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# (39)

## * The pre-expansion ratio ( ρ )

ρ = ( µ / λ ) ( Tz / Tc )
1- For N.G
ρ =  0.93  2721 
 4  873.9 
ρ = 0.7239
2- For diesel
ρ = 1.11
3- For Pilot Fuel
ρ = 0.75

(44)
The calculated of expansion process
* After expansion ratio ( δ )
δ =∑ ρ
; ∑ = the eompression ratio
ρ = the pre-expansion ratio
1- For N.G
δ = 16.5
2- For diesel
δ = 10.8
3- For Pilot Fuel
δ = 15.5

## • The pressure at end of expansion

Pb = P2 / δ n2
Tb = Tz / δ n2 −1 Ref (1)

(45)
* from chart at ∑ δ Tz
1- For N.G
Tz = 2721 k ∑ = 12
K2 = 1.24
2- For diesel
At Tz = 2340 k ∑ = 12
K2 = 1.27
3- For Pilot Fuel
At Tz = 2510 k ∑ = 12
k2 = 1.26
The pressure at the end of expansion
k −1
Pz = Pz δ k2 , Tb = Tz δ 2
1- For N.G
Pb = 0.25 MPa Tb = 1388k
2- For diesel
Pb = 0.3166 MPa Tb = 1257k

(56)
1- For N.G
Pm = 0.034 + 0.0135 cm
Pm = 0.1132 MPa
2- For Pilot Fuel
Pm = 0.089 + 0.0135 cm
Pm = 0.17 MPa

* To determine brake mean effective pressure ( P e )

P e = P i - Pm
1- For N.G

P e = 0.7538 MPa
2- For diesel

P e = 0.566 MPa
3- For Pilot Fuel

P e = 0.58 MPa

(57)
* To determine the mechanical efficiency

Pe
ηm = −
Pi
1- For N.G
η m = 87%
2- For diesel
η m = 80%
3- For Pilot Fuel
η m = 0.817 = 81.7%
N.G Diesel Pilot
ηm 87% 80% 81.7%

(58)
3.2.1.c. The Indicated Efficiency and Specific Indicated Fuel
Consumption.
The indicated efficiency ηi is the characteristic of the extent of the fuel
heat consumption in an actual cycle to obtain useful work. It represents
the ratio of heat equivalent to the indicated cycle work to the overall
amount of heat admitted to the cycleinder with the fuel.
For 1kg of fuel
ηi = Li / Hu
where
Li is the heat equivalent to the indicated work in MJ/kg;
Hu is the lower heat of fuel combustion in MJ/kg.
Therefore, the indicated efficiency accounts for all heat losses of an-actual cycle.
With automobile and tractor engines operating on a-liquid fuel;
ηi = Pi Lo α /( H u ρ k η v )
where
Pi is in MPa;
Lo is in kg of fuel;
Hu is in MJ/kg of fuel;

(59)
* The indicated η i
η i = Pi − Lo α / ( H u Sc ηv )
3- For N.G
η i = 0.867*17.39*1.4/55-1.2*0.85
η i = 39%
4- For diesel
η i = 0.66*1.7*14.45/43*1.18*0.75
η i = 0.355 = 35.5%
5- For Pilot Fuel
η i = 36.4%
N.G Diesel Pilot
ηi 39% 35.5% 36.4%
(60)
To determine brake thermal efficiency (η b )
η b = η m *η i
1- For N.G
η b = 0.87*0.39 = 34%
2- For diesel
η b = 28.4%
3- For Pilot
η b = 29.7%
N.G Diesel Pilot
ηi 34% 28.4% 29.7%

(61)
To determine B.S.F.C.
*** b.s.f.c. = 3600/Hu*η b
1- For N.G
b.s.f.c. = 3600/55*103 *0.34
b.s.f.c. = 192.5 g/kW hr
2- For diesel
b.s.f.c. = 3600/ 43*103 *0.284
b.s.f.c. = 294 g/kW hr
3- For Pilot
b.s.f.c. = 228 g/kW hr
N.G Diesel Pilot
b.s.f.c. 192.5 294 228
g/kW hr

(62)
N.G Diesel Pilot
Cf 12 12 12
ηm 87% 80% 81.7%
ηi 39% 35.5% 36.4%
ηb 34% 28.4% 29.7%
b.s.f.c. 192.5 294 228
g/kW hr