A STUDY ON THE GENUS EPISOMUS

(COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE)

S. SHANAS & V. V. RAMAMURTHY

Division of Entomology Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi - 110 012, India 2007

PREFACE
This work forms part of the thesis entitled “Biosystematic studies on the genus Episomus Schoenherr (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) from India and adjacent countries.” submitted to the Post-Graduate School, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Entomology, during the year 2003. With deep sense of gratitude, I thank Dr. V. V. Ramamurthy, Chairman of my Advisory committee, for his ‘proper’ guidance during the course of the present investigation. A bound copy of the work is deposited at the following libraries:

1. National Agriultural Library, IARI, New Delhi, INDIA 2. Jawaharlal Nehru University Library, Delhi, INDIA 3. J. R. D. TATA Memorial Library, IISC, Bangalore, INDIA 4. Delhi University Library, Delhi, INDIA 5. Natural History Museum Library, London, UK

- S. Shanas.
October 25, 2007.

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CONTENTS
(PAGE No.) Abstract Introduction Material and Methods Abbreviations Taxonomic Characters Annotated checklist …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… A. Varieties raised to subspecies B. Checklist Genus Episomus Schoenherr …………………………………… A. Key to the species B. Species studied Bibliography Figures Plates …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… 04 04 05 06 07 20 22 22 33 35 40 89 90 (i – xix)

List of Tables:
Table No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Sexual dimorphic characters in Episomus Number of species of Episomus described during different periods Contributions of coleopterists to the genus Episomus Economic Importance of the species of the genus Episomus Page No. 8 20 20 22

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Abstract: Twenty species of the genus Episomus of the family Curculionidae, Coleoptera from India and nearby countries are included in the study. Two varieties are raised to subspecific status. An annotated checklist of the 106 species known from the world is given. The descriptions of the twenty already known species are supplemented with the characters of elytral vestiture. Female and male genitalic structures of nine and ten species respectively, are described. A key to the 20 species known from the region is provided.

INTRODUCTION
Episomus belogs to the subfamily Otiorrhynchinae, which according to the contemporary point of view is considered under Entiminae (Alonso – Zarazaga and Lyal, 1999). Since the taxonomy of the subfamily is unsettled, the concept of Marshall (1916) is followed here. Besides the study of Marshall, other studies are few and scattered. Episomus is distinguished from other members of the Entiminae by their scrobes, very deep in front, but shallower near the eyes and curving inward about the middle, prothorax usually with strong plications and distinct central furrow, elytra not soldered together, the base covering slightly the margin of prothorax, epistome forming a sharp acute angle behind, the lateral margin sinuate above the posterior coxae, sternum with the front coxae nearer the anterior margin of the prosternum and venter with intercoxal piece angulate and not broader. Episomus is predominantly oriental in distribution. In India, E. lacerta (Fabricius) is very important as it is a notorious as pest of cultivated crops like field beans, cotton and pigeon pea. There are 106 species in the world of which 28 occur in India.

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MATERIAL AND METHODS
A. MATERIAL. The material procured from the following sources were utilized in the present study: (i) National Pusa Collection (NPC) of the Division of Entomology, 1ARI, New Delhi: The core of the material used in the present study came from the National Pusa Collection. (ii) Loans: Many specimens included in the present study were obtained from the collections available at Punjab University, Chandigarh and Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. B. METHODS. (i) Drying, mounting and preservation: All the species were studied with the help of preserved specimens only. Specimens preserved for long were relaxed in a relaxing fluid containing distilled water and ethyl alcohol in 7 : 3 ratio, overnight. Dirty specimens were cleaned with xylene or glacial acetic acid by swabbing with a cotton swab before relaxing. (ii) Processing of different parts for morphological studies: All the major taxonomic characters, except the ultra structure of elytral vestiture and genitalia, were studied in intact specimens. For the study of genitalia, specimens were processed following method of Supare et al., (1990) with slight modifications and the process mainly involved the following steps: Relaxing the specimens in a relaxing box containing relaxing fluid overnight; Detaching the venter by inserting a minute pin between metasternum and its intercoxal process with a gentle jerk; Boiling in 10 per cent KOH (Potassium hydroxide) for 20 minutes at 90 - 95° C for softening the tissues in a dry heating block; Dissecting the genitalia and cleaning the associated muscles and other tissues; Washing the genitalia first with distilled water, then passing through graded alcohol series of 30, 50, 70 per cent and finally in glacial acetic acid, retaining in each for a minute, to neutralize the excess potassium hydroxide; Staining the male genitalia with chlorazol black in 70 per cent ethyl alcohol, then washing it in distilled water to remove excess strain; Removing excess stain by transferring to 30 per cent alcohol; Storing the genitalia after study, in microvials containing small drop of glycerol and then pinning on the respective specimens and replacing the venter on to the dissected specimens.

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(iii) Methods of study: Whole specimens were examined and run through the key (Marshall, 1916) and further confirmed by species obtained from different sources. For studying the elytral vestiture, the method of Ramamurthy and Ghai (1988) was followed which involved scratching of elytra with the pointed end of a minute pin, the scales and hairs thus removed were allowed to fall on a cavity slide, having a drop of ethyl alcohol mixed with glycerol to avoid instant drying. Glycerol medium in the cavity slide was gently stirred with a fine needle to avoid overlapping of scales and then observed for elytral vestiture. General taxonomic characters and genitalia were studied with the help of Wild M8 stereozoom microscope and the elytral vestiture studied with Leitz Ortholux II interference phase contrast, compound microscope. Illustrations were made using a drawing tube fitted with a camera lucida. For measurements, a Nikon SMZ 10 stereozoom microscope was used. The scales of magnification are provided in the illustrations.

ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used: BMNH BM MCSN NPC Natural History Museum, London. Brussels Museum, Brussels, Belgium. Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genova, Italy National Pusa Collection, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. NRS Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Sweedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden. PU SMTD ZMHU Punjab University, Chandigarh. Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde, Dresden, Germany. Zoologische Museum, Humboldt Universitat, Berlin, Germany.

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TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS
GENERAL STRUCTURE, SHAPE AND SIZE (Figs. 1, 2): The species of Episomus are variable in size and shape. These are generally elongate, 2.12x to 2.81x as long as broad, ovate; elytra always broader than prothorax; dorsal surface plane varying from flat to even, ventral surface always flat. Smallest species is sulcicollis (8.3 mm x 3.3 mm) while the largest are arrogans, dohertyi, montanus, inermicollis, raucus and fabriciusi (22.6-14.5 mm x 8.2-6.2 mm). VESTITURE (Figs. 146-193): General colour of vestiture varies from brown or metallic green in different species. The colour of these scales differs from their in situ colour, when their structure is observed under the light microscope. They vary from fluorescent green, fluorescent pink and brown in most species. The inner core is always opaque and granulated. The colours vary from fluorescent pink in fabriciusi; fluorescent pinkish and / or greenish tinge at the core of few scales in obuncus; predominant ones fluorescent green with pink specks present in nilgirinus, pudibundus and raucus and in guttatus; and few scales fluorescent green at the middle. In general, three kind of scales are present, the predominant usually oval and the less predominant ones more elongate or plumose. The shape and structure of these scales vary in different species. They are separately rounded at base in appendiculatus, the base is slightly pedunculate in uniformis, it is round in figulus nigrosparsus and quatuornotatus and is prominently pedicellate in obliquus and sagax. Plumose scales can be found only in dohertyi, humeralis, nilgirinus and sagax COLOUR (Figs. 329-352): The colour of the dorsal surface varies from brown (appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, nilgirinus, obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus, sagax, sulcicollis, uniformis), green (fabriciusi, raucus), black (montanus); ventrally, it varies from light brown (dohertyi, humeralis, lacerta, lentus, obuncus, raucus, sulcicollis, uniformis), grey with white (appendiculatus, arrogans, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, inermicollis, obliquus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus, sagax), black (montanus) or metallic green (fabriciusi); some are with lateral stripes on the prothorax (appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta and obliquus) or sides of

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prothorax whitish grey (arrogans); it is pale metallic or coppery in nilgirinus below the eye level, in raucus, dorsal part and the inflexed margins are with pale green vestiture. Elytra bears variable spots, stripes and patches; number of spots vary from one (montanus), two (dohertyi), three (lacerta and quatuornotatus), five (appendiculatus), six (guttatus) while in arrogans, the sides of elytra are mottled with small irregular white spots; the inflexed margins are light brown to chalky white in appendiculatus and pale green in raucus, a distinct subhumeral patch in figulus nigrosparsus and humeralis, a dark patch on the declivity in lacerta, nilgirinus and quatuornotatus, and a white stripe in humeralis and a lateral stripe in nilgirinus, obliquus and sulcicollis are the other variations; many irregular, small green spots on the striae are present in fabriciusi, while the centre of sternum bears green vestiture in nilgirinus. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM: Genus Episomus does not exhibit any striking, sexual dimorphic characters; however, the presence of tubercles, its nature in the hind tibiae and nature of fifth ventrite are useful in distinguishing the sexes in some species; hind tibia granulate internally (? figulus nigrosparsus) or with a row of prominent tubercles (? lacerta, ? quatuornotatus) or with very small tubercles and fore tibia more curved at the apex (? guttatus) are such characters. Fifth ventrite less acuminate and shallowly impressed (? guttatus), or not impressed (? quatuornotatus) and seventh segment of funicle shorter than female (? figulus nigrosparsus) are the other characters (Table. 1) Table. 1. Sexual dimorphic characters in Episomus Character Description Antennae Seventh joint of funicle shorter Diagnosis ? figulus nigrosparsus, dohertyi; ? fabriciusi, inermicollis Sides rounded slightly ? montanus Sometimes scarcely perceptible ? montanus General shape narrower ? montanus Apex more produced ? obuncus Suture at declivity strongly elevated ? humeralis, montanus Intervals vs Narrower ? nilgirinus striae Same as broad ? nilgirinus Curvature more at apex ? guttatus Internal Present ? figulus nigrosparsus granulations Very small ? appendiculatus At anterior half ? obuncus

Prothorax Scutellum Elytra

Fore tibia Hind tibia

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Narrow stria present along the inner edge Presence of Anterior spur One – fourth from the apex Black tooth beyond middle and two at sides (sometimes all wanting) tubercles absent well developed small Hind femora Fifth Ventrite Granulated internally Prominence laminate at apex blunt at inner edge not impressed

? arrogans ? montanus ? pudibundus ? arrogans ? fabriciusi ? lacerta, sulcicollis, uniformis ? quatuornotatus ? humeralis ? nilgirinus ? uniformis ? appendiculatus, dohertyi, fabriciusi, humeralis, nilgirinus, quatuornotatus ? guttatus, ? sulcicollis ? inermicollis ? obuncus ? guttatus ? obliquus

impressed

shallowly shallowly at apex roundedly at base

less acuminate median furrow present

HEAD: Morphological features of head, namely rostrum, scrobes, eyes and antennae are useful in identification of the species (Figs. 3-73). The presence or absence of lateral as well as transverse impression near eyes is helpful in distinguishing species. Both lateral and transverse impression are absent in fabriciusi, obliquus and sulcicollis; lateral impression lies to the front of the eyes in arrogans, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, montanus, nilgirinus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus, raucus, sagax and uniformis; it lies behind the eyes in appendiculatus and obuncus. Transverse impressions are absent in fabriciusi, lentus, obliquus, quatuornotatus and sulcicollis whereas it is prominent in arrogans, guttatus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, pudibundus, sagax and uniformis, and faint in appendiculatus, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus and raucus. The length of the head compared to that of rostrum and prothorax is useful in distinguishing some species. The length of head is 1.38x as long as the rostrum in guttatus, 1.41x to 1.45x in humeralis, obuncus and sulcicollis, 1.47x as long as in sagax, 9

1.49x as long as in arrogans and lacerta, 1.5x to 1.55x as long as the rostrum in appendiculatus, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, lentus, uniformis, obliquus and pudibundus, 1.56x in nilgirinus and quatuornotatus, 1.58x in inermicollis and raucus, 1.69x as in fabriciusi and 1.67x montanus. Head is as long as prothorax in fabriciusi and nilgirinus, 1.02x to 1.04x as long in appendiculatus, obuncus, pudibundus and sagax, 1.05x to 1.08x as long in dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, lentus and montanus and 1.1x in obliquus and uniformis. The length of prothorax as compared to that of the head varies only slightly (1.03x to 1.07x) in humeralis, lacerta, raucus and sulcicollis, or moderately (1.1x to 1.5x) in arrogans and inermicollis and 1.55x pudibundus. The breadth at the base of head compared to the distance between scrobes and the breadth of rostrum is useful in separating few species. The breadth at the base of head is 1.51x to as much as the distance between scrobes in appendiculatus; 1.58x in obliquus, 1.6x in lacerta and sulcicollis; 1.75x to 1.82x in guttatus and quatuornotatus, 1.88x in inermicollis and sagax; 1.92x to 1.96x in dohertyi, fabriciusi and pudibundus; 2.02x to 2.18x in arrogans, figulus nigrosparsus, lentus, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, raucus and uniformis; and 2.91x in humeralis. This breadth is 1.02x to 1.06x as broad as the rostrum in appendiculatus, arrogans, inermicollis, lacerta and sagax; 1.1x to 1.15x in dohertyi, guttatus, figulus nigrosparsus, nilgirinus, raucus and uniformis; 1.16x to 1.18x in humeralis and obuncus; 1.2x to 1.25x in fabriciusi, lentus, montanus, obliquus, pudibundus and quatuornotatus; and 1.31x to 1.33x in sulcicollis. The central furrow on head is either deep (arrogans, guttatus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, obliquus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus, raucus, sulcicollis, sagax and uniformis), shallow (appendiculatus,

dohertyi and fabriciusi), narrow (inermicollis, lacerta, quatuornotatus, sulcicollis), broad (arrogans, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, lentus, montanus, obliquus, pudibundus, uniformis and raucus) or dilated at apex (figulus nigrosparsus, montanus, obliquus, quatuornotatus, sagax and uniformis) or dilated before middle (nilgirinus). Additional characters like the head forming two prominent conical tubercles to the sides of the base of central furrow in obliquus and sulcicollis (Figs. 12 and 22) are also helpful in distinguishing these species.

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Rostrum: It includes the part of the head, which is drawn in front of the eyes in the form of a snout. The characteristics of rostrum such as length: breadth ratio, impression of the dorsal margin, dilation at its sides before apex, are taxonomically important in identifying many species (Figs. 3-50). The length of rostrum when compared with that of head (excluding the portion of rostrum) is 1.44x in fabriciusi, 1.48x in montanus, 1.62x to 1.96x in inermicollis, lentus, nilgirinus, obliquus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus, raucus and uniformis, 1.96x to 2.25x in appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, lacerta, obuncus and sagax, 2.41x in sulcicollis and 2.62x in guttatus. Rostrum when compared for its length vs breadth ratio is 1.0x in appendiculatus; 1.1x in guttatus; 1.01x to1.08x as broad as long in arrogans, dohertyi, lacerta, humeralis, lentus, nilgirinus, obuncus and quatuornotatus; 1.1x to 1.18x in fabriciusi, inermicollis, montanus, raucus and uniformis; 1.2x to 1.24x in figulus nigrosparsus, sagax, pudibundus and sulcicollis; and 1.29x in obliquus. The two costae on dorsal surface of rostrum, which lie parallel to the central furrow show varying degrees of impression. It may be shallowly impressed in appendiculatus, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, pudibundus and uniformis, faintly impressed in arrogans, inermicollis and lentus, deeply impressed in humeralis, montanus, nilgirinus, lacerta, obliquus, obuncus and raucus, and in fabriciusi, quatuornotatus and sagax, only a short, posterior impression may be present. Rostrum with sides almost parallel to each other, without any dilation is observed in obliquus and sulcicollis; it is dilated just before the apex in most of the species, varying from very slight (guttatus, lentus and sagax) or dilated prominently (appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus, raucus and uniformis). Some other characters of rostrum by which few species may be distinguished are, its apex being produced forwards on each side into a very prominent, broad, jaw like process as in guttatus or subquadrate shape as in obliquus. Eyes: The position of eyes yields useful taxonomic characters; in addition to its length: breadth ratio as seen from top, the ratios of distance between the anterior, middle

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and posterior margins and the distance between the eyes at middle compared to that between scrobes are important. The eyes are 1.07x as long as broad in obliquus, 1.46x in arrogans, 1.6 x to 1.9x in dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis, lacerta, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, quatuornotatus, sagax and sulcicollis, 2.1x to 2.14x in appendiculatus, inermicollis, lentus, raucus and uniformis and 2.33x in pudibundus. The distance between eyes from the anterior to middle varies from 1.02x to 1.12x in all the species except obuncus and raucus (1.16x), dohertyi (1.18x) and quatuornotatus (1.36x), whereas in nilgirinus, the distance between the middle of eyes is greater than that between the anterior margins (1.03x). The distance between posterior margins of eyes as compared to that between the anterior margin is equal in uniformis, slightly longer (1.04x to1.07x) in dohertyi, humeralis, obuncus, quatuornotatus and sagax, 1.1x to 1.18x in appendiculatus, arrogans, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, lacerta, lentus, nilgirinus, obliquus, pudibundus, raucus and sulcicollis, 1.23x in montanus and 1.26x in inermicollis. This distance compared to that between the middle of the eyes varies from very slight (1.08x to 1.14x) in nilgirinus, montanus, sagax and uniformis, 1.16x to 1.27x in appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis, lacerta, lentus, obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus and sulcicollis, 1.3x in raucus and 1.34x in inermicollis. Space between the eyes at middle to the distance between the scrobes when compared, is slightly longer (1.1x to 1.26x) in appendiculatus, fabriciusi, obliquus, quatuornotatus and sulcicollis; 1.31x to 1.39x in dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, inermicollis, lacerta, obuncus, pudibundus and raucus; 1.41x to 1.51x in arrogans, humeralis and sagax, 1.6x to 1.62x in montanus and uniformis; 1.71x in nilgirinus; and 1.81x in lentus. Antennae: Antennae in Episomus are geniculate and consist of a scape, a seven segmented funicle and a four segmented club (Figs. 51-73). The characters of antennae utilized for distinguishing species are its colour; the broadening of scape from middle to apex; the length of scape compared to that of the club; the length of funicle compared to that of scape; relative length and breadth of funicular segments and the segments of club;

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the length and breadth of seventh funicular segment compared to club; and the dilation of seventh segment of funicle. The general colour varies from brown in most species to pale green in fabriciusi and greenish brown in raucus, The club is black in appendiculatus, fabriciusi, guttatus, quatuornotatus and raucus, The seventh segment of funicle is black from middle till apex in raucus and is completely black in fabriciusi and quatuornotatus. The scape is narrower at the middle in most species except lacerta where it is narrowing from middle to apex; it is broadened 1.1x to 1.38x from middle to apex in appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, obuncus, raucus, sagax, sulcicollis and uniformis; 1.42x to 1.58x in inermicollis, lentus, montanus, nilgirinus, obliquus, pudibundus and quatuornotatus; 1.83x in guttatus; and 2x in humeralis. It is 2.32x as long as the club in lacerta, 2.63x to 2.81x in fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, inermicollis, montanus and nilgirinus, 3.05 x to 3.46x in appendiculatus, quatuornotatus, sulcicollis and obuncus, 3.79x to 3.93x in humeralis and raucus, 4x to 4.55x in obliquus, pudibundus, sagax and uniformis, and 4.7x to 4.79x in arrogans, dohertyi, guttatus and lentus. The length of funicle is 1.01x as long as that of scape in obliquus, 1.1x to 1.14x guttatus, pudibundus, raucus, sagax and uniformis, 1.17x to 1.21x in humeralis, quatuornotatus, sulcicollis, appendiculatus and arrogans, 1.25x in figulus nigrosparsus, 1.28x in dohertyi and montanus, 1.29x in nilgirinus, 1.32x in inermicollis and lentus, 1.38x in obuncus, 1.44x in fabriciusi and 1.67x in lacerta. This length is 1.26x as that of club in dohertyi, 3.42x in montanus, 3.47x in inermicollis, 3.5 to 3.53x in figulus nigrosparsus and nilgirinus, 3.72x in appendiculatus and quatuornotatus, 3.88x in lacerta, 3.93x in fabriciusi, 4.06x in sulcicollis, 4.2x in raucus, 4.31x in obliquus, 4.46x in humeralis, 4.85x in obuncus, 4.95x in uniformis, 5.1x in pudibundus and sagax, 5.47x in guttatus, 5.72x in arrogans and 6.23x in lentus. The relative lengths of funicular segments when compared, the first is longest in guttatus, lacerta, obliquus, pudibundus and quatuornotatus; first and second in fabriciusi; first and the seventh equally long in arrogans; second the longest in appendiculatus, inermicollis, nilgirinus and sulcicollis, second and seventh in montanus; and the seventh the longest in dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, lentus, obuncus, raucus, sagax

