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A STUDY ON THE GENUS EPISOMUS

(COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE)

S. SHANAS & V. V. RAMAMURTHY

Division of Entomology
Indian Agricultural Research Institute
New Delhi - 110 012, India

2007

PREFACE

This work forms part of the thesis entitled “Biosystematic studies on the genus

Episomus Schoenherr (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) from India and adjacent

countries.” submitted to the Post-Graduate School, Indian Agricultural Research Institute

(IARI), New Delhi, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of

Philosophy in Entomology, during the year 2003.

With deep sense of gratitude, I thank Dr. V. V. Ramamurthy, Chairman of my
Advisory committee, for his ‘proper’ guidance during the course of the present
investigation.
A bound copy of the work is deposited at the following libraries:

1. National Agriultural Library, IARI, New Delhi, INDIA
2. Jawaharlal Nehru University Library, Delhi, INDIA
3. J. R. D. TATA Memorial Library, IISC, Bangalore, INDIA
4. Delhi University Library, Delhi, INDIA
5. Natural History Museum Library, London, UK

- S. Shanas.

October 25, 2007.

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CONTENTS
(PAGE No.)

Abstract …………………………………… 04

Introduction …………………………………… 04

Material and Methods …………………………………… 05

Abbreviations …………………………………… 06

Taxonomic Characters …………………………………… 07

Annotated checklist …………………………………… 20

A. Varieties raised to subspecies 22

B. Checklist 22

Genus Episomus Schoenherr …………………………………… 33

A. Key to the species 35

B. Species studied 40

Bibliography …………………………………… 89

Figures …………………………………… 90

Plates …………………………………… (i – xix)

List of Tables:

Table
No. Page No.

1. Sexual dimorphic characters in Episomus 8

2. Number of species of Episomus described during different periods 20

3. Contributions of coleopterists to the genus Episomus 20

4. Economic Importance of the species of the genus Episomus 22

3

There are 106 species in the world of which 28 occur in India. INTRODUCTION Episomus belogs to the subfamily Otiorrhynchinae. elytra not soldered together. very deep in front. E. Since the taxonomy of the subfamily is unsettled.Abstract: Twenty species of the genus Episomus of the family Curculionidae. Episomus is distinguished from other members of the Entiminae by their scrobes. 4 . An annotated checklist of the 106 species known from the world is given. other studies are few and scattered. epistome forming a sharp acute angle behind. cotton and pigeon pea. In India. the base covering slightly the margin of prothorax. prothorax usually with strong plications and distinct central furrow. are described. lacerta (Fabricius) is very important as it is a notorious as pest of cultivated crops like field beans. Episomus is predominantly oriental in distribution. but shallower near the eyes and curving inward about the middle. Two varieties are raised to subspecific status. A key to the 20 species known from the region is provided. Besides the study of Marshall. 1999). The descriptions of the twenty already known species are supplemented with the characters of elytral vestiture. sternum with the front coxae nearer the anterior margin of the prosternum and venter with intercoxal piece angulate and not broader. Female and male genitalic structures of nine and ten species respectively. the lateral margin sinuate above the posterior coxae. which according to the contemporary point of view is considered under Entiminae (Alonso – Zarazaga and Lyal. the concept of Marshall (1916) is followed here. Coleoptera from India and nearby countries are included in the study.

specimens were processed following method of Supare et al. For the study of genitalia. Storing the genitalia after study. were studied in intact specimens. Boiling in 10 per cent KOH (Potassium hydroxide) for 20 minutes at 90 . New Delhi: The core of the material used in the present study came from the National Pusa Collection. 1ARI. Chandigarh and Zoological Survey of India. overnight. (i) Drying. The material procured from the following sources were utilized in the present study: (i) National Pusa Collection (NPC) of the Division of Entomology. in microvials containing small drop of glycerol and then pinning on the respective specimens and replacing the venter on to the dissected specimens. Washing the genitalia first with distilled water.95° C for softening the tissues in a dry heating block. Calcutta. 5 . MATERIAL. 70 per cent and finally in glacial acetic acid.. Detaching the venter by inserting a minute pin between metasternum and its intercoxal process with a gentle jerk. mounting and preservation: All the species were studied with the help of preserved specimens only. (ii) Processing of different parts for morphological studies: All the major taxonomic characters. Removing excess stain by transferring to 30 per cent alcohol. to neutralize the excess potassium hydroxide. 50. Staining the male genitalia with chlorazol black in 70 per cent ethyl alcohol. Dissecting the genitalia and cleaning the associated muscles and other tissues. (ii) Loans: Many specimens included in the present study were obtained from the collections available at Punjab University. Dirty specimens were cleaned with xylene or glacial acetic acid by swabbing with a cotton swab before relaxing. B. MATERIAL AND METHODS A. retaining in each for a minute. Specimens preserved for long were relaxed in a relaxing fluid containing distilled water and ethyl alcohol in 7 : 3 ratio. (1990) with slight modifications and the process mainly involved the following steps: Relaxing the specimens in a relaxing box containing relaxing fluid overnight. except the ultra structure of elytral vestiture and genitalia. then washing it in distilled water to remove excess strain. then passing through graded alcohol series of 30. METHODS.

Humboldt Universitat. Sweedish Museum of Natural History. Stockholm. BM . MCSN . General taxonomic characters and genitalia were studied with the help of Wild M8 stereozoom microscope and the elytral vestiture studied with Leitz Ortholux II interference phase contrast. National Pusa Collection. Chandigarh. Brussels. Zoologische Museum. 1916) and further confirmed by species obtained from different sources. Division of Entomology. 6 . ZMHU . PU . ABBREVIATIONS The following abbreviations are used: BMNH . Genova. Indian Agricultural Research Institute. NRS . Glycerol medium in the cavity slide was gently stirred with a fine needle to avoid overlapping of scales and then observed for elytral vestiture. Berlin. a Nikon SMZ 10 stereozoom microscope was used. Illustrations were made using a drawing tube fitted with a camera lucida. For measurements. Punjab University. London. Dresden. the scales and hairs thus removed were allowed to fall on a cavity slide. SMTD . Italy NPC . New Delhi. Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet. Natural History Museum. For studying the elytral vestiture. Germany. Belgium. Germany. compound microscope. having a drop of ethyl alcohol mixed with glycerol to avoid instant drying. Sweden. (iii) Methods of study: Whole specimens were examined and run through the key (Marshall. Museo Civico di Storia Naturale. Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde. Brussels Museum. The scales of magnification are provided in the illustrations. the method of Ramamurthy and Ghai (1988) was followed which involved scratching of elytra with the pointed end of a minute pin.

obuncus. fabriciusi. it is round in figulus nigrosparsus and quatuornotatus and is prominently pedicellate in obliquus and sagax. sagax. They are separately rounded at base in appendiculatus. raucus. elytra always broader than prothorax. the base is slightly pedunculate in uniformis. Plumose scales can be found only in dohertyi. arrogans. guttatus. The shape and structure of these scales vary in different species. ventrally. 146-193): General colour of vestiture varies from brown or metallic green in different species. quatuornotatus. fluorescent pink and brown in most species. lentus. dohertyi. VESTITURE (Figs. it varies from light brown (dohertyi. guttatus. pudibundus. 329-352): The colour of the dorsal surface varies from brown (appendiculatus. raucus). 2. In general.3 mm) while the largest are arrogans. humeralis. arrogans. pudibundus and raucus and in guttatus. humeralis. montanus. inermicollis.6-14. pudibundus. when their structure is observed under the light microscope. obuncus.81x as long as broad. inermicollis. some are with lateral stripes on the prothorax (appendiculatus. inermicollis. 1. Smallest species is sulcicollis (8. quatuornotatus. sagax). three kind of scales are present. lacerta. SHAPE AND SIZE (Figs. ovate.5 mm x 8. sulcicollis. nilgirinus. raucus and fabriciusi (22. green (fabriciusi. obliquus. sulcicollis. black (montanus). nilgirinus and sagax COLOUR (Figs. TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS GENERAL STRUCTURE. 2): The species of Episomus are variable in size and shape. lentus. and few scales fluorescent green at the middle. humeralis.12x to 2. predominant ones fluorescent green with pink specks present in nilgirinus. figulus nigrosparsus. uniformis). These are generally elongate. dohertyi. dorsal surface plane varying from flat to even. figulus nigrosparsus. The colours vary from fluorescent pink in fabriciusi. The colour of these scales differs from their in situ colour. arrogans. the predominant usually oval and the less predominant ones more elongate or plumose. lacerta.3 mm x 3. They vary from fluorescent green.2 mm). The inner core is always opaque and granulated. humeralis. inermicollis. uniformis).2-6. grey with white (appendiculatus. lacerta and obliquus) or sides of 7 . fluorescent pinkish and / or greenish tinge at the core of few scales in obuncus. ventral surface always flat. black (montanus) or metallic green (fabriciusi). dohertyi. obliquus.

obliquus and sulcicollis are the other variations. ? quatuornotatus) or with very small tubercles and fore tibia more curved at the apex (? guttatus) are such characters. stripes and patches. Sexual dimorphic characters in Episomus Character Description Diagnosis Antennae Seventh joint of funicle shorter ? figulus nigrosparsus. Elytra bears variable spots. while the centre of sternum bears green vestiture in nilgirinus. its nature in the hind tibiae and nature of fifth ventrite are useful in distinguishing the sexes in some species. small green spots on the striae are present in fabriciusi. many irregular. dorsal part and the inflexed margins are with pale green vestiture. 1) Table. a dark patch on the declivity in lacerta. Fifth ventrite less acuminate and shallowly impressed (? guttatus). inermicollis Prothorax Sides rounded slightly ? montanus Scutellum Sometimes scarcely perceptible ? montanus Elytra General shape narrower ? montanus Apex more produced ? obuncus Suture at declivity strongly elevated ? humeralis. two (dohertyi). three (lacerta and quatuornotatus). hind tibia granulate internally (? figulus nigrosparsus) or with a row of prominent tubercles (? lacerta. a distinct subhumeral patch in figulus nigrosparsus and humeralis. the inflexed margins are light brown to chalky white in appendiculatus and pale green in raucus. 1. ? fabriciusi. number of spots vary from one (montanus). the sides of elytra are mottled with small irregular white spots. it is pale metallic or coppery in nilgirinus below the eye level. five (appendiculatus). and a white stripe in humeralis and a lateral stripe in nilgirinus. montanus Intervals vs Narrower ? nilgirinus striae Same as broad ? nilgirinus Fore tibia Curvature more at apex ? guttatus Hind tibia Internal Present ? figulus nigrosparsus granulations Very small ? appendiculatus At anterior half ? obuncus 8 . or not impressed (? quatuornotatus) and seventh segment of funicle shorter than female (? figulus nigrosparsus) are the other characters (Table. the presence of tubercles. in raucus. nilgirinus and quatuornotatus. however. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM: Genus Episomus does not exhibit any striking. six (guttatus) while in arrogans. sexual dimorphic characters.prothorax whitish grey (arrogans). dohertyi.

dohertyi. 3-73). namely rostrum. humeralis.38x as long as the rostrum in guttatus. scrobes. ? sulcicollis shallowly at apex ? inermicollis roundedly at base ? obuncus less acuminate ? guttatus median furrow present ? obliquus HEAD: Morphological features of head. obuncus and sulcicollis. raucus. obliquus and sulcicollis. lacerta. sagax and uniformis. lentus. and faint in appendiculatus. quatuornotatus and sulcicollis whereas it is prominent in arrogans. guttatus. Transverse impressions are absent in fabriciusi. figulus nigrosparsus and raucus. Ventrite fabriciusi. nilgirinus. eyes and antennae are useful in identification of the species (Figs. obliquus. The length of the head compared to that of rostrum and prothorax is useful in distinguishing some species. 1. montanus. lacerta. small uniformis ? quatuornotatus Hind Granulated internally ? humeralis femora Prominence laminate at apex ? nilgirinus blunt at inner edge ? uniformis Fifth not impressed ? appendiculatus. pudibundus. it lies behind the eyes in appendiculatus and obuncus. The presence or absence of lateral as well as transverse impression near eyes is helpful in distinguishing species. sagax and uniformis.41x to 1. quatuornotatus. lentus. sulcicollis. dohertyi. obuncus. inermicollis. nilgirinus. humeralis.47x as long as in sagax. quatuornotatus impressed shallowly ? guttatus. 9 .45x in humeralis. nilgirinus. dohertyi. lateral impression lies to the front of the eyes in arrogans. pudibundus. Narrow stria present along the inner ? arrogans edge Presence of Anterior ? montanus spur One – fourth from ? pudibundus the apex Black tooth beyond middle and two ? arrogans at sides (sometimes all wanting) tubercles absent ? fabriciusi well developed ? lacerta. montanus. 1. guttatus. humeralis. figulus nigrosparsus. inermicollis. The length of head is 1. Both lateral and transverse impression are absent in fabriciusi.

1. pudibundus. obuncus. Head is as long as prothorax in fabriciusi and nilgirinus. 1. obliquus. 1. 1. narrow (inermicollis. This breadth is 1.02x to 2. dohertyi and fabriciusi).33x in sulcicollis.2x to 1. uniformis and raucus) or dilated at apex (figulus nigrosparsus.1x to 1. humeralis. and 2. dohertyi. quatuornotatus.02x to 1. The central furrow on head is either deep (arrogans. 1. guttatus.07x) in humeralis. lentus. broad (arrogans.1x to 1.88x in inermicollis and sagax. The breadth at the base of head is 1. 1. quatuornotatus. sulcicollis).69x as in fabriciusi and 1. and 1. inermicollis.18x in arrogans.92x to 1. montanus. figulus nigrosparsus. inermicollis. montanus.03x to 1. nilgirinus. or moderately (1. obuncus. lacerta and sagax. sagax and uniformis) or dilated before middle (nilgirinus).91x in humeralis.67x montanus.49x as long as in arrogans and lacerta.55x pudibundus.08x as long in dohertyi.56x in nilgirinus and quatuornotatus. The breadth at the base of head compared to the distance between scrobes and the breadth of rostrum is useful in separating few species. nilgirinus.55x as long as the rostrum in appendiculatus. 10 . 1.51x to as much as the distance between scrobes in appendiculatus. lentus. figulus nigrosparsus. lacerta. pudibundus and quatuornotatus.5x to 1. montanus. Additional characters like the head forming two prominent conical tubercles to the sides of the base of central furrow in obliquus and sulcicollis (Figs.02x to 1. 1.58x in obliquus. raucus. raucus and uniformis. 1. 12 and 22) are also helpful in distinguishing these species. obliquus.1. lacerta. lentus.6x in lacerta and sulcicollis. lentus and montanus and 1.31x to 1. montanus. obliquus. fabriciusi and pudibundus.82x in guttatus and quatuornotatus. arrogans. quatuornotatus. raucus and uniformis. The length of prothorax as compared to that of the head varies only slightly (1. sulcicollis. figulus nigrosparsus. lentus. 1. shallow (appendiculatus. fabriciusi. 1.04x as long in appendiculatus.96x in dohertyi. montanus. 1.06x as broad as the rostrum in appendiculatus. figulus nigrosparsus.25x in fabriciusi. obliquus and pudibundus. raucus and sulcicollis. nilgirinus.1x in obliquus and uniformis. lacerta. obliquus. uniformis. obuncus.18x in humeralis and obuncus.58x in inermicollis and raucus. guttatus. lentus. 2.75x to 1. figulus nigrosparsus. sagax and uniformis).15x in dohertyi. pudibundus and sagax. 1. pudibundus.5x) in arrogans and inermicollis and 1. 1.16x to 1. guttatus.05x to 1.

obliquus. quatuornotatus. obuncus.0x in appendiculatus. varying from very slight (guttatus. it is dilated just before the apex in most of the species. nilgirinus. 1. are taxonomically important in identifying many species (Figs. lacerta. dohertyi. Rostrum: It includes the part of the head. 1. montanus.44x in fabriciusi. without any dilation is observed in obliquus and sulcicollis.96x to 2. inermicollis.62x to 1. quatuornotatus. inermicollis. raucus and uniformis). the ratios of distance between the anterior. raucus and uniformis. nilgirinus. montanus. arrogans. 2. only a short. lentus. which lie parallel to the central furrow show varying degrees of impression. arrogans. figulus nigrosparsus. middle 11 .18x in fabriciusi. lacerta. impression of the dorsal margin. sagax. Eyes: The position of eyes yields useful taxonomic characters. montanus.01x to1. 3-50). quatuornotatus and sagax. obuncus and sagax. lentus. nilgirinus. broad. It may be shallowly impressed in appendiculatus. The two costae on dorsal surface of rostrum. lacerta. and in fabriciusi. lentus and sagax) or dilated prominently (appendiculatus. raucus and uniformis. its apex being produced forwards on each side into a very prominent. Rostrum with sides almost parallel to each other. pudibundus and sulcicollis.48x in montanus. The characteristics of rostrum such as length: breadth ratio.2x to 1.1x to 1. and 1. posterior impression may be present. dilation at its sides before apex.96x in inermicollis. inermicollis and lentus. deeply impressed in humeralis. figulus nigrosparsus. Rostrum when compared for its length vs breadth ratio is 1.25x in appendiculatus. humeralis. dohertyi. obliquus. lacerta. humeralis. pudibundus and uniformis.1x in guttatus. humeralis. fabriciusi. pudibundus. 1. dohertyi. jaw like process as in guttatus or subquadrate shape as in obliquus. obuncus and quatuornotatus. The length of rostrum when compared with that of head (excluding the portion of rostrum) is 1. obuncus and raucus. figulus nigrosparsus.08x as broad as long in arrogans. 1. which is drawn in front of the eyes in the form of a snout.24x in figulus nigrosparsus. Some other characters of rostrum by which few species may be distinguished are. 1.41x in sulcicollis and 2. faintly impressed in arrogans. dohertyi. pudibundus.29x in obliquus. 1. 1. nilgirinus. in addition to its length: breadth ratio as seen from top.62x in guttatus.

guttatus.04x to1. 2.31x to 1. fabriciusi. slightly longer (1. sagax and sulcicollis. guttatus. figulus nigrosparsus. figulus nigrosparsus. inermicollis. 1. dohertyi. the broadening of scape from middle to apex.14x in appendiculatus.39x in dohertyi. whereas in nilgirinus. fabriciusi. lentus. and 1.02x to 1.46x in arrogans. The characters of antennae utilized for distinguishing species are its colour. fabriciusi. obuncus. The eyes are 1. lacerta. raucus and uniformis and 2. quatuornotatus and sulcicollis. obliquus. quatuornotatus and sagax.07x as long as broad in obliquus. obliquus. lacerta.07x) in dohertyi. 1. arrogans.27x in appendiculatus.26x) in appendiculatus. a seven segmented funicle and a four segmented club (Figs. nilgirinus. pudibundus and raucus. 12 .and posterior margins and the distance between the eyes at middle compared to that between scrobes are important.23x in montanus and 1. inermicollis. obuncus. humeralis. is slightly longer (1. nilgirinus.1x to 2.1x to 1. raucus and sulcicollis. lentus. pudibundus. figulus nigrosparsus. humeralis. 51-73).08x to 1.18x) and quatuornotatus (1. the length of scape compared to that of the club.3x in raucus and 1. dohertyi (1.12x in all the species except obuncus and raucus (1.34x in inermicollis. 1. quatuornotatus and sulcicollis.18x in appendiculatus.6x to 1. humeralis and sagax. Antennae: Antennae in Episomus are geniculate and consist of a scape.41x to 1. relative length and breadth of funicular segments and the segments of club.51x in arrogans. 1. 1. obliquus. fabriciusi.62x in montanus and uniformis. sagax and uniformis. montanus. guttatus.36x).71x in nilgirinus. lacerta. montanus. 1.9x in dohertyi.1x to 1. 1. lentus. obuncus.16x). This distance compared to that between the middle of the eyes varies from very slight (1. the length of funicle compared to that of scape. pudibundus. The distance between eyes from the anterior to middle varies from 1.81x in lentus. 1. obuncus.33x in pudibundus.03x). the distance between the middle of eyes is greater than that between the anterior margins (1.6 x to 1.26x in inermicollis.14x) in nilgirinus.16x to 1. humeralis. quatuornotatus. guttatus. lacerta. 1. figulus nigrosparsus. The distance between posterior margins of eyes as compared to that between the anterior margin is equal in uniformis. Space between the eyes at middle to the distance between the scrobes when compared. arrogans. 1.

sagax 13 .81x in fabriciusi.05 x to 3. 3.38x from middle to apex in appendiculatus. inermicollis.2x in raucus. pudibundus. and 4. and 2x in humeralis. sulcicollis.1x in pudibundus and sagax.01x as long as that of scape in obliquus.14x guttatus.72x in appendiculatus and quatuornotatus.83x in guttatus. 1. obuncus. guttatus and lentus.72x in arrogans and 6. 4.5 to 3. The length of funicle is 1.93x in fabriciusi.46x in appendiculatus. obliquus.67x in lacerta. obuncus.7x to 4.47x in inermicollis. guttatus. The relative lengths of funicular segments when compared.88x in lacerta. quatuornotatus and raucus. fabriciusi.46x in humeralis. montanus and nilgirinus.28x in dohertyi and montanus. 4.58x in inermicollis. it is broadened 1.23x in lentus. lentus. appendiculatus and arrogans. It is 2.42x in montanus. and the dilation of seventh segment of funicle. dohertyi. montanus. 1.42x to 1. fabriciusi.29x in nilgirinus. sagax and uniformis. 4x to 4. sulcicollis and obuncus.93x in humeralis and raucus. figulus nigrosparsus.53x in figulus nigrosparsus and nilgirinus.1x to 1. 1. sagax. lentus. 3. inermicollis.the length and breadth of seventh funicular segment compared to club.25x in figulus nigrosparsus.95x in uniformis. lacerta. The scape is narrower at the middle in most species except lacerta where it is narrowing from middle to apex. The general colour varies from brown in most species to pale green in fabriciusi and greenish brown in raucus. 1.63x to 2. raucus. second the longest in appendiculatus. The seventh segment of funicle is black from middle till apex in raucus and is completely black in fabriciusi and quatuornotatus. 4.44x in fabriciusi and 1. figulus nigrosparsus.85x in obuncus. figulus nigrosparsus.79x to 3. 2.1x to 1. dohertyi. 5. 3. first and the seventh equally long in arrogans. 1.32x in inermicollis and lentus. humeralis. 3. sulcicollis and uniformis. 5. sagax and uniformis. 3.55x in obliquus.17x to 1. This length is 1.38x in obuncus. 1.79x in arrogans.21x in humeralis. pudibundus. 1. 1. 1.06x in sulcicollis.47x in guttatus. raucus. quatuornotatus. 3.26x as that of club in dohertyi. 3. 1. obliquus. raucus. 4. 4. pudibundus and quatuornotatus. 5.32x as long as the club in lacerta. second and seventh in montanus.31x in obliquus. first and second in fabriciusi. and the seventh the longest in dohertyi. The club is black in appendiculatus. quatuornotatus. nilgirinus. arrogans. the first is longest in guttatus. 4. pudibundus and quatuornotatus. 3. nilgirinus and sulcicollis.

fabriciusi. montanus. third and fourth in inermicollis. 1.4x to 1. second and third in obuncus. pudibundus. the first is the broadest in arrogans. The club is as long as the seventh segment of funicle in humeralis.1x to 1. mid and posterior margins. dohertyi. dohertyi. nilgirinus and sulcicollis. It is as broad as the breadth of seventh segment in sagax and uniformis. second the longest in appendiculatus. Its seventh segment is dilated in all the species except in sagax and uniformis. montanus and obuncus). margins. third longest in figulus nigrosparsus. pudibundus. The relative breadths of funicular segments when compared. lacerta. raucus. 1. length: breadth ratio. and fourth the longest in uniformis. first. humeralis. 1. guttatus. its length and breadth compared to that of rostrum are the characters useful for the diagnosis of species (Figs. 74-97). it is 1. fabriciusi. first and second in sulcicollis. fabriciusi. where it is broadest at middle. arrogans.28x to 1. obuncus. deeply (dohertyi. raucus. 1. fabriciusi. quatuornotatus and sulcicollis. figulus nigrosparsus. sulcicollis and uniformis. obliquus. dohertyi. Its first segment is the longest in obliquus. obliquus. first and seventh in nilgirinus and pudibundus.19x to 1. obuncus. lacerta. obuncus. lacerta.16x in arrogans. lacerta. rugosely (arrogans. montanus. fabriciusi. lentus.37x in sulcicollis. first.05x to 1. nilgirinus and raucus. inermicollis.2x in figulus nigrosparsus. guttatus. humeralis and montanus. second the broadest in appendiculatus. 14 . Its first segment is the broadest in dohertyi. obliquus. figulus nigrosparsus. montanus. 1. lentus. shallowly plicate (appendiculatus. humeralis. pudibundus.05x as broad as the club in dohertyi and guttatus. inermicollis and quatuornotatus.38x in guttatus. pudibundus. second and third in lentus. guttatus. obliquus. raucus and sagax. first and second equally broad in arrogans. lentus. 1.7x in nilgirinus and inermicollis. lentus. obuncus. guttatus and nilgirinus).31x in arrogans and 1.4x in appendiculatus and nilgirinus. fabriciusi. sagax. raucus. raucus and sagax). humeralis.07x to 1. second and seventh in montanus and seventh in appendiculatus. 1. ratio between the anterior. first. 1. lacerta. quatuornotatus and uniformis. quatuornotatus and sagax. nature of central furrow.and uniformis. nature of plications. PROTHORAX: The general shape. inermicollis.29x in pudibundus. figulus nigrosparsus and lacerta. 1.37x in sagax. lentus and uniformis. humeralis. The prothorax is prominently (figulus nigrosparsus.58x in appendiculatus. quatuornotatus.

