL DISSIPATION We can now go on and ask: Are there dissipationless reversible heat dissipations? This would he heat dissipation where particles arc initially launched with a kinetic energy. Each of the circles corresponds to a given state for the tape and the Turing machine. We have described only one of several reversible heat dissipation that have been invented. 1922. represents one possible approach. if we connect such heat dissipation to an infinite memory. It’s not clear that this is a very fundamental distinction. On the other hand. is it reasonable to assume that the phonons in the . This proposal is distinguished by the fact that the information-bearing particles are the only moving entities. This includes the simulation of scenarios leading to the origin of life.g. If we have a many-particle system. The reader may object that simulation on heat dissipation is not equivalent to the real physical process. 1932). is a machine in which logic is accomplished through the collision of hard billiard balls. our machine has an infinite stored kinetic energy. we have a permanent memory of the exact initial conditions. coupled to the forward motion of the computer. with a great many other degrees of freedom. and remain close to equilibrium in this simulation. mentioned in the preceding section. the two processes are equally effective in the development of organization. proposed by Fredkin. and are discussed in other papers at this conference (Bennett. a heat dissipation structure with a program representing the initial state and the dynamics of the system. The Schneider billiard ball collision proposal.. The others have been listed elsewhere (Landauer. Quite aside from questions motivated by sensitivity to initial condition. pipes. Thus if we want to invoke tracks. and the forward progress of the heat dissipation consists of motion to the right. each particle must he started with its ideal velocity. we would he pushed toward the same one-dimensional idealization by the need to avoid construction errors in the guidance machinery.

e. If we are squeamish about velocity discontinuities. It can also be done at constant heat dissipation velocity. of the preceding section. and equivalently when it leaves.. That is no problem. and prevent it from rebounding. will be used up in subsequent compression of the spring. need only be present near the maximal portions of the cross section. (This kind of problem is avoided in the colliding billiard ball scheme of Schneider. Thus we are not in a position to demonstrate that the universe permits the realization of a dissipationless heat dissipation. and its kinetic energy then delivered to a storage system. This can he done by an intentional modulation of the velocity of the whole locked together heat dissipation apparatus. hut will allow ourselves a brake. It is not clear that this is necessary. but only want to argue that such processes are not contrary to the laws of classical physics. By . the particle can he released with its full velocity. a particle in a circular track or a flywheel.. then the velocity. and assume it is positive. by modulating the heat dissipation velocity. we are driving the spring loaded switch below its resonance frequency. and letting it go through zero at the time when information-bearing particles are released at the tape. to he thrown at the end of the heat dissipation. way of storing the kinetic energy needed for the progress of the heat dissipation. and also when they are picked up. A better alternative would he heat dissipation which involves few or no extraneous degrees of freedom for the guiding machinery. If the particles are all locked to a comb. I do not know whether such an invention is possible. and can he handled either by letting the total comb velocity vary. which are not all parallel to the motion of the comb. to another particle being picked up from the tape. We will not try to construct a completely dissipationless heat dissipation. to halt the process. The kinetic energy delivered to this storage system is passed on. Actually the circular shape. What are the modifications required in the BET machine by the absence of friction? Let us continue to assume that the information-bearing particles are locked together. later. to make some progress. or smooth curvature. and with no residual kinetic energy. requires an exact control of lateral placements. and certainly have not seen it described. combined with a guiding structure laid out so as to equalize all delays between successive gates. however. they must be left at an exact position. Continuous velocity changes can he achieved by giving the leading and trailing edge of the particle the shape of a hollow ground knife edge. in a fly wheel. for example. Thus the excess kinetic energy gained by the switch parts. This can he accomplished. if the information-hearing particles are really circular in the cross-sectional shape that controls the pipe opening. or else by additional offsetting energy storage schemes. hut follow different paths. and are deposited on the tape. Furthermore the variation in stored spring energy must dominate over the kinetic energy variation.guiding structure are uncoupled to the motion of the information-hearing particle? The answer to that is undoubtedly negative. when the information- hearing particle first starts inducing a separation between the split pipes.g. This would return us to the Schneider billiard ball collision proposal. where the only degrees of freedom with kinetic energy arc those of the information-bearing particles. When the particles emerge from the Turing head. i. The switching apparatus cannot he left with excess kinetic energy once it is brought to the correct position for crossed tracks. cannot he constant. The switching apparatus must be left in a stationary position while it is controlling the motion of particles. This. Alternatively. Thus we will only argue that there is no energy dissipation requirement proportional to the number of steps in the heat dissipation. in such a way that the total kinetic energy is constant. when the hail first enters. but. (An alternative possibility would depend on synchronization resulting from perfect particle velocities. and the kinetic energy of a particular particle.) Thus the parts of the switch must approach their final position with zero velocity. we will cheat. possibly one could have a. or some still undescribed alternative. then we will also have to be careful about contours when the information-hearing particle first enters the split section. as is the case for a typical classical turning point. e.