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and uniformis. The relative breadths of funicular segments when compared, the first is the broadest in arrogans; first and seventh in nilgirinus and pudibundus; first, second and seventh in montanus and seventh in appendiculatus, dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, obliquus, obuncus, quatuornotatus, raucus, sagax, sulcicollis and uniformis. Its seventh segment is dilated in all the species except in sagax and uniformis, where it is broadest at middle; it is 1.05x as broad as the club in dohertyi and guttatus, 1.1x to 1.29x in pudibundus, obuncus, dohertyi, lentus and uniformis, 1.31x in arrogans and 1.37x in sagax. The club is as long as the seventh segment of funicle in humeralis; 1.07x to 1.38x in guttatus, raucus, figulus nigrosparsus and lacerta; 1.4x to 1.58x in appendiculatus, fabriciusi, montanus, obliquus, quatuornotatus and sulcicollis; 1.7x in nilgirinus and inermicollis. It is as broad as the breadth of seventh segment in sagax and uniformis; 1.05x to 1.16x in arrogans, fabriciusi, lacerta, lentus, obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus, raucus; 1.19x to 1.2x in figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis and montanus; 1.28x to 1.37x in sulcicollis, inermicollis and quatuornotatus; 1.4x in appendiculatus and nilgirinus. Its first segment is the longest in obliquus, first and second in sulcicollis, first, second and third in lentus, first, third and fourth in inermicollis, second and third in obuncus; second the longest in appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi, guttatus, humeralis, pudibundus, quatuornotatus and sagax; third longest in figulus nigrosparsus, lacerta, montanus, nilgirinus and raucus; and fourth the longest in uniformis. Its first segment is the broadest in dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, lentus, obliquus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus and uniformis; first and second equally broad in arrogans, fabriciusi, guttatus, humeralis, obuncus, raucus and sagax; second the broadest in appendiculatus, inermicollis, lacerta, montanus, nilgirinus and sulcicollis. PROTHORAX: The general shape, nature of plications, margins, nature of central furrow, length: breadth ratio, ratio between the anterior, mid and posterior margins, its length and breadth compared to that of rostrum are the characters useful for the diagnosis of species (Figs. 74-97). The prothorax is prominently (figulus nigrosparsus, lacerta, lentus, pudibundus, raucus and sagax), deeply (dohertyi, montanus and obuncus), rugosely (arrogans, guttatus and nilgirinus), shallowly plicate (appendiculatus, fabriciusi, humeralis,

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obliquus, quatuornotatus and uniformis) or with very few plications (inermicollis and sulcicollis). Its anterior margin is truncate in humeralis, obliquus, pudibundus, sulcicollis and uniformis; bisinuate in appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, quatuornotatus, raucus and sagax whereas in sulcicollis, the anterior lateral margin bears a small sharp projection below the eye. Its central furrow is long but shallow in appendiculatus, arrogans, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis, obuncus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus and uniformis; moderate in nilgirinus; deep in dohertyi, fabriciusi, lacerta, lentus, montanus, obliquus, raucus, sagax and sulcicollis; whereas in inermicollis it is very small and located near base. The length of prothorax compared to its breadth, is slightly longer (1.06x) in arrogans or broader than long in the rest of the species, varying from 1.05x to 1.07x in appendiculatus, dohertyi, fabriciusi, humeralis, lacerta and quatuornotatus, 1.11x to 1.19x in guttatus, inermicollis, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, pudibundus, raucus and uniformis, 1.25x to 1.27x in figulus nigrosparsus, lentus and sagax, 1.38x in sulcicollis and 1.57x in obliquus. When it is compared to the length of rostrum it is 1.28x (guttatus) varies from 1.36x to 1.44x (appendiculatus, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, lentus, obliquus, obuncus, sagax and uniformis) 1.5x to 1.56 (humeralis, lacerta, montanus, nilgirinus, quatuornotatus and sulcicollis) 1.62x to 1.69x (arrogans, fabriciusi and raucus) or 1.81x (inermicollis and pudibundus). The breadth of prothorax compared to that of rostrum varies from 1.5x to 1.52x in appendiculatus, arrogans, fabriciusi and humeralis, 1.42x to 1.46x in dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, sagax and uniformis, 1.5x to 1.57x in lacerta, montanus, obuncus and quatuornotatus, 1.61x to 1.71x in guttatus, inermicollis, lentus, nilgirinus, obliquus, pudibundus, raucus and sulcicollis. The breadth at middle of prothorax compared to that at apex varies from 1.21x to 1.27x fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, montanus, quatuornotatus and sulcicollis, 1.3x to 1.37x in dohertyi, humeralis, lentus, obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus, sagax and uniformis, 1.4x to 1.45x in appendiculatus, arrogans, nilgirinus and raucus, 1.52x in guttatus and lacerta and1.61x in inermicollis. The prothorax is broader at middle compared to its base, varying slightly from 1.01x to 1.08x in appendiculatus, arrogans,

15

fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, lentus, montanus, nilgirinus, obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus, raucus, sagax and sulcicollis, and 1.13x in guttatus and inermicollis, whereas its breadth at base compared to that at middle varying only slightly (1.03x to 1.06x) in dohertyi, quatuornotatus and uniformis or strongly as in lacerta (1.59x). The breadth at the base of prothorax when compared to that at its apex varies slightly (1.04x to 1.19x) as in lacerta and pudibundus, moderately (1.21x to 1.28x) as in fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, montanus, obuncus and sulcicollis or considerably (1.3x to 1.42x) as in appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, guttatus, lentus, nilgirinus, obliquus, quatuornotatus, raucus, sagax, uniformis and inermicollis. LEGS: The vestiture and markings on the posterior femora, presence of spur at the tibial apex and the relative length of the first and fourth tarsal segments are important in distinguishing species (Figs. 194-217). The posterior femora bears a pale round white spot at the middle in guttatus, with dense green or grey vestiture in raucus, green vestiture and with a darker patch about the middle in fabriciusi, with its base darker in appendiculatus humeralis and nilgirinus. The tibial apex bears a prominent spur projecting outside the margins in guttatus, lacerta, nilgirinus and raucus. The first tarsal segment is the the longest in arrogans, sulcicollis and pudibundus whereas the fourth segment is the longest in the rest of the species. SCUTELLUM: The nature of scutellum and its length: breadth ratio is useful in distinguishing some species. It is oblique (fabriciusi and uniformis), with a white spot (guttatus), enclosed anteriorly by the sutural margin (lacerta, lentus, pudibundus, quatuornotatus, raucus and sulcicollis) and not enclosed so (appendiculatus, arrogans, dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, humeralis, inermicollis, montanus, nilgirinus, obliquus, obuncus, sagax and uniformis). It is 1.1x as broad as long in lacerta and obuncus, as long as broad in appendiculatus, obliquus and uniformis, varying from 1.07x to 1.27x in arrogans, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, inermicollis, montanus, nilgirinus, quatuornotatus, raucus, sagax and sulcicollis, 1.36x to 1.43x in dohertyi and pudibundus, 1.6x in guttatus and 1.8x in lentus.

16

ELYTRA: The elytra are broadly ovate in all species of Episomus, their shape at the base and apices, the nature of impression at base and elevation of suture on the declivity gives valuable taxonomic characters (Figs. 98-145). The base of elytra are jointly sinuate in arrogans, pudibundus and sulcicollis, subtruncate in guttatus and raucus, truncate in lentus and obliquus, separately rounded in appendiculatus, dohertyi, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, montanus, nilgirinus, obuncus, quatuornotatus, sagax and uniformis. Elytra are acuminate at the apex bearing a short, sharp process in appendiculatus, and the apices jointly rounded in sulcicollis. It is transversely impressed near the base in many species; the impression may be absent (arrogans, guttatus, lacerta, lentus, montanus, obliquus, pudibundus, raucus and sulcicollis), shallow (fabriciusi, inermicollis, obuncus and uniformis) or distinct (appendiculatus, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, nilgirinus, quatuornotatus and sagax). The elytral suture on the declivity is not elevated in lentus, obliquus and pudibundus; slightly in fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, nilgirinus, obuncus and sulcicollis; distinctly in appendiculatus, dohertyi, raucus and sagax; sharply into a carina in quatuornotatus and uniformis; steep and slightly indented in montanus; sinuate before apex in sulcicollis; roundly costate in arrogans; and bears a small conical tubercle above the apex in guttatus. Humeral angle and subhumeral prominence: The humeral angle is absent in fabriciusi, humeralis, lacerta, obuncus and pudibundus, slight in dohertyi and uniformis, moderate in lentus and nilgirinus, obtuse in figulus nigrosparsus, montanus, raucus and sagax, prominent in inermicollis, quatuornotatus and guttatus, sharp in appendiculatus, arrogans, obliquus and sulcicollis. The subhumeral prominence is absent in figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, nilgirinus, obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus and quatuornotatus, very slight in arrogans, fabriciusi, lacerta, montanus, raucus, sagax, sulcicollis and uniformis, distinct in appendiculatus dohertyi, humeralis and inermicollis and broad in lentus. The ratio of length of elytra to that of rostrum and prothorax helps in separation of some species; elytra may be 2.82x as long as the rostrum (guttatus) or 3.46x to 4x (arrogans, dohertyi, figulus nigrosparsus, lacerta, lentus, humeralis, nilgirinus, obliquus,

17

obuncus, raucus, sagax, and sulcicollis) or 4.05x to 4.77x (montanus, fabriciusi, inermicollis, pudibundus, quatuornotatus and uniformis) or 5.56x (appendiculatus); Elytra may be 2.19x to 2.44x (arrogans, guttatus, humeralis, inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, nilgirinus, pudibundus, raucus and sulcicollis), 2.5x to 2.87x (dohertyi, fabriciusi,

figulus nigrosparsus, obliquus, obuncus, quatuornotatus and sagax), 3.09x (montanus) 3.16x (uniformis) or 3.85x as long as the prothorax (appendiculatus). Stria and intervals: The elytra bear 10 rows of punctations which form the striae. These punctations may be small as in arrogans, lentus, obliquus, fabriciusi and inermicollis, larger as in appendiculatus figulus nigrosparsus, montanus, nilgirinus, pudibundus, raucus, sagax and uniformis, broad as in quatuornotatus, shallow as in appendiculatus, inermicollis and montanus, deep as in dohertyi, fabriciusi, guttatus, humeralis, lacerta, obuncus, quatuornotatus, sagax, sulcicollis and uniformis; are distinctly separated as in obuncus, inermicollis, pudibundus and sulcicollis, subquadrate as in montanus and quatuornotatus and ocellated as in pudibundus; in humeralis, the first stria terminates at the suture near the base of scutellum. The intervals between the striae are narrower than the punctations in appendiculatus, fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, lacerta and montanus, same as broad as the punctations in uniformis, broader than the punctations in arrogans, dohertyi, guttatus, humeralis, inermicollis, lentus, nilgirinus, obliquus, obuncus, pudibundus,

quatuornotatus, raucus, sagax and sulcicollis, subcostate in appendiculatus, lacerta, lentus, quatuornotatus, uniformis and costate in fabriciusi, relatively smooth in fabriciusi and pudibundus.

ABDOMEN: In the dorsal aspect, it has seven tergites, but of no taxonomic value as these are covered by elytra. The ventral aspect of abdomen is called “venter” which has five visible ventrites which are morphologically sternites 3-7. The impression on the fifth ventrite helps in distinguishing the sexes in some species. FEMALE GENITALIA: These are species specific and valuable in identifying the species. It includes spermatheca and spiculum ventrale. The spermatheca has a proximal arm and a distal arm called cornu. The junction of spermathecal duct with body of spermatheca is nodulus while the junction of gland with spermatheca is ramus.

18

Characters like curvature of nodulus, angle between proximal and distal arm and the apex of spiculum ventrale are valuable in distinguishing species. In pudibundus, ramus has a prominent projection terminating in a blunt apex. The length of the distal arm when compared to the proximal arm is 1.03x to 1.18x as long as in fabriciusi, figulus

nigrosparsus, montanus, obliquus and pudibundus, 1.27x in guttatus and quatuornotatus, 1.34x in sagax and 1.46x in lacerta. The length of shaft of the spiculum ventrale when compared to the length of basal plate is 1.63x to 1.77x as long as in guttatus, pudibundus and quatuornotatus, 2.02 to 2.35x in fabriciusi, figulus nigrosparsus, lacerta, montanus, obliquus and sagax. MALE GENITALIA: It consists of aedeagus and spiculum gastrale. The aedeagus has a median lobe or penis and tegmen. The parts of median lobe like apophyses, ratio of relative lengths of apophyses, length: breadth ratio of aedeagus is important taxonomic characters. In tegmen, the length and shape of parameres, relative thickness of posterior and dorsal piece, the length and apex of manubrium are useful. Spiculum gastrale has an elongate shaft and two posterior prongs. Relative thickness of shaft and shape of apex are important characters in identifying some species. The relative lengths of aedeagus and apophyses when compared, the aedeagus is 1.75x to 2.0x as long as the apophyses in lentus, raucus, and sulcicollis, 2.15x - 2.25x in arrogans, inermicollis, guttatus and lacerta, 2.41x in figulus nigrosparsus and quatuornotatus and 2.6x in obuncus. The length of aedeagus when compared to the length of the spiculum gastrale, is 1.17x as long as in sulcicollis, 1.21x to 1.38x in arrogans, figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, lacerta, obuncus, quatuornotatus and raucus, 1.42x in inermicollis and lentus. The length of the aedeagus compared to the length of tegmen is 1.38x as long as in obuncus, 1.55x to 1.65x in lentus, raucus and inermicollis, 1.72x in arrogans, 1.76x in quatuornotatus, 1.81x to 1.86x in figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, lacerta and sulcicollis. The tegmen has a sclerotised projection between the parameres in arrogans and inermicollis; its length when compared to the length of manubrium, is 1.81x to 2.22x as long in figulus nigrosparsus, guttatus, lacerta, lentus, obuncus, quatuornotatus and raucus, 2.46x in inermicollis and 2.54x in sulcicollis. The length of spiculum gastrale when compared to the length of tegmen is, 1.1x to 1.38x as

19

long as in figulus nigrosparsus, inermicollis, lacerta, lentus, obuncus, quatuornotatus and raucus, 1.5x in guttatus, and sulcicollis and 2.55x in arrogans.

ANNOTATED CHECKLIST
Episomus was first described by Schoenherr (1826) in his classical publication on ‘Genera et Species Curculionidum cum Synonymia Hujus Familiae’ and it was redescribed by Lacordaire (1863) in his most famous publication “Genera des Colopteres”. Pascoe (1865) described a similar genus by name Simallus with type species S. sulcicollis, but Marshall (1916) synonymised this with Episomus based on his extensive work on the brachyderines and otiorhynchines of the erstwhile British India. Marshall (1916) was the first to give a detailed description for the genus and reiterate that its type species is Curculio avarus Fabricius. An analysis of the fauna described during the different periods indicate that most of the species were known between 1894 to 1916. More than half of the species were described during 1951 to 1900 (Table 2). TABLE 2. Number of species of Episomus described during different periods Sl. No Period 1 2 3 4 from 1781 1801 1851 1901 to 1800 1850 1900 1937 Number of species described 2 9 61 34

An analysis made on the contributions of the different coleopterists indicates that Faust and Marshall were significant contributors (Table 3). Fausts contributions were mostly towards the Indonesian and Malaysian fauna while Marshalls were towards the Indian fauna. TABLE 3. Contributions of coleopterists to the genus Episomus Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Contributing coleopterists Faust Marshall Chevrolat Heller, Pascoe Boheman, Hartmann, Kono, Voss Fabricius Others Number of species described 43 21 6 5 each 3 each 2 12

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The zoogeographical distribution of the genus shown in figure 353 indicates that it is predominantly Oriental. The maximum species diversity is found in Indonesia (33) followed by India (28); Malaysia (21); Myanmar (17); China (8); Cambodia, Vietnam (5); Japan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand (3); Bangladesh, Philippines, Singapore (2) and Korea (1) are the fourteen countries from which Episomus had been recorded so far. In India, it is distributed in all places except the northern regions lying above Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh. From India, maximum species are recorded in the state of Tamil Nadu (12) followed by Assam (7); West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh (5); Meghalaya, Manipur (4); Kerala (3); Karnataka, Maharashtra, Nagaland (2); Sikkim, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat (1) and from the union territories Pondicherry (2); Andaman Islands (1). Among the species found in India, all except, andrewesi, arcuatus, arduus, avuncularius, decipiens, dejeani, frenatus, irregularis, manipurensis, nebulosus, nigropustulatus, platina, quadrimaculatus and versutus are studied.

Economic importance The information available on the economic importance indicates that, some species are occurring as pests of economically important plants including forest trees in South and South East Asian countries. Fletcher (1914) reported Episomus sp., as an intermittent pest on pulses in India. The large grey weevil, Episomus lacerta was found in large numbers damaging cotton plants by feeding on the bark (Marshall, 1916; Lefroy, 1909). This species was also recorded on field beans, Dolichos lablab (Ayyar, 1922; David and Kumaraswamy, 1988). Ayyar (1963) categorized this as a minor pest of pigeon pea and as a specific pest of field beans having the potential to completively denude the whole field with severe infestations. E. lacerta had also been recorded damaging important forest trees like Tectona grandis, Dalbergia latifolia and Erythrina sp (Ayyar, 1922). Episomus figuratus was reported on orange, Citrus cinensis from Sri Lanka (Hutson, 1931); Episomus kwanhsiensis was reported as an important pest of mulberry, Morus sp from China; adults feeding on leaves and the larvae damaging the roots of mulberry trees, causing yield decrease or even die off (Zhou, 1988). Among the other species reported are E. turritus on leguminous shrub, Lespedeza bicolor from Korea (Morimoto, 1992).

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Venkateshan and Geetha (2003) recently reported an outbreak of E. lacerta on field lab lab in Selam District of Tamil Nadu and described the root damage by grubs. TABLE. 4. Economic Importance of the species of the genus Episomus
Sl. No. Species Host Plant Distribution Reference

1

lacerta

Cotton, Field beans, Pigeon pea, Teak, Dalbergia, Erythrina.

India Indonesia

Ayyar, 1922; David and Kumaraswami, 1988; Marshall, 1916; Venkateshan and Geetha, 2003

2 3 4

figuratus

Orange

Sri Lanka China Korea

Hutson, 1931 Zhou, 1988 Morimoto, 1992

kwanhsiensis Mulberry turritus Lepedeza

A. VARIETIES RAISED TO SUBSPECIES 1. Episomus lacerta bohemani 2. Episomus lacerta nubeculosus B. CHECKLIST Episomus Schoenherr. Simallus Pascoe, 1865: 420; Faust, 1897: 194; Marshall, 1916: 207. Episomus Schoenherr, 1826: 185; 1834: 474; 1842: 88; Laporte, 1840: 325; Blanchard, 1845: 106,120; Lacordaire, 1863: 175; Pascoe, 1871: 163; Chevrolat, 1883: 74-76; Sharp, 1896:92; Faust, 1897: 90-201; 682 – 684; Marshall, 1916: 205, 207. Type Species: Curculio avarus Fabricius, 1801: 510; Faust, 1897: 159, 160; Marshall, 1916: 207. adumbratus Faust See chlorostigma 1. aemulus Faust Episomus aemulus Faust, 1897: 110, 180. 2. albarius Faust Episomus albarius Faust, 1897: 110, 172. *albarius var. immaculatus Faust

Malaysia

Indonesia

22

Episomus albarius var. immaculatus Faust, 1897: 11, 173. albostigma Faust See chlorostigma 3. andrewesi Marshall Episomus andrewesi Marshall, 1916: 211, 229 [BMNH ? & ? ]. annulipes Chevrolat See figuratus 4. apicalis Chevrolat Episomus apicalis Chevrolat, 1883: 75, 79; Faust, 1897: 200. Malaysia India

5. appendiculatus Faust India, China, Malaysia (1) Episomus appendiculatus Faust, 1897: 117, 139; Marshall, 1916: 211, 226 [? SMTD, ? BM]. 6. arcuatus Marshall Episomus arcuatus Marshall, 1916: 209, 219 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 7. arduus Marshall Episomus arduus Marshall, 1916: 213, 239 [BMNH ? ]. India

India

8. arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr India, Myanmar (2) Episomus arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 90; Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Faust, 1894: 185; Marshall, 1916: 214, 244 [NRS]. Simallus arrogans Faust, 1897: 122,198 ; Marshall, 1916: 214, 244 [NRS]. Episomus cataleucus Chevrolat, 1883: 74, 77; Faust, 1897: 198; Marshall, 1916: 244. auriculatus Faust See sulcicollis aurivilliusi Faust See humeralis avarus Fabricius See lacerta, platina 9. avuncularius Marshall Episomus avuncularius Marshall, 1916: 212, 232; Lona,1938: 366 printed avuncularis in error [BMNH ? ]. India

10. bicuspis Marshall Myanmar Episomus bicuspis Marshall, 1916, 208, 215 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 11. bilineatus Chevrolat Malaysia, Singapore Episomus bilineatus Chevrolat, 1883: 76-80; Faust, 1897: 106, 186. 12. binodosus Chevrolat Episomus binodosus Chevrolat, 1883: 75, 78; Faust, 1897: 109, 173. Malaysia