44x (appendiculatus. montanus. lentus. 1. guttatus. obliquus. whereas in inermicollis it is very small and located near base. The prothorax is broader at middle compared to its base. fabriciusi and humeralis.obliquus.11x to 1. Its central furrow is long but shallow in appendiculatus. arrogans. fabriciusi.06x) in arrogans or broader than long in the rest of the species. montanus. 1. fabriciusi and raucus) or 1. montanus. pudibundus. guttatus. is slightly longer (1. sagax and sulcicollis.07x in appendiculatus. quatuornotatus and uniformis) or with very few plications (inermicollis and sulcicollis). quatuornotatus and sulcicollis.52x in appendiculatus. 1.27x fabriciusi. pudibundus.69x (arrogans. 1. 1. dohertyi.05x to 1.62x to 1. The length of prothorax compared to its breadth. nilgirinus and raucus.38x in sulcicollis and 1.71x in guttatus. The breadth of prothorax compared to that of rostrum varies from 1.19x in guttatus. When it is compared to the length of rostrum it is 1. moderate in nilgirinus.28x (guttatus) varies from 1. fabriciusi.5x to 1. inermicollis. lacerta. inermicollis. pudibundus.81x (inermicollis and pudibundus). varying from 1. figulus nigrosparsus. obuncus. humeralis. arrogans. nilgirinus.21x to 1. figulus nigrosparsus. obliquus. 15 .56 (humeralis. lacerta. obuncus and quatuornotatus.36x to 1. sagax and uniformis.46x in dohertyi. lentus and sagax.61x in inermicollis. nilgirinus. deep in dohertyi. obliquus.57x in obliquus. obuncus.5x to 1. 1. dohertyi.42x to 1. humeralis. raucus and sulcicollis.01x to 1. sagax and uniformis) 1. sulcicollis and uniformis. arrogans. the anterior lateral margin bears a small sharp projection below the eye.08x in appendiculatus.4x to 1. lentus. obliquus.37x in dohertyi. lacerta and quatuornotatus. fabriciusi. lacerta.45x in appendiculatus. montanus. quatuornotatus. varying slightly from 1. figulus nigrosparsus. montanus. bisinuate in appendiculatus. 1.61x to 1. raucus. figulus nigrosparsus. raucus and uniformis. obuncus. figulus nigrosparsus.3x to 1. montanus. quatuornotatus and sulcicollis) 1. obuncus.27x in figulus nigrosparsus. inermicollis. 1. Its anterior margin is truncate in humeralis.52x in guttatus and lacerta and1. obliquus. humeralis. The breadth at middle of prothorax compared to that at apex varies from 1. nilgirinus. lentus. 1. pudibundus. lentus. arrogans.57x in lacerta. lentus.5x to 1.25x to 1. raucus and sagax whereas in sulcicollis. arrogans. nilgirinus. quatuornotatus and uniformis. sagax and uniformis. dohertyi. pudibundus. obuncus.

sagax and sulcicollis. obuncus.8x in lentus. raucus.04x to 1. quatuornotatus. SCUTELLUM: The nature of scutellum and its length: breadth ratio is useful in distinguishing some species. montanus. lentus.06x) in dohertyi. sagax. It is 1. obuncus and sulcicollis or considerably (1. The breadth at the base of prothorax when compared to that at its apex varies slightly (1. The posterior femora bears a pale round white spot at the middle in guttatus. varying from 1. obliquus.42x) as in appendiculatus. 16 .27x in arrogans. arrogans. guttatus. quatuornotatus. LEGS: The vestiture and markings on the posterior femora. montanus. quatuornotatus. The first tarsal segment is the the longest in arrogans. nilgirinus.3x to 1. inermicollis. obliquus. uniformis and inermicollis. lentus. 1.fabriciusi. arrogans. fabriciusi. raucus and sulcicollis) and not enclosed so (appendiculatus. 1. guttatus. obliquus. montanus. humeralis. sulcicollis and pudibundus whereas the fourth segment is the longest in the rest of the species. with dense green or grey vestiture in raucus.28x) as in fabriciusi. as long as broad in appendiculatus.13x in guttatus and inermicollis. nilgirinus and raucus. figulus nigrosparsus. green vestiture and with a darker patch about the middle in fabriciusi.19x) as in lacerta and pudibundus.43x in dohertyi and pudibundus.36x to 1. lacerta. humeralis.03x to 1. humeralis. sagax and sulcicollis. nilgirinus. with a white spot (guttatus).21x to 1. inermicollis. pudibundus. obliquus and uniformis. fabriciusi.59x). pudibundus.1x as broad as long in lacerta and obuncus. lentus. raucus. 194-217). humeralis. The tibial apex bears a prominent spur projecting outside the margins in guttatus. whereas its breadth at base compared to that at middle varying only slightly (1. figulus nigrosparsus. quatuornotatus and uniformis or strongly as in lacerta (1.6x in guttatus and 1. presence of spur at the tibial apex and the relative length of the first and fourth tarsal segments are important in distinguishing species (Figs. moderately (1. sagax and uniformis). raucus. It is oblique (fabriciusi and uniformis). nilgirinus. figulus nigrosparsus. montanus. and 1. obuncus. dohertyi. enclosed anteriorly by the sutural margin (lacerta. with its base darker in appendiculatus humeralis and nilgirinus. dohertyi. nilgirinus. figulus nigrosparsus.07x to 1.

nilgirinus. obuncus and pudibundus. lacerta. steep and slightly indented in montanus. montanus. slightly in fabriciusi. humeralis. obuncus and sulcicollis. The ratio of length of elytra to that of rostrum and prothorax helps in separation of some species. pudibundus and sulcicollis. obuncus and uniformis) or distinct (appendiculatus. pudibundus and quatuornotatus. quatuornotatus and guttatus. humeralis. slight in dohertyi and uniformis. nilgirinus. obtuse in figulus nigrosparsus. nilgirinus. sagax. guttatus. nilgirinus. sharp process in appendiculatus. fabriciusi. figulus nigrosparsus. figulus nigrosparsus. guttatus. lacerta. figulus nigrosparsus. 98-145). raucus and sulcicollis). obuncus. truncate in lentus and obliquus. raucus and sagax. inermicollis. quatuornotatus. separately rounded in appendiculatus. their shape at the base and apices. obliquus. very slight in arrogans. prominent in inermicollis. sinuate before apex in sulcicollis. The base of elytra are jointly sinuate in arrogans. and bears a small conical tubercle above the apex in guttatus. lacerta. montanus. shallow (fabriciusi.46x to 4x (arrogans. lacerta. obliquus and sulcicollis. distinctly in appendiculatus. elytra may be 2. humeralis. sagax and uniformis. quatuornotatus and sagax). Elytra are acuminate at the apex bearing a short. montanus. and the apices jointly rounded in sulcicollis. the nature of impression at base and elevation of suture on the declivity gives valuable taxonomic characters (Figs. raucus and sagax. lacerta. fabriciusi. dohertyi. lentus. humeralis and inermicollis and broad in lentus. Humeral angle and subhumeral prominence: The humeral angle is absent in fabriciusi.82x as long as the rostrum (guttatus) or 3. The elytral suture on the declivity is not elevated in lentus. humeralis. moderate in lentus and nilgirinus. subtruncate in guttatus and raucus. lentus. humeralis. ELYTRA: The elytra are broadly ovate in all species of Episomus. obliquus and pudibundus. sharply into a carina in quatuornotatus and uniformis. inermicollis. 17 . It is transversely impressed near the base in many species. dohertyi. dohertyi. nilgirinus. pudibundus. roundly costate in arrogans. montanus. obuncus. obliquus. lacerta. obliquus. dohertyi. sulcicollis and uniformis. sharp in appendiculatus. The subhumeral prominence is absent in figulus nigrosparsus. raucus. distinct in appendiculatus dohertyi. the impression may be absent (arrogans. inermicollis. figulus nigrosparsus. arrogans.

figulus nigrosparsus. lacerta.56x (appendiculatus). 2. guttatus. obliquus. it has seven tergites. humeralis.19x to 2. Stria and intervals: The elytra bear 10 rows of punctations which form the striae. are distinctly separated as in obuncus. pudibundus. lentus. The impression on the fifth ventrite helps in distinguishing the sexes in some species.77x (montanus. uniformis and costate in fabriciusi. The ventral aspect of abdomen is called “venter” which has five visible ventrites which are morphologically sternites 3-7. inermicollis. deep as in dohertyi. raucus. quatuornotatus and uniformis) or 5.05x to 4. lacerta. sagax and sulcicollis. quatuornotatus. sagax and uniformis. pudibundus. The intervals between the striae are narrower than the punctations in appendiculatus. humeralis. raucus. montanus.5x to 2. sagax. subquadrate as in montanus and quatuornotatus and ocellated as in pudibundus. inermicollis. These punctations may be small as in arrogans.44x (arrogans. Elytra may be 2. FEMALE GENITALIA: These are species specific and valuable in identifying the species. nilgirinus. but of no taxonomic value as these are covered by elytra. The junction of spermathecal duct with body of spermatheca is nodulus while the junction of gland with spermatheca is ramus. The spermatheca has a proximal arm and a distal arm called cornu.87x (dohertyi. nilgirinus. inermicollis and montanus. fabriciusi. humeralis. 3. broader than the punctations in arrogans. pudibundus and sulcicollis. figulus nigrosparsus. inermicollis. obuncus. fabriciusi.obuncus. raucus. obliquus. fabriciusi.85x as long as the prothorax (appendiculatus). fabriciusi. 18 . dohertyi. It includes spermatheca and spiculum ventrale. pudibundus. lacerta. obuncus. obliquus. sagax. quatuornotatus and sagax). ABDOMEN: In the dorsal aspect. lentus. lentus. guttatus.09x (montanus) 3. same as broad as the punctations in uniformis. guttatus. lentus. relatively smooth in fabriciusi and pudibundus. broad as in quatuornotatus. larger as in appendiculatus figulus nigrosparsus. subcostate in appendiculatus. nilgirinus. lacerta and montanus. sulcicollis and uniformis. quatuornotatus. quatuornotatus. the first stria terminates at the suture near the base of scutellum. pudibundus. raucus and sulcicollis). fabriciusi and inermicollis. inermicollis. shallow as in appendiculatus.16x (uniformis) or 3. in humeralis. obuncus. and sulcicollis) or 4.

The length of aedeagus when compared to the length of the spiculum gastrale. The aedeagus has a median lobe or penis and tegmen. 1.Characters like curvature of nodulus.38x as long as in obuncus. obliquus and pudibundus. inermicollis.03x to 1. lacerta.6x in obuncus. obuncus. obliquus and sagax.63x to 1. guttatus.18x as long as in fabriciusi. lentus. Relative thickness of shaft and shape of apex are important characters in identifying some species.38x in arrogans. figulus nigrosparsus. guttatus. Spiculum gastrale has an elongate shaft and two posterior prongs. 1. is 1.17x as long as in sulcicollis. the length and apex of manubrium are useful.86x in figulus nigrosparsus. lacerta.0x as long as the apophyses in lentus. The parts of median lobe like apophyses.81x to 1.42x in inermicollis and lentus. The tegmen has a sclerotised projection between the parameres in arrogans and inermicollis. The relative lengths of aedeagus and apophyses when compared.76x in quatuornotatus. relative thickness of posterior and dorsal piece. pudibundus and quatuornotatus. The length of the distal arm when compared to the proximal arm is 1.35x in fabriciusi. figulus nigrosparsus. The length of shaft of the spiculum ventrale when compared to the length of basal plate is 1. 1. lacerta and sulcicollis. 1.15x .25x in arrogans.02 to 2.77x as long as in guttatus. The length of spiculum gastrale when compared to the length of tegmen is. 1.55x to 1. the aedeagus is 1.27x in guttatus and quatuornotatus.21x to 1.75x to 2. ratio of relative lengths of apophyses. quatuornotatus and raucus. montanus. 1.2.54x in sulcicollis.46x in lacerta. quatuornotatus and raucus. the length and shape of parameres. 1. 2.38x as 19 .22x as long in figulus nigrosparsus.1x to 1.41x in figulus nigrosparsus and quatuornotatus and 2. is 1. 1. raucus and inermicollis. guttatus. its length when compared to the length of manubrium. obuncus.34x in sagax and 1. raucus. figulus nigrosparsus. 2. ramus has a prominent projection terminating in a blunt apex. angle between proximal and distal arm and the apex of spiculum ventrale are valuable in distinguishing species. montanus. In pudibundus. MALE GENITALIA: It consists of aedeagus and spiculum gastrale.65x in lentus. length: breadth ratio of aedeagus is important taxonomic characters. In tegmen. guttatus and lacerta. The length of the aedeagus compared to the length of tegmen is 1.72x in arrogans. 1. 2.81x to 2.46x in inermicollis and 2. lacerta. 2. and sulcicollis.

More than half of the species were described during 1951 to 1900 (Table 2). TABLE 3. but Marshall (1916) synonymised this with Episomus based on his extensive work on the brachyderines and otiorhynchines of the erstwhile British India. sulcicollis.5x in guttatus. Fausts contributions were mostly towards the Indonesian and Malaysian fauna while Marshalls were towards the Indian fauna. ANNOTATED CHECKLIST Episomus was first described by Schoenherr (1826) in his classical publication on ‘Genera et Species Curculionidum cum Synonymia Hujus Familiae’ and it was redescribed by Lacordaire (1863) in his most famous publication “Genera des Colopteres”. No Contributing coleopterists Number of species described 1 Faust 43 2 Marshall 21 3 Chevrolat 6 4 Heller. TABLE 2. Pascoe (1865) described a similar genus by name Simallus with type species S. lacerta. No Number of species Period described from to 1 1781 1800 2 2 1801 1850 9 3 1851 1900 61 4 1901 1937 34 An analysis made on the contributions of the different coleopterists indicates that Faust and Marshall were significant contributors (Table 3).55x in arrogans. Voss 3 each 6 Fabricius 2 7 Others 12 20 . Marshall (1916) was the first to give a detailed description for the genus and reiterate that its type species is Curculio avarus Fabricius. Kono. Pascoe 5 each 5 Boheman. Number of species of Episomus described during different periods Sl. Hartmann. lentus.long as in figulus nigrosparsus. Contributions of coleopterists to the genus Episomus Sl. quatuornotatus and raucus. 1. An analysis of the fauna described during the different periods indicate that most of the species were known between 1894 to 1916. inermicollis. obuncus. and sulcicollis and 2.

quadrimaculatus and versutus are studied. David and Kumaraswamy. Singapore (2) and Korea (1) are the fourteen countries from which Episomus had been recorded so far. arcuatus. China (8). Philippines. Fletcher (1914) reported Episomus sp. arduus. frenatus. Economic importance The information available on the economic importance indicates that. Nagaland (2). Episomus kwanhsiensis was reported as an important pest of mulberry. platina. Bangladesh. E. Episomus figuratus was reported on orange. Lefroy. Among the other species reported are E. From India. Taiwan. Vietnam (5). Gujarat (1) and from the union territories Pondicherry (2). Orissa. 1922). nebulosus. 1909). 1931). 1922. The maximum species diversity is found in Indonesia (33) followed by India (28). 1992). andrewesi. Lespedeza bicolor from Korea (Morimoto. 21 . Andaman Islands (1). Cambodia. Kerala (3). 1988). Myanmar (17). some species are occurring as pests of economically important plants including forest trees in South and South East Asian countries. turritus on leguminous shrub. Citrus cinensis from Sri Lanka (Hutson.. Among the species found in India. In India. Meghalaya. Morus sp from China. West Bengal. avuncularius. Karnataka. 1988). Malaysia (21). This species was also recorded on field beans. Thailand (3). The large grey weevil. Dalbergia latifolia and Erythrina sp (Ayyar. irregularis. it is distributed in all places except the northern regions lying above Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh. Manipur (4). Sri Lanka. as an intermittent pest on pulses in India. Episomus lacerta was found in large numbers damaging cotton plants by feeding on the bark (Marshall. Ayyar (1963) categorized this as a minor pest of pigeon pea and as a specific pest of field beans having the potential to completively denude the whole field with severe infestations. maximum species are recorded in the state of Tamil Nadu (12) followed by Assam (7). manipurensis. 1916. The zoogeographical distribution of the genus shown in figure 353 indicates that it is predominantly Oriental. Dolichos lablab (Ayyar. Japan. all except. dejeani. nigropustulatus. Sikkim. causing yield decrease or even die off (Zhou. adults feeding on leaves and the larvae damaging the roots of mulberry trees. lacerta had also been recorded damaging important forest trees like Tectona grandis. Maharashtra. Andhra Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh (5). decipiens.

Faust. 4. 1916: 207. CHECKLIST Episomus Schoenherr. Blanchard. 1931 3 kwanhsiensis Mulberry China Zhou. 160. Marshall.Venkateshan and Geetha (2003) recently reported an outbreak of E. 1845: 106. Simallus Pascoe. 1916: 205. 1988. 1 lacerta Cotton. David Pigeon pea. 1992 A. immaculatus Faust 22 . 1896:92. 1922. Indonesia and Kumaraswami. 1863: 175. TABLE. Teak. Laporte. 1897: 90-201. 207. Economic Importance of the species of the genus Episomus Sl. 1883: 74-76.120. Marshall. 1842: 88. Sharp. Erythrina. 1826: 185. Lacordaire. lacerta on field lab lab in Selam District of Tamil Nadu and described the root damage by grubs. albarius Faust Indonesia Episomus albarius Faust. 1897: 110. Episomus lacerta bohemani 2. Dalbergia. Type Species: Curculio avarus Fabricius. 1916. VARIETIES RAISED TO SUBSPECIES 1. 180. 2. *albarius var. 1897: 194. Episomus Schoenherr. Field beans. Pascoe. Species Host Plant Distribution Reference No. Marshall. Episomus lacerta nubeculosus B. 1871: 163. 1988 4 turritus Lepedeza Korea Morimoto. 1865: 420. 1801: 510. Faust. 1834: 474. aemulus Faust Malaysia Episomus aemulus Faust. adumbratus Faust See chlorostigma 1. 682 – 684. Faust. Chevrolat. 1916: 207. 172. 1840: 325. Venkateshan and Geetha. Marshall. India Ayyar. 2003 2 figuratus Orange Sri Lanka Hutson. 1897: 159. 1897: 110.

239 [BMNH ? ]. 1897: 11. 1883: 76-80. 79. annulipes Chevrolat See figuratus 4. 7. 78. 1897: 122. binodosus Chevrolat Malaysia Episomus binodosus Chevrolat. 1897: 117. auriculatus Faust See sulcicollis aurivilliusi Faust See humeralis avarus Fabricius See lacerta. Marshall. arduus Marshall India Episomus arduus Marshall. 77. 215 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 1883: 75. 1916: 211. 244 [NRS]. 1916: 214. Faust. 1916: 213. immaculatus Faust. 12. Marshall. 232. Lona. 208. 8. Malaysia (1) Episomus appendiculatus Faust. Episomus albarius var. 6. Singapore Episomus bilineatus Chevrolat. arcuatus Marshall India Episomus arcuatus Marshall. 173. 173. 1842: 90. 1916: 212. 229 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 219 [BMNH ? & ? ]. bilineatus Chevrolat Malaysia. bicuspis Marshall Myanmar Episomus bicuspis Marshall. 1897: 109. China. Simallus arrogans Faust. Faust. 1916: 211. Marshall.1938: 366 printed avuncularis in error [BMNH ? ]. 1897: 106. arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr India. 10. 1897: 198. 1916: 214. Faust. albostigma Faust See chlorostigma 3. 226 [? SMTD. ? BM]. 244 [NRS]. Myanmar (2) Episomus arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr. Marshall. Faust. 1897: 200. 139.198 . platina 9. 5. 1883: 75. 11. 1883: 75. Faust. avuncularius Marshall India Episomus avuncularius Marshall. 1916: 244. andrewesi Marshall India Episomus andrewesi Marshall. apicalis Chevrolat Malaysia Episomus apicalis Chevrolat. 23 . 186. Chevrolat. 1883: 74. 1916: 209. Episomus cataleucus Chevrolat. 1894: 185. 1916. appendiculatus Faust India.

