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# FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/1

## FLUID AND PROPERTIES

OB1ECTIVES

General Objective : To know, understand and apply the measurement,
pressure and physical properties oI Iluid.

Specific Objectives : At the end oI the unit you should be able to :

deIine Pressure ( P ) , Atmospheric Pressure (P
atm
) , Gauge
Pressure ( P
G
)

, Absolute Pressure ( P
A
) and

Vacuum ( P
v
)

calculate pressure gauge using the Iormula given.

diIIerentiate mass density ( o ), speciIic weight ( ), speciIic
gravity ( 8 ) , speciIic volume ( ; ) and viscosity.

calculate Iluid properties using the Iormula given.

UNIT 1
FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/2

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

1.1 Fluid Mechanics - Introduction
:/ Mechanc8 is a section oI applied mechanics, concerned with the static and
dynamics oI liquids and gases.
Knowledge oI Iluid mechanics is essential Ior the chemical engineer, because the
majority oI chemical processing operations are conducted either partially or totally in
the Iluid phase.
The handling oI liquids is much simpler, cheaper, and less troublesome than handling
solids.
Even in many operations a solid is handled in a Iinely divided state so that it stays in
suspension in a Iluid.

Fluids and their Properties

Fluids
In everyday liIe, we recognize three states oI matter: solid, liquid and gas. Although
diIIerent in many respects, liquids and gases have a common characteristic in which
they diIIer Irom solids. Both are Iluids, but lacks the ability oI solids to oIIer a
permanent resistance to a deIorming Iorce.
A f:/ is a substance which deIorms continuously under the action oI shearing Iorces,
however small they may be. Conversely, iI a Iluid is at rest, there can be no shearing
Iorces acting and, thereIore, all Iorces in the Iluid must be perpendicular to the planes
upon which they act.

FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/3

1.2 DEFINITION OF PRESSURE

Fluid will exert a normal Iorce on any boundary it is in contact with. Since these
boundaries may be large and the Iorce may diIIer Irom place to place it is convenient
to work in terms of pressure, 5, which is the force per unit area.

Units : Newton`s per square metre, Nm
-2
,kgm
-1
8
-2
.
(The same unit is also known as Pa8ca Pa i.e 1 Pa 1Nm
-2
)
Also Irequently used is the alternative SI unit the bar,
where 1 bar 10
5
Nm
-2

!&%
appe/ 8 force the whch o;er Area
orce
pre88:re =

FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/4

1.2.1 MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE GAUGES

Absolute Pressure, Gauge Pressure, and Vacuum
In a region such as outer space, which is virtually void oI gases, the pressure is
essentially zero. Such a condition can be approached very nearly in a laboratory when
a vacuum pump is used to evacuate a bottle. The pressure in a vacuum is called
ab8o:te :ero, and all pressures reIerenced with respect to this zero pressure are
termed absolute pressures.
Many pressure-measuring devices measure not absolute pressure but only
diIIerence in pressure. For example, a Bourdon-tube gage indicates only the diIIerence
between the pressure in the Iluid to which it is tapped and the pressure in the
atmosphere. In this case, then, the reIerence pressure is actually the atmospheric
pressure. This type oI pressure reading is called ga:ge pre88:re. For example, iI a
pressure oI 50 kPa is measured with a gauge reIerenced to the atmosphere and the
atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa, then the pressure can be expressed as either p 50
kPa ga:ge or p 150 kPa ab8o:te.
Whenever atmospheric pressure is used as a reIerence, the possibility exists
that the pressure thus measured can be either positive or negative. Negative gauge
pressure is also termed as ;ac::m pre88:re. Hence, iI a gauge tapped into a tank
indicates a vacuum pressure oI 31 kPa, this can also be stated as 70 kPa ab8o:te, or
-31 kPa ga:ge, assuming that the atmospheric pressure is 101 kPa

a. Atmospheric Pressure, 5
atm

- The earth is surrounded by an atmosphere many miles high. The pressure
due to this atmosphere at the surIace oI the earth depends upon the head oI
the air above the surIace.
- The air is compressible, thereIore the density is diIIerent at diIIerent height.
- Due to the weight oI atmosphere or air above the surIace oI earth, it is
diIIicult to calculate the atmospheric pressure. So, atmospheric pressure is
measured by the height oI column oI liquid that it can support.
- Atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 101.325 kN/m
2
, which is
equivalent to a head oI 10.35 m oI water or 760 mm oI mercury
approximately, and it decreases with altitude.

FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/5

b. Gauge Pressure, 5
G

- It is the pressure, measured with the help oI a pressure measuring
instrument, in which the atmospheric pressure is taken as datum; in other
words the atmospheric pressure at the gauge scale is marked zero.
- The gauge pressure can be either positive or negative depending on
whether the pressure is above atmospheric pressure (a positive value) or
below atmospheric pressure (a negative value).

c. Absolute Pressure, 5
A

- It is the pressure equal to the algebraic sum oI the atmospheric and gauge
pressures.

pre88:re c Atmo8pher pre88:re Ga:ge pre88:re Ab8o:te + =

atm G A
p p p + =

d. Vacuum, 5
v

- In a perIect vacuum which is a completely empty space, the pressure is zero.

ocal
atmospheric
pressure
reIerence
absolute pressure
gauge pressure ve
pressure ve
absolute pressure
P
gauge

Figure 1.2 Pressure Gauges
FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/6

Example 1.7

DeIine the Iollowing terms :
i. Pressure (p )
ii. Atmospheric Pressure ( p
atm
)
iii. Gauge Pressure ( p
G
)

iv. Absolute Pressure ( p
A
)
v. Vacuum ( p
v
)

Solution to Example 1.7

i. Pressure ( p ):
Pressure is Iorce ( ) per unit area ( A ).

ii. Atmospheric Pressure ( p
atm
) :
The pressure due to atmosphere at the surIace oI the earth depends
upon the head oI the air above the surIace.

iii. Gauge Pressure ( p
G
)
:

It is the pressure, measured with the help oI a pressure measuring
instrument, in which the atmospheric pressure is taken as datum.

iv. Absolute Pressure ( p
A
)
It is the pressure that equals to the algebraic sum oI the atmospheric
and gauge pressures.

v. Vacuum ( p
v
)

A completely empty space where the pressure is zero.

FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/7

Example 1.8
What is the pressure gauge oI air in the cylinder iI the atmospheric gauge is
101.3 kN/m
2
and absolute pressure is 460 kN/m
2
.

Solution to Example 1.8

p
A
460 kN/m
2

p
atm
101.3 kN/m
2

p
G
?

With reIerence to the Iormula below :

Absolute pressure, p
A
Gauge pressure, p
G
atmospheric pressure, p
atm

ThereIore ,

p
G
p
A
p
atm

460 101.3

2
/ 7 . 358 m kN

FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/8

ACTIVITY 1B

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT
INPUT.!

1.3 Label the diagram below :

1.4 A Bourdon pressure gauge attached to a boiler located at sea level shows a reading
pressure oI 7 bar. II atmospheric pressure is 1.013 bar, what is the absolute pressure in
that boiler (in kN/m
2
) ?

ocal
atmospheric
pressure
reIerence
a
b
c
d
FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/9

FEEDBACK ON ACTIVITY 1B

1.3

ocal
atmospheric
pressure
reIerence
a absolute pressure
b gauge pressure ve
d pressure ve
d absolute pressure
FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/10

1.4
p
A
?
p
atm
1.013 bar
p
G
7 bar

With reIerence to the Iormula below :

Absolute pressure,p
A
Gauge pressure,p
G
atmospheric pressure,p
atm

ThereIore ,

p
A
p
G
p
atm

7 x 10
5
1.013 x 10
5

801300 N/m
2

2
/ 3 . 801 m kN

FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/11

1.3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUID

Fluid properties are intimately related to Iluid behaviour. It is obvious that diIIerent
Iluids can have grossly diIIerent characteristics. For example, gases are light and
compressible, whereas liquids are heavy and relatively incompressible.