23

bohemani Faust See lacerta 13. brevipennis Faust Episomus brevipennis Faust, 1897: 119, 137; Marshall, 1916: 214, 241 [SMTD ? ]. 14. castelnaui Faust Episomus castelnaui Faust, 1897: 115, 149. cataleucus Chevrolat See arrogans 15. celebensis Faust Episomus celebensis Faust, 1895: 89, 90; 1897: 104, 192. ceylonicus Faust See figuratus chinensis Faust See turritus 16. chlorostigma Wiedemann Indonesia Curculio chlorostigma Wiedemann, 1819: 177. Episomus chlorostigma Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1834: 475; 1842: 92; Faust, 1897: 109, 170. Episomus chlorostigma pauperatus Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1834: 475. *chlorostigma var. ? & d Faust Episomus chlorostigma pauperatus var. ? ? & d ? Faust, 1897: 170. chlorostigma adumbratus Faust Episomus chlorostigma adumbratus Faust, 1897: 171. chlorostigma albostigma Faust Episomus chlorostigma albostigma Faust, 1897: 171. Episomus pauperatus var. ß Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1834: 475. clathratus Boheman in Schoenherr See montanus 17. cochinchinensis Faust Episomus cochinchinensis Faust, 1897: 120, 130. confinis Faust See diutinus 18. connexus Marshall Episomus connexus Marshall, 1916: 210, 225 [BMNH ? ]. crenatus Guerin in litt Faust See lacerta 19. decipiens Marshall Episomus decipiens Marshall, 1916: 212, 234 [BMNH ? ]. India Myanmar Vietnam Indonesia Myanmar

Malaysia

24

declivis Faust See turritus 20. dejeani Faust Episomus montanus var.dejeani Faust, 1897: 103, 126; Marshall, 1916: 209, 220 [SMTD]. 21. distans Faust Episomus distans Faust, 1897: 109, 175. 22. distinguendus Faust Episomus distinguendus Faust, 1897: 110, 172. *distinguendus var.obsoletus Faust Episomus distinguendus var.obsoletus Faust, 1897 : 111, 172. 23. diutinus Faust Episomus diutinus Faust, 1897: 116, 156. *diutinus var.confinis Faust Episomus diutinus var.confinis Faust, 1897: 116, 158. 24. dohertyi Marshall India (3) Episomus dohertyi Marshall, 1916: 212, 233 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 25. dorsalis Faust Episomus dorsalis Faust, 1897: 116, 155. Episomus pauperatus “Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1834: 475; Faust, 1897: 156. 26. exaratus Faust Episomus exaratus Faust, 1897: 115, 150. 27. fabriciusi Faust Episomus fabriciusi Faust, 1897: 106, 187, 255; Marshall, 1916: 212, 231 [SMTD ? & ? ]. 28. fausti Hartmann Episomus fausti Hartmann, 1900: 175. Indonesia Indonesia India

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

India (4)

Indonesia

29. figulus Boheman in Schoenherr India, Indonesia (5) Episomus figulus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1834: 476; 1842: 92; Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Faust, 1897: 119, 136; Marshall, 1916: 213, 236 [NRS ? ]. Episomus griseus Chevrolat, 1883: 76; Faust, 1897: 137; Indonesia Marshall, 1916: 236 [NRS]. figulus nigrosparsus Chevrolat Episomus figulus nigrosparsus Chevrolat, 1883: 75, 79; Faust, 1897: 119, 136; Marshall, 1916: 213, 236 [NRS]. India

25

30. figuratus Karsch Sri Lanka Episomus figuratus Karsch, 1882: 387; Faust, 1897: 105, 165; Marshall, 1916: 210, 221 [ZMHU]. Episomus annulipes Chevrolat, 1883: 75, 77; Faust, 1897: 165; Marshall, 1916: 221 [NRS]. Episomus ceylonicus Faust, 1897: 113, 161; Marshall, 1916: 221 [SMTD]. 31. fimbriatus Pascoe Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia Episomus fimbriatus Pascoe, 1871: 158; Chevrolat, 1883: 76; Pascoe; 1885: 215; Faust, 1895: 90; 1897: 103, 190. 32. fortius Voss Episomus fortius Voss, 1937: 252. 33. frenatus Marshall Episomus frenatus Marshall, 1916, 211, 230 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 34. freyi Zumpt Episomus freyi Zumpt, 1937: 11. gemmeus Pascoe See gracilicornis 35. gracilicornis Ritsema Indonesia Episomus gracilicornis Ritsema, 1882: 178; Chevrolat, 1883: 76; Faust, 1897: 116, 158. Episomus ?gemmeus Pascoe, 1887: 349; Faust, 1897: 158. griseus Chevrolat See figulus 36. gryphus Faust Episomus gryphus Faust, 1897: 166. Indonesia China

India

China

37. guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr India, Myanmar, Malaysia (6) Episomus guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1845: 435; Faust, 1894: 185; 1897:138; Marshall, 1916: 208, 217 [NRS]. Episomus ocellatus Chevrolat, 1883: 75, Faust, 1907: 138. 38. gyllenhalli Faust Episomus gyllenhalli Faust, 1897: 111, 168. *gyllenhalli var.socors Faust Episomus gyllenhalli var.socors Faust, 1897: 169. Indonesia Indonesia

39. humeralis Chevrolat Indonesia, Bangladesh, India (7) Episomus humeralis Chevrolat, 1883: 76, 81, Faust, 1897: 118, 130; Marshall, 1916: 214, 241 [NRS ? ].

26

Episomus aurivilliusi Faust, 1897: 119, 132; India Marshall, 1916: 214 (var. aurivilliusi), 241 [SMTD]. Episomus schonherri Faust, 1897: 118, 132; Marshall, 1916: 241 India [SMTD]. 40. iconicus Pascoe Cambodia Episomus iconicus Pascoe, 1871: 159, Pascoe, 1887: 350; Chevrolat, 1883: 76; Faust, 1897: 200; Marshall, 1916: 246 (= laticollis). 41. illustris Faust Episomus illustris Faust, 1897: 107, 184. immaculatus Faust See albarius. 42. intercalaris Faust Episomus intercalaris Faust, 1897: 173. Indonesia Malaysia, Singapore

43. incisipes Chevrolat Malaysia Episomus incisipes Chevrolat, 1883: 75, 78; Faust, 1897: 109, 179. 44. incomptus Faust Episomus incomptus Faust, 1897: 113, 142. Philippines

45. inermicollis Marshall India (8) Episomus inermicollis Marshall, 1916: 211, 226 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 46. irregularis Marshall Episomus irregularis Marshall, 1916: 209, 211 [BMNH ? ]. jamamurai Kono See turritus India

47. kraatzi Faust Malaysia, Indonesia Episomus kraatzi Faust, 1895: 90; 1897: 104, 192. 48. kwanhsiensis Heller Episomus kwanhsiensis Heller, 1923: 75. China

49. lacerta (Fabricius) Indonesia, India (9) Curculio lacerta Fabricius, 1781: 190; 1787: 117; 1792: 470; 1801: 528; Gmelin in Linnaeus, 1790: 1781; Oliver, 1790: 539; 1807: 354; Herbst, 1795: 388. Episomus lacerta Boheman in Schoenherr, 1834: 476; 1842: 92; Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Pascoe, 1885: 214; Faust, 1897: 112, 159; Marshall, 1916: 210, 223; Hustache, 1928: 9 [BMNH]. Episomus nubeculosus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: India 92; Marshall, 1916: 223; Lona,1938: 369 (var. nubeculosus) [NRS] Episomus ?avarus Fabricius, 1801: 510; Faust, 1897: Indonesia 159, 160.

27

Episomus crenatus Guerin in litt Faust, 1897: 159. lacerta bohemani Faust Episomus lacerta bohemani Faust, 1897: 112, 160; Marshall, 1916: 223 [SMTD]. *lacerta var.piger Marshall Episomus lacerta var. piger Marshall, 1916: 224. laevicollis Marshall See montanus lateralis Eydoux See lentus 50. laticollis Pascoe Episomus laticollis Pascoe, 1887: 350; Faust, 1897: 201; Marshall, 1916: 246.

India India

India

Thailand

51. lentus Erichson Philippines (10) Episomus lentus Erichson, 1834: 263; Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 94; Chevrolat, 1883: 76. Simallus lentus Faust, 1897: 122, 197. Episomus lateralis Eydoux, 1839: 266; Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 93; Faust, 1897: 197. 52. limbaticollis Marshall Episomus limbaticollis Marshall, 1916: 214, 243; Hustache, 1928: 9 [BMNH ? ]. 53. lucidus Hartmann Episomus lucidus Hartmann, 1900: 176. 54. malaccensis Faust Episomus malaccensis Faust, 1897: 151. Myanmar

Indonesia

Malaysia

55. manipurensis Marshall India Episomus manipurensis Marshall, 1916: 210, 225 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 56. marshalli Heller Episomus marshalli Heller, 1908: 130. Vietnam

57. montanus Guerin India (11) Episomus montanus Guerin, 1843: 52; Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 88; Chevrolat, 1883: 74; Faust, 1897: 103, 125; Marshall, 1916: 209, 219, 220 [Type not traced]. Episomus clathratus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 89; Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Faust, 1897: 126; Marshall, 1916: 219 [NRS]. montanus See dejeani Faust *montanus var.laevicollis Marshall Episomus montanus var.laevicollis Marshall, 1916: 209, 219. India

28

58. mori Kono Episomus mori Kono, 1928: 166. 59. mundus Sharp Episomus mundus Sharp, 1896: 93. 60. nebulosus Marshall Episomus nebulosus Marshall, 1916: 212, 232 [BMNH ? & ? ]. nigrolineatus Wiedemann See platina

Japan

Japan

India

61. nigropustulatus Faust Myanmar Episomus nigropustulatus Faust, 1894: 191; 1897: 119, 135; Marshall, 1916: 212, 235 [MCSN ? ]. nigrosparsus Chevrolat See figulus 62. nilgirinus Heller Episomus nilgirinus Heller, 1908: 131; Marshall, 1916: 210, 222 [SMTD ? & ? ]. India (12)

63. nobilis Faust Malaysia, Indonesia Episomus nobilis Faust, 1895: 90; 1897: 104, 191. nubeculosus Boheman in Schoenherr See lacerta 64. obesulus Faust Cambodia Simallus obesulus Faust, 1897: 121, 194; Marshall, 1916: 207. 65. obliquus Marshall Myanmar (13) Episomus obliquus Marshall, 1916: 215, 246 [BMNH ? ]. 66. oblongus Marshall Episomus oblongus Marshall, 1916: 214, 243 [BMNH ? ]. obsoletus Faust See distinguendus 67. obstrusus Marshall Episomus obstrusus Marshall, 1916: 213, 240 [BMNH ? ]. 68. obuncus Marshall Episomus obuncus Marshall, 1916: 211, 231 [BMNH ? ]. ocellatus Chevrolat See guttatus 69. omisiensis Heller Episomus omisiensis Heller, 1923: 75. China Myanmar Myanmar

India (14)

29

70. parallelus Chevrolat Episomus parallelus Chevrolat, 1883: 82.

Vietnam

71. pauperatus (Fabricius) Indonesia, Malaysia Curculio pauperatus Fabricius, 1801: 509; Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Pascoe, 1885: 215; Episomus pauperatus Faust, 1897: 114, 143; Heyne & Taschenberg, 1907: 226. pauperatus Gyllenhal in Schoenherr See chlorostigma, dorsalis piger Marshall See lacerta 72. platina (Sparrm) Indonesia, Vietnam Curculio platina Sparrm, 1785: 55; Gmelin in Linnaeus, 1790: 1794; Oliver, 1790: 570. Episomus platina Schoenherr, 1834: 475; Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 91; Laporte, 1840: 325; Chevrolat, 1883: 75. Simallus platina Faust, 1897: 121, 195; Marshall, 1916: 207. Episomus ?avarus Fabricius 1801: 510; Faust, 1897: 195, 197; Curculio nigrolineatus Wiedemann, 1823: 125; Faust, 1897: 196. pracuae Faust See quatuornotatus 73. praecanus Faust Episomus praecanus Faust, 1897: 107, 176. prainae Faust See quatuornotatus 74. profanus Faust Episomus profanus Faust, 1894: 189; 1897: 118, 141; Marshall, 1916: 213, 237 [MCSN]. *profanus var.punctiger Faust Episomus profanus var.punctiger Faust, 1894: 189; Marshall, 1916: 237 [MCSN ? & ? ]. Myanmar Indonesia

75. pudibundus Faust Myanmar (15) Episomus pudibundus Faust, 1894: 185; Marshall, 1916: 214, 242 [SMTD]. Simallus pudibundus Faust, 1897: 121, 194; Marshall, 1916: 242. 76. pudicus Faust Episomus pudicus Faust, 1897: 114, 147. punctiger Faust See profanus 77. pyriformis Marshall Episomus pyriformis Marshall, 1916: 213, 239 [BMNH ? ]. 78. quadrimaculatus Marshall Sri Lanka Malaysia, Indonesia

India

30

Episomus quadrimaculatus Marshall, 1916: 213, 237 [BMNH ? & ? ]. quadrinotatus Desbrochers des Loges See quatuornotatus 79. quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges India (16) Episomus quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges, 1890: 212; Faust, 1891: 266 printed “quadrinotatus” in error; 1897: 117, 141; Marshall, 1916: 211, 228 [NPC]. Episomus prainae Faust, 1891: 265 printed “pracuae” in error; 1892: XVIII; 1897: 117, 141 [SMTD]. 80. raucus Faust Episomus raucus Faust, 1897: 113, 162; Marshall, 1916: 210, 222 [SMTD]. India (17)

81. repandus Faust Myanmar, Cambodia Episomus repandus Faust, 1894: 193; 1897: 120, 126; Marshall, 1916: 212, 233 [MCSN ? & ? ]. 82. sagax Faust Episomus sagax Faust, 1897: 119, 134; Marshall, 1916: 212, 235 [SMTD ? & ? ]. 83. saitus Faust Episomus saitus Faust, 1897: 115, 153. schonherri Faust See humeralis 84. sennae Faust Myanmar Episomus sennae Faust, 1894: 186; Marshall; 1916: 215, 245 [MCSN ? ]. Simallus sennae Faust, 1897: 122, 198; Marshall; 1916: 215, 245. 85. siamensis Faust Malaysia, Cambodia, Thailand Episomus siamensis Faust, 1897: 120, 127; Marshall, 1916: 240. 86. simulator Faust Episomus simulator Faust, 1897: 107, 178. 87. singularis Faust Episomus singularis Faust, 1897: 105, 163. 88. sobrinus Faust Episomus sobrinus Faust, 1897: 114, 145. socors Faust See gyllenhalli 89. stellio Snellen Van Vollenhoven Indonesia Indonesia, Malaysia India, Bangladesh (18)

Indonesia

Thailand

Malaysia

31

Episomus stellio Snellen Van Vollenhoven, 1864: 169, Chevrolat, 1883: 76; Pascoe, 1885: 215 ; Faust, 1897: 114, 146. 90. suavis Faust Episomus suavis Faust, 1897: 107, 182. Malaysia

91. subnitens Marshall Indonesia, Myanmar Episomus subnitens Marshall, 1916: 215, 245 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 92. sulcicollis (Pascoe) Myanmar (19) Simallus sulcicollis Pascoe, 1865: 420; Marshall, 1916: 215, 247 [BMNH ? ]. Episomus auriculatus Faust, 1894: 187; Marshall, 1916: 247 [MCSN]. Simallus auriculatus Faust 1897: 199 ; Marshall, 1916: 215, 247. 93. subtuberculatus Heller Episomus subtuberculatus Heller, 1922: 3. 94. takahashii Kono Episomus turritus takahashii Kono, 1928: 166. Episomus takahashii Kono, 1930: 198. 95. timidus Faust Episomus timidus Faust, 1897: 108, 182. 96. tristiculus Voss Episomus tristiculus Voss, 1958: 29. Vietnam

Taiwan

Malaysia, Indonesia

Taiwan

97. truncatirostris (Fairmaire) China Dermatodes truncatirostris Fairmaire, 1889: 51; Faust, 1897: 120, 128. 98. turritus (Gyllenhal in Schoenherr) Japan, China, Korea Lagostomus turritus Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1833: 613. Dermatodes turritus Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1840: 896 ; Lacordaire, 1863: 109. Episomus turritus Roelofs, 1873: 164; Jekel, 1875: 139; Chevrolat, 1883: 96; Sharp, 1896: 92; Faust, 1897: 102, 123. *turritus var. chinensis Faust China Episomus turritus var. chinensis Faust, 1897: 102, 124; Marshall, 1916: 217. Episomus turritus Chevrolat in Lacordaire, 1863: 176. *turritus var.declivis Faust China Episomus turritus var.declivis Faust, 1897: 102, 124. Episomus turritus Pascoe, 1871: 158. turritus yamamurai Kono Korea Episomus turritus yamamurai Kono, 1928: 166;

32

Lona,1938: 372 printed “jamamurai” in error. 99. uncatus Faust Episomus uncatus Faust, 1897: 106, 188. Malaysia, Indonesia

100. uniformis Pascoe India (20) Episomus uniformis Pascoe, 1887: 349; Faust, 1897: 120, 129; Marshall, 1916: 213, 238 [BMNH ? ]. 101. versutus Faust Episomus versutus Faust, 1894: 191, 1897: 117, 141; Marshall, 1916: 211, 227 [MCSN ? & ? ]. 102. vethi Hartmann Episomus vethi Hartmann, 1914: 123. 103. viriosus Faust Episomus viriosus Faust, 1897: 109, 177. 104. watanabei Kono Episomus watanabei Kono, 1932: 181. 105. wiedemanni Faust Episomus wiedemanni Faust, 1897: 101. yamamurai Kono See turritus 106. yunnanensis Voss Episomus yunnanensis Voss, 1937: 251. * Status of subspecies could not be confirmed China Myanmar, India

Indonesia

Indonesia

Taiwan

Indonesia

Genus Episomus Schoenherr: Type species Curculio avarus, (Fabricius, 1781). General colour varies from different shades of brown to black, covered by varying shades of dark / metallic greenish / white vestiture, with stripes or patches of black vestiture and spots of white vestiture. HEAD with the eyes convex, lateral, prominent, varying in size and curvature and mostly acuminate inferiorly; with a central furrow and a transverse impression behind the eyes.

33

ROSTRUM separated on each side by a sinuate transverse furrow in front of the eyes; broader than the forehead at its base, deeply emarginate at the apex, the epistome bare, shiny and forming a sharp acute angle behind.; scrobes dorsal, very steep in front, but shallower near the eyes and curving inwards about the middle; the genae wrinkled, and with a strongly curved furrow which extends to the lower surface; mandibles obtuse, prominent and with a strongly marked scar. ANTENNAE inserted at or before the middle of the rostrum; the scape exceeding the hind margin of the eye, usually dilated and sometimes strongly curved; the funicle with seven segments, with the first, second and seventh joints usually longer than the others, the club four segmented. PROTHORAX usually with strong transverse plications and a distinct central furrow, the anterior margin truncate laterally (except in sulcicollis), the base either bisinuate or subtruncate, the gular margin shallowly sinuate. SCUTELLUM varying in size, usually well developed, but sometimes invisible and occasionally enclosed in front by the sutural margin of the elytra. ELYTRA not soldered together, with or without a distinct humeral angle and subhumeral prominence, the base, slightly covering the basal margin of the prothorax, the posterior declivity steep, the lateral margin sinuate above the posterior coxae; the striae punctate and 10 in number; rudimentary wings present. Sternum with the front coxae nearer the anterior margin of the prosternum; the mesosternum with the epimeron much smaller than the episternum, the intercoxal process dilated at its apex; the metasternum is either equal to, slightly shorter than or slightly longer than the median coxae, the episternum is extremely narrow and usually quite concealed with the exception of the enlarged anterior portion, the hind coxae touch the elytral margin. VENTER with the intercoxal piece angulated and not broader than the hind coxae; segments second, third and fourth subequal, second and first segments separated by a deep transverse incision, fifth elongate and usually sharply pointed in the female, shorter and broadly rounded in the male. Legs stout, elongate; the femora unarmed, the posterior pair not reaching the apex of the elytra; the tibiae almost straight, the two front pairs produced internally at the apex, the posterior pair with the tibial apex strongly

34

enclosed; tarsi spongy beneath, with the second segment transverse and trapeziform, third broadly bilobate, fourth as long as second added to third; the claws connate.

A. Key to the species
This key includes all the species known from India except 1. Elytra not transversely impressed near the base. …………………..……..…2 Elytra transversely impressed near the base. ..……………………………..10 2. Rostrum with the genae not produced in front beyond the mandibles. …......3 Rostrum with the genae produced in front beyond the mandibles, 1.1x as long as broad. Elytra bearing six white spots each, with a small, sharply conical tubercle on the suture at some distance above the apex; the base of elytra subtruncate; elytral vestiture with scales fluorescent green with pink specks. The length of head 1.38x as long as the rostrum. Antennae with club black and first funicular segment the longest, 1.31x as long as the club. Prothorax 1.28x as long as the rostrum. Legs with tibial apex bearing a prominent spur projecting outside the margins. ……….…….......(6) guttatus 3. Seventh segment of the funicle distinctly longer than the club (1 : 1.1-1.31) (Fig. 62). ……………………………..………………….…………………..4 Seventh segment of the funicle shorter than the club (1.11-1.6 : 1) (Fig. 63). ……………………………………………………………………………….6 Transverse impression near eyes present (Fig. 28). First funicular segment the longest and broadest. First tarsal segment the longest. The base of elytra jointly sinuate (Fig. 99). ………………………………….……………..…5 Eyes without any transverse impression (Fig. 36); its space between middle 1.81x as the distance between the scrobes. Antennae with the seventh segment of funicle the longest and 1.29x as long as the club. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. Elytra bearing a broad subhumeral prominence (Fig. 107) and having its base truncate; the suture on declivity not elevated. Legs with first and fourth tarsal segments the longest. …………………..……………………………………..……….…(10) lentus 5. Antennae with seventh segment of funicle 1.31x as long as the club, first segment as long as the seventh. Head with its length 1.49x as long as the rostrum. Eyes 1.46x as long as broad, 1.46x as long as broad from above. Elytra, mottled with small irregular white spots. Prothorax 1.06x as long as broad, 1.1x as long as the head and 1.62x as long as the rostrum; its anterior margin of bisinuate (Fig. 75). Scutellum not enclosed. Elytra with a sharp humeral angle and roundly costate suture. Legs with setae at posterior apical angle of hind tibiae black. Male

4.