1897: 120. 1897: 171. chlorostigma adumbratus Faust Episomus chlorostigma adumbratus Faust. 1834: 475. 192. confinis Faust See diutinus 18. Marshall. 225 [BMNH ? ]. 234 [BMNH ? ]. 1895: 89. Faust. celebensis Faust Indonesia Episomus celebensis Faust. 149. 1916: 210. 90. 1897: 115. Episomus pauperatus var. 14. castelnaui Faust Malaysia Episomus castelnaui Faust. Episomus chlorostigma Gyllenhal in Schoenherr. 1897: 170. 170. ß Gyllenhal in Schoenherr. connexus Marshall Myanmar Episomus connexus Marshall. 1834: 475. cataleucus Chevrolat See arrogans 15. 241 [SMTD ? ]. decipiens Marshall India Episomus decipiens Marshall. 1897: 119. 24 . Episomus chlorostigma pauperatus Gyllenhal in Schoenherr. ? ? & d ? Faust. chlorostigma albostigma Faust Episomus chlorostigma albostigma Faust. ceylonicus Faust See figuratus chinensis Faust See turritus 16. 1897: 109. 137. clathratus Boheman in Schoenherr See montanus 17. 1916: 214. cochinchinensis Faust Vietnam Episomus cochinchinensis Faust. chlorostigma Wiedemann Indonesia Curculio chlorostigma Wiedemann. 1842: 92. 130. 1897: 171. 1897: 104. crenatus Guerin in litt Faust See lacerta 19. ? & d Faust Episomus chlorostigma pauperatus var. 1819: 177. *chlorostigma var. brevipennis Faust Myanmar Episomus brevipennis Faust. bohemani Faust See lacerta 13. 1916: 212. 1834: 475.

distans Faust Indonesia Episomus distans Faust. *distinguendus var. 187. figulus nigrosparsus Chevrolat India Episomus figulus nigrosparsus Chevrolat. 1897: 110. Faust. 1834: 476. 27. Marshall. 1897: 109. dejeani Faust India Episomus montanus var. 155. 1916: 236 [NRS]. 1897: 116. 220 [SMTD]. Episomus griseus Chevrolat. 156. Indonesia (5) Episomus figulus Boheman in Schoenherr. Episomus pauperatus “Gyllenhal in Schoenherr. 1897 : 111. 1883: 75. diutinus Faust Indonesia Episomus diutinus Faust. 28. 1842: 92. 175. 150. fabriciusi Faust India (4) Episomus fabriciusi Faust. 29. 136. distinguendus Faust Indonesia Episomus distinguendus Faust. 1916: 213. 172. 79. 236 [NRS ? ]. *diutinus var. 1916: 209. 22. Faust. 24.obsoletus Faust. 1897: 103. 1897: 115. 1916: 212. 1897: 156. 1916: 212. fausti Hartmann Indonesia Episomus fausti Hartmann. Faust. Marshall.dejeani Faust. 172. 1897: 116. 25. 158. Indonesia Marshall. 231 [SMTD ? & ? ]. 136. 1897: 116. declivis Faust See turritus 20. 1897: 119. 26. dohertyi Marshall India (3) Episomus dohertyi Marshall. 1897: 106. Chevrolat.confinis Faust. 1834: 475. 1900: 175. 233 [BMNH ? & ? ]. figulus Boheman in Schoenherr India. 1897: 119. 255. exaratus Faust Indonesia Episomus exaratus Faust. Marshall. Marshall. 21. 1883: 75. 1897: 137.obsoletus Faust Episomus distinguendus var. dorsalis Faust Indonesia Episomus dorsalis Faust.confinis Faust Episomus diutinus var. 126. 25 . 1916: 213. Faust. 1883: 76. 236 [NRS]. 23.

30. Faust. 1897: 158. Faust. Chevrolat. 1882: 178. Malaysia (6) Episomus guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr. 168. Episomus ?gemmeus Pascoe. 241 [NRS ? ]. Indonesia Episomus fimbriatus Pascoe. griseus Chevrolat See figulus 36. Faust. 211. 1897: 165. 1883: 76. frenatus Marshall India Episomus frenatus Marshall. Marshall. 1894: 185. 32. gracilicornis Ritsema Indonesia Episomus gracilicornis Ritsema. Sri Lanka.socors Faust Indonesia Episomus gyllenhalli var. 230 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 1895: 90. 217 [NRS]. Bangladesh. guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr India. 26 . Faust. 1897:138. Episomus ocellatus Chevrolat. 31. 1882: 387. Myanmar. 34. 1871: 158. 190. 33. Pascoe. 1897: 166. gyllenhalli Faust Indonesia Episomus gyllenhalli Faust. freyi Zumpt China Episomus freyi Zumpt. Faust. 1916: 221 [SMTD]. 77. 1883: 76. Faust. 1937: 11. 1897: 111. Marshall. 1897: 113. 1897: 118. Episomus annulipes Chevrolat. *gyllenhalli var. Faust. 1887: 349. Marshall. 1883: 75. 1907: 138. Chevrolat. 221 [ZMHU]. 1897: 105. 1883: 75. Marshall. Faust. Marshall. 37. 161. gryphus Faust Indonesia Episomus gryphus Faust. 1845: 435. 130. 1897: 169. fortius Voss China Episomus fortius Voss. figuratus Karsch Sri Lanka Episomus figuratus Karsch. fimbriatus Pascoe Malaysia. 1883: 76. Episomus ceylonicus Faust. 1916: 210. humeralis Chevrolat Indonesia. 38. 1897: 116. 1916: 221 [NRS]. 81. 1897: 103. 39. 1937: 252. 1916. 1916: 208. 165. India (7) Episomus humeralis Chevrolat. 1885: 215. gemmeus Pascoe See gracilicornis 35. 158.socors Faust. 1916: 214.

1790: 539. 1787: 117. Pascoe. 27 . Faust. 1897: Indonesia 159. 1885: 214. 241 [SMTD]. 192. 1916: 246 (= laticollis). 1795: 388. Indonesia Episomus kraatzi Faust. kwanhsiensis Heller China Episomus kwanhsiensis Heller. Faust. Herbst. 211 [BMNH ? ]. 223. 132. 1897: 113. 45. 184. iconicus Pascoe Cambodia Episomus iconicus Pascoe. Episomus aurivilliusi Faust. 179. 1916: 210. 1923: 75. 1871: 159. 1916: 223. Faust. 132. 1897: 200. 42. 1897: 104. aurivilliusi). 1897: 119. intercalaris Faust Indonesia Episomus intercalaris Faust. Gmelin in Linnaeus. Episomus schonherri Faust. 1916: 241 India [SMTD]. kraatzi Faust Malaysia. inermicollis Marshall India (8) Episomus inermicollis Marshall. incomptus Faust Philippines Episomus incomptus Faust. 1897: 107. irregularis Marshall India Episomus irregularis Marshall. Singapore Episomus illustris Faust. 1842: India 92. Faust. 1897: 112. Pascoe. 1897: 173. 1781: 190. 226 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 1895: 90. jamamurai Kono See turritus 47. 41. 78. 1928: 9 [BMNH]. 43. 1916: 214 (var. 1887: 350. 1807: 354. Marshall. 46. 159. Episomus nubeculosus Boheman in Schoenherr. Marshall. lacerta (Fabricius) Indonesia. 160. 1801: 528. 1792: 470. Hustache. 1834: 476. 1916: 209.1938: 369 (var. 1883: 75. India Marshall. nubeculosus) [NRS] Episomus ?avarus Fabricius. 1897: 118. Oliver. 1883: 76. 40. 1790: 1781. immaculatus Faust See albarius. 44. 1916: 211. Episomus lacerta Boheman in Schoenherr. India (9) Curculio lacerta Fabricius. Chevrolat. 48. 142. 49. incisipes Chevrolat Malaysia Episomus incisipes Chevrolat. Chevrolat. 1801: 510. 1842: 92. 1897: 109. illustris Faust Malaysia. Marshall. 1883: 75. Marshall. Lona.

Chevrolat. 1916: 223 [SMTD]. 197. 55. 243. 1916: 214. 53. 1897: 126. 219. 1916: 246. 1842: 93. 1842: 89. 1900: 176. 1842: 88. 220 [Type not traced]. 54. 1839: 266. 1916: 224. 1897: 201. Marshall. Faust. 1897: 151. 52.laevicollis Marshall Episomus montanus var. 1883: 75. marshalli Heller Vietnam Episomus marshalli Heller. 1916: 219 [NRS]. Marshall. 1897: 197. Simallus lentus Faust. Faust. 225 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 1897: 122. 1883: 76. 1897: 112. India lacerta bohemani Faust India Episomus lacerta bohemani Faust. 125. lentus Erichson Philippines (10) Episomus lentus Erichson. 1834: 263. Boheman in Schoenherr. Chevrolat.piger Marshall India Episomus lacerta var. 57. 1916: 209. limbaticollis Marshall Myanmar Episomus limbaticollis Marshall. Episomus clathratus Boheman in Schoenherr. laevicollis Marshall See montanus lateralis Eydoux See lentus 50. 1916: 209. manipurensis Marshall India Episomus manipurensis Marshall. 160. 1887: 350. Faust. 1843: 52. 56. 1928: 9 [BMNH ? ]. 1842: 94. 51. 219. Faust. Episomus crenatus Guerin in litt Faust. Marshall. 1897: 159. Boheman in Schoenherr. piger Marshall. 1908: 130.laevicollis Marshall. 1897: 103. Hustache. India 28 . montanus See dejeani Faust *montanus var. Chevrolat. Episomus lateralis Eydoux. Marshall. montanus Guerin India (11) Episomus montanus Guerin. lucidus Hartmann Indonesia Episomus lucidus Hartmann. laticollis Pascoe Thailand Episomus laticollis Pascoe. *lacerta var. malaccensis Faust Malaysia Episomus malaccensis Faust. 1883: 74. Boheman in Schoenherr. 1916: 210.

obliquus Marshall Myanmar (13) Episomus obliquus Marshall. 65. nigropustulatus Faust Myanmar Episomus nigropustulatus Faust. oblongus Marshall Myanmar Episomus oblongus Marshall. nebulosus Marshall India Episomus nebulosus Marshall. 243 [BMNH ? ]. 63. 135. 68. nigrosparsus Chevrolat See figulus 62. nobilis Faust Malaysia. 59. 1897: 119. 240 [BMNH ? ]. 1916: 211. 66. nubeculosus Boheman in Schoenherr See lacerta 64. obesulus Faust Cambodia Simallus obesulus Faust.58. obuncus Marshall India (14) Episomus obuncus Marshall. obsoletus Faust See distinguendus 67. 1895: 90. 232 [BMNH ? & ? ]. Marshall. 1908: 131. 60. nilgirinus Heller India (12) Episomus nilgirinus Heller. Marshall. 191. mundus Sharp Japan Episomus mundus Sharp. 222 [SMTD ? & ? ]. 1894: 191. omisiensis Heller China Episomus omisiensis Heller. 1916: 212. Marshall. obstrusus Marshall Myanmar Episomus obstrusus Marshall. mori Kono Japan Episomus mori Kono. 1896: 93. 246 [BMNH ? ]. 1916: 212. ocellatus Chevrolat See guttatus 69. 1923: 75. 1916: 213. 194. 1897: 121. 1916: 210. Indonesia Episomus nobilis Faust. 1916: 214. 1916: 215. 29 . 231 [BMNH ? ]. 1928: 166. 1897: 104. 1916: 207. nigrolineatus Wiedemann See platina 61. 235 [MCSN ? ].

dorsalis piger Marshall See lacerta 72. Episomus pauperatus Faust. 143. Faust. punctiger Faust See profanus 77. Pascoe. Curculio nigrolineatus Wiedemann. Vietnam Curculio platina Sparrm. Boheman in Schoenherr. Chevrolat. 194. 1897: 114. parallelus Chevrolat Vietnam Episomus parallelus Chevrolat. 1894: 189. pyriformis Marshall Sri Lanka Episomus pyriformis Marshall. Simallus platina Faust. 71. 1916: 242. 76. pudibundus Faust Myanmar (15) Episomus pudibundus Faust. prainae Faust See quatuornotatus 74. 75. 237 [MCSN]. 1894: 185.punctiger Faust Episomus profanus var. Oliver. 1885: 215. pudicus Faust Malaysia. Marshall. profanus Faust Myanmar Episomus profanus Faust. Marshall. 147. 1834: 475. 1916: 207. pauperatus Gyllenhal in Schoenherr See chlorostigma. platina (Sparrm) Indonesia. Malaysia Curculio pauperatus Fabricius. 1916: 237 [MCSN ? & ? ]. 195. 1897: 118. *profanus var. 78. 141. 1916: 214. quadrimaculatus Marshall India 30 . 1897: 195. 242 [SMTD].70. Faust. Marshall. Gmelin in Linnaeus. 1916: 213. 1907: 226. 1894: 189. 1897: 121. 197. 1883: 82. 1840: 325. 1790: 570. 1801: 509. pauperatus (Fabricius) Indonesia. 1823: 125. 1897: 114.punctiger Faust. Episomus platina Schoenherr. Episomus ?avarus Fabricius 1801: 510. 1897: 196. 1916: 213. Laporte. 1897: 107. 1790: 1794. 1842: 91. 1897: 121. Heyne & Taschenberg. 1785: 55. 239 [BMNH ? ]. 1883: 75. praecanus Faust Indonesia Episomus praecanus Faust. pracuae Faust See quatuornotatus 73. Chevrolat. Marshall. Indonesia Episomus pudicus Faust. Simallus pudibundus Faust. 176. Marshall. 1883: 75.

Marshall. Marshall. 245. quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges India (16) Episomus quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges. simulator Faust Indonesia. Cambodia. 1916: 240. Simallus sennae Faust. Marshall. 237 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 1897: 117. 80. schonherri Faust See humeralis 84. 162. 1916: 212. Faust. 82. 1916: 212. saitus Faust Indonesia Episomus saitus Faust. 1894: 186. 1916: 215. sagax Faust India. 141. raucus Faust India (17) Episomus raucus Faust. 83. 1892: XVIII. 86. singularis Faust Thailand Episomus singularis Faust. Marshall. 145. sobrinus Faust Malaysia Episomus sobrinus Faust. 1897: 120. siamensis Faust Malaysia. 88. 87. 134. 1891: 265 printed “pracuae” in error. 141 [SMTD]. 1916: 211. Marshall. 178. Bangladesh (18) Episomus sagax Faust. 1897: 117. 1897: 114. quadrinotatus Desbrochers des Loges See quatuornotatus 79. 1890: 212. 126. 1897: 107. 1897: 120. 85. Malaysia Episomus simulator Faust. 245 [MCSN ? ]. Marshall. 127. 1897: 105. 222 [SMTD]. 1916: 210. Episomus quadrimaculatus Marshall. 235 [SMTD ? & ? ]. 153. Episomus prainae Faust. sennae Faust Myanmar Episomus sennae Faust. socors Faust See gyllenhalli 89. stellio Snellen Van Vollenhoven Indonesia 31 . 163. 1897: 122. Thailand Episomus siamensis Faust. Cambodia Episomus repandus Faust. 1916: 215. 1897: 113. 1916: 213. 1891: 266 printed “quadrinotatus” in error. 1897: 119. 81. repandus Faust Myanmar. 228 [NPC]. 233 [MCSN ? & ? ]. 1894: 193. 1897: 115. Marshall. 198.

93. 247. 32 . 247 [BMNH ? ]. Lacordaire. takahashii Kono Taiwan Episomus turritus takahashii Kono. Marshall. 1864: 169. Sharp. 92. 90. Faust. Marshall. Faust. 91. 1897: 107. Chevrolat. 1928: 166. 1897: 120. 1883: 76. 1916: 217. Episomus turritus Chevrolat in Lacordaire. Jekel. 1889: 51. 1930: 198. 123. Indonesia Episomus timidus Faust. 1883: 96. subtuberculatus Heller Vietnam Episomus subtuberculatus Heller. 1894: 187. *turritus var. 1873: 164. Episomus turritus Pascoe. 1897: 102. 1885: 215 . 1958: 29.declivis Faust. Episomus auriculatus Faust. Dermatodes turritus Gyllenhal in Schoenherr. 1916: 215. 1863: 109. China. *turritus var. Simallus auriculatus Faust 1897: 199 . 146. Episomus stellio Snellen Van Vollenhoven.declivis Faust China Episomus turritus var. 1865: 420. 1916: 215. Episomus takahashii Kono. turritus yamamurai Kono Korea Episomus turritus yamamurai Kono. Korea Lagostomus turritus Gyllenhal in Schoenherr. suavis Faust Malaysia Episomus suavis Faust. Marshall. 1922: 3. 245 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 1875: 139. Pascoe. 1897: 108. Chevrolat. Myanmar Episomus subnitens Marshall. chinensis Faust China Episomus turritus var. 98. 95. tristiculus Voss Taiwan Episomus tristiculus Voss. truncatirostris (Fairmaire) China Dermatodes truncatirostris Fairmaire. subnitens Marshall Indonesia. 1897: 102. 1863: 176. 1833: 613. turritus (Gyllenhal in Schoenherr) Japan. chinensis Faust. 1916: 215. 1916: 247 [MCSN]. 1897: 102. 182. 124. 182. sulcicollis (Pascoe) Myanmar (19) Simallus sulcicollis Pascoe. Faust. 124. 94. 96. 1928: 166. 97. timidus Faust Malaysia. 1896: 92. Marshall. Episomus turritus Roelofs. 1897: 114. 128. 1871: 158. 1840: 896 .

versutus Faust Myanmar. 1932: 181. 100. 141. 1897: 117. 188. 1887: 349. wiedemanni Faust Indonesia Episomus wiedemanni Faust. 1916: 211. 1781). * Status of subspecies could not be confirmed Genus Episomus Schoenherr: Type species Curculio avarus. Indonesia Episomus uncatus Faust. varying in size and curvature and mostly acuminate inferiorly. vethi Hartmann Indonesia Episomus vethi Hartmann. lateral. (Fabricius. uncatus Faust Malaysia. 101. 129. viriosus Faust Indonesia Episomus viriosus Faust.1938: 372 printed “jamamurai” in error. Marshall. 33 . General colour varies from different shades of brown to black. 104. 105. prominent. Faust. yamamurai Kono See turritus 106. 1916: 213. watanabei Kono Taiwan Episomus watanabei Kono. 1897: 101. 227 [MCSN ? & ? ]. 1937: 251. HEAD with the eyes convex. 1894: 191. 177. 1897: 109. uniformis Pascoe India (20) Episomus uniformis Pascoe. 1897: 120. with stripes or patches of black vestiture and spots of white vestiture. yunnanensis Voss China Episomus yunnanensis Voss. covered by varying shades of dark / metallic greenish / white vestiture. Lona. 238 [BMNH ? ]. 99. India Episomus versutus Faust. 1914: 123. 103. 1897: 106. 102. with a central furrow and a transverse impression behind the eyes. Marshall.

segments second. shiny and forming a sharp acute angle behind. the funicle with seven segments. rudimentary wings present. the scape exceeding the hind margin of the eye. the episternum is extremely narrow and usually quite concealed with the exception of the enlarged anterior portion. VENTER with the intercoxal piece angulated and not broader than the hind coxae. Sternum with the front coxae nearer the anterior margin of the prosternum. Legs stout. the posterior declivity steep. but shallower near the eyes and curving inwards about the middle. usually dilated and sometimes strongly curved. and with a strongly curved furrow which extends to the lower surface. broader than the forehead at its base. ANTENNAE inserted at or before the middle of the rostrum. slightly covering the basal margin of the prothorax. the hind coxae touch the elytral margin. the lateral margin sinuate above the posterior coxae. with the first. the genae wrinkled. elongate. usually well developed. the mesosternum with the epimeron much smaller than the episternum. the club four segmented. fifth elongate and usually sharply pointed in the female. the anterior margin truncate laterally (except in sulcicollis). ROSTRUM separated on each side by a sinuate transverse furrow in front of the eyes. but sometimes invisible and occasionally enclosed in front by the sutural margin of the elytra.. third and fourth subequal. the base. PROTHORAX usually with strong transverse plications and a distinct central furrow. the base either bisinuate or subtruncate. the posterior pair not reaching the apex of the elytra. the metasternum is either equal to. the gular margin shallowly sinuate. the posterior pair with the tibial apex strongly 34 . slightly shorter than or slightly longer than the median coxae. scrobes dorsal. the two front pairs produced internally at the apex. the striae punctate and 10 in number. SCUTELLUM varying in size. deeply emarginate at the apex. the femora unarmed. prominent and with a strongly marked scar. mandibles obtuse. second and seventh joints usually longer than the others. very steep in front. the epistome bare. the tibiae almost straight. with or without a distinct humeral angle and subhumeral prominence. the intercoxal process dilated at its apex. second and first segments separated by a deep transverse incision. shorter and broadly rounded in the male. ELYTRA not soldered together.

31x as long as the club.31) (Fig. ……………………………. First funicular segment the longest and broadest.1x as long as broad. The base of elytra jointly sinuate (Fig.. Elytra bearing a broad subhumeral prominence (Fig.. 1.……………………………. Prothorax 1. Antennae with club black and first funicular segment the longest.11-1. Eyes 1.enclosed. Head with its length 1.49x as long as the rostrum..06x as long as broad...…………………………………….46x as long as broad from above.…………………. First tarsal segment the longest. Legs with setae at posterior apical angle of hind tibiae black.1x as long as the head and 1. ….. Antennae with the seventh segment of funicle the longest and 1..……. A. Key to the species This key includes all the species known from India except 1. Elytra not transversely impressed near the base. Elytra bearing six white spots each.……………. 1. 62).81x as the distance between the scrobes.…(10) lentus 5. 1..…….………. sharply conical tubercle on the suture at some distance above the apex.…2 Elytra transversely impressed near the base. fourth as long as second added to third.. with a small. 36)..6 4.. 99). Scutellum not enclosed. first segment as long as the seventh. its anterior margin of bisinuate (Fig. the claws connate. the base of elytra subtruncate.3 Rostrum with the genae produced in front beyond the mandibles. Legs with tibial apex bearing a prominent spur projecting outside the margins. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin..4 Seventh segment of the funicle shorter than the club (1..62x as long as the rostrum. 107) and having its base truncate. 63). …………………. 28). Elytra. …………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………. The length of head 1. Transverse impression near eyes present (Fig. its space between middle 1. ………. tarsi spongy beneath..…………………. Antennae with seventh segment of funicle 1.. the suture on declivity not elevated.1-1.29x as long as the club. Seventh segment of the funicle distinctly longer than the club (1 : 1.…5 Eyes without any transverse impression (Fig. 1.. third broadly bilobate. Legs with first and fourth tarsal segments the longest. Male 35 . 75). with the second segment transverse and trapeziform.. mottled with small irregular white spots.(6) guttatus 3.46x as long as broad. Rostrum with the genae not produced in front beyond the mandibles..38x as long as the rostrum.. Elytra with a sharp humeral angle and roundly costate suture. .10 2. Prothorax 1.28x as long as the rostrum.6 : 1) (Fig.31x as long as the club. …………………. elytral vestiture with scales fluorescent green with pink specks..

central furrow on head dilated at apex. 1. 1.54x as long as the rostrum. without any dilation (Figs... Rostrum 1. elytral vestiture with scales fluorescent green having pink specks.….(13) obliquus Antennae with first and second segment of club longest.18x as long as the seventh. Legs with the fourth tarsal segment the longest. 1.7 Eyes with lateral and transverse impression. the head 1. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin.54x as long as the rostrum and 1. Elytra with suture on declivity elevated …………………………….55x as long as the head. . 115)..62x as long as broad from above. 88).……………. Head with its length 1.33x as long as broad from above. Legs with the first tarsal segment the longest. Eyes without lateral and transverse impression (Fig 12). lateral dark marking on elytra terminating obliquely behind.11x as long as the prothorax. Antennae having the first segment of club the longest.(2) arrogans Antennae with seventh segment of funicle 1. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. first the longest and same as broad as the seventh and 1. Rostrum with its sides not parallel to each other.07x as long as broad from above. the suture on declivity not elevated.07x as long as the head.. Head 1.……….. Elytra without any humeral angle. the suture on declivity not elevated. Head with a deep transverse impression behind the eyes. ……………….27x as long as the club. (19) sulcicollis 36 . ……………………………………………….. Head forming two prominent conical tubercles to the side of base of central furrow (Figs. Scutellum not enclosed. Eyes 1.12x as broad as long..…. 1.………………………………. 1. 1. Prothorax with shallow plications.24x as broad as long. forehead with two obtuse elevations in the middle. 12 and 22). Prothorax with its anterior margin truncate (Fig.....1x as long as the club. Elytra with its base truncate. central furrow on head not dilated at apex. 1.57x as broad as long. 272).……………………………. 12). 86). Rostrum with its sides almost parallel to each other. 247). 1. Prothorax with a sharp projection below the eye at anterior lateral margin. elytral vestiture with pedicellate scales (Fig.41x as long as the rostrum..81x as long as the rostrum.. first funicular segment the longest. Eyes 2.59x as long as the seventh.29x as broad as long.38x as broad as long. the suture sinuate before its apex……………………………………………………. Rostrum subquadrate (Fig.. Female genitalia having spermatheca with a prominent projection at ramus terminating in a blunt apex (Fig. Head without any tubercles. ………………………………………………………………………….8 7. 1. genitalia having tegmen with a sclerotised projection between the parameres (Fig. Eyes 1. bearing very few plications. 163).……(15) pudibundus 6. Prothorax with its anterior margin truncate (Fig. 39 and 44). Elytra with its base jointly sinuate (Fig. second funicular segment the longest.