To quantiIy the Iluid behaviour diIIerences certain Iluid properties are used. The Iluid
properties are mass density, speciIic weight, speciIic gravity, speciIic volume and
viscosity.

a. Mass density, is deIined as the mass per unit volume.
( SI units, kg/m
3
)
J ;o:me
m ma88
,
,
= p

b. Specific weight, is deIined as the weight per unit volume.
( SI units, N/m
3
)
J ;o:me
W weght
,
,
=

J
mg
=

g p =
(where g 9.81m/8ec
2
)

In SI units the speciIic weight oI water is 9.81 x 1000 9810 N/m
3

!&%

FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/12

c. Specific gravity or relative density, 8 is the ratio oI the weight oI the substance
to the weight oI an equal volume oI water at 4 .
water
ce 8:b8
8

tan
=

water
ce 8:b8
8
p
p
tan
=

d. Specific volume, ; is deIined as the reciprocal oI mass density. It is used to
mean volume per unit mass. (SI units, m
3
/kg ).
p
v
1
=

m ma88
J ;o:me
,
,
= v

e. Viscosity
A Iluid at rest cannot resist shearing Iorces but once it is in motion, shearing
Iorces are set up between layers oI Iluid moving at diIIerent velocities. The
viscosity oI the Iluid determines the ability oI the Iluid in resisting these
shearing stresses.

Example 1.9
What is the mass density, o oI Iluid (in kg/m
3
) iI mass is 450 g and the volume is 9
cm
3
.

Solution to Example 1.9

J
m
= p
6
3
10 9
10 450

-
-
=

3 3
/ 10 50 m kg - =

FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/13

Example 1.10
What is the speciIic weight, oI Iluid (in kN/m
3
) iI the weight oI Iluid is 10N and the
volume is 500 cm
2
.

Solution to Example 1.10
J
W
=

6
3
10 500
10 10

-
-
=
20 000 N/m
3

3
/ 20 m kN =

Example 1.11
What is the speciIic gravity oI Iluid in Example 1.10.

Solution to Example 1.11
water
ce 8:b8
8

tan
=

) 81 . 9 1000
10 20
3
-
=
039 . 2 =

Example 1.12
What is the speciIic volume, ; oI Iluid in Example 1.9.

Solution to Example 1.12
m
J
; =

3
6
10 450
10 9

-
-
=
kg m / 10 2
3 5
- =

FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/14

ACTIVITY 1C

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT
INPUT.!

1.5 Match the following

8
;
J ;o:me
W weght
,
,

m ma88
J ;o:me
,
,

J ;o:me
m ma88
,
,

forwater
ce 8:b8 for

tan

2

Specific
gravity
Specific
volume
Mass
density
Specific
weight
FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/15

FEEDBACK ON ACTIVITY 1C

1.5

8
;
J ;o:me
W weght
,
,

m ma88
J ;o:me
,
,

J ;o:me
m ma88
,
,

forwater
ce 8:b8 for

tan

2

Specific
gravity
Specific
volume
Mass
density
Specific
weight
FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/16

SELF-ASSESSMENT

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selI-assessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback on SelI-Assessment. II you
Iace any problems, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.

1.1 Convert the temperatures below according to the speciIied scales:
a) 175 to , and #.
b) 518 # to , and .
c) 214 to , # and .
d) 300 to , # and .
1.2 Assume the density oI water to be 1000 kg/m
3
at atmospheric pressure 101
kN/m
2
. What will be:
a) the gauge pressure
b) the absolute pressure oI water at a depth oI 2000 m below the Iree surIace?

1.3 Determine in Newton per square metre, the increase in pressure intensity per
metre depth in Iresh water. The mass density oI Iresh water is 1000 kg/m
3
.

1.4 Given speciIic weight oI Iluid is 6.54 kN/m
3
and its mass is 8.3 kg calculate
the Iollowing:
a) volume oI Iluid
b) speciIic volume oI Iluid
c) density oI Iluid

1.5 Given oil speciIic gravity is 0.89, Iind :
a) density oI oil
b) speciIic weight oI oil
c) speciIic volume oI oil

FLUID AND PROPERTIES 11309/1/17

FEEDBACK ON SELF-ASSESSMENT

1.1 a) 347 ,807 #,448.3 ,
b) 58 H,287.7 ,14.7 ,
c) 674 HC,374.4 #,101.4
d) 27 H,80.6 H,540.6 #
1.2 a) 117.72 kN/m
2
,
b) 218.72 kN/m
2

1.3 9.81 x 10
3
N/m
2

1.4 a) 0.072 m
3

b) 0.0015 m
3
/kg
c) 691.67 kg/m
3

1.5 a) 0.89 x 10
3
kg/m
3

b) 8730.9 N/m
3

c) 0.00112 m
3
/kg