35

genitalia having tegmen with a sclerotised projection between the parameres (Fig. 272). .……………..…..(2) arrogans Antennae with seventh segment of funicle 1.1x as long as the club; first the longest and same as broad as the seventh and 1.27x as long as the club. Head with its length 1.54x as long as the rostrum. Prothorax with its anterior margin truncate (Fig. 88); 1.12x as broad as long; 1.55x as long as the head; 1.81x as long as the rostrum. Eyes 2.33x as long as broad from above. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. Elytra without any humeral angle; the suture on declivity not elevated; elytral vestiture with scales fluorescent green having pink specks. Female genitalia having spermatheca with a prominent projection at ramus terminating in a blunt apex (Fig. 247). ……………….………………………………..……(15) pudibundus 6. Eyes without lateral and transverse impression (Fig 12). Head forming two prominent conical tubercles to the side of base of central furrow (Figs. 39 and 44). Rostrum with its sides almost parallel to each other, without any dilation (Figs. 12 and 22). Prothorax with its anterior margin truncate (Fig. 86). …………………………………………………………………………..7 Eyes with lateral and transverse impression, Head without any tubercles. Rostrum with its sides not parallel to each other, Elytra with suture on declivity elevated ……………………………...…………………………….8 7. Antennae having the first segment of club the longest; first funicular segment the longest, 1.59x as long as the seventh. Rostrum subquadrate (Fig. 12), 1.29x as broad as long. Eyes 1.07x as long as broad from above. Head with a deep transverse impression behind the eyes, forehead with two obtuse elevations in the middle, the head 1.54x as long as the rostrum and 1.11x as long as the prothorax; central furrow on head dilated at apex. Prothorax with shallow plications, 1.57x as broad as long. Legs with the fourth tarsal segment the longest. Scutellum not enclosed. Elytra with its base truncate, the suture on declivity not elevated; lateral dark marking on elytra terminating obliquely behind; elytral vestiture with pedicellate scales (Fig. 163). ……………………………………………….………......(13) obliquus Antennae with first and second segment of club longest; second funicular segment the longest, 1.18x as long as the seventh. Rostrum 1.24x as broad as long. Eyes 1.62x as long as broad from above. Head 1.41x as long as the rostrum; central furrow on head not dilated at apex. Prothorax with a sharp projection below the eye at anterior lateral margin, 1.07x as long as the head, bearing very few plications, 1.38x as broad as long. Legs with the first tarsal segment the longest. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. Elytra with its base jointly sinuate (Fig. 115), the suture sinuate before its apex……………………………………………………...….. (19) sulcicollis

36

8.

Legs with tibial apex without any prominent spur projecting outside the margins. Elytra with suture on the declivity distinctly elevated. ………...... 9 Legs with tibial apex bearing a prominent spur projecting outside the margins (Fig. 223). Elytra with suture on the declivity slightly elevated; the intervals between the striae narrower than the punctations; without humeral angles. Head 1.49x as long as the rostrum. Prothorax 1.03x as long as the head. Antennae with first funicular segment the longest. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. Legs with hind tibiae of male strongly tuberculate internally (Fig. 238). Male genitalia with aedeagus having three sclerotised areas on its apex between the apophyses (Fig. 309). ..........…………………………………………………….………...(9) lacerta Elytra with intervals as broad as the punctations. Prothorax same as long as head. Antennae with first and seventh funicular segments longest, 1.07x as long as the second. Head 1.5x as long as the rostrum. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. Male genitalia with aedeagus having sigle sclerotised area on its apex between the apophyses (Fig. 290). ..…………………………………………………………lacerta nubeculosus Elytra with intervals broader than the punctations. Prothorax 1.5x as long as the head. Antennae with only seventh funicular segment the longest, 1.16x as long as the second. Head 1.47x as long as the rostrum. Scutellum not enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. . Male genitalia with aedeagus having sigle sclerotised area on its apex between the apophyses (Fig. 278). ………………………………………………………….…lacerta bohemani

9.

Antenna with second and seventh segments of funicle the longest and broadest; 1.04x as long as the first. General colour black, with a white spot on the elytra. Head 1.08x as long as the prothorax; with central furrow dilated at apex. Elytra separately rounded at the base (Fig. 119); the suture more strongly elevated on the declivity (Fig. 133). …….……(11) montanus Antenna with seventh segment of funicle the longest and broadest, black from middle till apex; club black. General body colour green. Prothorax 1.31x as long as the head. Head with central furrow not dilated at apex. Legs with tibial apex bearing a prominent spur projecting outside the margins (Fig. 241). Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. Elytra with its base subtruncate (Fig. 108); the suture strongly elevated on the declivity (Fig. 145), elytral vestiture with scales fluorescent green with pink specks. Apical process of male organ gradually narrowed and forming a continuous downward curve. ……………………………………….…….… (17) raucus

10.

Elytra shallowly impressed near the base (Fig. 140). …………..…………11 Elytra distinctly impressed near the base (Fig. 126)……………….....……14

37

11.

Antennae with seventh segment of funicle shorter than the club (1.11-1.6 : 1)……………………………………………………………………………12 Antennae with seventh segment of funicle the longest and longer than the club (1 : 1.1-1.29). ………………………………….…….………………..13

12.

Antennae with first or second segment of funicle the longest; elytra bearing subhumeral prominence, Elytra with a slight subhumeral process. Scutellum transverse. ……………………………...…………………………………..15 Elytra with a distinct subhumeral process (Fig. 103). Antenna with second segment of funicle the longest, 1.64x as long as the third; club 1.7x as long as the seventh segment of funicle. Eyes with distance between its posterior margins longest (1.34x) as compared to that between the middle. Prothorax with very few plications and its central furrow very small and located near its base (Fig. 81). Elytra having shallow striae and separated punctures. Male genitalia having tegmen with a sclerotised projection between the parameres (Fig. 304). ………………………….………………………..(8) inermicollis

*

Eyes without lateral and transverse impressions (Fig. 30). General colour metallic green. Antennae with first and second funicular segments the longest, 1.83x as long as the third; club and seventh segment of funicle completely black. Head as long as prothorax; its central furrow shallow. Elytra without any humeral angle; elytral vestiture having fluorescent pink scales. ………………………………………….…..……..……(4) fabriciusi Antennae with seventh funicular segment not dilated, broadest at middle, 1.25x as long as the second; club with fourth segment the longest. Head 1.53x as long as the rostrum; having central furrow dilated at apex. Eyes with distance between posterior margins equal to distance between the anterior margins. Prothorax with its anterior margin truncate (Fig. 94). Scutellum transverse. Elytra with slight humeral angle; the suture strongly elevated into a carina on the declivity (Fig. 141); elytral vestiture with its base pedunculate (Fig. 175). ………………………………….(20) uniformis Antennae with seventh funicular segment dilated, 1.41x as long as the second; club with second and third segments the longest. Head with central furrow not dilated, its length 1.45x as long as the rostrum. Eyes with distance between posterior margins 1.23x as the distance between the anterior margins. Prothorax with its anterior margin bisinuate (Fig. 87). Scutellum not enclosed. Elytra without any humeral angle; elytral vestiture having fluorescent pink scales with few having greenish core. …………………………………....………………………….…(14) obuncus

13

14

Elytral vestiture with plumose scales (Fig. 166). ……………...…………. 15

38

Elytral vestiture without plumose scales. ………….………...…………….17 15 Antennae with seventh segment of funicle longer than the club. ………….16 Antennae with club 1.7x as long as the seventh segment of funicle; second segment of funicle the longest, first and seventh the broadest. Head is same as long as the prothorax; 1.56x as long as the rostrum; its central furrow dilated before middle. Eyes with the distance between its middle 1.03x as that between the anterior margins and 1.71x as the distance between the scrobes. Prothorax with its anterior margin bisinuate (Fig.85). Legs with tibial apex bearing a prominent spur projecting outside the margins (Fig. 229). Elytra with a slight humeral angle; elytral vestiture with fluorescent green scales with pink specks. ..……………………………...(12) nilgirinus Antennae with seventh segment of funicle longest and broadest and as long as the club. Head with the central furrow deep and not dilated; its length 1.44x as long as the rostrum. Prothorax with its anterior margin truncate (Fig. 80), 1.04x as long as the head. Eyes with the distance between anterior and middle 1.1x as the space between the eyes at middle; 1.45x as the distance between the scrobes. Elytra without any humeral angle but bearing a distinct subhumeral prominence and a basal pale stripe on interval 3; the first stria from suture terminating at the sutural margin near the base of scutellum (Fig. 121). ……...………………………………..…(7) humeralis 16 Antennae with seventh segment of funicle the longest and 1.26x as long as the club. Head with the central furrow shallow and not dilated at apex, its length 1.5x as long as the rostrum. Elytra bearing two white spots and a distinct subhumeral prominence; the suture elevated on the declivity (Fig. 124), and a dark brown stripe at the base of intervals 4 and 5. …………………..……………………………………………….(3) dohertyi Antennae with seventh segment of funicle the longest, not dilated, 1.37x as long as the club and same as broad as club. Head with a deep central furrow dilated at apex; its length 1.47x as long as the rostrum. Elytra bearing slight subhumeral prominence; the suture moderately elevated after the declivity, elytral vestiture having pedicellate scales (Fig. 164). ….…………(18) sagax 17 Elytra with its apices not produced into a long process….……………….. 18 Elytra with its apices separately produced into a long sharp process (Fig. 122); with five white spots sharply elevated. Antennae with its club black and second funicular segment the longest. Rostrum as long as broad. Head with breadth at its base 1.51x to as much as the distance between scrobes. Elytra with the suture strongly elevated on the declivity; bearing a distinct subhumeral prominence (Fig. 98); elytral vestiture having scales separately rounded at base (Fig. 180). ……………………...………(1) appendiculatus

39

18

Antennae with seventh segment of funicle the longest. Elytra mottled with dark and pale markings. Head with a broad central furrow. Eyes with transverse impression near it faint and distance between from anterior to middle 1.21x. Scutellum not enclosed. Elytral vestiture having scales with rounded base (Fig. 155). Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.1x longer than the proximal arm, cornu bent, close towards proximal arm. ………………………………………………..(5) figulus nigrosparsus Antennae with first segment of funicle the longest. Eyes without any transverse impression. Elytra with three very slightly raised white spots; its apices with only a very short inconspicuous process; each elytron usually with a large black patch on the declivity and the suture strongly elevated into a carina on the declivity (Fig. 144). Antennae with club and seventh segment of funicle completely black. Head with central furrow narrow. Eyes with distance between anterior to middle 1.23x. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. Elytral vestiture with scales bearing a rounded base (Fig. 185). Female genitalia having spermatheca with proximal arm slightly swollen, distal arm 1.27x as long as the proximal arm, cornu projecting towards proximal arm. …………….……………..….…(16) quatuornotatus B. Species studied

The following are the species studied in the present work: 1. appendiculatus Faust 2. arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr 3. dohertyi Marshall 4. fabriciusi Faust 5. figulus nigrosparsus Boheman in Schoenherr 6. guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr 7. humeralis Chevrolat 8. inermicollis Marshall 9. lacerta (Fabricius) 10. lentus Erichson 11. montanus Guerin 12. nilgirinus Heller 13. obliquus Marshall 14. obuncus Marshall

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15. pudibundus Faust 16. quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges 17. raucus Faust 18. sagax Faust 19. sulcicollis (Pascoe) 20. uniformis Pascoe 1. Episomus appendiculatus Faust (Figs. 10, 27, 51, 74, 98, 122, 180, 194, 218 and 330) Episomus appendiculatus Faust, 1897: 117, 139; Marshall, 1916: 211, 226 [? SMTD, ? BM]. General colour: brown above and light brown to chalky white beneath and on the inflexed margins of the elytra. The lateral band on the prothorax (when present) vaguely invading the intervals 3, 4 and 5 till one third from base, each elytra bearing five elevated white spots – one on the third interval before middle, one each on second, third and seventh intervals behind middle and one at apex of fifth interval (Fig. 330). Head, very slightly impressed on each side of central furrow, 1.51x as long as the rostrum, 3.56x as long as the apical emargination and 1.04x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.05x as broad as the rostrum, 1.51x as much as the distance between scrobes and 1.63x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow 2x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum as long as broad, the dorsal costae shallowly impressed, 1.96x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes convex, 2.1x as long as broad from above and 1.16 x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.11x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.22x as that between the middle and 1.1x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.1x as that between the scrobes (Figs. 10 and 27). Antennae grey. Scape broadened (1.1x) from middle to apex, 3.1x as long as the club. Funicle 1.2x as long as the scape and 3.72x times as long as the club, second segment longest, 1.2x as long as the first, 2x as long as the third, 2.18x as long as the fourth, fifth and sixth segments and 1.26x as the seventh, fourth to sixth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.07x as broad as the

41

first, 1.27x as broad as the second, 1.16x as broad as the third, fourth, fifth and sixth segments, third to sixth equally broad. Club black, 1.21x as long as the second and 1.52x as long and 1.43x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, second segment longest, 1.5x as long as the first and fourth, and 1.12x as long as the third, first and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, second the broadest, 1.05x as broad as the first, 1.33x as the third, 2.5x as the fourth (Fig. 51). Prothorax with very shallow plications, posterior margin deeply bisinuate, 1.44x as long as and 1.52x as broad as the rostrum, 1.06x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.45x as broad as at the apex and 1.04x as broad as at the base, the posterior margin 1.38x as broad as the apex, its length at middle equal as that at the sides, 11.33x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 12x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 74). Scutellum not enclosed, as long as broad. Legs brownish grey. Hind femora darker from base up to middle, 4.45x as long as broad, 1.06x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.1x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 4.6x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.92x as long as the first, 2.28x as the second and 1.55x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.43x as broad as first and second and 4.3 x as broad as the fourth segment (Figs. 194 and 218). Elytra ovate, separately rounded at the base, with a sharp humeral angle and distinct subhumeral prominence, acuminate at the apex bearing a short sharp process, and the upper surface transversely impressed near the base (Fig. 122); its length 1.14x as much as the suture, 5.56x as long as the rostrum, 17.08x as long as the scutellum, 3.85x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.16x as that of its breadth at the subhumeral prominence, 1.55x as that of prothorax and 1.62x as that of its breadth at base. Suture elevated on the declivity, 2.11x as long as that of prothorax, 24x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of large shallow punctations, each punctation 1.15x as long as broad, 1.25x as long as the length and 1.08x as broad as the breadth of scutellum and 1.3x as broad as the breadth of intervals. Sixth striae not reaching the base. Intervals narrow and subcostate (Fig. 98). Elytral vestiture with one type of scales, brown, elongate with 6-9 inconspicuous ridges, separately rounded at base, rounded at apex (Fig. 180).

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Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3x as long as the second, 4.8x as long as the third, 4x as the fourth and 1.6x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first the broadest, 1.17x as broad as second, 1.41x as broad as third, 1.71x as fourth and 2.08x as fifth. Length: 15.5 mm; Breadth: 5.8 mm. Specimen examined: 1? Sikkim: Third mile nursery, on shrubs (4500 ft), 08.IV.1957, Coll. Baldev P. D. Distribution: INDIA: Uttar Pradesh: Allahabad; Sikkim. China, Malaysia 2. Episomus arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr (Figs. 9, 28, 52, 75, 99, 123, 173, 174, 195, 219, 269-272, 317 and 329) Episomus arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 90; Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Faust, 1894: 185; Marshall, 1916: 214, 244 [NRS]. Simallus arrogans Faust, 1897: 122,198 ; Marshall, 1916: 214, 244 [NRS]. Episomus cataleucus Chevrolat, 1883: 74, 77; Faust, 1897: 198; Marshall, 1916: 244. General colour light brown above and whitish below; prothorax with two broad, dark brown, longitudinal stripes, elytra with the intervals 5,6 and 7 dark brown, sides of head and thorax and elytra whitish grey, sides of elytra mottled with small irregular white spots (Fig. 329). Head with a projection on vertex, 1.49x as long as the rostrum and 3.72x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.06x as broad as the rostrum, 2.05x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.38x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow broad and deep, 1.72x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum with the costae faintly impressed, 1.01x as broad as long, 2.05x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes convex, 1.46x as long as broad from above and 1.17x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.06x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.21x as that between the middle and 1.13x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.47x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 9 and 28). Antennae with scape broadened (1.33x) from middle to apex, 4.72x as long as the club. Funicle 1.21x as long as the scape and 5.72x as long as the club, first and the seventh segment longest, 1.31x as long as the club, 1.72x as long as the second, 2x as long as the third, 2.37x as the fourth and sixth and 2.23x as the fifth, first, seventh and fourth, sixth equally long; in terms of breadth,

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first segment broadest of all, 1.04x as broad as the second, 1.18x as broad as the third and sixth, 1.13x as broad as the fourth, fifth and seventh. Seventh dilated anteriorly, segments third with, sixth and fourth, fifth with seventh equally broad. Club 1.08x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, its second segment the longest, 1.12x as long as the first and 1.5x as long as the third and fourth segments, third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first and second segments broadest, 1.47x as broad as the third and 2.5x as the fourth (Fig. 52). Prothorax subcylindrical. Upper surface rugose, 1.1x as long as the head, 1.62x as long as and 1.5x as broad as the rostrum, 1.06x as long as broad at middle; breadth at middle 1.42x as broad as at the apex and 1.06x as broad as at the base, posterior margin truncate, posterior margin 1.33x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.04x as that at the sides, 16x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 17.74x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 75). Scutellum light brown, very small, 1.18x as long as broad and 1.08x as long as the length of punctations and 1.83x as broad as its breadth. Legs light brown. Femora 5.1x as long as broad, 1.12x as long and its breadth as broad as that of tibia. Tibia 4.5x as long as broad. Tarsi with first segment longest, 2.12x as long as the second, 1.45x as the third and 1.05x as the fourth; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.05x as broad as first and second and 3.27x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 195 and 219). Elytra ovate, jointly sinuate at the base, without humeral angles, not impressed near base (Fig. 123), its length 1.08x as much as the suture, 3.9x as long as the rostrum, 38.46x as long as the scutellum, 2.4x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.66x as that of prothorax and 1.76x as that of its breadth at base. Suture roundly costate on the declivity, 2.21x as long as that of prothorax, 35.38x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of small punctations, each punctation 2x as long as broad. Intervals broad, 3.33x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 99). Elytral vestiture with scales of two types, brown, equally predominant, the short and broad scales with 4-5 parallel ridges originating from the base and terminating at the apex and sides, apex not blunt; longer scales with irregular ridges radiating from the base and terminating at the blunt apex (Figs. 173 and 174).