Head with central furrow not dilated at apex. the suture more strongly elevated on the declivity (Fig. .. Head 1.. General colour black.49x as long as the rostrum. 223).04x as long as the first. ………………………………………. 9 Legs with tibial apex bearing a prominent spur projecting outside the margins (Fig. 108). 140). Elytra with suture on the declivity distinctly elevated. Elytra separately rounded at the base (Fig.08x as long as the prothorax. Legs with tibial apex without any prominent spur projecting outside the margins. Male genitalia with aedeagus having three sclerotised areas on its apex between the apophyses (Fig... Head 1. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin.16x as long as the second. ……….47x as long as the rostrum.…………………………………………………………lacerta nubeculosus Elytra with intervals broader than the punctations.……(11) montanus Antenna with seventh segment of funicle the longest and broadest... club black. Antenna with second and seventh segments of funicle the longest and broadest. Scutellum not enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin.. . Antennae with first funicular segment the longest. Prothorax 1.. Legs with hind tibiae of male strongly tuberculate internally (Fig. 1.5x as long as the rostrum.(9) lacerta Elytra with intervals as broad as the punctations. Legs with tibial apex bearing a prominent spur projecting outside the margins (Fig. the suture strongly elevated on the declivity (Fig.. 238).8. Antennae with only seventh funicular segment the longest...……………………………………………………. with central furrow dilated at apex. 1. the intervals between the striae narrower than the punctations. 119).… (17) raucus 10. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin.. with a white spot on the elytra. Male genitalia with aedeagus having sigle sclerotised area on its apex between the apophyses (Fig.. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. elytral vestiture with scales fluorescent green with pink specks. 126)………………. ……. Head 1.. …………………………………………………………. Male genitalia with aedeagus having sigle sclerotised area on its apex between the apophyses (Fig.………. Apical process of male organ gradually narrowed and forming a continuous downward curve.……14 37 . General body colour green.31x as long as the head. Elytra with its base subtruncate (Fig.. . Prothorax 1.07x as long as the second.…lacerta bohemani 9.. 133).…………11 Elytra distinctly impressed near the base (Fig... 241). 290).. Prothorax 1. Elytra shallowly impressed near the base (Fig. Head 1. 145). without humeral angles. Elytra with suture on the declivity slightly elevated... 309).03x as long as the head.5x as long as the head.. Antennae with first and seventh funicular segments longest. 1.……. Prothorax same as long as head. black from middle till apex. …………. 278).

………….………………………….23x as the distance between the anterior margins. 81).……. Prothorax with very few plications and its central furrow very small and located near its base (Fig. Eyes with distance between its posterior margins longest (1.….. broadest at middle. …………………………. elytral vestiture with its base pedunculate (Fig. 1.…….………………. 175). …………………………….…………………………………. Antennae with seventh segment of funicle shorter than the club (1. Elytra having shallow striae and separated punctures.(8) inermicollis * Eyes without lateral and transverse impressions (Fig. 166). 1.. 304)... club 1. Scutellum not enclosed. club and seventh segment of funicle completely black. Head as long as prothorax.13 12. Eyes with distance between posterior margins 1. club with second and third segments the longest.. ………………………………………….. 1. having central furrow dilated at apex. Eyes with distance between posterior margins equal to distance between the anterior margins.41x as long as the second.. 15 38 .29). Elytra without any humeral angle.……………………….7x as long as the seventh segment of funicle.. Head with central furrow not dilated. Prothorax with its anterior margin truncate (Fig.15 Elytra with a distinct subhumeral process (Fig. club with fourth segment the longest.. elytra bearing subhumeral prominence.83x as long as the third.53x as long as the rostrum. elytral vestiture having fluorescent pink scales with few having greenish core.1-1. its central furrow shallow. 30). elytral vestiture having fluorescent pink scales. Prothorax with its anterior margin bisinuate (Fig. 87). Male genitalia having tegmen with a sclerotised projection between the parameres (Fig. …………………………………. 94). …………………………………. Elytra with a slight subhumeral process. ………………………………….11-1. Head 1. 103). Antennae with first and second funicular segments the longest. its length 1..45x as long as the rostrum.6 : 1)……………………………………………………………………………12 Antennae with seventh segment of funicle the longest and longer than the club (1 : 1. Antennae with first or second segment of funicle the longest.…(14) obuncus 14 Elytral vestiture with plumose scales (Fig. 141). the suture strongly elevated into a carina on the declivity (Fig. ……………. Elytra with slight humeral angle. General colour metallic green. Scutellum transverse. Elytra without any humeral angle. Scutellum transverse.11. 1.(20) uniformis Antennae with seventh funicular segment dilated.64x as long as the third.……(4) fabriciusi 13 Antennae with seventh funicular segment not dilated.25x as long as the second. Antenna with second segment of funicle the longest..34x) as compared to that between the middle..

with five white spots sharply elevated. Elytra bearing two white spots and a distinct subhumeral prominence. ……. not dilated. Elytra bearing slight subhumeral prominence..47x as long as the rostrum.………………. …………. …………………….17 15 Antennae with seventh segment of funicle longer than the club. Eyes with the distance between its middle 1.…(7) humeralis 16 Antennae with seventh segment of funicle the longest and 1.26x as long as the club.51x to as much as the distance between scrobes. 18 Elytra with its apices separately produced into a long sharp process (Fig. its central furrow dilated before middle.7x as long as the seventh segment of funicle. 1.…………….56x as long as the rostrum. 164).03x as that between the anterior margins and 1.…………(18) sagax 17 Elytra with its apices not produced into a long process…... second segment of funicle the longest. elytral vestiture with fluorescent green scales with pink specks. 180).. 122). 98). 80).………(1) appendiculatus 39 . 124).……………………………………………….. Prothorax with its anterior margin bisinuate (Fig..85). Eyes with the distance between anterior and middle 1. bearing a distinct subhumeral prominence (Fig.45x as the distance between the scrobes. first and seventh the broadest. Head with the central furrow deep and not dilated.. Head with breadth at its base 1. 1. elytral vestiture having scales separately rounded at base (Fig. Rostrum as long as broad. 1.44x as long as the rostrum. 121).1x as the space between the eyes at middle. its length 1.(3) dohertyi Antennae with seventh segment of funicle the longest.16 Antennae with club 1.………... the suture moderately elevated after the declivity. its length 1. and a dark brown stripe at the base of intervals 4 and 5. its length 1.71x as the distance between the scrobes. Elytra with a slight humeral angle. Head with the central furrow shallow and not dilated at apex. Head is same as long as the prothorax. Elytra without any humeral angle but bearing a distinct subhumeral prominence and a basal pale stripe on interval 3. 1. 229).……………………………... . Prothorax with its anterior margin truncate (Fig. Head with a deep central furrow dilated at apex. the suture elevated on the declivity (Fig. ….(12) nilgirinus Antennae with seventh segment of funicle longest and broadest and as long as the club.37x as long as the club and same as broad as club. …………………. …………. Antennae with its club black and second funicular segment the longest.……………………………….04x as long as the head. Elytra with the suture strongly elevated on the declivity.. the first stria from suture terminating at the sutural margin near the base of scutellum (Fig.5x as long as the rostrum. elytral vestiture having pedicellate scales (Fig. Elytral vestiture without plumose scales. Legs with tibial apex bearing a prominent spur projecting outside the margins (Fig.

fabriciusi Faust 5.1x longer than the proximal arm. 144). inermicollis Marshall 9. montanus Guerin 12. lentus Erichson 11. Species studied The following are the species studied in the present work: 1. guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr 7. ………………………………………………. Eyes without any transverse impression. 185).23x.. cornu projecting towards proximal arm. Eyes with transverse impression near it faint and distance between from anterior to middle 1. Scutellum not enclosed. Elytra with three very slightly raised white spots. obliquus Marshall 14. close towards proximal arm. figulus nigrosparsus Boheman in Schoenherr 6. distal arm 1.……………. nilgirinus Heller 13.18 Antennae with seventh segment of funicle the longest. 155). Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1. cornu bent.. Head with central furrow narrow.…. Female genitalia having spermatheca with proximal arm slightly swollen.(5) figulus nigrosparsus Antennae with first segment of funicle the longest. Antennae with club and seventh segment of funicle completely black. its apices with only a very short inconspicuous process.…(16) quatuornotatus B. Elytral vestiture having scales with rounded base (Fig. Head with a broad central furrow. obuncus Marshall 40 . Elytral vestiture with scales bearing a rounded base (Fig. arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr 3. appendiculatus Faust 2. humeralis Chevrolat 8. each elytron usually with a large black patch on the declivity and the suture strongly elevated into a carina on the declivity (Fig. lacerta (Fabricius) 10.21x. Eyes with distance between anterior to middle 1. Elytra mottled with dark and pale markings.27x as long as the proximal arm. dohertyi Marshall 4. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by sutural margin. …………….

15. pudibundus Faust
16. quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges
17. raucus Faust
18. sagax Faust
19. sulcicollis (Pascoe)
20. uniformis Pascoe

1. Episomus appendiculatus Faust
(Figs. 10, 27, 51, 74, 98, 122, 180, 194, 218 and 330)
Episomus appendiculatus Faust, 1897: 117, 139; Marshall, 1916: 211, 226
[? SMTD, ? BM].
General colour: brown above and light brown to chalky white beneath and on the
inflexed margins of the elytra. The lateral band on the prothorax (when present) vaguely
invading the intervals 3, 4 and 5 till one third from base, each elytra bearing five elevated
white spots – one on the third interval before middle, one each on second, third and
seventh intervals behind middle and one at apex of fifth interval (Fig. 330).
Head, very slightly impressed on each side of central furrow, 1.51x as long as the
rostrum, 3.56x as long as the apical emargination and 1.04x as long as that of prothorax,
base 1.05x as broad as the rostrum, 1.51x as much as the distance between scrobes and
1.63x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow 2x as long as the apical
emargination. Rostrum as long as broad, the dorsal costae shallowly impressed, 1.96x as
long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes convex, 2.1x as long
as broad from above and 1.16 x as long as broad from the sides; distance between the
anterior margin 1.11x as the distance between the middle of eyes; distance between
posterior margins 1.22x as that between the middle and 1.1x as that between the anterior
margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.1x as that between the scrobes (Figs. 10 and
27). Antennae grey. Scape broadened (1.1x) from middle to apex, 3.1x as long as the
club. Funicle 1.2x as long as the scape and 3.72x times as long as the club, second
segment longest, 1.2x as long as the first, 2x as long as the third, 2.18x as long as the
fourth, fifth and sixth segments and 1.26x as the seventh, fourth to sixth equally long; in
terms of breadth, seventh segment broadest of all, dilated anteriorly, 1.07x as broad as the

41

first, 1.27x as broad as the second, 1.16x as broad as the third, fourth, fifth and sixth
segments, third to sixth equally broad. Club black, 1.21x as long as the second and 1.52x
as long and 1.43x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle, second segment longest,
1.5x as long as the first and fourth, and 1.12x as long as the third, first and fourth equally
long; in terms of breadth, second the broadest, 1.05x as broad as the first, 1.33x as the
third, 2.5x as the fourth (Fig. 51).
Prothorax with very shallow plications, posterior margin deeply bisinuate, 1.44x
as long as and 1.52x as broad as the rostrum, 1.06x broader than long at middle; breadth
at middle 1.45x as broad as at the apex and 1.04x as broad as at the base, the posterior
margin 1.38x as broad as the apex, its length at middle equal as that at the sides, 11.33x
as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 12x as broad as the breadth of
scutellum; central furrow shallow (Fig. 74). Scutellum not enclosed, as long as broad.
Legs brownish grey. Hind femora darker from base up to middle, 4.45x as long as broad,
1.06x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.1x as broad as the breadth of tibia.
Tibia 4.6x as long as broad. Tarsi with fourth segment longest, 1.92x as long as the first,
2.28x as the second and 1.55x as the third; in terms of breadth, third broadest, 1.43x as
broad as first and second and 4.3 x as broad as the fourth segment (Figs. 194 and 218).
Elytra ovate, separately rounded at the base, with a sharp humeral angle and
distinct subhumeral prominence, acuminate at the apex bearing a short sharp process, and
the upper surface transversely impressed near the base (Fig. 122); its length 1.14x as
much as the suture, 5.56x as long as the rostrum, 17.08x as long as the scutellum, 3.85x
as that of prothorax, its breadth at middle 1.16x as that of its breadth at the subhumeral
prominence, 1.55x as that of prothorax and 1.62x as that of its breadth at base. Suture
elevated on the declivity, 2.11x as long as that of prothorax, 24x as long as the scutellum.
Striae with rows of large shallow punctations, each punctation 1.15x as long as broad,
1.25x as long as the length and 1.08x as broad as the breadth of scutellum and 1.3x as
broad as the breadth of intervals. Sixth striae not reaching the base. Intervals narrow and
subcostate (Fig. 98). Elytral vestiture with one type of scales, brown, elongate with 6-9
inconspicuous ridges, separately rounded at base, rounded at apex (Fig. 180).

42

Venter with the first ventrite longest, 3x as long as the second, 4.8x as long as the
third, 4x as the fourth and 1.6x as long as the fifth; in terms of breadth, first the broadest,
1.17x as broad as second, 1.41x as broad as third, 1.71x as fourth and 2.08x as fifth.
Length: 15.5 mm; Breadth: 5.8 mm.
Specimen examined: 1? Sikkim: Third mile nursery, on shrubs (4500 ft), 08.IV.1957,
Coll. Baldev P. D.
Distribution: INDIA: Uttar Pradesh: Allahabad; Sikkim. China, Malaysia

2. Episomus arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr
(Figs. 9, 28, 52, 75, 99, 123, 173, 174, 195, 219, 269-272, 317 and 329)
Episomus arrogans Boheman in Schoenherr, 1842: 90; Chevrolat, 1883: 75; Faust, 1894:
185; Marshall, 1916: 214, 244 [NRS].
Simallus arrogans Faust, 1897: 122,198 ; Marshall, 1916: 214, 244 [NRS].
Episomus cataleucus Chevrolat, 1883: 74, 77; Faust, 1897: 198; Marshall, 1916: 244.
General colour light brown above and whitish below; prothorax with two broad,
dark brown, longitudinal stripes, elytra with the intervals 5,6 and 7 dark brown, sides of
head and thorax and elytra whitish grey, sides of elytra mottled with small irregular white
spots (Fig. 329).
Head with a projection on vertex, 1.49x as long as the rostrum and 3.72x as long
as the apical emargination, base 1.06x as broad as the rostrum, 2.05x as much as the
distance between scrobes and 2.38x as broad as the apical emargination; central furrow
broad and deep, 1.72x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum with the costae faintly
impressed, 1.01x as broad as long, 2.05x as long as the distance between base of rostrum
and base of head. Eyes convex, 1.46x as long as broad from above and 1.17x as long as
broad from the sides; distance between the anterior margin 1.06x as the distance between
the middle of eyes; distance between posterior margins 1.21x as that between the middle
and 1.13x as that between the anterior margins; space between the eyes at middle 1.47x
as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 9 and 28). Antennae with scape broadened
(1.33x) from middle to apex, 4.72x as long as the club. Funicle 1.21x as long as the scape
and 5.72x as long as the club, first and the seventh segment longest, 1.31x as long as the
club, 1.72x as long as the second, 2x as long as the third, 2.37x as the fourth and sixth
and 2.23x as the fifth, first, seventh and fourth, sixth equally long; in terms of breadth,

43

08x as much as the suture.5x as the fourth (Fig. 1. 38.47x as broad as the third and 2.4x as that of prothorax.1x as long as the head.12x as long as the first and 1. Legs light brown. Club 1.9x as long as the rostrum. without humeral angles. 1.66x as that of prothorax and 1. not impressed near base (Fig. 52).05x as broad as first and second and 3. 1. first and second segments broadest.46x as long as the scutellum. in terms of breadth. 1. 1. 99).74x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. fifth with seventh equally broad. 35. its second segment the longest. in terms of breadth. Femora 5. 16x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 17. 1. breadth at middle 1. third broadest. 1.62x as long as and 1. Suture roundly costate on the declivity. jointly sinuate at the base.5x as broad as the rostrum.08x as long as the length of punctations and 1. very small.27x as broad as the fourth (Figs.33x as broad as the apex. fifth and seventh.5x as long as broad. 123). 1. each punctation 2x as long as broad. posterior margin 1. 75). Upper surface rugose. 44 . 2. central furrow shallow (Fig.13x as broad as the fourth. 2.21x as long as that of prothorax.1x as long as broad. third and fourth equally long. its breadth at middle 1. Tarsi with first segment longest. sixth and fourth. Seventh dilated anteriorly. Elytra ovate.06x as long as broad at middle. Striae with rows of small punctations. brown.08x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. Intervals broad. Tibia 4.04x as broad as the second. longer scales with irregular ridges radiating from the base and terminating at the blunt apex (Figs. its length 1. 1.12x as long and its breadth as broad as that of tibia. Elytral vestiture with scales of two types. 1.76x as that of its breadth at base.18x as long as broad and 1.06x as broad as at the base.12x as long as the second.83x as broad as its breadth.45x as the third and 1. Scutellum light brown. 1. 195 and 219).33x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. segments third with.05x as the fourth.18x as broad as the third and sixth. its length at middle 1. 3. 3. 173 and 174).38x as long as the scutellum.04x as that at the sides. 1. 2. Prothorax subcylindrical.5x as long as the third and fourth segments.42x as broad as at the apex and 1.first segment broadest of all. the short and broad scales with 4-5 parallel ridges originating from the base and terminating at the apex and sides. equally predominant. posterior margin truncate. apex not blunt.

Length: 22.71x as long as the apophyses and 2. Rostrum with sides roundly dilated near apex.26x as broad as just before the apex.72x as long as the tegmen. 220 and 334) Episomus dohertyi Marshall. Spiculum gastrale with shaft narrowing down till apex. General colour pale brown above and pale light brown below. 3. 177-179.76x as long as the manubrium. the apex being curved. median lobe slightly narrowing at the base of apophyses. its base 1.63x as long as the fifth. S.57x as ventrite four and 1. 1. 53. Venter with the first ventrite longest. Coll. Specimen examined: ? . 233 [BMNH ? & ? ]. 1. 4. Head shallowly impressed on the sides of central furrow. 12. 272). 1.39x as broad as the shaft of spiculum gastrale (Figs.24x as as broad as the basal piece.5x as long as the rostrum. 1. central furrow 1. Tegmen with dorsal piece 1. 269 and 271). base 1. Distribution: INDIA: Karnataka: North Kanara.82x as its median lobe. with a sclerotised projection between the parameres. feeding on wild legume.15x as long as the apophyses. 29.55x as long as the tegmen.4x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 1. 1. 1. 4. Myanmar.1x as broad as the rostrum. 3. the prothorax with a dark brown lateral stripe. its breadth 2. manubrium slightly curved before the apex (Fig. Maharashtra: Mumbai. 100. 5. lateral costae 45 . 8.14x as broad as second. Tamil Nadu: Ooty. 196. 317). Shanas.05.2mm. 76.05x as long as that of prothorax.93x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.5x as long as the fourth and 1.91x as fifth. breadth at middle 1.27x as long as the second.37x as broad as third.14x as long as the third. 1. first the broadest. second and third intervals with a small white spot at the top of declivity (Fig. 1.96x as long as the apical emargination.31x as broad as the apical emargination.07x as broad as middle and 1. Episomus dohertyi Marshall (Figs. 334).17x as broad as that just before apex. 1916: 212. in terms of breadth.04x as long as the apical emargination and 1. 124.33x as broad as the manubrium and 1.6 mm. Breadth: 8. Apophyses 3.25x as long as the spiculum gastrale. Male genitalia with aedeagus 2. 1.1996. breadth from sides 2x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. Karnataka: Dharwad: Dandeli Forests.

13x) from middle to apex. 1. 1. Prothorax with upper surface deeply plicate. 1.12x as broad as the first.05x as broad as the club.78x as long as the club.07x broader than long at middle.45x as long as the first and third.44x as broad as the rostrum. 1. 1. Elytra separately rounded at base.33x as broad as its breadth. first to third. in terms of breadth. 1.41x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 14. 1.71 x as long as broad from above and 1.82x as long as the rostrum.54x as the third and 2. 1. breadth at middle 1. third the broadest.11x as that at the sides.13x as long as the first.31x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. as long as and 1. Antennae with scape broadened (1. 25. seventh segment longest. first and fourth equally long.67x as that of prothorax.06x as broad as long. in terms of breadth.26x as long as the club. 1. distance between the anterior margin 1.11x as broad as the second.45x as broad as first.12x as much as the suture. 3. 2. first with third and fourth to sixth equally long. 4. 76). dilated anteriorly.26x as long as the club.93x as long as the fourth fifth and sixth. its breadth at middle 1. 1. 1.75x as long as the third segment.3x as that of second and 3. 4x as long as broad.17x as long as the scutellum. 8 and 29).16x as long as the first and fourth segments and 1. 1. in terms of breadth. 2. its length 1.07x as long as the second.42x as long as broad and 1.43x as long and 1. space between the eyes at middle 1. 2x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Eyes 1. Femora with faint dark markings. its length at middle 1.27x as broad as that of tibia. 1.03x as broad as the breadth at middle and 1. central furrow deep (Fig. 1. first broadest. second and third segments. Suture elevated on the 46 . Club with second segment longest.5x as the fourth (Fig.18x as the distance between the middle of eyes.impressed. 1.19x as broad as the fifth and sixth.55x as the second and 1.32x as broad as the apex. 1. 1.7x as broad as the fourth. 124).68x as that of prothorax and 1. posterior margin shallowly bisinuate. Scutellum not enclosed. seventh segment broadest of all. Funicle 1.26x as broad as the fourth.1x as long as broad. 9.35x as broad as the apex. Legs brown. fifth and sixth equally broad. 1. Tarsi with fourth segment the longest. with a humeral angle and without a transverse impression (Fig. 1.07x as that between the anterior margins.26x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. distance between posterior margins 1.63x as that of its breadth at base.28x as long as the scape and 1.21x as long as the length of punctations and 1.04x as long as broad from the sides.27x as that between the middle and 1.46x as the third. Tibia 5. 53).

Episomus fabriciusi Faust (Figs. base 1. ventrites third and fourth equally long.44x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. 146-148. dense metallic green beneath. 1.15x as long as broad from the sides. with parallel translucent lines running from base to periphery (Figs. 1916: 212. 251.43x as broad as third. 333). 22. 242. 1. Venter with the first ventrite longest. as long as prothorax. lateral costae having distinct short basal impression. 255. Head without lateral impressions. Eyes 1.37x as long as the third and fourth. 7. distance between posterior margins 1. 100). small green spots on the striae (Fig. Assam: Sibsagar. 231 [SMTD ? & ? ]. 1. distance between the anterior margin 1.5 mm. 260 and 333) Episomus fabriciusi Faust. Specimen examined: Without data. Striae with rows of deep punctations. Elytral vestiture with scales of three types.declivity. 1. 2. 4x as long as the apical emargination. 3. Marshall.75x as fourth and 2.69x as long as the rostrum. Length: 20 mm. Breadth: 7.25x as that between the middle and 47 . 197.23x as long as the fifth. General colour black with sparse green above. prothorax with two broad subdenuded stripes. 1897: 106. each punctation 1. predominant with a dark area near base. 177-179).35x as long as the scutellum. 101. first broadest. 4. 1. Rostrum parallel sided. Central furrow broad and shallow.1x as the distance between the middle of eyes. 77. on the disk.75x as long as broad from above and 1. of dense green scales. and 2.33x as fifth.21x as broad as the rostrum. elytra dense green at apex and lateral margins uptil seventh stria.72x as long as the apical emargination. in terms of breadth. 1.95x as much as the distance between scrobes.55x as long as broad. less predominant brown. Intervals broad. Distribution: INDIA: Arunachal Pradesh: Patkai Hills. and also many irregular.64x as broad as the apical emargination. 1. all brown and dark. elongate with 6-7 clear lines approximating at the rounded apex. 125. a large subquadrate patch at the base and a transverse band behind middle. 1. 1. 2x as broad as that of punctations (Fig.17x as broad as long. with a dark area near base.7x as long as the second. 54.14x as broad as second. very few scales plumose. 187.37x as long as that of prothorax. 2. 221.