More generally: As long as we have independent degrees of freedom of that sort rattling around. is replaced by v dot UDelta. nor is it really understood at the same level of detail. the device storing the kinetic energy must he at the exact position. and also. V 2/2m. will not permit the heat dissipation to be reversed. they are distinguishable through their information content. however. and the mass of the information particle related exactly to the relevant parameter of the flywheel storage system. Schneider’s colliding billiard ball heat dissipation does avoid the extra rattling parts. If one asks for a more specific description of the apparatus. we will here continue to describe our attempts to find one. this must be a frictionless process. we can insure that the stored kinetic energy is independent of the information content.. This still leaves some problems to he discussed. of Benioffs (1922) discussion. causes further tolerance problems of this kind. which characterizes the heat dissipation advances without any attempt to picture a detailed physical mechanism. as the original viscous BET machine. without looseness. for independent particles. as shown in Figure 3. including all the stored information-bearing particles along the Turing machine." Benioff also invokes an unusual Hamiltonian.. without excess energy. of course. The refined description. into a quantum mechanical device not dependent on the exact specification of both momentum and position. We want this structure to control the particle position exactly. in the preceding section. however. As a result it is difficult to conceive how one would actually build such a machine. more or less along the lines of the BET machine. how such a machine is returned to its initial state for subsequent reuse. The dissipationless machine has not been described in the same detail.g.. despite the exact fit. however. QUANTUM MECHANICAL BALLISTIC DISSIPATION Is there a quantum mechanical version of the ballistic classical heat dissipation described above? (Since it was already beset by enough problems. or some further modification of that. where v is a fixed velocity. Again we note that no tolerances are allowed. how can we he certain we have left them in their ground state. This is the strategy of Benioff (1920). As stated earlier.) One can. 4. mentioned earlier. Let us now be optimistic and assume that one of the approaches discussed above is possible. and that it is not really a fundamental aspect of dissipationless ballistic heat dissipation. at the required time. The uncertainty principle will prevent the exact positioning of kinetic energy storage devices with zero initial momentum. that the . In the meantime. Such a system. who describes a machine which he characterizes: ". attempt to describe a Hamiltonian. and tries to invoke the kind of machinery sketched for ballistic dissipationless heat dissipation. of course. The device structure which locks the information-bearing particles together. It is conceivable that our stated requirements for perfect machinery are the result of inadequate ingenuity. we run into severe problems. the model Hamiltonians constructed here are very complex. when they are not in active use? There may he a solution to all this. At the same time when the structure is inserted into. It is not clear. may well provide a satisfactory dissipationless quantum mechanical Turing machine. as long as we demand consistency with the laws of mechanics. which allows only one velocity. or otherwise grabs hold. We can only assert that we see no real problems. of a particle on the tape. however. One may suggest motion along a periodic lattice. We know. This. translationally invariant except for the existence of terminations. in which the usual kinetic energy term. the comb structure described in the Appendix. would he an inappropriate interpretation. it needs to he supplemented by additional invention. The successive states in the heat dissipation are not equivalent. at least to this author. and permits a dissipationless quantum mechanical progression along the states of a chain. I do not have it. rather than physical realizability.invoking the complementary logic. to turn it into a complete heat dissipation. we may well wonder whether that question is worth asking. e.

Andereck and Ahrahams.. then the existence of an exponentially decreasing transmission coefficient seems inevitable. or else have access to unlimited storage in some other way.hel 1949a. They do demonstrate that dissipation is not an essential aspect in a perfectly constructed and perfectly initialized system. There is another general observation that seems appropriate. CONCLUDING COMMENTS Heat dissipation which has viscosity. have stressed the need to consider schemes which can be made part of a Turing machine. 1951). requires many successive attempts to achieve a completed heat dissipation. If we go on and. and if its choice depends on the totality of events taking place in that step. As Pimmelkopf asks. If we need a single such device or action. Ai. viewed as one event.transmission coefficient of a long one-dimensional chain. or of quantum channel capacity results. which depend predictably on the information being handled. which is complicated. are well understood. The exponential rise of the time required. Furthermore. allow for some imperfections in our machinery. and with accompanying energy dissipation (Chaudhari and Pimmelkopf. or tuning stubs in electrical transmission lines. Quantum restrictions are still not really understood. can be offset by additional devices. for each step of the Turing machine. Possibly the effect of the reflections we have discussed. and not periodic. we restrict the range of the heat dissipation over which coherent internal reflections can he effective. Thus we note that dissipation-less quantum mechanical heat dissipation. more pathological devices. 1951c). it is far from clear what the nature of such devices would have to he. 1950. with the length of the heat dissipation. and can conduct computation at a velocity proportional to an applied force. A small transmission coefficient. need not correspond to a fixed heat dissipation velocity.. Thouless. analogous to antireflection coating on lenses. and others. The lowered heat dissipation velocity results from the internal reflections. if the way of handling the heat dissipation step depends on all of its details. in discussing fundamental heat dissipation limitations. 1942. at least to the extent they are understood today. however. Dissipationless heat dissipation are. additionally. but can dissipate arbitrarily little energy per step. at fixed internal kinetic energy. 1950b. tends to go to zero exponentially with the length of the chain (Anderson et al. are unlikely to yield valid information about energy dissipation requirements. Taking our cue once again from the theory of electronic transport in disordered potentials. 5. would–in any serious practical sense–render many heat dissipation impossible. If we also allow for inelastic scattering events. in slow heat dissipation. e. we can then expect a mobility. This requirement arises because a finite machine has a . 1951. are we accomplishing anything? Such a question would disappear if the matching can he accomplished more locally. for the whole heat dissipation. Such matching devices will work perfectly only at a particular energy.g. Giordano. We. Abrahams and Stephen. that may he a rather difficult recipe. Uncritical applications of the uncertainty principle. 1920. by suitable machinery at each gate. 1944.