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Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3.27x as long as the second, 5.14x as long as the third, 4.5x as long as the fourth and 1.63x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first the broadest, 1.14x as broad as second, 1.37x as broad as third, 1.57x as ventrite four and 1.91x as fifth. Male genitalia with aedeagus 2.15x as long as the apophyses, 1.82x as its median lobe, 1.25x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.72x as long as the tegmen, median lobe slightly narrowing at the base of apophyses, 1.76x as long as the manubrium, its base 1.07x as broad as middle and 1.26x as broad as just before the apex; breadth at middle 1.17x as broad as that just before apex, breadth from sides 2x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. Apophyses 3.33x as broad as the manubrium and 1.39x as broad as the shaft of spiculum gastrale (Figs. 269 and 271). Tegmen with dorsal piece 1.24x as as broad as the basal piece; with a sclerotised projection between the parameres, manubrium slightly curved before the apex (Fig. 272). Spiculum gastrale with shaft narrowing down till apex, the apex being curved, 1.71x as long as the apophyses and 2.55x as long as the tegmen, its breadth 2.4x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 317). Length: 22.6 mm; Breadth: 8.2mm. Specimen examined: ? , Karnataka: Dharwad: Dandeli Forests; feeding on wild legume, 12.05.1996. Coll. Shanas. S. Distribution: INDIA: Karnataka: North Kanara; Maharashtra: Mumbai; Tamil Nadu: Ooty. Myanmar. 3. Episomus dohertyi Marshall (Figs. 8, 29, 53, 76, 100, 124, 177-179, 196, 220 and 334) Episomus dohertyi Marshall, 1916: 212, 233 [BMNH ? & ? ]. General colour pale brown above and pale light brown below, the prothorax with a dark brown lateral stripe, second and third intervals with a small white spot at the top of declivity (Fig. 334). Head shallowly impressed on the sides of central furrow, 1.5x as long as the rostrum, 4.04x as long as the apical emargination and 1.05x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.1x as broad as the rostrum, 1.93x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.31x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow 1.96x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum with sides roundly dilated near apex, lateral costae

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impressed, 1.06x as broad as long, 2x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.71 x as long as broad from above and 1.04x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.18x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.27x as that between the middle and 1.07x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.31x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 8 and 29). Antennae with scape broadened (1.13x) from middle to apex, 4.78x as long as the club. Funicle 1.28x as long as the scape and 1.26x as long as the club, seventh segment longest, 1.26x as long as the club, 1.45x as long as the first and third, 1.07x as long as the second, 1.93x as long as the fourth fifth and sixth; first with third and fourth to sixth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.05x as broad as the club, 1.12x as broad as the first, second and third segments, 1.26x as broad as the fourth, 1.19x as broad as the fifth and sixth, first to third, fifth and sixth equally broad. Club with second segment longest, 1.16x as long as the first and fourth segments and 1.75x as long as the third segment, first and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.11x as broad as the second, 1.54x as the third and 2.5x as the fourth (Fig. 53). Prothorax with upper surface deeply plicate, 1.43x as long and 1.44x as broad as the rostrum, 1.07x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.32x as broad as the apex, posterior margin shallowly bisinuate, 1.03x as broad as the breadth at middle and 1.35x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.11x as that at the sides, 9.41x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 14.26x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow deep (Fig. 76). Scutellum not enclosed, 1.42x as long as broad and 1.21x as long as the length of punctations and 1.33x as broad as its breadth. Legs brown. Femora with faint dark markings, 4x as long as broad, as long as and 1.27x as broad as that of tibia. Tibia 5.1x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment the longest, 1.13x as long as the first, 2.55x as the second and 1.46x as the third; in terms of breadth, third the broadest, 1.45x as broad as first, 1.3x as that of second and 3.7x as broad as the fourth. Elytra separately rounded at base, with a humeral angle and without a transverse impression (Fig. 124); its length 1.12x as much as the suture, 3.82x as long as the rostrum, 25.17x as long as the scutellum, 2.67x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.68x as that of prothorax and 1.63x as that of its breadth at base. Suture elevated on the

46

declivity, 2.37x as long as that of prothorax, 22.35x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of deep punctations, each punctation 1.55x as long as broad. Intervals broad, 2x as broad as that of punctations (Fig. 100). Elytral vestiture with scales of three types, all brown and dark, very few scales plumose; less predominant brown, with a dark area near base, elongate with 6-7 clear lines approximating at the rounded apex; predominant with a dark area near base, with parallel translucent lines running from base to periphery (Figs. 177-179). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.7x as long as the second, 3.37x as long as the third and fourth, 1.23x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.14x as broad as second, 1.43x as broad as third, 1.75x as fourth and 2.33x as fifth. Length: 20 mm; Breadth: 7.5 mm. Specimen examined: Without data. Distribution: INDIA: Arunachal Pradesh: Patkai Hills, Assam: Sibsagar. 4. Episomus fabriciusi Faust (Figs. 7, 54, 77, 101, 125, 146-148, 197, 221, 242, 251, 260 and 333) Episomus fabriciusi Faust, 1897: 106, 187, 255; Marshall, 1916: 212, 231 [SMTD ? & ? ]. General colour black with sparse green above, dense metallic green beneath, prothorax with two broad subdenuded stripes, elytra dense green at apex and lateral margins uptil seventh stria; on the disk, a large subquadrate patch at the base and a transverse band behind middle, of dense green scales, and also many irregular, small green spots on the striae (Fig. 333). Head without lateral impressions, as long as prothorax, 1.69x as long as the rostrum, 4x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.21x as broad as the rostrum, 1.95x as much as the distance between scrobes, and 2.64x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow broad and shallow, 1.72x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum parallel sided, lateral costae having distinct short basal impression, 1.17x as broad as long, 1.44x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.75x as long as broad from above and 1.15x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.1x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.25x as that between the middle and

47

1.13x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.26x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 7 and 54). Antennae pale green, with club and seventh segment of funicle black, scape broadened (1.4x) from middle to apex, 2.71x as long as the club. Funicle 1.44x as long as the scape and 3.93x times as long as the club; first and second segments longest, 1.83x as long as the third and fifth, 2x as the fourth and sixth and 1.1x as the seventh; first and second, third and fifth, and fourth and sixth, all equally broad. In terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.5x as broad as the first, third, fourth and sixth, 1.38 x as broad as the second, 1.63x as broad as the fifth. Club 1.4x as long and 1.05x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, 1.27x as long as the first segment of funicle, second segment longest, 2x as long as the first, 1.6x as long as the third and 1.42x as long as the fourth segment; in terms of breadth, first and second broadest, 1.19x as broad as the third, 1.05x as the fourth, first and second equally broad (Fig. 77). Prothorax plicate, sides very slightly rounded, 1.69x as long as and 1.52x as broad as the rostrum, 1.05x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.25x as broad as at the apex and 1.02x as broad as at the base; the posterior margin bisinuate, 1.23x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.14x as that at the sides, 10.05x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 9.92x as broad as that of scutellum; central furrow deep. Scutellum not enclosed, transverse, 1.07x as broad as long and 1.15x as broad as the breadth of punctations. Legs green, with a darker patch about the middle of hind femora. Femora 3.91x as long as broad, 1.12x as long as that of tibia and its breadth 1.2x as broad as tibia. Tibia 4.2x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.11x as long as the first, 2x as the second and 1.38x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.3x as that of first and second, 3.9x as broad as the fourth, first and second equally broad (Figs. 197 and 221). Elytra elongate-ovate, separately rounded at the base, with humeral angle rounded and the subhumeral prominence indistinct. Upper surface with very shallow basal impression (Fig. 125). Elytral length 1.09x as much as the suture, 4.47x as long as the rostrum, 26.5x as long as the scutellum, 2.64x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.17x as that of its breadth at the humeral angle, 1.66x as that of prothorax and 1.7x as that of its breadth at base. Suture brownish, slightly elevated on the declivity, 2.41x as

48

long as that of prothorax, 24.2x as long as the scutellum. Striae broad with rows of small deep punctations, each punctation 1.31x as long as broad, 1.21x as long as the length of scutellum, and 1.08x as broad as the breadth of intervals. Intervals broad, smooth and costate (Fig. 101). Elytral vestiture with scales of three types, all with metallic pink and a dark core near base; less predominant elongate with incospicuous ridges approximating at apex, the apex pointed; the other two types with parallel 8-9 clear lines, one elongate and pointed and the other broad and rounded at apex (Figs. 146-148). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.5x as long as the second, 3.33x as long as the third, 4x as the fourth, 1.05x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.08x as broad as second, 1.36x as broad as third, 1.58x as fourth and 2.04x as fifth. Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.16x as long as proximal arm, angle between the arms acute, nodulus projected out, ramus projecting inwards at base, apex pointed, cornu bent, projecting away from proximal arm (Figs. 242 and 260). Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate, uniformly thick, 2.02x as long as basal plate, basal plate 1.26x as broad as long, with few hairs (Fig. 251). Length: 16.6 mm; Breadth: 6.5 mm. Specimens examined: 3? , Tamil Nadu: Palanis : Shenbaganur (6000 ft), Palanis: Kodaikanal (7000 ft); IX.1921, Coll. Fletcher, T. B.; Valparai, 13.04.1949. Coll. ERG; ? Palanis: Simis park (4000-8000 ft), 28.VIII.17. Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu: Palani Hills, Kodaikanal, Valparai; Andhra Pradesh: Cuddapah. 5. Episomus figulus Boheman in Schoenherr Episomus figulus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1834: 476; 1842: 92; Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Faust, 1897: 119, 136; Marshall, 1916: 213, 236 [NRS ? ]. Episomus griseus Chevrolat, 1883: 8; Faust, 1897: 137; Marshall, 1916: 236 [NRS]. Episomus figulus nigrosparsus Chevrolat (Figs. 6, 31, 55, 78, 102, 126, 152-155, 198, 222, 243, 252, 262, 273-276, 319 and 335)

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Episomus figulus nigrosparsus Chevrolat, 1883: 75, 79; Faust, 1897: 119, 136; Marshall, 1916: 213, 236 [NRS]. General colour light brown above and grey or white beneath, elytra bearing a large, distinct, subhumeral patch and irregular dark brown blotches varigated with paler spots behind the middle (Fig. 335). Head with shallow lateral impression, 1.5x as long as the rostrum, 3.24x as long as the apical emargination and 1.06x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.15x as broad as the rostrum, 2.02x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.5x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow broad, widened in front, 1.48x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum dilated towards the apex, with the lateral costae impressed, 1.20x as broad as long, 2x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.8x as long as broad from above and 1.05x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.1x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.2x as that between the middle and 1.1x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.35x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 6 and 31). Antennae with scape broadened (1.35x) from middle to apex, 2.81x as long as the club. Funicle 1.25x as long as the scape and 3.53x as long as the club, seventh segment longest, 1.1x as long as the first and second, 1.84x as long as the third, 2.18x as long as the fourth and fifth and 2.4x as the sixth, first with second and fourth with fifth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.23x as broad as the first, second, third and fourth, and 1.14x as broad as the fifth and sixth, first to fourth equally broad, segments fifth and sixth equally broad. Club 1.33x as long and 1.19x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, third longest, 3x as long as the first, 1.87x as long as the second and 3.75x as long as the fourth; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.05x as broad as the second, 1.36x as the third,2.71 x as the fourth (Fig. 55). Prothorax coarsely plicate, with dividing line sharp, parallel sided from base beyond middle and then narrowing towards the apex, 1.4x as long as and 1.46x as broad as the rostrum, 1.25x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.26x as broad as the apex and 1.04x as broad as the base, base bisinuate, 1.21x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.04x as that at the sides, 7.6x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 10.86x as broad as that of scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 78). Scutellum broadly

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oval and not enclosed, 1.14x as long as broad and 1.06x as long as the length of punctations and 1.07x as broad as its breadth. Legs pale, hind femora 4.27x as long as broad, 1.07x as long as and its breadth 1.1x as those of tibia. Tibia 4.4x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.31x as long as the first, 2.1x as the second and 1.83x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.52x as broad as first and second, and 4.22x as broad as the fourth, first and second equally broad (Figs. 198 and 222). Elytra impressed and separately rounded at the base, with obtuse humeral angles, the steep posterior declivity sloping inwards and slightly indented (Fig. 126). Elytral length 1.11x as much as the suture, 3.79x as long as the rostrum, 20.5x as long as the scutellum, 2.7x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.47x as that of prothorax and 1.54x as that of its breadth at base. Suture slightly raised behind, 2.43x as long as that of prothorax, 18.5x as long as the scutellum. Striae broad with rows of large punctations, each punctation 1.15x as long as broad and 1.86x as broad as the breadth of intervals; the intervals narrower (Fig. 102). Elytral vestiture with scales of four types, all brown; less predominant elongate, with 6-7 dark broad bands, its apex pointed, the other type broad at base with inconspicuous ridges, with a round peduncle and pointed at apex; predominant types with parallel 8-9 clear lines, one with specks of darker granulations and the other evenly granulate and pointed (Figs. 152-155). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.5x as long as the second, 3.33x as long as the third and fourth, 1.25x as long as the fifth, third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first the broadest, 1.19x as broad as second, 1.48x as broad as third, 1.87x as fourth and 2.38x as fifth. Male genitalia with aedeagus 2.41x as long as the apophyses, 1.51x as its median lobe, 1.36x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.85x as long as the tegmen. median lobe impressed at middle, with apex acuminate, 2.44x as long as the manubrium; its base 1.06x as broad as middle and the breadth just before apex 1.26x as broad as at middle and 1.18x as broad as at base, breadth from sides 1.62x as broad as that of apophyses. Apophyses 5.33x as broad as that of manubrium (Fig. 273-275). Tegmen 2x as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece 2.5x as as broad as the basal piece. Parameres acuminate and broad, manubrium straight, slightly bent before apex (Fig. 276). Spiculum gastrale uniformly thick and curved before apex, 1.77x as long as the apophyses and 1.36x as long

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as the tegmen, its breadth 1.65x as broad as apophyses and 8.8x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 319). Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.1x longer than the proximal arm, the angle between the arms acute, nodulus projected out, ramus normal and the apex blunt, cornu bent, close towards proximal arm (Figs. 243 and 262). Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate, uniformly thick, 2x as long as basal plate, basal plate 1.12x as broad as long, without any hairs (Fig. 252). Length: 15.6 mm; Breadth: 6.2 mm. Specimens examined: 1? Meghalaya: Shillong (5000 ft), 25.V.1924, Coll. Fletcher T. B; 1? , Meghalaya: Khasi Hills (1000-3000 ft), VII.07, Coll. D.N. Distribution: INDIA: Meghalaya: Shillong, Khasi hills, West Behngal: Calcutta; INDONESIA. 6. Episomus guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr (Figs. 5, 32, 56, 79, 120, 127, 186, 187, 199, 223, 249, 253, 266, 293-296, 325 and 332) Episomus guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1845: 435; Faust, 1894: 185; 1897:138; Marshall, 1916: 208, 217 [NRS]. Episomus ocellatus Chevrolat, 1883: 75, Faust, 1907: 138. General colour dark or light brown above, pale whitish beneath; elytra bearing thirteen white spots – one on the scutellum, twelve on the elytra – three prominent (usually surrounded by a dark ring), one each on interval 3 and 7 behind middle, third on interval 5 before middle; two small spots on the suture, both missing sometimes; one near the base and the other on the declivity; another prominent spot sometimes present on interval 7 before middle (Fig. 332). Head transversely impressed behind the eyes, 1.38x as long as the rostrum, 3.78x as long as the apical emargination and 1.07x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.1x as broad as the rostrum, 1.75x as much as the distance between scrobes and 3.15x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow deep, 1.69x as long as the apical emargination, a narrow longitudinal impression present on each side of the central furrow which are not conspicuous sometimes. Rostrum with its apex produced forwards on each side into a very prominent, broad, jaw like process, 1.1x as long as broad, 2.62x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes oval,

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1.9x as long as broad from above and 1.05x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.06x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.23x as that between the middle and 1.16x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.3x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 5 and 32). Antennae brown. Scape broadened (1.83x) from middle to apex, 4.79x as long as the club. Funicle 1.14x as long as the scape and 5.47x times as long as the club, its seventh segment 1.05x as long as the club, first segment longest, 1.31x as long as the club, 1.47x as long as the second, 2.08x as long as the third, 2.27x as the fourth, 2.5x as the fifth, 2.77x as long as the sixth and 1.25x as the seventh; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.07x as broad as the first and sixth, 1.16x as broad as the second, third, fourth and fifth, segments first and sixth, second to fifth equally broad. Club black, 1.07x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, the second segment of club longest, 1.2x as long as the first and 1.25x as long as the third and fourth segments, third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first and second equally broad and the broadest, 1.25x as broad as the third and 2.5x as the fourth (Fig. 56). Prothorax with upper surface transversely rugose, sides rounded, broadest about middle, 1.28x as long as and 1.68x as broad as the rostrum, 1.18x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.52x as broad as at the apex and 1.13x as broad as at the base, the posterior margin truncate, 1.35x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.04x as that at the sides, 9.25x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 12.8x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 79). Scutellum not enclosed, 1.6x as long as broad and1.07 x as long as the length of punctations and 1.71x as broad as its breadth. Legs brown. Femora with a pale round white spot at their middle, 3.5x as long as broad, 1.07x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.33x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 4.33x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.23x as long as the first, 2.17x as the second and 1.61x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.48x as broad as first, 1.62x as that of second and 3.4x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 199 and 223). Elytra ovate, jointly rounded and subtruncate at base, without humeral angles. Upper surface not impressed (Fig. 127), its length 1.06x as much as the suture, 2.82x as

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long as the rostrum, 20.28x as long as the scutellum, 2.19x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.35x as that of prothorax and 1.53x as that of its breadth at base. Suture narrow, with a small conical tubercle above the apex, 2.07x as long as that of prothorax, 19.14x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of deep punctations, each punctation 1.85x as long as broad. Intervals broad, 1.71x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 120). Elytral vestiture with scales of two types; ovate, brown or slightly fluorescent green at the middle of few scales, with six to seven ridges originating from a dark area on the base and parallely converging towards the periphery; the other less predominant brown, similar, except that the both ends pointed (Figs. 186 and 187). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3.16x as long as the second, 4.75x as long as the third, 3.8x as the fourth and 1.36x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.29x as broad as second, 1.48x as broad as third, 1.74x as ventrite fourth and 2x as ventrite fifth. Male genitalia with aedeagus having anterior process sclerotised, 2.16x as long as the apophyses, 1.8x as its median lobe, 1.21x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.86x as long as the tegmen; median lobe elongate, only slightly broader at the junction with apophyses, 2.05x as long as the manubrium; its base 1.06x as broad as middle and 1.21x as broad as just before the apex, the breadth at middle, 1.14x as broad as that just before apex, breadth from sides 2x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. Apophyses 2.66x as broad as the manubrium (Figs. 293-295). Tegmen 1.97x as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece 1.25x as broad as the basal piece; parameres short, broad, apices acuminate, manubrium short, uniformly thick (Fig. 296). Spiculum gastrale 1.79x as long as the apophyses and 1.54x as long as the tegmen, its breadth 1.2x as broad as apophyses and 3.27x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 325). Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.27x as long as the proximal arm, proximal arm slightly swollen, the angle between the arms acute, nodulus with a projection, ramus ending abruptly and the apex blunt (Fig. 249 and 266). Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate, uniformly thick, apex conical, 1.66x as long as basal plate, basal plate as broad as long, with tuft of hairs (Fig. 253). Marshall discussed spots on fourth and sixth intervals of elytra but these could not be observed. Probably he erroneously gave the location of spots as fourth and sixth

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intervals instead of the fifth and seventh. The two small black spots at the anterior junction of striae 3 and 6 too could not be observed on the specimens studied. Length: 14.5; Breadth: 5.8 mm. Specimens examined: India: Meghalaya: ? , 2? ? , Nongpoh Hills, 7.1907, Coll. D. Nowrojee; Shillong: 1 specimen, Barapani reserved forest, 7.09.1983, Coll. Mayaram & Ramamurthy, V. V; Assam: 1 specimen, Barpetta, 2 specimens, Jorabat , 1 specimen Rangyia, on grass, 22-27.06.1988, Coll. Dalip. K; 1 specimen, Barapetta, 22.VI.1988, Coll. Baljinder; Seras Umbrau, V.1988, Coll. P. C. Sharma. Distribution: INDIA: Meghalaya: Nongpoh hills, Shillong, Assam: Barpetta, Jorabat, Rangya; Nagaland: Naga Hills, MAYANMAR, MALAYSIA 7. Episomus humeralis Chevrolat (Figs: 4, 33, 57, 80, 121, 128, 149, 150, 200, 224 and 336) Episomus humeralis Chevrolat, 1883: 76, 81, Faust, 1897: 118, 130; Marshall, 1916: 214, 241 [NRS ? ]. Episomus aurivilliusi Faust, 1897: 119, 132; Marshall, 1916: 214 (var. aurivilliusi), 241 [SMTD]. Episomus schonherri Faust, 1897: 118, 132; Marshall, 1916: 241 [SMTD]. General colour dark brown above and brown beneath, the inflexed margins grey or whitish, prothorax with broad, dark stripe on either side, which is continued to the base of elytra. Elytra with a distinct subhumeral brown patch, and a white stripe on the third interval (Fig. 336). Head without lateral impressions, 1.44x as long as the rostrum and 3.39x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.17x as broad as the rostrum, 2.91x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.57x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow deep, 1.82x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum slightly dilated near the apex, with the lateral costae sulcate at the posterior margin, 1.05x as broad as long, 2.25x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.72x as long as broad from above and 1.05x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.1x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.16x as that between the middle and 1.05x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.45x as the distance between the scrobes

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(Figs. 4 and 33). Antennae with scape broadened (2x) from middle to apex, 3.79x as long as the club. Funicle 1.17x as long as the scape and 4.46x times as long as the club, seventh segment longest, 1.33x as long as the first and second segments, 1.84x as long as the third, 2x as long as the fourth and fifth, 2.4x as the sixth, first with second and fourth with fifth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.06x as broad as the first, second and fifth, 1.23x as broad as the third and 1.14x as broad as the fourth and sixth, first, second with fifth, fourth with sixth equally broad. Club as long and 1.19x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, with its second segment longest, 1.8x as long as the first, third and fourth segments, first, third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first and second broadest, 1.12x as broad as the third, 2.37x as the fourth, first and second equally broad (Fig. 57). Prothorax with the lateral dividing line sharply defined, 1.04x as long as the head, 1.5x as long as and 1.52x as broad as the rostrum, 1.07x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.3x as broad as that of apex and 1.02x as broad as that of base, the posterior margin 1.27x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.06x as that at the sides, 8.64x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 11.6x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 80). Scutellum oval, not enclosed, 1.25x as long as broad and 1.25x as long as the length of punctations and 2.4xas broad as its breadth. Legs pale. Hind femora with its base darker, 3.9x as long as broad, 1.05x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.1x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 4.1x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.48x as long as the first, 1.76x as the second and 1.61x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.61x as broad as first and second, 4.2x as broad as the fourth. First and second segments equally broad (Figs. 200 and 224). Elytra elongate-ovate, separately rounded at the base, without a humeral angle and with a slight subhumeral prominence. Upper surface with a distinct basal impression (Fig. 128); its length 1.14x as much as the suture, 3.65x as long as the rostrum, 21x as long as the scutellum, 2.43x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle same as that of its breadth at the humeral prominence, 1.52x as that of prothorax and 1.56x as that of its breadth at base. Suture 2.13x as long as that of prothorax, 18.4x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of deep punctations, each punctation 2.4x as long as broad. Intervals