38 x as broad as the second.52x as broad as the rostrum. breadth at middle 1.7x as that of its breadth at base.02x as broad as at the base. its length at middle 1. transverse. 1.5x as broad as the first. the posterior margin bisinuate. 4. separately rounded at the base. 2x as the second and 1. first and second equally broad (Figs.25x as broad as at the apex and 1. 1.93x times as long as the club.42x as long as the fourth segment. third. first and second.05x broader than long at middle.12x as long as that of tibia and its breadth 1. second segment longest. third broadest.19x as broad as the third. third and fifth. and fourth and sixth.3x as that of first and second.91x as long as broad. all equally broad. Legs green.63x as broad as the fifth. first and second broadest. 1. in terms of breadth. 1.92x as broad as that of scutellum.83x as long as the third and fifth. space between the eyes at middle 1.47x as long as the rostrum. slightly elevated on the declivity. 1. central furrow deep. seventh segment broadest of all. Funicle 1. 2. 1.09x as much as the suture. 2. Tibia 4.14x as that at the sides. 197 and 221). 1. 1. Upper surface with very shallow basal impression (Fig.11x as long as the first. 10. 3. Elytral length 1. 125). sides very slightly rounded. 1. Prothorax plicate. 2x as long as the first. Suture brownish. with club and seventh segment of funicle black.27x as long as the first segment of funicle.1x as the seventh. with a darker patch about the middle of hind femora.38x as the third. Antennae pale green.07x as broad as long and 1. scape broadened (1. 1.9x as broad as the fourth.1. first and second segments longest. fourth and sixth.69x as long as and 1. Scutellum not enclosed.64x as that of prothorax. 1. 2. 2x as the fourth and sixth and 1. In terms of breadth.05x as the fourth. 1.05x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 9. Femora 3.4x) from middle to apex.71x as long as the club. 1.44x as long as the scape and 3. with humeral angle rounded and the subhumeral prominence indistinct.5x as long as the scutellum. in terms of breadth.2x as long as broad. first and second equally broad (Fig.05x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. 77).4x as long and 1.66x as that of prothorax and 1. 1.26x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs.6x as long as the third and 1.15x as broad as the breadth of punctations. Club 1. 7 and 54). Elytra elongate-ovate.17x as that of its breadth at the humeral angle. 1.2x as broad as tibia. 26. Tarsi with fourth segment longest. 1.13x as that between the anterior margins.41x as 48 . its breadth at middle 1.23x as broad as the apex. dilated anteriorly.

Venter with the first ventrite longest. Coll. the other two types with parallel 8-9 clear lines. Episomus figulus nigrosparsus Chevrolat (Figs. 243. 1883: 8. Coll. Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate. Specimens examined: 3? . nodulus projected out. projecting away from proximal arm (Figs. less predominant elongate with incospicuous ridges approximating at apex.2x as long as the scutellum. Intervals broad.08x as broad as the breadth of intervals.36x as broad as third. 251). 55.58x as fourth and 2. 1. 1834: 476. 1897: 137. 31. 101). 252. 2. ramus projecting inwards at base.1949. apex pointed. ERG. 1916: 213.08x as broad as second. B.04. 102.05x as long as the fifth. 6. uniformly thick. 1. Valparai.5x as long as the second. Chevrolat. Episomus figulus Boheman in Schoenherr Episomus figulus Boheman in Schoenherr. Breadth: 6. 13. 1. ? Palanis: Simis park (4000-8000 ft). Length: 16. Marshall. 242 and 260). 1897: 119. 1842: 92. first ventrite the broadest. 198.26x as broad as long. Faust. 273-276.33x as long as the third. IX.04x as fifth. Marshall. 78. basal plate 1.02x as long as basal plate.21x as long as the length of scutellum. Elytral vestiture with scales of three types. 5. all with metallic pink and a dark core near base. in terms of breadth. angle between the arms acute. Fletcher. Valparai.5 mm. 2. cornu bent. 24. 319 and 335) 49 . Palanis: Kodaikanal (7000 ft).long as that of prothorax. 262. 1916: 236 [NRS].. the apex pointed.31x as long as broad.6 mm.VIII. Faust. Episomus griseus Chevrolat. 222. 28. 146-148). one elongate and pointed and the other broad and rounded at apex (Figs. Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu: Palani Hills. 4x as the fourth.1921. each punctation 1. Andhra Pradesh: Cuddapah. and 1.16x as long as proximal arm. 1883: 75. Kodaikanal. 126. 1. with few hairs (Fig. T. 152-155. 1. smooth and costate (Fig. 136.17. Tamil Nadu: Palanis : Shenbaganur (6000 ft). Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1. Striae broad with rows of small deep punctations. 3. 236 [NRS ? ].

with the lateral costae impressed. 1. 1. second. seventh segment longest. 1.26x as broad as the apex and 1. 78). 2x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Faust. General colour light brown above and grey or white beneath.1x as long as the first and second. in terms of breadth. 1. its length at middle 1.71 x as the fourth (Fig.2.84x as long as the third. space between the eyes at middle 1. 1.04x as broad as the base.18x as long as the fourth and fifth and 2. seventh broadest of all. dilated anteriorly. parallel sided from base beyond middle and then narrowing towards the apex.02x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. 1. Head with shallow lateral impression. third longest. first broadest.Episomus figulus nigrosparsus Chevrolat. first to fourth equally broad. Eyes 1. Funicle 1.24x as long as the apical emargination and 1. subhumeral patch and irregular dark brown blotches varigated with paler spots behind the middle (Fig.75x as long as the fourth. 1. 1. 6 and 31). 3x as long as the first.06x as long as that of prothorax. distance between the anterior margin 1. 1.33x as long and 1.87x as long as the second and 3. breadth at middle 1. distance between posterior margins 1. central furrow shallow (Fig.35x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 79. in terms of breadth.04x as that at the sides.5x as broad as the apical emargination. first with second and fourth with fifth equally long. 7. segments fifth and sixth equally broad. widened in front. Marshall. elytra bearing a large.14x as broad as the fifth and sixth.2x as that between the middle and 1. 1. 136.53x as long as the club.20x as broad as long.8x as long as broad from above and 1. 236 [NRS]. 2.6x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 10.25x broader than long at middle.5x as long as the rostrum.23x as broad as the first. with dividing line sharp.1x as that between the anterior margins. Central furrow broad. Scutellum broadly 50 .81x as long as the club.46x as broad as the rostrum.1x as the distance between the middle of eyes. 2.4x as the sixth. distinct.36x as the third. 1897: 119. 1. third and fourth. base bisinuate. 55).86x as broad as that of scutellum. 2. Antennae with scape broadened (1. base 1.48x as long as the apical emargination.4x as long as and 1.05x as long as broad from the sides.19x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. and 1. 3.21x as broad as the apex.05x as broad as the second.25x as long as the scape and 3. 335). 1916: 213. Club 1. 1. 1883: 75.35x) from middle to apex. Rostrum dilated towards the apex. Prothorax coarsely plicate.15x as broad as the rostrum.

less predominant elongate. 1. first and second equally broad (Figs. the steep posterior declivity sloping inwards and slightly indented (Fig. 2. with 6-7 dark broad bands.51x as its median lobe. and 4. 273-275).52x as broad as first and second. its base 1.83x as the third. 2.11x as much as the suture. 1.06x as broad as middle and the breadth just before apex 1.15x as long as broad and 1.86x as broad as the breadth of intervals. in terms of breadth. third broadest. the intervals narrower (Fig. 1.oval and not enclosed. 152-155).85x as long as the tegmen.4x as long as broad.79x as long as the rostrum. 1. 2. first the broadest. 198 and 222).25x as long as the fifth. 102). Parameres acuminate and broad. 2. Spiculum gastrale uniformly thick and curved before apex.5x as long as the scutellum. 1. hind femora 4.47x as that of prothorax and 1. 3. Elytra impressed and separately rounded at the base. 126). its breadth at middle 1.14x as long as broad and 1.33x as broad as that of manubrium (Fig.1x as the second and 1. 1.54x as that of its breadth at base.7x as that of prothorax.07x as broad as its breadth. 20. its apex pointed.5x as as broad as the basal piece.07x as long as and its breadth 1. Venter with the first ventrite longest. Tegmen 2x as long as manubrium. 2. Tarsi with fourth segment longest.26x as broad as at middle and 1. Tibia 4. 3.38x as fifth.36x as long 51 .19x as broad as second. with a round peduncle and pointed at apex.87x as fourth and 2.48x as broad as third. with obtuse humeral angles. Elytral vestiture with scales of four types.44x as long as the manubrium. all brown.77x as long as the apophyses and 1.06x as long as the length of punctations and 1. Elytral length 1. 1. with dorsal piece 2. Apophyses 5. 1.5x as long as the second. 1. predominant types with parallel 8-9 clear lines. median lobe impressed at middle.62x as broad as that of apophyses.43x as long as that of prothorax. Striae broad with rows of large punctations. breadth from sides 1. 1. 1. third and fourth equally long. in terms of breadth. with apex acuminate. slightly bent before apex (Fig. manubrium straight.1x as those of tibia.5x as long as the scutellum.41x as long as the apophyses. the other type broad at base with inconspicuous ridges. one with specks of darker granulations and the other evenly granulate and pointed (Figs.27x as long as broad. Suture slightly raised behind. 1.36x as long as the spiculum gastrale.18x as broad as at base.22x as broad as the fourth. 18. 276).33x as long as the third and fourth. Male genitalia with aedeagus 2.31x as long as the first. each punctation 1. Legs pale.

Meghalaya: Khasi Hills (1000-3000 ft). 266. Faust. one near the base and the other on the declivity. 25. 2x as long as basal plate.07x as long as that of prothorax. Marshall. 252). 32.12x as broad as long. 223. Faust. Coll. 1? .75x as much as the distance between scrobes and 3. without any hairs (Fig. Central furrow deep. 325 and 332) Episomus guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr.38x as long as the rostrum. ramus normal and the apex blunt. 1907: 138. broad. 3. its breadth 1. 5. 79. 1. jaw like process. 1. one each on interval 3 and 7 behind middle. 1916: 208. 217 [NRS]. 1.15x as broad as the apical emargination.1924. both missing sometimes. 1894: 185. Coll. Eyes oval. uniformly thick.2 mm. two small spots on the suture.07. 187. basal plate 1. Head transversely impressed behind the eyes. Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1. cornu bent. 243 and 262). Distribution: INDIA: Meghalaya: Shillong. 1. third on interval 5 before middle. Fletcher T. General colour dark or light brown above. 1883: 75. B. 199.78x as long as the apical emargination and 1.65x as broad as apophyses and 8.1x as broad as the rostrum. 186. 56. a narrow longitudinal impression present on each side of the central furrow which are not conspicuous sometimes. 249. 1897:138.V. 120. Khasi hills. Episomus ocellatus Chevrolat. nodulus projected out. VII. 52 . close towards proximal arm (Figs. 127. 6. 319). West Behngal: Calcutta. twelve on the elytra – three prominent (usually surrounded by a dark ring).N. 2. Specimens examined: 1? Meghalaya: Shillong (5000 ft).8x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. the angle between the arms acute.1x longer than the proximal arm. Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate. 332). elytra bearing thirteen white spots – one on the scutellum. base 1. pale whitish beneath. Breadth: 6. D.62x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. 293-296. Rostrum with its apex produced forwards on each side into a very prominent. INDONESIA. Episomus guttatus Boheman in Schoenherr (Figs.1x as long as broad.6 mm. another prominent spot sometimes present on interval 7 before middle (Fig. 1845: 435. 253.69x as long as the apical emargination.as the tegmen. Length: 15.

1. 1.35x as broad as the apex. Elytra ovate.25x as broad as the third and 2.05x as long as broad from the sides. 1. 1.23x as long as the first. 2.16x as that between the anterior margins.33x as broad as the breadth of tibia. the second segment of club longest.07x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. seventh segment broadest of all. jointly rounded and subtruncate at base.79x as long as the club. Scape broadened (1. Funicle 1.6x as long as broad and1.5x as the fourth (Fig. Legs brown. in terms of breadth.28x as long as and 1.18x broader than long at middle.62x as that of second and 3.08x as long as the third. 1.8x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. Femora with a pale round white spot at their middle. 79).83x) from middle to apex.61x as the third. 2. broadest about middle.23x as that between the middle and 1.27x as the fourth. sides rounded.82x as 53 .2x as long as the first and 1.3x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 3. without humeral angles. in terms of breadth.4x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 4. 1. third. 2.47x as long as the second.5x as long as broad. 1. its length 1. 2. 1.06x as the distance between the middle of eyes.04x as that at the sides. 2.9x as long as broad from above and 1. Antennae brown. 1.25x as the seventh. its length at middle 1. space between the eyes at middle 1. 1. 1. first segment longest.47x times as long as the club. in terms of breadth.06x as much as the suture. Tibia 4.16x as broad as the second. Tarsi with fourth segment longest. breadth at middle 1.13x as broad as at the base.07 x as long as the length of punctations and 1. distance between posterior margins 1. Prothorax with upper surface transversely rugose.71x as broad as its breadth. first and second equally broad and the broadest. 56). segments first and sixth. 5 and 32).77x as long as the sixth and 1.07x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.31x as long as the club. central furrow shallow (Fig. 1. Upper surface not impressed (Fig. 127).68x as broad as the rostrum.52x as broad as at the apex and 1.48x as broad as first. Scutellum not enclosed. 1. 1.05x as long as the club.5x as the fifth. its seventh segment 1. third broadest. second to fifth equally broad. 9. dilated anteriorly. distance between the anterior margin 1.33x as long as broad.07x as broad as the first and sixth. fourth and fifth. the posterior margin truncate.25x as long as the third and fourth segments.14x as long as the scape and 5. Club black. 1.17x as the second and 1.25x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 12. third and fourth equally long. 199 and 223). 1. 2.

79x as long as the apophyses and 1. 1. median lobe elongate. only slightly broader at the junction with apophyses. breadth from sides 2x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. 3. except that the both ends pointed (Figs.8x as its median lobe. 19. similar. 1.27x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig.28x as long as the scutellum.06x as broad as middle and 1. apices acuminate. the other less predominant brown. 1.35x as that of prothorax and 1. Tegmen 1. Spiculum gastrale 1. Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate. 1.16x as long as the apophyses.71x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 1. the breadth at middle. with tuft of hairs (Fig.66x as broad as the manubrium (Figs.14x as broad as that just before apex. first ventrite the broadest.2x as broad as apophyses and 3. proximal arm slightly swollen.29x as broad as second. Suture narrow.long as the rostrum.14x as long as the scutellum. manubrium short. 249 and 266). 2. Probably he erroneously gave the location of spots as fourth and sixth 54 . each punctation 1. 2. 20. 296).27x as long as the proximal arm.75x as long as the third. Venter with the first ventrite longest.53x as that of its breadth at base. 1. 120). brown or slightly fluorescent green at the middle of few scales. basal plate as broad as long. 1. 293-295). 2.86x as long as the tegmen.8x as the fourth and 1. 1.85x as long as broad.19x as that of prothorax. Male genitalia with aedeagus having anterior process sclerotised. 186 and 187).36x as long as the fifth. its breadth at middle 1.07x as long as that of prothorax. 2. the angle between the arms acute. Marshall discussed spots on fourth and sixth intervals of elytra but these could not be observed. nodulus with a projection. Intervals broad. 3. its breadth 1. ovate. with six to seven ridges originating from a dark area on the base and parallely converging towards the periphery. uniformly thick.54x as long as the tegmen.66x as long as basal plate. Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1. parameres short.21x as broad as just before the apex.05x as long as the manubrium. its base 1.21x as long as the spiculum gastrale. Striae with rows of deep punctations. Elytral vestiture with scales of two types. 1.16x as long as the second.74x as ventrite fourth and 2x as ventrite fifth. in terms of breadth. uniformly thick (Fig. with dorsal piece 1.97x as long as manubrium. Apophyses 2. 253). ramus ending abruptly and the apex blunt (Fig. broad. 325).48x as broad as third. with a small conical tubercle above the apex.25x as broad as the basal piece. apex conical. 4.

distance between posterior margins 1. dark stripe on either side. Assam: Barpetta. Barpetta.1x as the distance between the middle of eyes. Length: 14. Specimens examined: India: Meghalaya: ? . Eyes 1. Nongpoh Hills. MALAYSIA 7. Seras Umbrau. V. Coll. Elytra with a distinct subhumeral brown patch. 1916: 214.44x as long as the rostrum and 3. V. 81. Faust. Mayaram & Ramamurthy.72x as long as broad from above and 1. 22-27. Marshall. 132.1907. Distribution: INDIA: Meghalaya: Nongpoh hills.57x as broad as the apical emargination. Marshall. Coll. with the lateral costae sulcate at the posterior margin. on grass. space between the eyes at middle 1. 149. 150. Coll.05x as broad as long.1988. Shillong. The two small black spots at the anterior junction of striae 3 and 6 too could not be observed on the specimens studied. 128. C. 2.5. 1897: 118.1988. Nowrojee.17x as broad as the rostrum. Assam: 1 specimen. Sharma.05x as that between the anterior margins. Dalip. V.VI. 1. 1883: 76. 1916: 241 [SMTD]. Baljinder. Rangya. 57. aurivilliusi). Shillong: 1 specimen. 1 specimen Rangyia. Barapani reserved forest. Coll. and a white stripe on the third interval (Fig. 224 and 336) Episomus humeralis Chevrolat. 22. base 1.8 mm. 1 specimen.1988. General colour dark brown above and brown beneath. MAYANMAR. 2. 132.1983. Jorabat . Marshall. Episomus humeralis Chevrolat (Figs: 4. 1897: 118. 33. Rostrum slightly dilated near the apex.06. prothorax with broad.39x as long as the apical emargination. Jorabat. 1897: 119. 130. D. Head without lateral impressions. Breadth: 5.25x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Episomus aurivilliusi Faust.16x as that between the middle and 1. K.82x as long as the apical emargination. 2? ? . 2 specimens. Barapetta. 1. 7. P.05x as long as broad from the sides. 336). 241 [SMTD]. Episomus schonherri Faust.09. which is continued to the base of elytra. Coll. the inflexed margins grey or whitish.intervals instead of the fifth and seventh.91x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. 1. 241 [NRS ? ].45x as the distance between the scrobes 55 . Nagaland: Naga Hills. Central furrow deep. 7. 1916: 214 (var. 80. distance between the anterior margin 1. 121. 200.

4x as long as the scutellum.3x as broad as that of apex and 1. third and fourth equally long.1x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Prothorax with the lateral dividing line sharply defined. separately rounded at the base. 4.9x as long as broad. 2x as long as the fourth and fifth. breadth at middle 1. 2.6x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. Intervals 56 .65x as long as the rostrum. 1.02x as broad as that of base. 1.05x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1. first and second equally broad (Fig. 3. 1. 1.52x as that of prothorax and 1.61x as the third.4xas broad as its breadth. 1. Tibia 4.76x as the second and 1.33x as long as the first and second segments. 80). its breadth at middle same as that of its breadth at the humeral prominence.52x as broad as the rostrum. the posterior margin 1.14x as much as the suture.06x as broad as the first. Hind femora with its base darker. 128). 8. its length at middle 1.48x as long as the first. 2. 18.1x as long as broad. 200 and 224). in terms of breadth. in terms of breadth. 3. seventh segment broadest of all.64x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 11. first. 2. Legs pale.5x as long as and 1. its length 1. central furrow shallow (Fig. Scutellum oval. 57). Club as long and 1. Tarsi with fourth segment longest.14x as broad as the fourth and sixth. 1. in terms of breadth. Antennae with scape broadened (2x) from middle to apex.06x as that at the sides.43x as that of prothorax.(Figs. 1.19x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. first with second and fourth with fifth equally long. Elytra elongate-ovate. fourth with sixth equally broad. without a humeral angle and with a slight subhumeral prominence.07x broader than long at middle. each punctation 2. third and fourth segments. 1.12x as broad as the third. 1. not enclosed. 1. second and fifth. seventh segment longest.13x as long as that of prothorax. first and second broadest.4x as long as broad.04x as long as the head. Striae with rows of deep punctations. 1. with its second segment longest.25x as long as broad and 1.79x as long as the club.56x as that of its breadth at base. Upper surface with a distinct basal impression (Fig. 3. dilated anteriorly. 1. third broadest.37x as the fourth.2x as broad as the fourth.8x as long as the first.17x as long as the scape and 4. first. 1. Funicle 1. 21x as long as the scutellum. 1. First and second segments equally broad (Figs.27x as broad as the apex. 1.46x times as long as the club. Suture 2. 4 and 33).25x as long as the length of punctations and 2.84x as long as the third.4x as the sixth.61x as broad as first and second.23x as broad as the third and 1. second with fifth.

81.1x as long as broad from above and 1. General colour uniform dark brown above. 34. 2x as long as the fourth and fifth. ventrites third and fourth equally long. 121).broad. 58. in terms of breadth. 1. Central furrow deep and narrow. 103. not sharply pointed at apex.04x as broad as the rostrum.57x) from middle to apex.6 mm. Predominant ones dark.64x as long as the third.33x as long as the second. 1. with 14-15 dark ridges. 301-304. 5x as long as the third and fourth. Elytral vestiture with two types of scales. Head without lateral impressions. 3.2x as long as the apical emargination.3x as that between the scrobes (Figs. Indonesia.88x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. 3 and 37). Funicle 1. 1. distance between posterior margins 1.2x as long as broad from the sides.26x as broad as second.26x as that between the anterior margins.34x as that between the middle and 1. 213. base 1. 3. plumose (Figs. 225.72x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head.5x as the sixth and 1. distance between the anterior margin 1. in terms of 57 . 157. prothorax light brown with a darker lateral stripe (Fig.16x as long as the first.47x as long as the club. 129.52x as broad as third. 1. 3.32x as long as the scape and 3.6x as broad as the breadth of punctations. Uttar Pradesh: Saharanpur. 2.27x as the seventh.06x as the distance between the middle of eyes. 2x as ventrite four and 2. Eyes 2. 149 and 150). 337). fourth and fifth equal. Specimens examined: 1? . 158.54x as long as the fifth. Venter with the first ventrite longest. 321 and 337) Episomus inermicollis Marshall.58x as long as the rostrum and 5. Breadth: 5.31x as ventrite five. 1. Rostrum with the lateral costae having faint impression. first ventrite the broadest.1. Length: 14. Bangladesh. First stria terminating at suture near the base of scutellum (Fig.2 mm. 1. second segment longest. 226 [BMNH ? & ? ]. space between the eyes at middle 1. Distribution: INDIA: Meghalaya: Khasi Hills. Meghalaya: Khasi Hills. 2.8x as long as the apical emargination. whitish beneath. 8. 1916: 211. 2. less predominant brown.63x as long as the club. 1. Episomus inermicollis Marshall (Figs.83x as broad as the apical emargination. 1.18x as broad as long. Antennae with scape broadened (1.

1. 1. Striae with rows of shallow. 1. 1. dilated anteriorly. fourth. Intervals 1.07x as long as broad.23x as broad as fourth. Elytral length 1. 1. 11.14x as broad as the second.22x as long as the second.1x as the fourth (Fig. 2. each punctation 1. third and fourth segments longest.1x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.18x as long as the rostrum.34x as that of prothorax and 1.07x as much as the suture. third broadest. 26.3x as that of prothorax.11x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. equally predominant. 1.46x as long as the scutellum.4x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 13.05x as broad as the first.36x as long as the second segment of funicle. 1. two transverse impressed lines on each side one near apex and the other behind middle. 1. fifth and sixth.06x as broad as the first. Upper surface transversely impressed (Fig. Tarsi with fourth segment longest. 2.78x as long as broad.27x as long and 1. in terms of breadth.5x as broad as scutellum. 1. breadth at middle 1.42x as broad as the apex. 103). its length at middle 1.22x as long as broad. 2. 1. 1. second broadest. Legs with femora 3. Scutellum not enclosed. Prothorax with very few plications on upper side.52x as that of its breadth at base.42x as that of second and 5x as broad as the fourth (Figs. small punctations.18x as that at the sides. 4. 1.33x as broad as the third and 1.07x as broad as the breadth of tibia.12x as the second and 1.16x as the third.28x as long as the scutellum. third and fourth equally long. Club 1. its breadth at middle 1.31x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. separated. 129). central furrow very small and located near base (Fig.73x as long and 1. with prominent humeral angle and distinct subhumeral prominence. 1. its length 1. 1.61x as broad as at the apex and 1. 213 and 225).95x as long as that of prothorax.1x broader than long at middle. seventh segment broadest of all.13x as broad as at the base. Elytra separately rounded at the base. in terms of breadth.81x as long as and 1. Suture slightly elevated at declivity. first.12x as long as the first. 1. Elytral vestiture with two types of scales. sides slightly rounded.15x as long as the head. 81). small and round. 1. first.69x as long as broad. broadest before middle. 1. posterior margin bisinuate.71x as the third. Tibia 3.69x as broad as the rostrum. 1. fifth and sixth equally broad. 58).05X as that of its breadth at the subhumeral prominence.44x as broad as those of punctations.56x as that of first. 26.breadth. with a darker 58 . apex narrower than base.

1916: 223. Specimen examined: 1? . Oliver. Gmelin in Linnaeus.11x as broad as second. 1. Hustache. 104.46x as long as manubrium. Chevrolat. Episomus crenatus Guerin in litt Faust. 309-312. 223. in terms of breadth. Marshall. one with 6-8 inconspicuous ridges approximating near apex and the other with 6 ridges parallel to each other (Figs. 304). 19. Episomus lacerta (Fabricius) (Figs. 1885: 214. Distribution: INDIA: Meghalaya: Khasi Hills.25x as long as the apophyses.1938: 369 (var. 1.X. 9. Faust.3 mm. 47. blunt at apex. 160. Venter with the first ventrite longest. 2. Laitlyngkot. Marshall. Male genitalia with aedeagus having a subanterior projection. 238. 1897: 159. Faust. Episomus lacerta Boheman in Schoenherr. 95. Coll. 321). T. 323 and 338) Curculio lacerta Fabricius. 1. 16. ventrites third and fourth equally long. 1834: 476.63x as its median lobe. 267.66x as fourth and 1.area near base. its breadth 1. 1897: 112.86x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. first ventrite the broadest. 1807: 354.44x as long as the manubrium.22x as long as the second. 1897: 159. with an acuminate projection in between (Fig. 1916: 210. 1. median lobe 2. 142. 59 . its base 1. 1. 2. 1781: 190. 214. 301-303). 1842: 92. Episomus nubeculosus Boheman in Schoenherr. 1801: 510. breadth at middle 1. 1787: 117. 1. 1790: 539. nubeculosus) [NRS] Episomus ?avarus Fabricius.37x as broad as middle and 1. Length: 17.2 mm. Herbst.33x as broad as the manubrium (Figs. Apophyses 2. Lona. 188. 157 and 158). 1790: 1781. with dorsal piece 3. parameres narrow.06x as broad as that just before apex.46x as broad as just before the apex.86x as long as the third and fourth.1920. Tegmen 2.71x as broad as apophyses and 4x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. Spiculum gastrale with straight shaft. 257.13x as long as tegmen. 1. 1928: 9 [BMNH]. 2. B. Fletcher. 1883: 75.42x as long as the spiculum gastrale.57x as long as the apophyses. Breadth: 6. 1842: 92. 159. 1792: 470. 59. 1.85x as fifth. 1801: 528. Pascoe.62x as long as the tegmen.35x as broad as third. 1795: 388. 246. breadth from sides 2. 1.05x as long as the fifth.33x as broad as the basal piece.

14x as long as the first. lacerta var. greyish brown above. 1.63x as long as the apical emargination. fifth and sixth.06x as broad as the first.49x as long as the rostrum. Marshall. seventh segment broadest of all. 1. 2.43x as long as the apical emargination. base 1. The posterior margin shallowly bisinuate. dilated anteriorly.19x as that between the middle and 1. Rostrum 1. Club 1. first and second equally broad and third to sixth equally broad. followed by a large darker patch on the declivity. slightly raised spots present: one on top of declivity at the third interval. second broadest.11x as the seventh.02x as broad as the rostrum. in terms of breadth.04x as broad as the apex. third longest. Head 1.37x as broad as the apical emargination.33x as long as the second.38x as long and 1. piger Marshall. Central furrow deep and narrow.13x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. 1. Elytra with not that well defined broad oblique paler stripe behind middle.66x as long as the third. in terms of breadth. 1916: 224. 60 . 1. Funicle 1. 1. 1916: 223 [SMTD]. Eyes 1.81x as long as the fourth and sixth.9x as long as broad from above and 1.08x as the distance between the middle of eyes. 1. 1.1x as that between the anterior margins. prothorax with darker lateral stripe. another on interval seven beyond the first spot and the third at apex of fifth interval (Fig.lacerta bohemani Faust. 1.67x as long as the scape and 3.04x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. first segment longest. pale brown beneath.25x as broad as the third. Fourth and sixth segments equal. distance between posterior margins 1. 1. 338). and rarely two broad whitish dorsal stripes continued on the base of the elytra. 1. the dorsal costae distinctly sulcate.33x as long as the second and 2x as long as the fourth.59x as broad as the breadth at middle. 2. Prothorax plicate.88x times as long as the club. space between the eyes at middle 1.52x as broad as the apex. 1.05x as broad as long. slightly dilated towards the apex. 1.06x broader than long at middle.63x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.35x as long as broad from the sides.43x as the fourth (Fig. breadth at middle 1.32x as long as the club. 59). 19 and 47). 160. 2. 1. subparallel from base to middle and narrow at the apex.55x as broad as the rostrum. 1897: 112. 1. distance between the anterior margin 1. General colour variable.38x as long as the first segment of funicle. Antennae with scape broader at middle and narrowing at apex.31x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 2x as the fifth.54x as long as and 1. Small pale round. 1. 1. fourth.36x as broad as the first and second.21x as the third. 1. 1. 2.03x as long as the head.

104). Parameres short and acuminate (Fig. bearing many inconspicuous ridges (Fig. with shaft gradually bending and broadly bent at apex (Fig.53x as as broad as the basal piece. 2. broadly ovate. Male genitalia with aedeagus 2. each punctation 1.66x as long as broad.57x as long as apophyses and 1. rounded at apex. elongate. 11.13x as broad as just before the apex. and 1.1x as broad as the intervals.45x as long as scutellum.72x as that of prothorax and 1.52x as the third.81x as long as manubrium. Suture very slightly elevated on the declivity.09x as broad as long and 1.5x as broad as the fourth (Figs. Elytral length 1. 3x as long as the second. its base as broad as at middle and 1. Scutellum enclosed anteriorly by the sutural margin. Upper surface without any distinct basal impression (Fig. breadth from sides 3.14x as much as the suture.45x as long as scutellum. ventrites third and fourth equally long.28x as long as the fifth. 309-311). intervals narrow and subcostate (Fig. 1. 323). 29x as long as the scutellum. 188). not acuminate at the apex. Tegmen 1.37x as long as the spiculum gastrale.26x as that at the sides. shoulders rounded.45x as long as broad.4x as that of second and 3. with dorsal piece 1. 95). Tarsi with fourth segment longest. Spiculum gastrale 1.2x as broad as tibia. its breadth 1.2x as broad as third. Striae with rows of deep and close punctations.13x as long as prothorax.44x as that of prothorax. 214 and 238).77x as long as the rostrum. 1. 312).64x as its median lobe and 1. 1.5x as broad as apophyses and 2. the sixth stria not reaching the base.36x as long as tegmen. opaque.6x as broad as the breadth of scutellum.9x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 11. 3. 2. 1.6x as long as the third and fourth. third broadest.18x as long as the first.65x as that of its breadth at base. 61 . Apophyses 1. Tibia 4x as long as broad. in terms of breadth. 142). 1. 2.46x as that of first.4x as ventrite fourth.06x as long as the manubrium. 1.15x as long as the apophyses.78x as broad as the manubrium (Figs. 1. first and second ventrites equal and broadest. Legs with femora 3. brown.its length at middle 1. 1. 1. central furrow broad and deep (Fig. 1. 3. 1. Elytral vestiture with single type of scales.75x as broad as the breadth of apophyses.75x as ventrite fifth. its breadth at middle 1.9x as the second and 1. Elytra without humeral angle.66x as broad as that of manubrium.09x as broad as the breadth of punctations. 1. median lobe almost parallel sided. 1.1x as long as tibia and its breadth 1.86x as long as the tegmen. 25. Venter with the first ventrite longest. in terms of breadth.

24. 29.X.X. 90. On bushes. Karnataka. 1-11. 27. XI.IX. 18. 246 and 267).1933.V. 15-26. 169. uniformly thick. 18. Coll. 45. 239. Malur.06.39x as long as the apical emargination.46x longer than the proximal arm. Surat.2.VIII. Orissa: Cuttack.IX. 7 specimens (3? . 16. Tamil Nadu: Gudalur: Nilgiri Hills (3000 ft). Coll. 17.VIII.X-XI. Karnataka: Bangalore. 167. North Coorg. Outer Madras. Gujarat: 3 specimens. 24.18x as long as basal plate. on cabbage.01. nodulus and ramus normal. L. Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate. 117.VIII. T. 209. Davangere. C. Sidlaghatta.12x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. Coorg. Chintamani. 1? 12. 140.V. C . T. 12.X. 11. angle between arms acute. V. Pollibetta. on field bean. Pollibetta. On Dolichos Sp. 143. Coll.1914. 2? ). 2. B. on bean seedlings. Haahubb. Coll. Coimbatore. cornu long and bent (Figs. Hebbal (916m).15. Samalkot. Coll. without date and collectors name.1908. Maharashtra.X. Specimens examined: Coll.. Coleman. Fletcher.1977.IX.A. with tuft of hairs (Fig. 277-280.1917. 326 & 339). Coorg: Polibetta. Mercara. Hassan. 48. (21. 2 specimens eating Erythrina leaves. Coll. date and collectors name. B. 114. Coleman. on Thupra. B.R. 2. Y.IX. Coll. Coll.V. R. 181.1962. L.16. XI.1914. Selam: Dankanikota.1? ). Coll. Gujrat. Coll. Orissa. on Tur.7x as broad as the apical 62 .R.1977.M. 13.IX..1914. Breadth: 6. Yercaud: Shervaroys (8-5000 ft). Coll. (24. Veeraraju. 8. C. without location.1936. 42. 93.IX.3 mm. Madras. Coll. P. Sarnal Kot. South Coorg.15. 09.V.05. 211. 20.1976.X.V.16x as broad as the rostrum. VIII. Athornuppam. West Bengal. Hebbal Farm. Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu.06..1925. Arsikatti Kaval. Rao. 16-26. on Erythrina lithosperma. 105. Fletcher. T.1979.18. Maugri.5 mm. 3. Selam Dist. 70. Coll.17. Fletcher. 60.A. Length: 14. Indonesia Episomus lacerta bohemani Faust (Figs. 182. H.VII. its base I . XI.30 on Bajra. 21.1912.1947. Manjanabad.S.1909. 18. Bhanerghatta. Coll. 6.42x as broad as long. 236 & 351) Head. 139. 38 specimens (1? .1909. Fletcher. 13. T.1979. 2 specimens Mangrakpass. Nagnath. 26-28. 168. 1? Madras: N. basal plate 1. XI. 96. 233 & 349). Coll. 257). 215. South Coorg. Coll. Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1. 04.VII. T.

8x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. Tegmen with dorsal piece 2.73x as as broad as the basal piece. Eyes. 60).36x as long as broad and 1. 1. Intervals broad. 63 . 1.1917. Club 1. 181 and 182). Prothorax with its breadth at middle 1.5 .27x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. first and seventh segment broadest of all. elongate with dark base and parallel ridges. ventrites third and fourth equally long.63x as long as broad from above and 1.93x as long as the: apophyses and median lobe. in terms of breadth.24x as long as the seventh segment of funicle. space between the eyes at middle 1.VIII.4x as long as the third and fourth.52x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. Venter with the first ventrite longest. first and second. 326). I . 105). Breadth: 4. one less predominant. each punctuation 1. 277-279). Spiculum gastrale with its breadth 4.33x as broad as at the apex and 1.6x as long as the first and fourth segments. 1? . Coll.66x as broad as the manubrium (Fig.33x as long as the scutellum. 2.51x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs.36x as long as the length of punctations.7x as long as the manubrium. central furrow 2x as long as the apical emargination.emargination. Length: 10. Elytral vestiture with two types of scales.56x as that of prothorax. 6. its seventh segment longest. 18 and 48).6.46x as long as the club. with a dark basal area. 4. Tamil Nadu: Yarcaud (8000-5000 feet).02x as broad as at the base. opaque.14. its length 21. Striae with rows of large punctuations. second and third segments the longest.2x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig.38x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 13. first and second broadest (Fig.6x as long as the scutellum. 1. Specimens examined: 1? . median lobe elongate. Nagnath. fourth and filth equally long. equally long from base to the apex. bearing many inconspicuous ridges (Figs.3x as broad as the apex. Funicle 1.08x as long as the scape.1? without data. second to sixth equally broad.0 mm. its length at middle 9. Suture 18.1x as long as broad.6 mm. apophyses 3.5 . Male genitalia with adeagus 1. the posterior margin 1. its breadth from sides I . 143). Antennae with scape 3.27x as that of prothorax and its breadth at middle 1.06x as long as broad from the sides. Eaytra with very slight humeral angle (Fig. rounded at apex. the other predominant. Scutellum 1.

Spiculum gastrale with its breadth 2. 62. 1.31x as broad as the breadth of apophyses (Fig.Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu.66x as long as broad with a prominent projection at apex (Fig.1 x as broad as apophyses and 1. with slight humeral angle (Fig. 3. 1. Episomus lentus Erichson (Figs. 83. the posterior margin 1. 292). plicate. 17.85x as ventrite five.8x as long as the club. fifth and sixth equally long. 318 & 340) Head. 318). 159. 226). 10. Eyes 1.07x as long as the second.25x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. Distribution: INDIA: Karnataka: Belgaum. Male genitalia with aedeagus 2.63x as long as the manubrium. with its second segment the longest.25x as broad as the basal piece.6 Ix as ventrite four and 1.96x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. the breadth of manubriurn 1.53x as long as the apical emargination.25x as its median lobe. 82. Striae with each punctation 1.0 mm. 289-292. Episomus lacerta nubeculosus Boheman in Schoenherr (Figs. fourth. 61.54x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. median lobe 1.22x as long as manubrium. Tegmen 2. 35. 107. Venter with the first ventrite 1.6x as long and 1. rounded at apex (Fig. Specimens examined: 1? . 151. 320 and 341) 64 . 36. Funicle 1. as long as that of prothorax. with dorsal piece 2.1x as long as broad and 1. 201.94x as broad as the apical emargination.5 mm. Club 1.28x as broad as the apex. Breadth: 5. 131. Central furrow 2. third.25x as long as the scape. in terms of breadth. Elytral vestiture with single types of scales. l 51). with a dark core and indistinct dark lines. Karnataka: Belgaum. 226. Legs with tibia 4.5x as long as the rostrum. first and seventh segments longest. first ventrite the broadest. Prothorax 1. base 1. Length: 11. Elytra ovate. 281-284.05x as long as the apical emargination.06x as long as broad from the sides. Antennae with scape 2. 130. 16. 130).6x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 227. 106.5x as long as the fifth. 202.

1. 1.27x broader than long at middle. Scape broadened (1. distance between the anterior margin 1. 83). distance between posterior margins 1. first to third equally long. central furrow shallow (Fig.71x as broad as the rostrum. 1. 2.42 x as long as and 1. space between the eyes at middle 1. the posterior margin 1.53x) from middle to apex. 1.29x as long as the club. enclosed.06x as broad as the base.48x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. 1842: 94.46x as long as the third. Funicle 1. 1. 4.7x as long as the club. slightly cylindrical from base to beyond middle and narrowed at the apex. breadth at middle 1. base 1.32x as long as the scape and 6. Head without lateral impressions. seventh segment broadest of all. Scutellum small. 1839: 266. its length at middle equal as that at the sides. seventh segment longest. 3. 1. dilated anteriorly. 2x as the fourth and sixth.25x as the third. Boheman in Schoenherr. 1897: 197. 197. Faust. in terms of breadth. 16 and 36).03x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. Rostrum with the lateral costae slightly impressed at the posterior margin. Prothorax plicate.06x as broad as long. 1842: 93.28x as broad as the second and third. 1. 1.Episomus lentus Erichson. 2. 1. 1. fifth and sixth.92x as long as the apical emargination and 1.06x as long as broad from the sides.83x as the fifth. 1. segments second and third.37x as long as the second.23x as long as the club. in terms of breadth. 1. 2.19x as that between the middle and 1. 1. 1883: 76. with its first three segments longest. Chevrolat. fourth and sixth equal. first broadest. 341). 1.4x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 28. Club 1.81x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs.55 x as long as the rostrum. 1.81x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. the posterior margin slightly bisinuate.04x as the distance between the middle of eyes.36x as that of apex and 1. 62).5x as broad as the apical emargination. Antennae brown.05x as broad as the second. 1897: 122. Central furrow broad and deep.12x as broad as the first.38x as broad as the fourth. General colour brown above and below (Fig. 1. 2. fourth to sixth equally broad.14x as that between the anterior margins.08x as long as that of prothorax.86x as the fourth (Fig.15x as long as the first.8x as long as 65 . Simallus lentus Faust.3 x as broad as the apex. with one transverse impressed line near apex.06x as long as the apical emargination. 1834: 263.5x as long as the fourth segment. Boheman in Schoenherr. Episomus lateralis Eydoux. Eyes 2x as long as broad from above and 1.11x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle.25x as broad as the rostrum. 12.

55x as long as the tegmen.46x as long as the rostrum.55x as long as the manubrium.43x as that of prothorax. 1. 284). Striae with rows of large punctations.6x as broad as those of scutellum. Venter with the first ventrite longest. E.12x as broad as the first. 1. 1. 1. 1. Elytral vestiture with a single type of scale. Spiculum gastrale with the shaft progressively decreasing in breadth and curved at apex. 3.86x as broad as the manubrium (Figs. 131). Tegmen 2x as long as manubrium.49x as that of prothorax and 1.88x as as broad as the basal piece.55x as long as the scutellum. Philippines: Los Banos.4x as the third. 320). 107). Tarsi with first and fourth segments longest. Elytra obovate. its breadth from sides 2.75x as long as the apophyses.83x as long as the second.42x as broad as that of apophyses.56x as broad as that of manubrium (Fig.5x as broad as the fourth (Fig.1x as that of the subhumeral prominence. Coll.3 mm.5x as long as the third and fourth.1. 1. in terms of breadth.5x as broad as the breadth of punctations.88x as long as the scutellum. with a distinct blunt humeral angle and a broad subhumeral prominence.21x as long as that of prothorax. its breadth at middle 1. dark. 66 . each punctation 1.42x as long as the spiculum gastrale.1x as long as the length of tibia and as broad as the breadth of tibia. 202). 10.2x as long as broad with a spur at apex not extending beyond margins (Fig.57x as that of its breadth at base (Fig. 2. 2x as long as the second and 1. Ledyard.87x as long as broad. Intervals broad.1909. 1. 27. 227). 1. with dorsal piece 3.IX. Length: 13. 2. Legs with femora 4. second the broadest. M. 2x as its median lobe. Specimen examined: 1? .37x as broad as apophyses and 2. with sides almost parallel. Parameres thin and acuminate (Fig. third broadest. 281-283).3x as that of second and 3.1x as long as tegmen. Suture 2. 1.1x as much as the suture.8 mm.31x as long as the fifth.broad. 1. 3. its length 1. 159).68x as fifth. 1.2x as long as broad. Male genitalia with aedeagus having a subanterior projection. ventrites third and fourth equally long. 1. 18.23x as long as the apophyses. Breadth: 5. Upper surface with a transverse basal impression.48x as fourth and 1. its breadth 1. 1. 1. 1.66x as long as and 1. not impressed and truncate at base (Fig. Tibia 3. in terms of breadth. with 6-8 scarcely visible ridges parallel to each other originating from a dark area near base (Fig.1x as broad as first.23x as broad as third. Median lobe broad. Apophyses 1.

248. 2. 1897: 126. 264 and 342) Episomus montanus Guerin.06x as broad as the first.25x as broad as the rostrum. 1. Central furrow very broad and deep. Chevrolat. Eyes 1. second with seventh. Boheman in Schoenherr. 2. on each side of which. 219. third with sixth and fourth with fifth equally broad.66x as long as the club. Rostrum slightly dilated near the apex. 1.57x as the fourth (Fig. 2.75x as long as the second and 2. a small pale spot present at apex of the fifth interval (Fig. 1883: 75. 1916: 219 [NRS]. in terms of breadth. 1. 3. 1897: 103.08x as long as that of prothorax.8x as long as the apical emargination. 37. 1.16x as broad as long. 1. 170. second and seventh segments broadest of all. 72.Distribution: Philippines 11. Marshall. 1842: 88. seventh parallel till middle and dilated anteriorly. 1843: 52.2x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. a short backword indendation from the transverse ante-ocular furrow present. 228. 15. 1. 1. Faust. Episomus montanus Guerin (Figs. 1. Faust. space between the eyes at middle 1. distance between the anterior margin 1. 133. second and seventh segments longest.38x as the third. Head with lateral impressions. Funicle 1. second broadest. 1. 2.3x as long as the first. 1. 1916: 209.68x as long as the apical emargination and 1.76x as broad as the apical emargination. Chevrolat. 119. 204. 1883: 74. 125.1x as long as the fourth and sixth and 2. 2.6x as long as broad from above and equally long as well as broad from the sides.16x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. light brown in the fovea.43x as long and 1.1x as the distance between the middle of eyes. 1842: 89. 342).13x as that between the middle and 1. with the lateral costae bearing a deep curved impression. 220 [Type not traced].3x as the fifth.15x as broad as the fourth and fifth. in terms of breadth. Antennae with scape broadened (1.48x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head.62x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 258. General colour dull black above and beneath.8x as long as the fourth segments. distance between posterior margins 1. Club 1. third segment longest.42x as long as the club.07x as broad as the third and sixth. with a rounded dilation in the front. 77). first. 1. base 1. 67 .04x as long as the first. Marshall. second and seventh equally long and fourth and sixth equally long.23x as that between the anterior margins.67x as long as the rostrum. Episomus clathratus Boheman in Schoenherr.77x as long as the third. first. 84.28x as long as the scape and 3. 18 and 40).58x) from middle to apex.