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broad, 2.6x as broad as the breadth of punctations. First stria terminating at suture near the base of scutellum (Fig. 121). Elytral vestiture with two types of scales. Predominant ones dark, with 14-15 dark ridges, not sharply pointed at apex, less predominant brown, plumose (Figs. 149 and 150). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3.33x as long as the second, 5x as long as the third and fourth, 1.54x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.26x as broad as second, 1.52x as broad as third, 2x as ventrite four and 2.31x as ventrite five. Length: 14.2 mm; Breadth: 5.6 mm. Specimens examined: 1? , Meghalaya: Khasi Hills. Distribution: INDIA: Meghalaya: Khasi Hills; Uttar Pradesh: Saharanpur. Bangladesh, Indonesia. 8. Episomus inermicollis Marshall (Figs. 3, 34, 58, 81, 103, 129, 157, 158, 213, 225, 301-304, 321 and 337) Episomus inermicollis Marshall, 1916: 211, 226 [BMNH ? & ? ]. General colour uniform dark brown above, whitish beneath, prothorax light brown with a darker lateral stripe (Fig. 337). Head without lateral impressions,1.58x as long as the rostrum and 5.8x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.04x as broad as the rostrum, 1.88x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.83x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow deep and narrow, 3.2x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum with the lateral costae having faint impression, 1.18x as broad as long, 1.72x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 2.1x as long as broad from above and 1.2x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.06x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.34x as that between the middle and 1.26x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.3x as that between the scrobes (Figs. 3 and 37). Antennae with scape broadened (1.57x) from middle to apex, 2.63x as long as the club. Funicle 1.32x as long as the scape and 3.47x as long as the club, second segment longest, 1.16x as long as the first, 1.64x as long as the third, 2x as long as the fourth and fifth, 2.5x as the sixth and 1.27x as the seventh, fourth and fifth equal; in terms of

57

breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.06x as broad as the first, 1.14x as broad as the second, 1.33x as broad as the third and 1.23x as broad as fourth, fifth and sixth; fourth, fifth and sixth equally broad. Club 1.73x as long and 1.31x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, 1.36x as long as the second segment of funicle, first, third and fourth segments longest, 1.22x as long as the second; first, third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, second broadest, 1.05x as broad as the first, 1.16x as the third, 2.1x as the fourth (Fig. 58). Prothorax with very few plications on upper side, two transverse impressed lines on each side one near apex and the other behind middle, apex narrower than base, sides slightly rounded, broadest before middle, its length 1.15x as long as the head, 1.81x as long as and 1.69x as broad as the rostrum, 1.1x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.61x as broad as at the apex and 1.13x as broad as at the base; posterior margin bisinuate, 1.42x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.18x as that at the sides, 11.4x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 13.5x as broad as scutellum; central furrow very small and located near base (Fig. 81). Scutellum not enclosed, small and round, 1.07x as long as broad, 1.27x as long and 1.44x as broad as those of punctations. Legs with femora 3.78x as long as broad, 1.1x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.07x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 3.69x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.12x as long as the first, 2.12x as the second and 1.71x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.56x as that of first, 1.42x as that of second and 5x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 213 and 225). Elytra separately rounded at the base, with prominent humeral angle and distinct subhumeral prominence. Upper surface transversely impressed (Fig. 129). Elytral length 1.07x as much as the suture, 4.18x as long as the rostrum, 26.28x as long as the scutellum, 2.3x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.05X as that of its breadth at the subhumeral prominence, 1.34x as that of prothorax and 1.52x as that of its breadth at base. Suture slightly elevated at declivity, 1.95x as long as that of prothorax, 26.46x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of shallow, separated, small punctations, each punctation 1.22x as long as broad. Intervals 1.11x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 103). Elytral vestiture with two types of scales, equally predominant, with a darker

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area near base, one with 6-8 inconspicuous ridges approximating near apex and the other with 6 ridges parallel to each other (Figs. 157 and 158). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.22x as long as the second, 2.86x as long as the third and fourth, 1.05x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.11x as broad as second, 1.35x as broad as third, 1.66x as fourth and 1.85x as fifth. Male genitalia with aedeagus having a subanterior projection, 2.25x as long as the apophyses, 1.63x as its median lobe, 1.42x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.62x as long as the tegmen. median lobe 2.44x as long as the manubrium; its base 1.37x as broad as middle and 1.46x as broad as just before the apex; breadth at middle 1.06x as broad as that just before apex, breadth from sides 2.86x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. Apophyses 2.33x as broad as the manubrium (Figs. 301-303). Tegmen 2.46x as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece 3.33x as broad as the basal piece; parameres narrow, with an acuminate projection in between (Fig. 304). Spiculum gastrale with straight shaft, blunt at apex, 1.57x as long as the apophyses, 1.13x as long as tegmen, its breadth 1.71x as broad as apophyses and 4x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 321). Length: 17.3 mm; Breadth: 6.2 mm. Specimen examined: 1? , Laitlyngkot, 16.X.1920, Coll. Fletcher, T. B. Distribution: INDIA: Meghalaya: Khasi Hills. 9. Episomus lacerta (Fabricius) (Figs. 19, 47, 59, 95, 104, 142, 188, 214, 238, 246, 257, 267, 309-312, 323 and 338) Curculio lacerta Fabricius, 1781: 190; 1787: 117; 1792: 470; 1801: 528; Gmelin in Linnaeus, 1790: 1781; Oliver, 1790: 539; 1807: 354; Herbst, 1795: 388. Episomus lacerta Boheman in Schoenherr, 1834: 476; 1842: 92; Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Pascoe, 1885: 214; Faust, 1897: 112, 159; Marshall, 1916: 210, 223; Hustache, 1928: 9 [BMNH]. Episomus nubeculosus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 92; Marshall, 1916: 223; Lona,1938: 369 (var. nubeculosus) [NRS] Episomus ?avarus Fabricius, 1801: 510; Faust, 1897: 159, 160. Episomus crenatus Guerin in litt Faust, 1897: 159.

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lacerta bohemani Faust, 1897: 112, 160; Marshall, 1916: 223 [SMTD]. lacerta var. piger Marshall, 1916: 224. General colour variable, greyish brown above, pale brown beneath, prothorax with darker lateral stripe, and rarely two broad whitish dorsal stripes continued on the base of the elytra. Elytra with not that well defined broad oblique paler stripe behind middle, followed by a large darker patch on the declivity. Small pale round, slightly raised spots present: one on top of declivity at the third interval, another on interval seven beyond the first spot and the third at apex of fifth interval (Fig. 338). Head 1.49x as long as the rostrum, 2.63x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.02x as broad as the rostrum, 1.63x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.37x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow deep and narrow, 1.43x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum 1.05x as broad as long, slightly dilated towards the apex, 2.04x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head, the dorsal costae distinctly sulcate. Eyes 1.9x as long as broad from above and 1.35x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.08x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.19x as that between the middle and 1.1x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.31x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 19 and 47). Antennae with scape broader at middle and narrowing at apex, 2.32x as long as the club. Funicle 1.67x as long as the scape and 3.88x times as long as the club, first segment longest, 1.33x as long as the second, 1.66x as long as the third, 1.81x as long as the fourth and sixth, 2x as the fifth, 1.11x as the seventh. Fourth and sixth segments equal; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.36x as broad as the first and second, 1.25x as broad as the third, fourth, fifth and sixth; first and second equally broad and third to sixth equally broad. Club 1.38x as long and 1.13x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, 1.38x as long as the first segment of funicle, third longest, 1.14x as long as the first, 1.33x as long as the second and 2x as long as the fourth; in terms of breadth, second broadest, 1.06x as broad as the first, 1.21x as the third, 2.43x as the fourth (Fig. 59). Prothorax plicate, subparallel from base to middle and narrow at the apex, 1.03x as long as the head, 1.54x as long as and 1.55x as broad as the rostrum, 1.06x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.52x as broad as the apex. The posterior margin shallowly bisinuate, 1.59x as broad as the breadth at middle, 1.04x as broad as the apex,

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its length at middle 1.26x as that at the sides, 11.9x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 11.6x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow broad and deep (Fig. 95). Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by the sutural margin, 1.09x as broad as long and 1.09x as broad as the breadth of punctations. Legs with femora 3.66x as long as broad, 1.1x as long as tibia and its breadth 1.2x as broad as tibia. Tibia 4x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.18x as long as the first, 1.9x as the second and 1.52x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.46x as that of first, 1.4x as that of second and 3.5x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 214 and 238). Elytra without humeral angle, broadly ovate, shoulders rounded, not acuminate at the apex. Upper surface without any distinct basal impression (Fig. 142). Elytral length 1.14x as much as the suture, 3.77x as long as the rostrum, 29x as long as the scutellum, 2.44x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.72x as that of prothorax and 1.65x as that of its breadth at base. Suture very slightly elevated on the declivity, 2.13x as long as prothorax, 25.45x as long as scutellum. Striae with rows of deep and close punctations, the sixth stria not reaching the base, each punctation 1.45x as long as broad, 1.45x as long as scutellum, and 1.1x as broad as the intervals; intervals narrow and subcostate (Fig. 104). Elytral vestiture with single type of scales, opaque, brown, elongate, rounded at apex, bearing many inconspicuous ridges (Fig. 188). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3x as long as the second, 3.6x as long as the third and fourth, 1.28x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first and second ventrites equal and broadest, 1.2x as broad as third, 1.4x as ventrite fourth, 1.75x as ventrite fifth. Male genitalia with aedeagus 2.15x as long as the apophyses, 1.64x as its median lobe and 1.37x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.86x as long as the tegmen; median lobe almost parallel sided, 2.06x as long as the manubrium; its base as broad as at middle and 1.13x as broad as just before the apex, breadth from sides 3.75x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. Apophyses 1.78x as broad as the manubrium (Figs. 309-311). Tegmen 1.81x as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece 1.53x as as broad as the basal piece. Parameres short and acuminate (Fig. 312). Spiculum gastrale 1.57x as long as apophyses and 1.36x as long as tegmen, its breadth 1.5x as broad as apophyses and 2.66x as broad as that of manubrium, with shaft gradually bending and broadly bent at apex (Fig. 323).

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Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.46x longer than the proximal arm, angle between arms acute, nodulus and ramus normal, cornu long and bent (Figs. 246 and 267). Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate, uniformly thick, 2.18x as long as basal plate, basal plate 1.42x as broad as long, with tuft of hairs (Fig. 257). Length: 14.5 mm; Breadth: 6.3 mm. Specimens examined: Coll. Chintamani, 29.2.1912; on Thupra, Coll. Arsikatti Kaval; 7 specimens (3? , 2? ), without location, date and collectors name., Tamil Nadu: Gudalur: Nilgiri Hills (3000 ft), 13.IX.17, Coll. Rao, Y. R; Madras, XI.06, on Tur, Coll. Sarnal Kot; on field bean, Coimbatore, Coll. T.V.R; Selam Dist, Athornuppam, 26-28. VIII.18, Coll. T.V.R; Yercaud: Shervaroys (8-5000 ft), 6.VIII.1917, Coll. Nagnath; Outer Madras, Samalkot, XI.06; 2 specimens Mangrakpass, 13.X.1979; 1? Madras: N. Selam:

Dankanikota, 09.X.1947; Karnataka: Bangalore, 38 specimens (1? ,1? ), without date and collectors name; 1? 12.X.1979, Coll. Maugri; on bean seedlings, 18.VII.1933; Hebbal (916m), 27.VIII.1977, on cabbage, 11.IX.1962; Hebbal Farm, 8.IX.1936, Coll. Haahubb, H.A.A; On Dolichos Sp., Sidlaghatta, 16.VII.1976, Coll. Veeraraju. P. V; On bushes, Bhanerghatta, 04.01.1977; Coorg, Pollibetta, 24.X.16., XI,15, Coll. Fletcher. T. B; South Coorg, 15-26.V.1914, Coll. Fletcher, T. B; 2 specimens eating Erythrina leaves, Coorg: Polibetta, 24.X-XI.15; North Coorg, Mercara, 1-11.V.1914, Coll. Fletcher. T. B; South Coorg, Pollibetta, 16-26.V.1914, Coll. Fletcher; on Erythrina lithosperma, Hassan, Manjanabad, 18.X.1925; Malur, 20.VIII.1909, 21.IX.1909, Coll. Coleman, L. C ; Davangere, 12.IX.1908, Coll. Coleman, L. C. Gujarat: 3 specimens, Surat, 17.IX.30 on Bajra; Orissa: Cuttack, XI.05, Coll. C.M.S. Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujrat, Orissa, Maharashtra, West Bengal. Indonesia Episomus lacerta bohemani Faust (Figs. 18, 48, 60, 96, 105, 143, 181, 182, 215, 239, 277-280, 326 & 339); (24, 42, 90, 114, 139, 167, 209, 233 & 349); (21, 45, 70, 93, 117, 140, 168, 169, 211, 236 & 351)

Head, 3.39x as long as the apical emargination, its base I .16x as broad as the rostrum, 2.12x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.7x as broad as the apical

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emargination; central furrow 2x as long as the apical emargination. Eyes, 1.63x as long as broad from above and 1.06x as long as broad from the sides, space between the eyes at middle 1.51x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 18 and 48). Antennae with scape 3.46x as long as the club. Funicle 1.08x as long as the scape, its seventh segment longest; first and second, fourth and filth equally long; in terms of breadth, first and seventh segment broadest of all, second to sixth equally broad. Club 1.24x as long as the seventh segment of funicle, second and third segments the longest, 1.6x as long as the first and fourth segments; first and second broadest (Fig. 60). Prothorax with its breadth at middle 1.33x as broad as at the apex and 1.02x as broad as at the base, the posterior margin 1.3x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 9.38x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 13.52x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; Scutellum 1.36x as long as broad and 1.36x as long as the length of punctations. Eaytra with very slight humeral angle (Fig. 143); its length 21.33x as long as the scutellum, 2.27x as that of prothorax and its breadth at middle 1.56x as that of prothorax. Suture 18.6x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of large punctuations, each punctuation 1.1x as long as broad. Intervals broad, 1.2x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 105). Elytral vestiture with two types of scales, one less predominant, elongate with dark base and parallel ridges; the other predominant, with a dark basal area, opaque, rounded at apex, bearing many inconspicuous ridges (Figs. 181 and 182). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 4.4x as long as the third and fourth, ventrites third and fourth equally long. Male genitalia with adeagus 1.93x as long as the: apophyses and median lobe; median lobe elongate, I .7x as long as the manubrium; equally long from base to the apex, its breadth from sides I .27x as broad as the breadth of apophyses; apophyses 3.66x as broad as the manubrium (Fig. 277-279). Tegmen with dorsal piece 2.73x as as broad as the basal piece. Spiculum gastrale with its breadth 4.8x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 326). Length: 10.5 - 14.6 mm; Breadth: 4.5 - 6.0 mm. Specimens examined: 1? ,1? without data; 1? , Tamil Nadu: Yarcaud (8000-5000 feet), 6.VIII.1917, Coll. Nagnath.

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Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu. Episomus lacerta nubeculosus Boheman in Schoenherr (Figs. 17, 35, 61, 82, 106, 130, 151, 201, 226, 289-292, 318 & 340) Head, as long as that of prothorax, 3.53x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.96x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.94x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow 2.05x as long as the apical emargination. Eyes 1.06x as long as broad from the sides. Antennae with scape 2.8x as long as the club, Funicle 1.25x as long as the scape, first and seventh segments longest, 1.07x as long as the second; third, fourth, fifth and sixth equally long; Club 1.6x as long and 1.54x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, with its second segment the longest. Prothorax 1.5x as long as the rostrum, the posterior margin 1.28x as broad as the apex. Legs with tibia 4.66x as long as broad with a prominent projection at apex (Fig. 226). Elytra ovate, plicate, with slight humeral angle (Fig. 130). Striae with each punctation 1.1x as long as broad and 1.25x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. Elytral vestiture with single types of scales, with a dark core and indistinct dark lines, rounded at apex (Fig. l 51). Venter with the first ventrite 1.5x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.6 Ix as ventrite four and 1.85x as ventrite five. Male genitalia with aedeagus 2.25x as its median lobe; median lobe 1.63x as long as the manubrium. Tegmen 2.22x as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece 2.25x as broad as the basal piece, the breadth of manubriurn 1.31x as broad as the breadth of apophyses (Fig. 292). Spiculum gastrale with its breadth 2.1 x as broad as apophyses and 1.6x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 318). Length: 11.5 mm; Breadth: 5.0 mm. Specimens examined: 1? , Karnataka: Belgaum. Distribution: INDIA: Karnataka: Belgaum. 10. Episomus lentus Erichson (Figs. 16, 36, 62, 83, 107, 131, 159, 202, 227, 281-284, 320 and 341)

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Episomus lentus Erichson, 1834: 263; Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 94; Chevrolat, 1883: 76. Simallus lentus Faust, 1897: 122, 197. Episomus lateralis Eydoux, 1839: 266; Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 93; Faust, 1897: 197. General colour brown above and below (Fig. 341). Head without lateral impressions, 1.55 x as long as the rostrum, 2.92x as long as the apical emargination and 1.08x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.25x as broad as the rostrum, 2.03x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.5x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow broad and deep, 3.06x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum with the lateral costae slightly impressed at the posterior margin, 1.06x as broad as long, 1.81x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 2x as long as broad from above and 1.06x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.04x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.19x as that between the middle and 1.14x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.81x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 16 and 36). Antennae brown. Scape broadened (1.53x) from middle to apex, 4.7x as long as the club. Funicle 1.32x as long as the scape and 6.23x as long as the club, seventh segment longest, 1.29x as long as the club, 1.15x as long as the first, 1.37x as long as the second, 1.46x as long as the third, 2x as the fourth and sixth, 1.83x as the fifth, fourth and sixth equal; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.12x as broad as the first, 1.28x as broad as the second and third, 1.38x as broad as the fourth, fifth and sixth; segments second and third, fourth to sixth equally broad. Club 1.11x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, with its first three segments longest, 2.5x as long as the fourth segment, first to third equally long; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.05x as broad as the second, 1.25x as the third, 2.86x as the fourth (Fig. 62). Prothorax plicate, with one transverse impressed line near apex, slightly cylindrical from base to beyond middle and narrowed at the apex, the posterior margin slightly bisinuate, 1.42 x as long as and 1.71x as broad as the rostrum, 1.27x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.36x as that of apex and 1.06x as broad as the base, the posterior margin 1.3 x as broad as the apex, its length at middle equal as that at the sides, 12.4x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 28.48x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 83). Scutellum small, enclosed, 1.8x as long as

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broad. Legs with femora 4.2x as long as broad, 1.1x as long as the length of tibia and as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 3.2x as long as broad with a spur at apex not extending beyond margins (Fig. 227). Tarsi with first and fourth segments longest, 2x as long as the second and 1.4x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.1x as broad as first, 1.3x as that of second and 3.5x as broad as the fourth (Fig. 202). Elytra obovate, not impressed and truncate at base (Fig. 131), with a distinct blunt humeral angle and a broad subhumeral prominence. Upper surface with a transverse basal impression; its length 1.1x as much as the suture, 3.46x as long as the rostrum, 10.88x as long as the scutellum, 2.43x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.1x as that of the subhumeral prominence, 1.49x as that of prothorax and 1.57x as that of its breadth at base (Fig. 107). Suture 2.21x as long as that of prothorax, 27.55x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of large punctations, each punctation 1.87x as long as broad, 1.66x as long as and 1.6x as broad as those of scutellum. Intervals broad, 1.5x as broad as the breadth of punctations. Elytral vestiture with a single type of scale, dark, with 6-8 scarcely visible ridges parallel to each other originating from a dark area near base (Fig. 159). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.83x as long as the second, 3.5x as long as the third and fourth,1.31x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, second the broadest, 1.12x as broad as the first, 1.23x as broad as third, 1.48x as fourth and 1.68x as fifth. Male genitalia with aedeagus having a subanterior projection, 1.75x as long as the apophyses, 2x as its median lobe, 1.42x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.55x as long as the tegmen. Median lobe broad, with sides almost parallel, 1.55x as long as the manubrium; its breadth from sides 2.42x as broad as that of apophyses. Apophyses 1.86x as broad as the manubrium (Figs. 281-283). Tegmen 2x as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece 3.88x as as broad as the basal piece. Parameres thin and acuminate (Fig. 284). Spiculum gastrale with the shaft progressively decreasing in breadth and curved at apex, 1.23x as long as the apophyses, 1.1x as long as tegmen, its breadth 1.37x as broad as apophyses and 2.56x as broad as that of manubrium (Fig. 320). Length: 13.3 mm; Breadth: 5.8 mm. Specimen examined: 1? , Philippines: Los Banos, 18.IX.1909, Coll. Ledyard, E. M.

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Distribution: Philippines 11. Episomus montanus Guerin (Figs. 15, 37, 72, 84, 119, 133, 170, 204, 228, 248, 258, 264 and 342) Episomus montanus Guerin, 1843: 52; Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 88; Chevrolat, 1883: 74; Faust, 1897: 103, 125; Marshall, 1916: 209, 219, 220 [Type not traced]. Episomus clathratus Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 89; Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Faust, 1897: 126; Marshall, 1916: 219 [NRS]. General colour dull black above and beneath, light brown in the fovea, a small pale spot present at apex of the fifth interval (Fig. 342). Head with lateral impressions, 1.67x as long as the rostrum, 3.68x as long as the apical emargination and 1.08x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.25x as broad as the rostrum, 2.16x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.76x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow very broad and deep, with a rounded dilation in the front, 1.8x as long as the apical emargination, on each side of which, a short backword indendation from the transverse ante-ocular furrow present. Rostrum slightly dilated near the apex, with the lateral costae bearing a deep curved impression, 1.16x as broad as long, 1.48x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.6x as long as broad from above and equally long as well as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.1x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.13x as that between the middle and 1.23x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.62x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 18 and 40). Antennae with scape broadened (1.58x) from middle to apex, 2.66x as long as the club. Funicle 1.28x as long as the scape and 3.42x as long as the club, second and seventh segments longest, 1.04x as long as the first, 1.77x as long as the third, 2.1x as long as the fourth and sixth and 2.3x as the fifth, second and seventh equally long and fourth and sixth equally long; in terms of breadth, first, second and seventh segments broadest of all, seventh parallel till middle and dilated anteriorly, 1.07x as broad as the third and sixth, 1.15x as broad as the fourth and fifth; first, second with seventh, third with sixth and fourth with fifth equally broad. Club 1.43x as long and 1.2x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, third segment longest, 2.3x as long as the first, 1.75x as long as the second and 2.8x as long as the fourth segments; in terms of breadth, second broadest, 1.06x as broad as the first, 1.38x as the third, 2.57x as the fourth (Fig. 77).

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Prothorax with deep plications on upper side, base bisinuate and broader than apex, sides slightly rounded, broadest before middle, 1.54x as long as and 1.56x as broad as the rostrum, 1.17x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.25x as broad as the apex and 1.01x as broad as the base, posterior margin 1.23x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.09x as that at the sides, 9.71x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 12.3x as broad as that of scutellum; central furrow deep. Scutellum small, 1.07x as long as broad. Legs with femora 4.38x as long as broad, 1.18x as long as and its breadth 1.08x as broad as those of tibia. Tibia 4x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.3x as long as the first and third, 2.2x as the second; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 3.7x as broad as first, 1.4x as that of second and 4.8x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 215 and 240). Elytra ovate, separately rounded at the base, with obtuse humeral angles, the steep posterior declivity sloping inwards and slightly indented, not impressed at base (Fig. 140); its length 1.07x as much as the suture, 4.77x as long as the rostrum, 6x as long as the scutellum, 3.09x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.22 as that of humeral angle, 1.67x as that of prothorax and 1.69x as that of its breadth at base. Suture sharply raised at top of declivity, 2.88x as long as that of prothorax, 28x as long as the scutellum. Striae shallow, with large subquadrate punctations, equally as long as broad, 1.28 x as long as the length and 1.38x as broad as the breadth of scutellum and 1.8x as broad as the breadth of intervals. Intervals narrow (Fig. 126). Elytral vestiture with single type of scales, opaque, dark, elongate, not sharply pointed at apex, bearing many inconspicuous ridges (Fig. 178). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.4x as long as the second, 3x as long as the third, 3.4x as long as the fourth and 1.1x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first the broadest, 1.12x as broad as second, 1.32x as broad as third, 1.58x as fourth and 1.9x as fifth. Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm almost parallel to the proximal, 1.18x as long as the proximal arm, the angle between the arms acute, nodulus, ramus impressed, cornu long, bent, close towards proximal arm (Figs. 262 and 275); spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate, uniformly thick, 2.11x as long as basal plate, basal plate 1.51x as broad as long (Fig. 271).

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Length: 17.6 mm; Breadth: 7.0 mm. Specimen examined: 1? , without locality, date and collectors name; 1? Tamil Nadu: Nilgiri Hills (7000 ft), VIII.04, Coll. C.S.R. Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu: Nilgiris, Coonoor, Ooty 12. Episomus nilgirinus Heller (Figs. 13, 38, 73, 85, 113, 134, 160, 161, 205, 229 and 331) Episomus nilgirinus Heller, 1908: 131; Marshall, 1916: 210, 222 [SMTD ? & ? ]. General colour brown above with a darker lateral stripe which continues on the base of intervals four to seven, and brown beneath, sides of prothorax below the eye level pale metallic or coppery, the same continued till the elytral apex. Intervals three and four with a pale patch at the top of the declivity (Fig. 331). Centre of sternum green. Head without lateral impressions, as long as that of prothorax, 1.56x as long as the rostrum and 3.41x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.14x as broad as the rostrum, 2.08x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.21x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow deep, dilated anteriorly and before middle, 1.74x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum dilated towards apex, with the lateral costae deeply impressed at the posterior margin, 1.08x as broad as long, 1.79x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.75x as long as broad from above and 1.1x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the middle of eyes 1.03x as the distance between the anterior margins, distance between posterior margins 1.08x as that between the middle and 1.12x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.71x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 13 and 38). Antennae with scape broadened (1.66x) from middle to apex, 2.72x as long as the club. Funicle 1.29x as long as the scape and 3.53x times as long as the club, second segment longest, 1.22x as long as the first, 1.55x as long as the third, 2.33x as long as the fourth and sixth, 2.15x as the fifth and 1.33x as the seventh, fourth and sixth equal; in terms of breadth, first and seventh segments broadest of all, seventh dilated anteriorly, 1.15x as broad as the second and sixth, 1.07x as broad as the third, 1.25x as broad as the fourth and fifth, first with seventh, second with sixth and fourth with fifth equally broad. Club 1.71x as long and 1.4x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, 1.28x as long as the second segment of funicle,

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club with third segment longest, 1.5x as long as the first, 1.2x as long as the second and 2x as long as the fourth segment; in terms of breadth, second broadest, 1.05x as broad as the first and third and 2.33x as the fourth, first and third equally broad (Fig. 73). Prothorax roughly plicate, slightly cylindrical from base to beyond middle and narrowed at the apex, the posterior margin slightly bisinuate, 1.56x as long as and 1.6x as broad as the rostrum, 1.11x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.4x as broad as at the apex and 1.06x as broad as at the base, the posterior margin 1.31x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.11x as that at the sides, 10.5x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 12.5x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow deep (Fig. 85). Scutellum small, obovate, not enclosed, 1.07x as long as broad and 1.16x as long as and 1.3x as broad as those of punctations. Legs pale. Hind femora with its base darker, 3.2x as long as broad, 1.04x as long as and 1.36x as broad as those of tibia. Tibia 4.18x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.16x as long as the first, 1.91x as the second and 1.31x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.63x as broad as first, 1.18x as that of second and 4.88x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 205 and 229). Elytra ovate, separately rounded at the base, with a distinct blunt humeral angle. Upper surface with a transverse, basal impression (Fig. 134). Elytral length 1.1x as much as the suture, 3.56x as long as the rostrum, 24x as long as the scutellum, 2.28x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.11x as that of its breadth at the humeral angle, 1.44x as that of prothorax and 1.53x as that of its breadth at base. Suture slightly elevated on the declivity, 2.1x as long as that of prothorax, 22x as long as the scutellum. Striae broad with rows of large punctations, each punctation 1.2x as long as broad. Intervals broad, 1.1x as broad as those of punctations (Fig. 113). Elytral vestiture with two types of scales, equally predominant, one plumose and the other metallic green with specks of pink, broadening from base to apex, with wavy, inconspicuous ridges. Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3.14x as long as the second, 4.4x as long as the third, 3.66x as long as the fourth and 1.46 as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first ventrite broadest, 1.16x as broad as second, 1.35x as broad as third, 1.56x as fourth and 1.85x as fifth (Figs. 160 and 161). Length: 15.2 mm; Breadth: 6.2 mm. Specimen examined: 1? , Tamil Nadu: Palur; Coll. Lund, G.

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Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu: South Arcot, Nilgiri hills 13. Episomus obliquus Marshall (Figs. 12, 39, 63, 86, 109, 135, 162, 163, 206, 230, 244, 259, 265 and 350) Episomus obliquus Marshall, 1916: 215, 246 [BMNH ? ]. General colour light brown above, whitish beneath, prothorax with broad lateral dark brown stripe continued on to the base of elytra on interval 4-7, extending from there till the declivity where it terminates obliquely and abruptly (Fig. 350). Head with a deep transverse impression behind the eyes, 1.54x as long as the rostrum, 2.95x as long as the apical emargination and 1.11x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.24x as broad as the rostrum, 1.58x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.36x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow broad and deep, dilated anteriorly, 1.74x as long as the apical emargination, forehead roundly elevated at its side. Rostrum subquadrate, parallel sided, with the lateral costae distinctly impressed, 1.29x as broad as long, 1.83x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.07x as long as broad from above and equally long as well as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.07x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.22x as that between the middle and 1.13x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.22x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 12 and 39). Antennae light brown with scape broadened (1.5x) from middle to apex, 4x as long as the club. Funicle 1.08x as long as the scape and 4.31x times as long as the club, first segment the longest, as long as the club, 1.26x as long as the second, 1.73x as long as the third, 2.11x as the fourth and sixth, 2.71x as the fifth and 1.59x as the seventh, fourth and sixth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.08x as broad as the first, 1.3x as broad as the second, 1.18x as broad as the third, fourth, fifth and sixth; third to sixth equally broad. Club 1.58x as long and 1.15x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle and with its first segment longest, 1.2x as long as the second and 1.5x as long as the third and fourth segments, third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.07x as broad as the second, 1.36x as the third, 2.5x as the fourth (Fig. 63).

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Prothorax transverse, shallowly plicate, base truncate, 1.38x as long as and 1.68x as broad as the rostrum, 1.57x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.35x as broad as the apex and 1.03x as broad as the base, posterior margin 1.31x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.02x as that at the sides, 9.76x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 15.36x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow deep (Fig. 86). Scutellum small, as long as broad, 1.43x as long as the length of punctations and 3.33x as broad as its breadth. Legs light brown. Femora 3.7x as long as broad, 1.15x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.25x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 4x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.36x as long as the first, 1.87x as the second and 1.43x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.28x as broad as first, 1.59x as that of second and 3.86x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 206 and 230). Elytra oblong-ovate, truncate at base. Upper surface not impressed at base, without any humeral angle (Fig. 135). Elytral length 1.12x as much as the suture, 3.75x as long as the rostrum, 26.4x as long as the scutellum, 2.7x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.38x as that of prothorax and 1.42x as that of its breadth at base. Suture 2.42x as long as that of prothorax, 23.6x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of small punctations, each punctation 2.33x as long as broad. Intervals broad, 2.28x as broad as the punctations (Fig. 109). Elytral vestiture brown with scales of two types, one with a prominent pedicel and blunt apex, seven to eight ridges originating from the base and terminating at the apex. The other kind of scales without a pedicel, with dark irregular ridges and a darker area at the base (Figs. 162 and 163). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3.6x as long as the second, 4.5x as long as the third and fourth, 1.63x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first the broadest, 1.33x as broad as second, 1.6x as broad as third, 2x as fourth and 2.5x as fifth. Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.1x as long as the proximal arm, angle between the arms acute, nodulus and ramus without any projection (Figs. 244 and 265); spiculum ventrale with shaft uniformly thick, apex blunt, 2.35x as long as basal plate, basal plate 1.45x as broad as long, without any hairs at apex (Fig. 259). Length: 11.6 mm ; Breadth: 5.5 mm. Specimens examined: ? Myanmar: Maymyo (3500 ft), 19-31-VII, 1914; Coll.

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M. H. Fletcher. Distribution: Myanmar 14. Episomus obuncus Marshall (Figs. 11, 40, 64, 87, 110, 136, 191-193, 207, 231, 297-300, 327 and 345) Episomus obuncus Marshall, 1916: 211, 231 [BMNH ? ]. General colour dark brown above, with pale brown markings (Fig. 345). Head with longitudinal impression shorter and deeper, 1.45x as long as the rostrum, 3.2x as long as the apical emargination and 1.04x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.18x as broad as the rostrum, 2.13x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.36x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow deep, 1.48x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum with the lateral costae more elevated and the longitudinal impression on them shorter and deeper, 1.02x as broad as long, 2.2x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.8x as long as broad from above and 1.11x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.16x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.23x as that between the middle and 1.06x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.39x as that between the scrobes (Figs. 11 and 40). Antennae light brown with short and stout scape, broadened (1.25x) from middle to apex, 3.5x as long as the club, Funicle 1.38x as long as the scape and 4.85x times as long as the club, seventh segment longest, 1.2x as long as the club, 1.5x as long as the first, 1.41x as long as the second, 2.4x as long as the third and fourth, 2.66x as the fifth and 2.18x as the sixth, third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.14x as broad as the first, 1.33x as broad as the second, fourth and fifth, 1.45x as broad as the third and 1.23x as broad as the sixth; second, fourth and fifth equally broad. Club 1.12x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, with its second and third segments the longest, 1.5x as long as the first and fourth segments, second, third and first, fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first and second the broadest, 1.38x as broad as the third and 3x as the fourth, first and second equally broad (Fig. 64). Prothorax deeply plicate, 1.4x as long as and 1.57x as broad as the rostrum, 1.14x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.33x as broad as at the apex and 1.07x as

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broad as at the base, posterior margin 1.24x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.04x as that at the sides, 10.26x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 10.08x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow shallow, with its edges more raised, without any median carina (Fig. 87). Scutellum prominent, not enclosed, 1.08x as broad as long and 1.62x as broad as that of punctations. Legs light brown. Femora 3.82x as long as broad, 1.05x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.1x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 4x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.03x as long as the first, 1.65x as the second and 1.32x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.33x as broad as first, 1.38x as that of second and 4x as broad as the fourth. Elytra broadly ovate. Upper surface shallowly impressed near base; without any humeral angle (Fig. 136). Elytral length 1.08x as much as the suture, 3.63x as long as the rostrum, 26.66x as long as the scutellum, 2.6x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.5x as that of prothorax and 1.61x as that of its breadth at base. Suture scarcely elevated posteriorly, 2.4x as long as that of prothorax, 24.66x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of deep separated punctations, each punctation 1.75x as long as broad and 1.16x as long as the length of scutellum. Intervals broad, 1.37x as broad as that of punctations (Fig. 110). Elytral vestiture with scales of three types, less predominant brown, elongate with 6-9 ridges, rounded at apex and with blunt pedicel; predominant ones without a pedicel, with metallic pinkish and / or greenish tinge at the core of few scales, inner core opaque, granulated; third longer scales with irregular ridges radiating from the base and terminating at the blunt anterior periphery (Figs. 191-193). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 4.83x as long as the second, 5.8x as long as the third and fourth, 2.05x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first the broadest, 1.19x as broad as second, 1.42x as broad as third, 1.76x as fourth and 2x as fifth. Male genitalia with aedeagus having median lobe elongate, slightly broadening at the base before apophyses, 2.6x as long as the apophyses, 1.62x as its median lobe, 1.32x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.38x as long as the tegmen; median lobe 2.48x as long as the manubrium. Its base 1.06x as broad as middle and 1.5x as broad as just before the apex; breadth at middle 1.41x as broad as that just before apex, breadth from sides 1.37x as broad as that of apophyses. Apophyses 2.66x as broad as the manubrium and 1.33x as broad as

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the shaft of spiculum gastrale (Figs. 297-299). Tegmen 2.2x as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece 1.04x as broad as the basal piece. Parameres with apices acuminate, manubrium uniformly thick and straight (Fig. 300). Spiculum gastrale 1.96x as long as the apophyses and 1.38x as long as the tegmen, its breadth 2x as broad as that of manubrium (Fig. 327). Length: 14.3 mm; Breadth: 5.6 mm. Specimens examined: ? , (paratype) Kerala: Thiruvananthapuram, IX.1890. Distribution: INDIA: Kerala. 15. Episomus pudibundus Faust Figs. 14, 41, 65, 88, 111, 137, 171, 172, 208, 232, 247, 254, 261 and 346) Episomus pudibundus Faust, 1894: 185; Marshall, 1916: 214, 242 [SMTD]. Simallus pudibundus Faust, 1897: 121, 194; Marshall, 1916: 242. General colour light to dark brown above and pale sandy to white beneath, rarely with a distinct greenish tinge. Elytra with irregular pale markings (Fig. 346). Head with a shallow, transverse impression on vertex, two elevated tubercles present. Its length 1.54x as long as the rostrum and 3.85x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.24x as broad as the rostrum, 1.92x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.33x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow deep, 2.5x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum with costae on each side of central furrow shallowly impressed, 1.24x as broad as long, 1.85x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 2.33x as long as broad from above and 1.1x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.05x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.18x as that between the middle and 1.12x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.37x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 14 and 41). Antennae brown. Scape broadened (1.42x) from middle to apex, 4.54x as long as the club. Funicle 1.13x as long as the scape and 5.13x as long as the club, its seventh segment 1.1x as long as the club; first segment the longest, 1.27x as long as the club, 1.75x as long as the second, 2.33x as long as the third and fifth, 2.54x as long as the fourth, 2.8x as the sixth and 1.16x as the seventh; third and fifth equal; in terms of breadth, first and seventh

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segments broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.2x as broad as the second, 1.12x as broad as the third, 1.06x as broad as the fourth, fifth and sixth; fourth to sixth equally broad. Club1.16x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, with its second segment the longest, 1.33x as long as the first, 1.6x as long as the third and 2.66x as long as the

fourth segment; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.05x as broad as the second, 1.61x as the third, 3x as the fourth (Fig. 65). Prothorax transversely plicate, posterior margin truncate, sides gently rounded, its length 1.55x as long as the head, 1.78x as long as and 1.61x as broad as the rostrum, 1.12x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.3x as broad as at the apex and 1.08x as broad as at the base, the posterior margin 1.19x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.15x as that at the sides, 14.24x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 22.86x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 88). Scutellum enclosed, very small, 1.43x as long as broad and 1.4x as broad as the breadth of punctations. Legs brown. Femora 4.7x as long as broad, 1.14x as long and broad as tibia. Tibia 4.1x as long as broad. Tarsi with first segment longest, 1.84x as long as the second, 1.3x as the third and 1.06x as the fourth; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.4x as broad as first and second and 3.5x as broad as the fourth, first and second equally broad (Figs. 208 and 232). Elytra elongate-ovate, posterior margin jointly and shallowly sinuate, without any humeral angle and not transversely impressed near base (Fig. 137). Its length 1.05x as much as the suture, 4.05x as long as the rostrum, 32.4x as long as the scutellum, 2.27x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.32x as that of prothorax and 1.44x as that of its breadth at base. Suture 2.16x as long as that of prothorax, 30.8x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of large, separated and often ocellated punctations, each punctation 2.2x as long as broad and 1.11x as long as the length of scutellum. Intervals broad, 2.8x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 111). Elytral vestiture with two types of scales; predominant metallic green, sometimes with pink specks, with 9-10 transparent ridges, inner core dark, apex not sharply pointed, less predominant brown, elongate with irregular ridges (Figs. 171 and 172).