2.12x as broad as second.9x as fifth. basal plate 1. Venter with the first ventrite longest. its length 1. 2. 9. 1. 262 and 275). spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate.11x as long as basal plate.71x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 12.09x as that of prothorax. 1. Striae shallow. 1. 1. 1. 126).58x as fourth and 1. Tarsi with fourth segment longest. posterior margin 1.7x as broad as first. its length at middle 1. 3.32x as broad as third.2x as the second. nodulus. 4. the steep posterior declivity sloping inwards and slightly indented. 3. 271). base bisinuate and broader than apex. close towards proximal arm (Figs. cornu long. breadth at middle 1.28 x as long as the length and 1. Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm almost parallel to the proximal. 1. 1. 1. 68 . broadest before middle.4x as that of second and 4.8x as broad as the breadth of intervals. sides slightly rounded. 1. 3x as long as the third.69x as that of its breadth at base. Tibia 4x as long as broad. 1. central furrow deep. dark.54x as long as and 1. the angle between the arms acute. bearing many inconspicuous ridges (Fig.07x as much as the suture. bent.18x as long as the proximal arm.67x as that of prothorax and 1. separately rounded at the base.38x as broad as the breadth of scutellum and 1. 3.1x as long as the fifth.09x as that at the sides.77x as long as the rostrum. Scutellum small. ramus impressed.07x as long as broad. 215 and 240). 178).17x broader than long at middle. third broadest. equally as long as broad.25x as broad as the apex and 1. Prothorax with deep plications on upper side. 2. 140).08x as broad as those of tibia.22 as that of humeral angle. first the broadest.23x as broad as the apex. not impressed at base (Fig. not sharply pointed at apex.4x as long as the second. in terms of breadth. 6x as long as the scutellum. elongate. with large subquadrate punctations.3x as broad as that of scutellum.18x as long as and its breadth 1. 1.88x as long as that of prothorax. opaque. Legs with femora 4. 1.38x as long as broad. 28x as long as the scutellum.8x as broad as the fourth (Figs.56x as broad as the rostrum.01x as broad as the base. Suture sharply raised at top of declivity. with obtuse humeral angles. 2. its breadth at middle 1. Elytral vestiture with single type of scales. Elytra ovate.4x as long as the fourth and 1. in terms of breadth.3x as long as the first and third.51x as broad as long (Fig. Intervals narrow (Fig. uniformly thick.

1.14x as broad as the rostrum. and brown beneath.71x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 1. 2. C.08x as broad as long. Head without lateral impressions. Coll.53x times as long as the club. sides of prothorax below the eye level pale metallic or coppery.66x) from middle to apex.33x as long as the fourth and sixth.0 mm. 1908: 131. 161. 160. 134.1x as long as broad from the sides. second with sixth and fourth with fifth equally broad. 222 [SMTD ? & ? ]. seventh dilated anteriorly. Rostrum dilated towards apex. 13. VIII.4x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. as long as that of prothorax. date and collectors name. Intervals three and four with a pale patch at the top of the declivity (Fig. 1. 13 and 38). 1. Coonoor.72x as long as the club. 1.74x as long as the apical emargination.08x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. Funicle 1. 229 and 331) Episomus nilgirinus Heller. second segment longest. dilated anteriorly and before middle. distance between posterior margins 1. 331). 1.07x as broad as the third. Club 1. 2. Central furrow deep. the same continued till the elytral apex.71x as long and 1. Eyes 1. 1. first with seventh.55x as long as the third. without locality. 73. 38. Breadth: 7. 1.41x as long as the apical emargination.12x as that between the anterior margins.28x as long as the second segment of funicle. 85.29x as long as the scape and 3. Episomus nilgirinus Heller (Figs.R. Specimen examined: 1? . Antennae with scape broadened (1. distance between the middle of eyes 1.15x as broad as the second and sixth. 2. 1. Centre of sternum green. base 1. fourth and sixth equal. 1916: 210. first and seventh segments broadest of all.04. 2.S.22x as long as the first.03x as the distance between the anterior margins.21x as broad as the apical emargination. 1.Length: 17. space between the eyes at middle 1.08x as that between the middle and 1. with the lateral costae deeply impressed at the posterior margin. 113.15x as the fifth and 1. Marshall. 1? Tamil Nadu: Nilgiri Hills (7000 ft).79x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu: Nilgiris.33x as the seventh. 205. Ooty 12. General colour brown above with a darker lateral stripe which continues on the base of intervals four to seven.75x as long as broad from above and 1.25x as broad as the fourth and fifth.56x as long as the rostrum and 3. 69 . in terms of breadth.6 mm.

in terms of breadth. central furrow deep (Fig. 3.66x as long as the fourth and 1.11x as that at the sides.club with third segment longest. 205 and 229).91x as the second and 1. 1. Tarsi with fourth segment longest. 3. 24x as long as the scutellum.4x as broad as at the apex and 1. Scutellum small. 1. Striae broad with rows of large punctations. second broadest.56x as fourth and 1. 113).04x as long as and 1. Breadth: 6. broadening from base to apex.46 as long as the fifth. 1.5x as long as the first.31x as broad as the apex. 1.18x as that of second and 4. the posterior margin 1. 1. Suture slightly elevated on the declivity. Specimen examined: 1? .1x as broad as those of punctations (Fig. Intervals broad. Elytral vestiture with two types of scales.88x as broad as the fourth (Figs. inconspicuous ridges. its breadth at middle 1. in terms of breadth.36x as broad as those of tibia. 70 . 1.2 mm. Legs pale. 1.85x as fifth (Figs. Upper surface with a transverse.16x as broad as second. in terms of breadth. 85). equally predominant. with a distinct blunt humeral angle.33x as the fourth. 1.16x as long as and 1. 3.56x as long as the rostrum.05x as broad as the first and third and 2. first and third equally broad (Fig. 134). breadth at middle 1. 22x as long as the scutellum. its length at middle 1. 1. 1.44x as that of prothorax and 1. Elytral length 1. 1.1x as much as the suture.2x as long as the second and 2x as long as the fourth segment. each punctation 1. one plumose and the other metallic green with specks of pink.11x broader than long at middle. 1.31x as the third. the posterior margin slightly bisinuate.3x as broad as those of punctations. separately rounded at the base.4x as long as the third. 2. 4. 1.63x as broad as first.06x as broad as at the base. G. third broadest. 73). Hind femora with its base darker.11x as that of its breadth at the humeral angle. Tamil Nadu: Palur. Elytra ovate. 3.28x as that of prothorax. 2.56x as long as and 1.53x as that of its breadth at base. Length: 15. with wavy. 1.2 mm. 1.6x as broad as the rostrum. first ventrite broadest. basal impression (Fig. Lund. Tibia 4.35x as broad as third.5x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. Venter with the first ventrite longest.1x as long as that of prothorax. 10.2x as long as broad.18x as long as broad.07x as long as broad and 1.14x as long as the second. not enclosed.16x as long as the first. Coll. Prothorax roughly plicate. obovate.5x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 12. 160 and 161). slightly cylindrical from base to beyond middle and narrowed at the apex.2x as long as broad. 1.

first segment the longest. whitish beneath.74x as long as the apical emargination. 39.18x as broad as the third.58x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. 244.83x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head.2x as long as the second and 1. 1. Club 1. parallel sided.5x as long as the third and fourth segments. with the lateral costae distinctly impressed.26x as long as the second. third to sixth equally broad.11x as the fourth and sixth.22x as that between the middle and 1.3x as broad as the second. 63.13x as that between the anterior margins. base 1.08x as long as the scape and 4. first broadest. 162.07x as long as broad from above and equally long as well as broad from the sides. Episomus obliquus Marshall (Figs.08x as broad as the first.73x as long as the third. distance between posterior margins 1.29x as broad as long. in terms of breadth. in terms of breadth. 206. 1.71x as the fifth and 1.Distribution: INDIA: Tamil Nadu: South Arcot. General colour light brown above. dilated anteriorly. prothorax with broad lateral dark brown stripe continued on to the base of elytra on interval 4-7. 2. Antennae light brown with scape broadened (1. forehead roundly elevated at its side. 1. Head with a deep transverse impression behind the eyes. 1.59x as the seventh. 163. 71 .58x as long and 1. 12 and 39). Rostrum subquadrate. as long as the club. 4x as long as the club.54x as long as the rostrum. central furrow broad and deep. seventh segment broadest of all. 259.07x as broad as the second. 109.07x as the distance between the middle of eyes. 1. Funicle 1. 1. 86. 2. 265 and 350) Episomus obliquus Marshall. fifth and sixth. 1.15x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle and with its first segment longest. 2. 1916: 215.5x) from middle to apex. space between the eyes at middle 1.95x as long as the apical emargination and 1. 1. 135. 1. 1.22x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. extending from there till the declivity where it terminates obliquely and abruptly (Fig. 230. 1.36x as broad as the apical emargination.31x times as long as the club. 246 [BMNH ? ]. 1. dilated anteriorly. Nilgiri hills 13. 12.5x as the fourth (Fig. third and fourth equally long.11x as long as that of prothorax. 63). fourth and sixth equally long. 350). Eyes 1. distance between the anterior margin 1.36x as the third.24x as broad as the rostrum. 2. 1. fourth.

apex blunt.36x as long as the first.25x as broad as the breadth of tibia. 1. 1. Coll. Intervals broad. Specimens examined: ? Myanmar: Maymyo (3500 ft).86x as broad as the fourth (Figs.03x as broad as the base. nodulus and ramus without any projection (Figs. each punctation 2. Tibia 4x as long as broad.28x as broad as first. Femora 3. Length: 11. 1. base truncate. 109). 2.43x as the third. in terms of breadth. Breadth: 5.7x as long as broad. Upper surface not impressed at base. 1. seven to eight ridges originating from the base and terminating at the apex. its breadth at middle 1. 1914.42x as that of its breadth at base. 1.28x as broad as the punctations (Fig. 3.42x as long as that of prothorax.7x as that of prothorax. 1.36x as broad as the breadth of scutellum.33x as broad as second.15x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.5 mm. Prothorax transverse. 23.31x as broad as the apex. 2.57x broader than long at middle. without any humeral angle (Fig.68x as broad as the rostrum.35x as broad as the apex and 1. 135). truncate at base. Tarsi with fourth segment longest. 206 and 230). Suture 2. The other kind of scales without a pedicel. Elytral vestiture brown with scales of two types. third broadest. breadth at middle 1. 72 . Scutellum small.63x as long as the fifth. 2x as fourth and 2. first the broadest. 244 and 265). posterior margin 1.1x as long as the proximal arm.43x as long as the length of punctations and 3. Legs light brown.87x as the second and 1.33x as long as broad.6x as broad as third. 9. in terms of breadth. 3.6 mm . 1.38x as that of prothorax and 1. one with a prominent pedicel and blunt apex.59x as that of second and 3. 2.5x as long as the third and fourth. without any hairs at apex (Fig. spiculum ventrale with shaft uniformly thick. 1. angle between the arms acute. 26. Venter with the first ventrite longest. Elytral length 1. 1. 162 and 163).38x as long as and 1. with dark irregular ridges and a darker area at the base (Figs. central furrow deep (Fig. 1. ventrites third and fourth equally long.35x as long as basal plate.02x as that at the sides. Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1.33x as broad as its breadth.4x as long as the scutellum. 19-31-VII. 86).75x as long as the rostrum. 259).5x as fifth. Striae with rows of small punctations.45x as broad as long. basal plate 1. Elytra oblong-ovate. 4. shallowly plicate.12x as much as the suture. its length at middle 1.6x as long as the second.6x as long as the scutellum. as long as broad.76x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 15. 1.

first and second equally broad (Fig. 191-193.4x as long as the third and fourth.45x as long as the rostrum.06x as that between the anterior margins.4x as long as and 1.12x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. 345). Eyes 1.66x as the fifth and 2.5x as long as the first and fourth segments. 297-300. 2.85x times as long as the club.11x as long as broad from the sides.39x as that between the scrobes (Figs. space between the eyes at middle 1. 3. 1. 2. Fletcher. Funicle 1. Prothorax deeply plicate.04x as long as that of prothorax. broadened (1. 11 and 40). 1. fourth equally long. 2.8x as long as broad from above and 1. third and fourth equally long. General colour dark brown above. second.2x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head.33x as broad as at the apex and 1. 1.02x as broad as long. 136. distance between posterior margins 1. 207. Episomus obuncus Marshall (Figs. 1. 11. 1. 1. in terms of breadth.38x as broad as the third and 3x as the fourth.5x as long as the club.07x as 73 . 87. 231 [BMNH ? ].14x as broad as the first.18x as the sixth. 64. first and second the broadest. fourth and fifth equally broad. seventh segment broadest of all. 1.2x as long as the club. Rostrum with the lateral costae more elevated and the longitudinal impression on them shorter and deeper. fourth and fifth. Head with longitudinal impression shorter and deeper. breadth at middle 1.48x as long as the apical emargination.23x as that between the middle and 1. dilated anteriorly. 2. base 1. 3. 1916: 211.25x) from middle to apex.16x as the distance between the middle of eyes. 1.57x as broad as the rostrum.23x as broad as the sixth.41x as long as the second.M.33x as broad as the second. 110. 327 and 345) Episomus obuncus Marshall. central furrow deep. 40.45x as broad as the third and 1. second. 64). in terms of breadth. 1. seventh segment longest. Club 1. with its second and third segments the longest.38x as long as the scape and 4. with pale brown markings (Fig. 231. distance between the anterior margin 1. 1. 1. third and first. 1.5x as long as the first.13x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.18x as broad as the rostrum. H. 1. Antennae light brown with short and stout scape.36x as broad as the apical emargination.2x as long as the apical emargination and 1. Distribution: Myanmar 14.14x broader than long at middle.

66x as broad as the manubrium and 1.82x as long as broad.76x as fourth and 2x as fifth. 1. rounded at apex and with blunt pedicel. Elytral vestiture with scales of three types. breadth at middle 1.1x as broad as the breadth of tibia. 1.19x as broad as second.05x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1.33x as broad as 74 . 2. granulated. 2. Male genitalia with aedeagus having median lobe elongate. 4. posterior margin 1. elongate with 6-9 ridges. Tibia 4x as long as broad. Scutellum prominent. 191-193).62x as broad as that of punctations. Its base 1.04x as that at the sides. Intervals broad. inner core opaque. in terms of breadth. Venter with the first ventrite longest.61x as that of its breadth at base. predominant ones without a pedicel. its breadth at middle 1. 1.26x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 10. 1. 1.03x as long as the first.48x as long as the manubrium. each punctation 1.08x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. not enclosed. 1. ventrites third and fourth equally long. 1.32x as long as the spiculum gastrale. with metallic pinkish and / or greenish tinge at the core of few scales. first the broadest. with its edges more raised. Elytra broadly ovate.83x as long as the second.16x as long as the length of scutellum. 1.38x as that of second and 4x as broad as the fourth. 3.42x as broad as third. in terms of breadth. Tarsi with fourth segment longest.37x as broad as that of apophyses. 1.6x as that of prothorax. 1.66x as long as the scutellum.63x as long as the rostrum.5x as that of prothorax and 1. 10. 24.08x as much as the suture.41x as broad as that just before apex. Suture scarcely elevated posteriorly. 2.33x as broad as first. Elytral length 1. central furrow shallow. 1. without any median carina (Fig.32x as the third. Upper surface shallowly impressed near base. 136).75x as long as broad and 1.62x as its median lobe.5x as broad as just before the apex. breadth from sides 1. less predominant brown. third broadest. Legs light brown. its length at middle 1.broad as at the base. Striae with rows of deep separated punctations. 1. 1.06x as broad as middle and 1.8x as long as the third and fourth. 5.38x as long as the tegmen.08x as broad as long and 1.4x as long as that of prothorax. Apophyses 2.37x as broad as that of punctations (Fig.24x as broad as the apex.65x as the second and 1. third longer scales with irregular ridges radiating from the base and terminating at the blunt anterior periphery (Figs. 87). 110).6x as long as the apophyses.05x as long as the fifth. slightly broadening at the base before apophyses.66x as long as the scutellum. 26. 2. Femora 3. without any humeral angle (Fig. median lobe 2.

85x as long as the apical emargination. space between the eyes at middle 1. in terms of breadth. Distribution: INDIA: Kerala. 171. Scape broadened (1. Head with a shallow.54x as long as the fourth.6 mm. 327).5x as long as the apical emargination. 111.8x as the sixth and 1. 1894: 185. 1897: 121. 1. rarely with a distinct greenish tinge. Elytra with irregular pale markings (Fig.96x as long as the apophyses and 1. 1916: 242. (paratype) Kerala: Thiruvananthapuram. 297-299).24x as broad as the rostrum.54x as long as the rostrum and 3. transverse impression on vertex. 242 [SMTD].3 mm.54x as long as the club.13x as long as the scape and 5. two elevated tubercles present. 1. Eyes 2. 137.92x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. Rostrum with costae on each side of central furrow shallowly impressed.2x as long as manubrium.16x as the seventh.27x as long as the club. 41. 254. 346).37x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs. 1. 247. with dorsal piece 1. 232. 14 and 41).38x as long as the tegmen.33x as broad as the apical emargination. third and fifth equal. 261 and 346) Episomus pudibundus Faust.33x as long as broad from above and 1. 4.1x as long as the club. Specimens examined: ? .05x as the distance between the middle of eyes. Its length 1. manubrium uniformly thick and straight (Fig. Episomus pudibundus Faust Figs. 15. 208.85x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. Length: 14. 14. 2.13x as long as the club. 2. 88. distance between posterior margins 1.33x as long as the third and fifth. its seventh segment 1. 2.1890.04x as broad as the basal piece. Simallus pudibundus Faust. 300). Spiculum gastrale 1. Marshall. 194. 1. first and seventh 75 . IX.12x as that between the anterior margins. Marshall. 2. Parameres with apices acuminate. Tegmen 2.the shaft of spiculum gastrale (Figs. its breadth 2x as broad as that of manubrium (Fig. Funicle 1.42x) from middle to apex. base 1. first segment the longest. 65. 172. General colour light to dark brown above and pale sandy to white beneath. Breadth: 5.75x as long as the second. Antennae brown. 1.24x as broad as long. distance between the anterior margin 1.18x as that between the middle and 1. central furrow deep. 1916: 214.1x as long as broad from the sides.

06x as the fourth. without any humeral angle and not transversely impressed near base (Fig.66x as long as the fourth segment. Suture 2. first broadest.7x as long as broad.1x as long as broad.15x as that at the sides. with 9-10 transparent ridges. Prothorax transversely plicate. 30.55x as long as the head. 1.19x as broad as the apex. in terms of breadth. 65). 137). 1. 1. third broadest. Club1.08x as broad as at the base.33x as long as the first. 3x as the fourth (Fig.61x as broad as the rostrum.segments broadest of all.12x broader than long at middle. its length at middle 1. apex not sharply pointed. 88). 111). fourth to sixth equally broad. 2. fifth and sixth. Elytral vestiture with two types of scales.32x as that of prothorax and 1.3x as broad as at the apex and 1. predominant metallic green.43x as long as broad and 1. elongate with irregular ridges (Figs.27x as that of prothorax. 1. 1. separated and often ocellated punctations. posterior margin jointly and shallowly sinuate.4x as broad as the breadth of punctations. 1. Tibia 4. 14. its breadth at middle 1. 1.11x as long as the length of scutellum. 32.06x as broad as the fourth. sides gently rounded.8x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig.05x as much as the suture. 2.12x as broad as the third. less predominant brown. Femora 4. Striae with rows of large.24x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 22. its length 1.2x as long as broad and 1. 1.78x as long as and 1. inner core dark. sometimes with pink specks. in terms of breadth. Scutellum enclosed. 1.05x as broad as the second. 1. posterior margin truncate. 1.84x as long as the second.14x as long and broad as tibia.2x as broad as the second. each punctation 2. 4. the posterior margin 1. 171 and 172). 76 . 1. 1. breadth at middle 1.61x as the third.5x as broad as the fourth.86x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. central furrow shallow (Fig. very small.4x as long as the scutellum.05x as long as the rostrum. dilated anteriorly.8x as long as the scutellum.4x as broad as first and second and 3.16x as long as that of prothorax. Elytra elongate-ovate. Tarsi with first segment longest. 1. first and second equally broad (Figs.3x as the third and 1. Its length 1. Intervals broad.6x as long as the third and 2. with its second segment the longest. 208 and 232). Legs brown.44x as that of its breadth at base.16x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle.

bearing 6 white spots. base 1. Venter with the first ventrite longest. 1897: 117.83x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. 26. 144. 2. 112. distance between posterior margins 1. 1. 247 and 261). Specimen examined: 1 ? . slightly dilated before apex. Coll. Rostrum with costae having a short basal impression. 3. 250. 1891: 265 printed “pracuae” in error.25x as long as the fifth.8 mm. 1. 89. 1. 1890: 212. General colour earth brown or pale brown above. on the declivity a large. first ventrite the broadest.59x as ventrite four and 1. 322 and 347) Episomus quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges. Distribution: Myanmar.36x as the distance between the middle of eyes. 1.56x as long as the apical emargination and 1. Head without lateral impressions. 1. 141. 255. Length: 15. the angle between the arms slightly acute.9x as long as broad from above and 1. Faust. and with ill defined blackish markings on the disk too (Fig. 240. Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1. 216.95x as ventrite five.03x as long as the proximal arm. 254). Episomus prainae Faust. basal plate 1. 1897: 117.16x as long as broad from the sides. 1. blackish – brown patch. three on each elytra. irregular.02x as long as that of prothorax.77x as long as basal plate. 1. 347). 228 [NPC]. ramus with a prominent projection terminating in a blunt apex (Fig.21x as broad as the rostrum. 66. Central furrow narrow and deep. 1916: 211. 3.18x as that 77 . ventrites second and fourth equally long.3x as broad as three. distance between the anterior margin 1. Breadth: 5. 1. uniformly thick. Episomus quatuornotatus Desbrochers des Loges (Figs.33x as long as the second and fourth. 1. 305-308.08x as long as the apical emargination. Marshall. 1891: 266 printed “quadrinotatus” in error. 49. Spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate.07x as broad as long. Eyes 1.38x as broad as the apical emargination. and a less distinct spot on the apex of fifth interval. pale brown to pale grey beneath. Two distinct spots on interval 3. much variable in size and tint. 141 [SMTD]. 263.77x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. in terms of breadth.56x as long as the rostrum. 16.05x as broad as long with prominent hairs at the apex (Fig. 1892: XVIII. one before and one behind middle.6 mm. 4x as long as the third.13x as broad as second. 183-185. Andrewes.