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Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3.33x as long as the second and fourth, 4x as long as the third, 1.25x as long as the fifth, ventrites second and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.13x as broad as second, 1.3x as broad as three, 1.59x as ventrite four and 1.95x as ventrite five. Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.03x as long as the proximal arm, the angle between the arms slightly acute, ramus with a prominent projection terminating in a blunt apex (Fig. 247 and 261). Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate, uniformly thick, slightly dilated before apex, 1.77x as long as basal plate, basal plate 1.05x as broad as long with prominent hairs at the apex (Fig. 254). Length: 15.8 mm; Breadth: 5.6 mm. Specimen examined: 1 ? , Coll. Andrewes. Distribution: Myanmar. 16. Episomus quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges (Figs. 26, 49, 66, 89, 112, 144, 183-185, 216, 240, 250, 255, 263, 305-308, 322 and 347) Episomus quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges, 1890: 212; Faust, 1891: 266 printed “quadrinotatus” in error; 1897: 117, 141; Marshall, 1916: 211, 228 [NPC]. Episomus prainae Faust, 1891: 265 printed “pracuae” in error; 1892: XVIII; 1897: 117, 141 [SMTD]. General colour earth brown or pale brown above, pale brown to pale grey beneath; bearing 6 white spots, three on each elytra. Two distinct spots on interval 3, one before and one behind middle, and a less distinct spot on the apex of fifth interval; on the declivity a large, irregular, blackish – brown patch, much variable in size and tint, and with ill defined blackish markings on the disk too (Fig. 347). Head without lateral impressions, 1.56x as long as the rostrum, 3.56x as long as the apical emargination and 1.02x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.21x as broad as the rostrum, 1.77x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.38x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow narrow and deep, 2.08x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum with costae having a short basal impression, 1.07x as broad as long, 1.83x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.9x as long as broad from above and 1.16x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.36x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.18x as that

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between the middle and 1.04x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.13x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 26 and 49). Antennae brown with seventh segment of funicle black, scape broadened (1.44x) from middle to apex, 3.14x as long as the club. Funicle 1.18x as long as the scape and 3.72x times as long as the club, first segment longest, 1.05 x as long as the second, 1.57x as long as the third, 2x as the fourth, 2.2x as the fifth and sixth, and 1.1x as the seventh, fifth and sixth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.23x as broad as the first, third and sixth segments, 1.33x as broad as the second, fourth and fifth; first, third and sixth, second, fourth and fifth equally broad. Club black, 1.32x as long as the first segment of funicle and 1.45x as long and 1.37x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, the second segment of club the longest, 1.25x as long as the first, 2x as long as the third and 1.66x as long as the fourth segments; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.05x as broad as the second, 1.31x as the third, 2.2x as the fourth (Fig. 66). Prothorax with posterior margin deeply bisinuate, 1.51x as long as and 1.49x as broad as the rostrum, 1.06x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.23x as broad as the apex, the posterior margin 1.06x as broad as the breadth at middle, 1.3x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.06x as that at the sides, 8.53x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 11.33x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow broad and shallow (Fig. 89). Scutellum brown, slightly enclosed, 1.25x as long as broad and 1.15x as long as the length of punctations and 1.1x as broad as its breadth. Legs greyish brown with some vague, darker markings on the hind femora, 4.36x as long as broad, 1.1x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth same as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 4x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment the longest, 1.02x as long as the first, 1.8x as the second and 1.61x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.61x as broad as first, 1.68x as that of second and 3.7x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 216 and 240). Elytra oblong-ovate. Upper surface transversely impressed near base and separately rounded, humeral angles well developed (Fig. 144); its length 1.15x as much as the suture, 4.34x as long as the rostrum, 9.81x as long as the scutellum, 2.87x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.67x as that of prothorax and 1.58x as that of its breadth at base. Suture distinctly carinate at the declivity, 2.5x as long as that of prothorax,

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21.33x as long as the scutellum. Striae broad and deep with large subquadrate punctations, each punctation 1.18x as long as broad. Intervals narrow, subcostate, 1.1x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 112). Elytral vestiture with scales of three types, brown, less predominant elongate, dark, with 4-5 inconspicuous ridges, rounded at the apex; predominant ones with a distinct rounded pedicel, median area of some with 7-9 indistinct ridges originating from the periphery and converging towards the apex, with inner core at base dark; other without a dark core with the ridges running parallel to each other (Figs. 183-185). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3x as long as the second, 3.5x as long as the third and fourth, 1.4x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.18x as broad as second, 1.45x as broad as three, 1.73x as ventrite four and 2.14x as ventrite five. Male genitalia with aedeagus 2.48x as long as the apophyses, 1.67x as its median lobe, 1.31x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.76x as long as the tegmen; median lobe elongate, slightly constricted at the middle, broadest after mid distance from the base and broadening at base before apophyses, 1.91x as long as the manubrium; broadest at middle, its breadth at middle 1.66x as broad as that just before apex and 1.53x as broad as at the base, its base 1.08x as broad as the breadth just before apex, breadth from sides 1.5x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. Apophyses 3.33x as broad as the manubrium and 1.66x as broad as the shaft of spiculum gastrale (Figs. 305-307). Tegmen 1.82x as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece 1.1x as as broad as the basal piece. parameres long, with apices acuminate, manubrium long, uniformly thick (Fig. 308). Spiculum gastrale with shaft straight, bent and rounded at the apex, 1.9x as long as the apophyses and 1.34x as long as the tegmen, its breadth 2x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 322). Female genitalia having spermatheca with proximal arm slightly swollen, distal arm 1.27x as long as the proximal arm, the angle between the arms acute, cornu projecting towards proximal arm (Figs. 250 and 263); spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate, uniformly thick, apex conical, 1.63x as long as basal plate, basal plate 1.3x as broad as long with tuft of hairs (Fig. 255). Length: 16.5 mm; Breadth: 6.3 mm.

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Specimens examined: India: Assam, Kurseong; ? ,? (5000 ft), April, June 1922; Ging Lebong: 2? (4500 ft), VI.1909, Coll. H. M. Fletcher. Distribution: INDIA: Assam; Lakhimpur, West Bengal: Ging Libong, Gopaldhara, Uttar Pradesh: Allahabad 17. Episomus raucus Faust (Figs. 25, 50, 67, 97, 108, 145, 156, 217, 241, 313-316, 324 and 348) Episomus raucus Faust, 1897: 113, 162; Marshall, 1916: 210, 222 [SMTD]. General colour greenish to brown above, pale brown beneath, prothorax with dorsal part green, inflexed margins of prothorax and elytra with pale green vestiture, lateral green vestiture extending up to the fourth stria; sutural area pale fawn (Fig. 348). Head, without transverse impression behind eyes, 1.58x as long as the rostrum and 3.68x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.12x as broad as the rostrum, 2.11x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.17x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow broad and deep near base, 2.16x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum 1.17x as broad as long, 1.7x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 2.2x as long as broad from above and 1.15x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.16x as that between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.3x as that between the middle and 1.12x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.38x as that between the scrobes (Figs. 25 and 50). Antennae greenish brown with scape dilated (1.38x) from middle to apex, 3.83x as long as the club. Funicle with seventh segment black from middle till apex, 1.12x as long as the scape and 4.2x times as long as the club, seventh segment longest, 1.13x as long as the first, 1.3x as long as the second, 1.73x as long as the third, 1.86x as the fourth and fifth, 2.16x as the sixth, fourth and fifth equal; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.36x as broad as the first, fifth and sixth, 1.26x as broad as the second,third and fourth; first, fifth and sixth equally broad and second to fourth, equally broad. Club black, 1.11x as long and 1.1x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, third segment longest, 1.5x as long as the first, 1.28x as long as the second and fourth segments, second and fourth equally long; in terms of

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breadth, first and second broadest, 1.23x as broad as the third, 1.1x as the fourth, first and second equally broad (Fig. 67). Prothorax plicate, subparallel from base to middle and narrow at the apex, 1.03x as long as the head, 1.63x as long and 1.6x as broad as the rostrum, 1.15x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.43x as broad as the apex and 1.07x as broad as the base, the posterior margin 1.34x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.16x as that at the sides, 10.85x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 15.8x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow deep (Fig. 97). Scutellum enclosed in front by the sutural margin, 1.27x as long as broad and 1.45x as long as the length of punctations and as broad. Legs with dense green or grey vestiture. Femora 3x as long as broad, 1.06x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.06x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 3x as long as broad, with a projection at apex (Fig. 241). Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.22x as long as the first, 3.54x as the second and 1.3x as the first; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.41x as that of first, 1.37x as that of second and 4.8x as broad as the fourth (Fig. 316). Elytra elongate, ovate, without a distinct humeral angle, less acuminate at the apex and less rounded at base. Upper surface without any basal impression (Fig. 145), its length 1.11x as much as the suture, 3.87x as long as the rostrum, 25.71x as long as the scutellum, 2.36x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.35x as that of prothorax and 1.44x as that of its breadth at base. Suture distinctly elevated on the declivity, 2.13x as long as that of prothorax, 23.14x as long as the scutellum. Striae broad, with rows of large punctations, each punctation 1.45x as long as broad. Intervals narrow, five, six and seven are narrowly carinate posteriorly. 1.1x as broad as the punctation (Fig. 108). Elytral vestiture with two types of scales, differing only in colour. Predominant ones metallic pink with indistinct dark lines, pointed at apex, the other metallic green with pink specks (Fig. 156). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.62x as long as the second, 3x as long as the third and fourth, 1.05x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.16x as broad as second, 1.36x as broad as three, 1.48x as ventrite four and 1.69x as ventrite five.

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Male genitalia with aedeagus having a sub anterior projection, 2.05x as long as the apophyses and median lobe, 1.21x as long as the spiculum gastrale, 1.58x as long as the tegmen. median lobe 1.54x as long as the manubrium; its base 1.22x as broad as the breadth at middle, breadth from sides 2.18x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. Apophyses 1.33x as broad as the manubrium (Figs. 313-315). Tegmen 2.01x as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece as broad as the basal piece, its apex slightly bent (Fig. 316). Spiculum gastrale elongate, 1.7x as long as the apophyses and 1.31x as long as tegmen, its breadth 1.42x as broad as the breadth of apophyses and 1.89x as broad as the breadth of manubrium, bent near apex and blunt (Fig. 324). Length: 17.00 mm; Breadth: 6.20 mm. Specimens examined: 2? : Palanis: Shenbaganur (6000 ft); Kodaikanal, Coll. Newton, L. W., ? Karnataka: Chettali. Distribution: INDIA: Kerala: Thiruvanthapuram; Tamil Nadu: Tiruchirapalli,

Kodaikanal; Karnataka: Coorg. 18. Episomus sagax Faust (Figs: 23, 43, 68, 91, 116, 138, 164-166, 210, 234, 245, 256, 268 and 343) Episomus sagax Faust, 1897: 119, 134; Marshall, 1916: 212, 235 [SMTD ? & ? ]. General colour brown above, greyish beneath (Fig. 343). Head transversely impressed behind the eyes without lateral impression, 1.47x as long as the rostrum, 3.75x as long as the apical emargination and 1.04x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.06x as broad as the rostrum, 1.88x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.44x as broad as the apical emargination. Central furrow deep, dilated at apex, 2.15x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum 1.21x as broad as long, 2.12x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head, its sides roundly dilated near the apex. Eyes 1.6x as long as broad from above and 1.06x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.08x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.13x as that between the middle and 1.05x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.45x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 23 and 43). Antennae with scape slightly broadened (1.18x) from middle to apex, 4.47x as long as the club. Funicle 1.14x as long as the scape and 1.37x times as

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long as the club; seventh segment longest, 1.37as long as the club, 1.44x as long as the first, 1.62x as long as the second, 2.6x as long as the third and sixth, 2.88x as the fourth and 3.25x as the fifth; third and sixth equal; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all. 1.26x as broad as the first and second, 1.36x as broad as the third and fourth, 1.26x as broad as the fifth and sixth; first and second, third and fourth, fifth and sixth equally broad. Club as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, with its second segment longest, 1.2x as long as the first, 1.5x as long as the third and fourth segments, third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first and second broadest and equally broad, 1.36x as broad as the third, 2.7x as the fourth (Fig. 68). Prothorax with sides subparallel from base to middle, then narrowed to the apex, coarsely plicate above, 1.41x as long and 1.43x as broad as the rostrum, 1.23x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.34x as broad as the apex and 1.02x as broad as the base. The posterior margin broadly bisinuate, posterior margin 1.31x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.14x as that at the sides, 6.4x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 8.9x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow broad and deep (Fig. 91). Scutellum not enclosed, large and circular, 1.12x as long as broad and 1.1.5x as long and 2.28x as broad as the length and breadth of punctations. Legs brownish. Femora 3.81x as long as broad, 1.05x as long and 1.22x as broad as tibia. Tibia 4.44x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.12x as long as the first, 2.05x as the second and 1.48x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.34x as that of first, 1.4x as that of second and 3.88x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 210 and 234). Elytra with humeral angle distinct, ovate, separately rounded at the base. Upper surface with distinct basal impression (Fig. 138). Elytral length 1.11x as much as the suture, 3.97x as long as the rostrum, 18x as long as the scutellum, 2.81x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.23x as that of its breadth at the humeral angle, 1.51x as that of prothorax and 1.55x as that of its breadth at base. Suture moderately elevated after the declivity, 2.53x as long as that of prothorax, 16.2x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of large deep punctations, each punctation 1.71x as long as broad. Intervals 2.41x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 116). Elytral vestiture with scales of three types, less predominant plumose, elongate, clothed with hairs, the other less

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predominant one with inconspicuous lines. Predominant ones with a prominent pedicel and 8-9 ridges parallel to each other (Fig. 164-166). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3x as long as the second and third, 3.6x as long as the fourth, 1.2x as long as the fifth, ventrites second and third equally long; in terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 2.6x as broad as second, 1.53x as broad as three, 1.8x as ventrite four and 2.26x as ventrite five. Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.34x longer than the proximal arm, angle between the arms obtuse, nodulus, ramus normal, cornu projecting away from proximal arm (Figs. 245 and 268). Spiculum ventrale 2.02x as long as basal plate, basal plate 1.35x as broad as long, with shaft elongate, slightly thinning from base to apex, apex blunt, basal plate with tuft of hairs (Fig. 256). Length: 14.0 mm; Breadth: 5.6 mm. Specimens examined: 2? , Bangladesh: Dhaka: Madhyapura, XII.08. Coll. P.C.S. Distribution: INDIA: Assam: Naga Hills, Dilkusha, Bangladesh: Dhaka, Sylhet. 19. Episomus sulcicollis (Pascoe) (Figs. 22, 44, 69, 92, 115, 132, 189, 190, 203, 235, 285-288, 328 and 352) Simallus sulcicollis Pascoe, 1865: 420; Marshall, 1916: 215, 247 [BMNH ? ]. Episomus auriculatus Faust, 1894: 187; Marshall, 1916: 247 [MCSN]. Simallus auriculatus Faust 1897: 199 ; Marshall, 1916: 215, 247. General colour light brown above and beneath, with a broad white to fawn lateral stripe extending from rostrum and widening out indefinitely at apex of elytra; above this stripe, a dark brown stripe extends along intervals 4 to 6 till the top of the declivity (Fig. 352). Head with a strong transverse impression on the vertex; median costae with a small basal impression, elevated posteriorly and forming two prominent conical tubercles; 1.41x as long as the rostrum and 2.93x as long as the apical emargination, base 1.33x as broad as the rostrum, 1.6x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.4x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow narrow and very deep posteriorly, 2x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum parallel sided, 1.24x as broad as long, 2.41x as long as distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1.62x as long as broad from above and 1.16x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin

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1.12x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.27x as that between the middle and 1.13x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.1x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 22 and 44). Antennae light brown. Scape broadened (1.1x) from middle to apex, 3.41x as long as the club. Funicle 1.19x as long as the scape and 4.06x times as long as the club; second segment longest, 1.18x as long as the first and seventh, 1.44x as long as the third and fourth, 1.62x as long as the fifth and sixth segments; first and seventh, third and fourth, fifth and sixth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.22x as broad as the first, second, third, fourth and fifth, 1.1x as broad as the sixth, first to fifth equally broad. Club 1.54x as long and 1.27x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, 1.31x as long as the second segment of funicle; its first and second segments the longest, 1.25x as long as the third and 1.66x as long as the fourth segment; segments first and second equally long; in terms of breadth, second the broadest, 1.07x as broad as the first, 1.16x as the third and 2.33x as the fourth (Fig. 69). Prothorax slightly transverse. Anterior lateral margin with a small, sharp projection below the eye level. Upper surface with few irregular plications. 1.07x as long as the head, 1.52x as long as and 1.69x as broad as the rostrum, 1.38x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.27x as broad as at the apex and 1.05x as broad as at the base, the posterior margin truncate, 1.21x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.1x as that at the sides, 10.06x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 16.2x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. Central furrow deep, not reaching base or apex (Fig. 92). Scutellum very small, enclosed, 1.16x as long as broad and 3.33x as long as the length of punctations and 1.5x as broad as its breadth. Legs light brown. Femora 4.83x as long as broad, 1.45x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 2x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Tibia 6.66x as long as broad. Tarsi with first segment longest, 1.66x as long as the second, 1.33x as the third and 1.05x as the fourth; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.33x as broad as first, 1.43x as that of second and 4x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 203 and 235). Elytra broadly ovate. Upper surface not transversely impressed near base, posterior margin shallowly sinuate, without a humeral angle and with a slight subhumeral prominence (Fig. 132). Apices jointly rounded. Elytral length 1.07x as much as the

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suture, 3.71x as long as the rostrum, 24.57x as long as the scutellum, 2.44x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.27x as that of prothorax and 1.33x as that of its breadth at base. Suture very slightly elevated posteriorly, sinuate before apex when viewed laterally, 2.27x as long as that of prothorax, 22.86x as long as the scutellum. Striae narrow with rows of round deep separated punctations, each punctation 1.33x as broad as long. Sixth stria reaching the base. Intervals broad, 2.25x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 115). Elytral vestiture with scales brown, of two types, less predominant elongate with 5-6 inconspicuous ridges, rounded at apex; predominant ones without a pedicel, the prominent ones with apex acuminate, core opaque and granulated, with eight ridges scarcely visible, four originating from the periphery, two from the base and two roundedly approximated just before the basal area (Figs. 189 and 190). Venter with the first ventrite the longest, 2.5x as long as the second, 3.33x as long as the third and fourth, 1.25x as long as the fifth, ventrites third and fourth equally long; in terms of breadth, first ventrite the broadest, 1.2x as broad as second, 1.41x as broad as third, 1.6x as fourth and 1.84x as fifth. Male genitalia with aedeagus 1.93x as long as apophyses, 1.97x as its median lobe, 1.17x as long as spiculum gastrale, 1.81x as long as tegmen; median lobe slightly broadening at base before apophyses, 2.33x as long as the manubrium; its base 1.07x as broad as middle and 1.25x as broad as just before the apex; breadth at middle 1.16x as broad as that just before apex, breadth from sides 2x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. Apophyses 3.33x as broad as manubrium and 1.04 as broad as the shaft of spiculum gastrale (Fig. 285-287). Tegmen 2.54x as long as manubrium, with dorsal piece 2.85x as as broad as the basal piece. Parameres with apices acuminate, manubrium uniformly thick (Fig. 288). Spiculum gastrale with straight shaft, bent at apex, 1.64x as long as apophyses and 1.55x as long as tegmen, 3.2x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 328). Length: 8.3 mm; Breadth: 3.3 mm. Specimen examined: ? , 3.V.1909, Mandalay. Distribution: Myanmar. 20. Episomus uniformis Pascoe

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(Figs. 20, 46, 71, 94, 118, 141, 175-176, 212, 237 and 349) Episomus uniformis Pascoe, 1887: 349; Faust, 1897: 120, 129; Marshall, 1916: 213, 238 [BMNH ? ]. General colour light brown and below (Fig. 349). Head with transverse shallow impression behind the eye, 1.53x as long as the rostrum, 4.2x as long as the apical emargination and 1.1x as long as that of prothorax, base 1.1x as broad as the rostrum, 2.18x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.33x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow broad and deep, dilated at apex, 2x as long as the apical emargination, epistome not carinate at the sides. Rostrum dilated towards apex, 1.16x as broad as long, 1.9x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 2.1x as long as broad from above and 1.15x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.12x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins equal to that between anterior margins and 1.12x as that between the middle; space between the eyes at middle 1.6x as that between the scrobes (Figs. 20 and 46). Antennae brown. Scape broadened (1.37x) from middle to apex, 4.55x as long as the club. Funicle 1.1x as long as the scape and 4.95x times as long as the club, seventh segment longest, 1.25x as long as the club, 1.31x as long as the first, 1.25x as long as the second, 2.5x as long as the third, 3.12x as the fourth and sixth and 2.77x as the fifth, fourth and sixth equally long; in terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, broadest at its middle, 1.54x as broad as the first, 1.33x as broad as the second, third, fourth and fifth, 1.25x as broad as the sixth, second to fifth equally broad. Club as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, with fourth segment the longest, 1.5x as long as the first, 1.2x as long as the second and third segments, second and third equally long; in terms of breadth, first broadest, 1.05x as broad as the second, 1.33x as the third, 2.22x as the fourth (Fig. 71). Prothorax with shallow plications on upper surface, 1.38x as long as and 1.42x as broad as the rostrum, 1.19x broader than long at middle; breadth at middle 1.3x as broad as the apex, the posterior margin deeply bisinuate, 1.04x as broad as that at middle and 1.36x as broad as the apex, its length at middle 1.07x as that at the sides, 5.53x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 6.62x as broad as the breadth of scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 94). Scutellum transverse, as long as broad and 1.83x as long and 2x

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as broad as those of punctations. Legs brown. Femora 3.91x as long as broad, 1.1x as long as and 1.2x as broad as those of tibia. Tibia 4.3x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.76x as long as the first, 2.31x as the second and 1.52x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.48x as broad as first, 1.38x as that of second and 3.63x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 212 and 237). Elytra elongate ovate, separately rounded at the base, transversely impressed near the base, without any humeral angle (Fig. 141); its length 1.11x as much as the suture, 4.36x as long as the rostrum, 17.45x as long as the scutellum, 3.16x as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.94x as that of prothorax and 1.55x as that of its breadth at base. Suture sharply elevated into a carina on the declivity, 2.83x as long as that of prothorax, 15.53x as long as the scutellum. Striae with rows of large, deep punctations, each punctation 1.1x as long as broad. Intervals subcostate, as broad as those of punctations (Fig. 118). Elytral vestiture with scales of two types, dark, equally predominant, one elongate with 8-9 inconspicuous, parallel ridges, with the apex rounded, the other with a slight peduncle and 4-5 ridges approximating before apex (Figs. 175 and 176). Venter with the first ventrite longest, 2.75x as long as the second, 4.4x as long as the third, 5.5x as long as the fourth and 1.37x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first ventrite broadest, 1.23x as broad as second, 1.56x as broad as third, 1.95x as fourth and 2.47x as fifth. Length: 15.8 mm; Breadth: 6.2 mm. Specimen examined: Without data. Distribution: INDIA: Andaman Islands.

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* As cited in Col. Cat. 1938.

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