8. the posterior margin 1.61x as broad as first. in terms of breadth. space between the eyes at middle 1. 1.37x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. its length 1.87x as that of prothorax. first broadest. third broadest. Funicle 1.66x as long as the fourth segments. third and sixth.25x as long as broad and 1. fourth and fifth. 66). 1. 144).15x as long as the length of punctations and 1.68x as that of second and 3. Club black. its length at middle 1.25x as long as the first.36x as long as broad.06x as that at the sides. third and sixth segments. 1. central furrow broad and shallow (Fig. 216 and 240).3x as broad as the apex. 2x as long as the third and 1.45x as long and 1.1x as the seventh.5x as long as that of prothorax. second.15x as much as the suture. first segment longest.05x as broad as the second. 2.04x as that between the anterior margins. Suture distinctly carinate at the declivity.14x as long as the club. 2.33x as broad as the second. fourth and fifth equally broad.23x as broad as the first.51x as long as and 1. its breadth at middle 1.23x as broad as the apex. 1. 1. 2. seventh segment broadest of all. 1. dilated anteriorly.61x as the third.13x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs.1x as broad as its breadth.8x as the second and 1.32x as long as the first segment of funicle and 1. Scutellum brown. 78 . 1.34x as long as the rostrum. 4. scape broadened (1.between the middle and 1.2x as the fourth (Fig.2x as the fifth and sixth. 1.31x as the third. in terms of breadth. 9. Upper surface transversely impressed near base and separately rounded. 1. in terms of breadth.49x as broad as the rostrum. first. Elytra oblong-ovate.05 x as long as the second.18x as long as the scape and 3. 3.02x as long as the first. Tarsi with fourth segment the longest.72x times as long as the club. breadth at middle 1. 26 and 49).81x as long as the scutellum. 1. 1.7x as broad as the fourth (Figs. and 1. 1. 4. 1. Legs greyish brown with some vague. 2x as the fourth.06x as broad as the breadth at middle.06x broader than long at middle. 89). 2. Prothorax with posterior margin deeply bisinuate. 1.1x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth same as broad as the breadth of tibia.57x as long as the third.67x as that of prothorax and 1. Antennae brown with seventh segment of funicle black. fifth and sixth equally long.44x) from middle to apex. 1. 1. the second segment of club the longest. Tibia 4x as long as broad.33x as broad as the breadth of scutellum.58x as that of its breadth at base. darker markings on the hind femora. humeral angles well developed (Fig. slightly enclosed.53x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 11. 1.

1. breadth from sides 1. subcostate. 79 .82x as long as manubrium. uniformly thick (Fig.1x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. rounded at the apex.5 mm. ventrites third and fourth equally long.27x as long as the proximal arm. first ventrite the broadest. 1. other without a dark core with the ridges running parallel to each other (Figs.45x as broad as three.1x as as broad as the basal piece. Elytral vestiture with scales of three types. 112). Female genitalia having spermatheca with proximal arm slightly swollen. with 4-5 inconspicuous ridges. in terms of breadth. brown. 1.14x as ventrite five.5x as long as the third and fourth. manubrium long. 1. Length: 16. 1.18x as broad as second. 250 and 263). Apophyses 3.34x as long as the tegmen.9x as long as the apophyses and 1. less predominant elongate. basal plate 1.76x as long as the tegmen. Striae broad and deep with large subquadrate punctations. Male genitalia with aedeagus 2. Spiculum gastrale with shaft straight.66x as broad as that just before apex and 1. distal arm 1. 1. 3x as long as the second. 1. 322).3 mm. bent and rounded at the apex. Tegmen 1. its breadth at middle 1. with dorsal piece 1. cornu projecting towards proximal arm (Figs. broadest after mid distance from the base and broadening at base before apophyses. 1. 1. 3. Breadth: 6.33x as long as the scutellum.66x as broad as the shaft of spiculum gastrale (Figs. Venter with the first ventrite longest. 183-185). uniformly thick. with apices acuminate. each punctation 1.63x as long as basal plate.91x as long as the manubrium. median lobe elongate. 1.4x as long as the fifth.53x as broad as at the base.18x as long as broad. 1. 255). median area of some with 7-9 indistinct ridges originating from the periphery and converging towards the apex.5x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. spiculum ventrale with shaft elongate.08x as broad as the breadth just before apex. slightly constricted at the middle.67x as its median lobe. 305-307). Intervals narrow.73x as ventrite four and 2. dark.3x as broad as long with tuft of hairs (Fig. parameres long. predominant ones with a distinct rounded pedicel. with inner core at base dark. its breadth 2x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig.48x as long as the apophyses. 308).33x as broad as the manubrium and 1. broadest at middle.31x as long as the spiculum gastrale. apex conical. the angle between the arms acute. its base 1.21.

Ging Lebong: 2? (4500 ft). 1. 1. 1.38x as that between the scrobes (Figs. 1. Gopaldhara. space between the eyes at middle 1.17x as broad as the apical emargination. 97.12x as that between the anterior margins. 25. 50. Episomus raucus Faust (Figs. 108. 156.third and fourth. first. Club black.3x as long as the second. pale brown beneath. third segment longest. 217. 1.15x as long as broad from the sides. 348). 25 and 50). seventh segment broadest of all.2x as long as broad from above and 1. 1. 1.38x) from middle to apex. 67. 313-316.11x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2.Specimens examined: India: Assam. in terms of breadth. Coll. 1.1909. 145. West Bengal: Ging Libong. H. 1. 1. VI. fifth and sixth equally broad and second to fourth.5x as long as the first. Head. in terms of 80 .12x as long as the scape and 4.3x as that between the middle and 1.7x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head.16x as the sixth. Lakhimpur. seventh segment longest. second and fourth equally long. distance between the anterior margin 1. ? . Funicle with seventh segment black from middle till apex. sutural area pale fawn (Fig. prothorax with dorsal part green. 241. 1. April.68x as long as the apical emargination. 2. 1.83x as long as the club. lateral green vestiture extending up to the fourth stria. Antennae greenish brown with scape dilated (1.? (5000 ft). Rostrum 1. without transverse impression behind eyes. Central furrow broad and deep near base. 324 and 348) Episomus raucus Faust. dilated anteriorly. equally broad. 1897: 113.28x as long as the second and fourth segments. Distribution: INDIA: Assam. 2. distance between posterior margins 1.11x as long and 1.36x as broad as the first. inflexed margins of prothorax and elytra with pale green vestiture. 2. 3. Eyes 2.1x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. Fletcher. 222 [SMTD].16x as that between the middle of eyes. base 1. Uttar Pradesh: Allahabad 17.17x as broad as long.58x as long as the rostrum and 3. fourth and fifth equal. 162.86x as the fourth and fifth. fifth and sixth. General colour greenish to brown above.13x as long as the first.73x as long as the third. M. 1916: 210.16x as long as the apical emargination.12x as broad as the rostrum. Marshall.26x as broad as the second. June 1922.2x times as long as the club. Kurseong.

ventrites third and fourth equally long.8x as broad as the fourth (Fig.06x as broad as the breadth of tibia. five.41x as that of first. 1. six and seven are narrowly carinate posteriorly. 241). 1. in terms of breadth.37x as that of second and 4. 10. Legs with dense green or grey vestiture. without a distinct humeral angle.34x as broad as the apex.6x as broad as the rostrum. 1. first and second broadest.15x broader than long at middle. 156).06x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 1. 97). 2. 1. 316).36x as broad as three. 145). 1. Venter with the first ventrite longest. 108).07x as broad as the base.44x as that of its breadth at base. Tibia 3x as long as broad. its breadth at middle 1. in terms of breadth. Predominant ones metallic pink with indistinct dark lines.1x as the fourth.54x as the second and 1. the other metallic green with pink specks (Fig. breadth at middle 1. 1. with a projection at apex (Fig.43x as broad as the apex and 1. Elytral vestiture with two types of scales.71x as long as the scutellum. differing only in colour.62x as long as the second. the posterior margin 1. Intervals narrow. 1. Striae broad. 1. 2. 3x as long as the third and fourth.23x as broad as the third.48x as ventrite four and 1.16x as broad as second. pointed at apex. ovate.69x as ventrite five. 1.22x as long as the first.03x as long as the head. with rows of large punctations. Scutellum enclosed in front by the sutural margin.27x as long as broad and 1. 67). 1. each punctation 1. less acuminate at the apex and less rounded at base. 23. 3. 1.36x as that of prothorax.1x as broad as the punctation (Fig. 1. 25.breadth.8x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. Tarsi with fourth segment longest. 2. 1.45x as long as the length of punctations and as broad. 3.35x as that of prothorax and 1. its length 1.63x as long and 1.14x as long as the scutellum. Prothorax plicate.16x as that at the sides. third broadest.87x as long as the rostrum. Femora 3x as long as broad.85x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 15. subparallel from base to middle and narrow at the apex.45x as long as broad. first ventrite the broadest. 1. first and second equally broad (Fig. its length at middle 1. central furrow deep (Fig. Elytra elongate. Upper surface without any basal impression (Fig. Suture distinctly elevated on the declivity. 81 .05x as long as the fifth.13x as long as that of prothorax.11x as much as the suture.3x as the first. 1.

18x) from middle to apex.12x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head. bent near apex and blunt (Fig.31x as long as tegmen. Newton.22x as broad as the breadth at middle. 2. 2.06x as long as broad from the sides.20 mm.47x as long as the rostrum. Karnataka: Coorg. 1. greyish beneath (Fig. 68. base 1. Spiculum gastrale elongate.01x as long as manubrium.13x as that between the middle and 1.58x as long as the tegmen. Male genitalia with aedeagus having a sub anterior projection. dilated at apex. 134.33x as broad as the manubrium (Figs. Eyes 1. General colour brown above. with dorsal piece as broad as the basal piece. 116. Apophyses 1. space between the eyes at middle 1. Funicle 1. Kodaikanal.21x as long as the spiculum gastrale. median lobe 1. Breadth: 6..08x as the distance between the middle of eyes. 343). Kodaikanal.88x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. L.89x as broad as the breadth of manubrium. Tegmen 2.54x as long as the manubrium. 18. 3. 2. 234.6x as long as broad from above and 1. 235 [SMTD ? & ? ].75x as long as the apical emargination and 1.05x as long as the apophyses and median lobe. 164-166. 1916: 212. Antennae with scape slightly broadened (1. 313-315). 1897: 119.42x as broad as the breadth of apophyses and 1. 245. 210.06x as broad as the rostrum. Tamil Nadu: Tiruchirapalli. 4. 1. 138.05x as that between the anterior margins. 268 and 343) Episomus sagax Faust. 23 and 43). its breadth 1. 43. its base 1. Head transversely impressed behind the eyes without lateral impression. 1. Coll. 1. Marshall. W. Specimens examined: 2? : Palanis: Shenbaganur (6000 ft).04x as long as that of prothorax. Length: 17. Central furrow deep. ? Karnataka: Chettali. Episomus sagax Faust (Figs: 23. 324).7x as long as the apophyses and 1. its sides roundly dilated near the apex.44x as broad as the apical emargination. Distribution: INDIA: Kerala: Thiruvanthapuram.14x as long as the scape and 1. breadth from sides 2. 256.47x as long as the club.21x as broad as long. distance between posterior margins 1.45x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs.15x as long as the apical emargination.37x times as 82 .00 mm. distance between the anterior margin 1. 1. Rostrum 1.18x as broad as the breadth of apophyses. 91. 316). its apex slightly bent (Fig.

Femora 3.12x as long as the first. third broadest.1. third and sixth equal.14x as that at the sides.4x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 8.11x as much as the suture.48x as the third.81x as that of prothorax.97x as long as the rostrum. Scutellum not enclosed. 1. first and second.55x as that of its breadth at base. 1.88x as broad as the fourth (Figs. Prothorax with sides subparallel from base to middle. Legs brownish. 1. 1. Tarsi with fourth segment longest.44x as long as broad. 2.2x as long as the scutellum. 210 and 234). fifth and sixth equally broad. 1. 2. 2.34x as that of first.36x as broad as the third.05x as the second and 1.4x as that of second and 3. in terms of breadth. its length at middle 1.25x as the fifth. 1. 1. 68). large and circular. Club as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. 1.43x as broad as the rostrum. ovate.5x as long and 2. 1. third and fourth. first and second broadest and equally broad.36x as broad as the third and fourth. 1. central furrow broad and deep (Fig.51x as that of prothorax and 1. 18x as long as the scutellum. 138). seventh segment longest. 2. Elytral vestiture with scales of three types. Upper surface with distinct basal impression (Fig. 1. the other less 83 .26x as broad as the fifth and sixth.12x as long as broad and 1.41x as long and 1.long as the club.6x as long as the third and sixth. Elytral length 1. Striae with rows of large deep punctations. 3. 2. elongate. third and fourth equally long. Tibia 4. coarsely plicate above.37as long as the club. posterior margin 1. 116).9x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. then narrowed to the apex.22x as broad as tibia.71x as long as broad. Elytra with humeral angle distinct. 1. in terms of breadth.81x as long as broad. 16. with its second segment longest.62x as long as the second. separately rounded at the base.53x as long as that of prothorax.2x as long as the first.05x as long and 1. 91).26x as broad as the first and second.5x as long as the third and fourth segments. 2. Suture moderately elevated after the declivity. clothed with hairs.31x as broad as the apex.7x as the fourth (Fig.41x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig. 6.28x as broad as the length and breadth of punctations. 1.34x as broad as the apex and 1. each punctation 1.44x as long as the first. its breadth at middle 1. 1. 1.02x as broad as the base.23x broader than long at middle. The posterior margin broadly bisinuate.88x as the fourth and 3.23x as that of its breadth at the humeral angle. in terms of breadth. 1. 1. seventh segment broadest of all. breadth at middle 1. less predominant plumose. Intervals 2.

235. central furrow narrow and very deep posteriorly. 1916: 215. Spiculum ventrale 2.6 mm. basal plate 1. 203. angle between the arms obtuse. with a broad white to fawn lateral stripe extending from rostrum and widening out indefinitely at apex of elytra.2x as long as the fifth. 1916: 247 [MCSN]. 1. 2. 247.0 mm. Dilkusha.6x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. 1. 1916: 215.02x as long as basal plate. Marshall. Predominant ones with a prominent pedicel and 8-9 ridges parallel to each other (Fig. 328 and 352) Simallus sulcicollis Pascoe. 189. distance between the anterior margin 84 .33x as broad as the rostrum. 190. 1. 3.16x as long as broad from the sides. 1.24x as broad as long. ventrites second and third equally long. Distribution: INDIA: Assam: Naga Hills. 256). nodulus. 92. Head with a strong transverse impression on the vertex. 3x as long as the second and third. base 1. 69. Simallus auriculatus Faust 1897: 199 . with shaft elongate.62x as long as broad from above and 1.34x longer than the proximal arm. 2x as long as the apical emargination. Episomus sulcicollis (Pascoe) (Figs. 132. ramus normal. 115. Marshall. slightly thinning from base to apex.35x as broad as long. Breadth: 5. a dark brown stripe extends along intervals 4 to 6 till the top of the declivity (Fig. Sylhet. basal plate with tuft of hairs (Fig.41x as long as distance between base of rostrum and base of head.4x as broad as the apical emargination. 352). Venter with the first ventrite longest.8x as ventrite four and 2.predominant one with inconspicuous lines. P. Bangladesh: Dhaka: Madhyapura.6x as broad as second. median costae with a small basal impression. cornu projecting away from proximal arm (Figs. Coll.53x as broad as three.93x as long as the apical emargination.S. 164-166). 1894: 187. 2.41x as long as the rostrum and 2.C. Bangladesh: Dhaka. XII. elevated posteriorly and forming two prominent conical tubercles.6x as long as the fourth. General colour light brown above and beneath. Length: 14. above this stripe. Marshall. Rostrum parallel sided. 19. first ventrite the broadest. 285-288. Female genitalia having spermatheca with distal arm 1. 22. 1. Episomus auriculatus Faust. in terms of breadth. 44. Eyes 1. 1865: 420. 1.26x as ventrite five. 247 [BMNH ? ]. Specimens examined: 2? . 245 and 268). apex blunt.08.

83x as long as broad.45x as long as the length of tibia and its breadth 2x as broad as the breadth of tibia. Femora 4. posterior margin shallowly sinuate.2x as broad as the breadth of scutellum.05x as broad as at the base. enclosed. 1.06x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 16. second. 22 and 44). 203 and 235).1. Prothorax slightly transverse.31x as long as the second segment of funicle. in terms of breadth. second the broadest. sharp projection below the eye level.33x as long as the length of punctations and 1.66x as long as the second. 1. 1. 1.62x as long as the fifth and sixth segments.06x times as long as the club.25x as long as the third and 1. 92).27x as that between the middle and 1. without a humeral angle and with a slight subhumeral prominence (Fig. its first and second segments the longest. fifth and sixth equally long.07x as broad as the first.41x as long as the club. 1. distance between posterior margins 1. 132).69x as broad as the rostrum.16x as the third and 2.07x as long as the head. Elytra broadly ovate.1x) from middle to apex. not reaching base or apex (Fig.66x as long as broad. Club 1.54x as long and 1. third.27x as broad as the seventh segment of funicle.18x as long as the first and seventh. segments first and second equally long. Antennae light brown.43x as that of second and 4x as broad as the fourth (Figs. 1. Tarsi with first segment longest.07x as much as the 85 .1x as that at the sides. 1. first and seventh. Scape broadened (1.05x as the fourth.19x as long as the scape and 4. 3. 1. Central furrow deep.38x broader than long at middle. 1.22x as broad as the first.33x as the fourth (Fig.16x as long as broad and 3. Upper surface not transversely impressed near base. 1.44x as long as the third and fourth.66x as long as the fourth segment.21x as broad as the apex.5x as broad as its breadth.1x as the distance between the scrobes (Figs.1x as broad as the sixth. 1. Anterior lateral margin with a small.33x as broad as first.13x as that between the anterior margins. dilated anteriorly. 1. 1. second segment longest. 1. 1. 1. Scutellum very small. in terms of breadth. 1. third broadest. 69). the posterior margin truncate.12x as the distance between the middle of eyes. space between the eyes at middle 1. 1. seventh segment broadest of all. Apices jointly rounded. breadth at middle 1.52x as long as and 1. Upper surface with few irregular plications. 1. Legs light brown. first to fifth equally broad. Tibia 6. in terms of breadth. Elytral length 1. third and fourth.33x as the third and 1.27x as broad as at the apex and 1. Funicle 1. fourth and fifth. 10. its length at middle 1.

04 as broad as the shaft of spiculum gastrale (Fig.93x as long as apophyses.17x as long as spiculum gastrale.25x as long as the fifth. manubrium uniformly thick (Fig.33x as broad as manubrium and 1.33x as long as the third and fourth. 1. 1. bent at apex. two from the base and two roundedly approximated just before the basal area (Figs.27x as that of prothorax and 1.16x as broad as that just before apex.33x as broad as long.33x as that of its breadth at base. Length: 8.2x as broad as the breadth of manubrium (Fig. 22.3 mm. Intervals broad. first ventrite the broadest.07x as broad as middle and 1.86x as long as the scutellum. Elytral vestiture with scales brown. its base 1.85x as as broad as the basal piece. 1. 3. 1. 1. four originating from the periphery. each punctation 1. 2. Spiculum gastrale with straight shaft.64x as long as apophyses and 1.84x as fifth. Tegmen 2. the prominent ones with apex acuminate. its breadth at middle 1. rounded at apex.54x as long as manubrium. 24.71x as long as the rostrum. Distribution: Myanmar.V. 1.55x as long as tegmen. 1. 189 and 190).81x as long as tegmen. Venter with the first ventrite the longest. less predominant elongate with 5-6 inconspicuous ridges.2x as broad as second. 2. breadth at middle 1.41x as broad as third.33x as long as the manubrium. 2. Episomus uniformis Pascoe 86 . 1. with eight ridges scarcely visible. Apophyses 3. 3. 288). 115).25x as broad as the breadth of punctations (Fig.1909. 20.6x as fourth and 1.97x as its median lobe. core opaque and granulated. 328). Sixth stria reaching the base.27x as long as that of prothorax. Striae narrow with rows of round deep separated punctations. 2. Male genitalia with aedeagus 1. ventrites third and fourth equally long. 3.3 mm. predominant ones without a pedicel. 2. Parameres with apices acuminate. Suture very slightly elevated posteriorly.44x as that of prothorax. sinuate before apex when viewed laterally.5x as long as the second. median lobe slightly broadening at base before apophyses. in terms of breadth. with dorsal piece 2. Mandalay. Specimen examined: ? . breadth from sides 2x as broad as the breadth of apophyses.57x as long as the scutellum. of two types. 3.25x as broad as just before the apex. Breadth: 3. 285-287).suture.

46. 3. 2.36x as broad as the apex. with fourth segment the longest.1x as broad as the rostrum. 1. 1. epistome not carinate at the sides.5x as long as the first. fourth and fifth.22x as the fourth (Fig. Faust. seventh segment longest.2x as long as the second and third segments. 1916: 213.42x as broad as the rostrum. 1. 1. space between the eyes at middle 1.9x as long as the distance between base of rostrum and base of head.19x broader than long at middle. central furrow shallow (Fig. second to fifth equally broad. 1.25x as long as the club. in terms of breadth. first broadest.(Figs.77x as the fifth.18x as much as the distance between scrobes and 2. 20 and 46).05x as broad as the second.83x as long and 2x 87 .33x as broad as the apical emargination. 94).31x as long as the first.37x) from middle to apex. 118.1x as long as that of prothorax. Marshall. 1. distance between the anterior margin 1. fourth and sixth equally long. Scutellum transverse.12x as the distance between the middle of eyes. 238 [BMNH ? ].3x as broad as the apex. 94. 1. the posterior margin deeply bisinuate. Head with transverse shallow impression behind the eye.62x as broad as the breadth of scutellum. Prothorax with shallow plications on upper surface. 1897: 120.25x as broad as the sixth. Scape broadened (1.12x as that between the middle.54x as broad as the first. dilated at apex.16x as broad as long.55x as long as the club. seventh segment broadest of all.33x as broad as the second. 237 and 349) Episomus uniformis Pascoe.2x as long as the apical emargination and 1.25x as long as the second. 71. base 1. 2. Antennae brown. second and third equally long. 4.6x as that between the scrobes (Figs. 349).53x as long as the scutellum and its breadth at middle 6. 2.04x as broad as that at middle and 1. its length at middle 1.1x as long as broad from above and 1. 2x as long as the apical emargination. Rostrum dilated towards apex. 4. broadest at its middle. as long as broad and 1. 175-176.38x as long as and 1. 20. 1. 1. 212. General colour light brown and below (Fig.33x as the third. 1887: 349. Eyes 2. 129.53x as long as the rostrum. Club as broad as the seventh segment of funicle. Funicle 1. 5. 1. central furrow broad and deep. 1.1x as long as the scape and 4. 71). 1.07x as that at the sides. 1. third. in terms of breadth. 1.15x as long as broad from the sides.95x times as long as the club. 1.12x as the fourth and sixth and 2. distance between posterior margins equal to that between anterior margins and 1.5x as long as the third. 141. breadth at middle 1. 1.

2.5x as long as the fourth and 1. Specimen examined: Without data. 1. third broadest.3x as long as broad.75x as long as the second.11x as much as the suture.16x as that of prothorax. Venter with the first ventrite longest.as broad as those of punctations.56x as broad as third.1x as long as broad. 5. 2. without any humeral angle (Fig. Elytral vestiture with scales of two types.2x as broad as those of tibia. its length 1. 1. 17. Legs brown. 1. equally predominant. 1. Breadth: 6. deep punctations. Femora 3. Length: 15.55x as that of its breadth at base. 2.53x as long as the scutellum. 175 and 176). separately rounded at the base.45x as long as the scutellum. 141).83x as long as that of prothorax. Tarsi with fourth segment longest.94x as that of prothorax and 1. Elytra elongate ovate. first ventrite broadest. Intervals subcostate. 15. Suture sharply elevated into a carina on the declivity.95x as fourth and 2. 4. parallel ridges.52x as the third. 88 .2 mm.37x as long as the fifth. its breadth at middle 1.63x as broad as the fourth (Figs.1x as long as and 1. the other with a slight peduncle and 4-5 ridges approximating before apex (Figs. 3.8 mm. 1. each punctation 1. with the apex rounded.31x as the second and 1.23x as broad as second. 4. transversely impressed near the base. dark. Striae with rows of large.76x as long as the first.91x as long as broad.38x as that of second and 3. 1. 212 and 237).4x as long as the third. 118). in terms of breadth. in terms of breadth. Distribution: INDIA: Andaman Islands. one elongate with 8-9 inconspicuous. Tibia 4. 1. as broad as those of punctations (Fig.36x as long as the rostrum.48x as broad as first.47x as fifth.

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