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# (35)

## * The mean value of molar specific heat of combustion Products.

( M cv ) Tzta = (1/ M 2 )[ Mco2 ]( mcv\ \ co2 )tzta + MH 20 (mcv\ \ ( )
tz tz
H 20
) + MN 2 mcv
\\
N2 ta
ta

tz
( Mcv) = (1 / M 2 )[ Mco 2 ( 39.123 + 0.003349 tz ) + MH 20 ( 26.67 + 0.001758 tz ) ] + MN 2 (19.678 + 0.001758tz ) ]
ta

## (1) For N.G at

M2=0.837 Mco2=0.0302
MH20=0.11668 MN2= 0.335
( Mcv ) tzta = 20.8 + 0.0021tz

( Mcp ) \ \ tz
ta = ( Mcv ) Ta + 80315
Tz

( Mcp ) \ \ tz
ta = 29.115 + 0.00219tz

(2)For diesel :-

## M2 =0.79 Mco2= 0.082

MH20= 0.077 MN2= 0.673

## ( Mcv ) tzta = 23.4 + 0.0022tz

( Mcl ) \ \ tz
ta = 31.715 + 0.00228tz
(3) For Pilot

## M2= 0.913 Mco2 0.064

MH20= 0.167 MN2= 0.797
( Mcv ) tzta = 22.55 + 0.0023tz

( Mcp ) \ \ tz
ta = 30.864 + 0.0023tz
* Heat utilization Coefficient ( ξz )

ξz = 0.85

## * Temperature at The end of visible Combustion Process.

ξz Hw.m + [( mcv )
\ tz
to ] (
+ 8.315λ − µl = µ mcl 4 ) tz
ta tz

(1) For N. G

μ = 0.93
Hw.m= 58700
Let λ = 4
49895 + 33313.8 + 6968.9 + 27tz + 27tz +0.002tz2
0.002tz2 + 27tz- 80177.7 = 0
Ο
∴ tz N .G = 2721 Κ

μ = 0.84
Hw.m = 43400

## 36890 + 23608.6 + 2633.2 = 266tz + 0.00191tz2

0.00191 tz2 + 266tz – 63131.8 = 0
tzD = 2340 К

## (3) For Pilot

μ = 0.916
Hw.m = 51000 kJ/kg
at λ = 3.5
43350 + 30866 + 5865.7 = 28.27 tz + 0.0022 tz2
0.0022ez2 + 28.27 tz – 800817.7 = 0

tzp = 2510 К
(38)
* To determine The pressure at The and of comb
Pz = Pc μ tz / tc
(1) For N. G
Pz = 2.81 * 0.93 * 2721 / 873.9
Pz = 8.13 MPa

## (2) For Diescl

Pz = 0.84 * 2.85 * 2340 /881
Pz = 6.35 MPa

## (3) For Pilot Fuel

Pz = 0.916 * 2.825 * 2510/877
Pz = 7.4 MPa

(39)
* The pre-expansion ratio ( ρ )
ρ = ( µ / λ ) ( Tz / Tc )
1- For N.G
ρ =  0.93  2721 
 4  873.9 
ρ = 0.7239
2- For diesel
ρ = 1.11
3- For Pilot Fuel
ρ = 0.75

(44)
The calculated of expansion process
* After expansion ratio ( δ )
δ =∑ ρ
; ∑ = the eompression ratio
ρ = the pre-expansion ratio
1- For N.G
δ = 16.5
2- For diesel
δ = 10.8
3- For Pilot Fuel
δ = 15.5

## • The pressure at end of expansion

Pb = P2 / δ n2
Tb = Tz / δ n2 −1 Ref (1)

(45)
* from chart at ∑ δ Tz
1- For N.G
Tz = 2721 k ∑ = 12
K2 = 1.24
2- For diesel
At Tz = 2340 k ∑ = 12
K2 = 1.27
3- For Pilot Fuel
At Tz = 2510 k ∑ = 12
k2 = 1.26
The pressure at the end of expansion
k −1
Pz = Pz δ k2 , Tb = Tz δ 2
1- For N.G
Pb = 0.25 MPa Tb = 1388k
2- For diesel
Pb = 0.3166 MPa Tb = 1257k

(56)
1- For N.G
Pm = 0.034 + 0.0135 cm
Pm = 0.1132 MPa
2- For Pilot Fuel
Pm = 0.089 + 0.0135 cm
Pm = 0.17 MPa

* To determine brake mean effective pressure ( P e )

P e = P i - Pm
1- For N.G

P e = 0.7538 MPa
2- For diesel

P e = 0.566 MPa
3- For Pilot Fuel

P e = 0.58 MPa

(57)
* To determine the mechanical efficiency

Pe
ηm = −
Pi
1- For N.G
η m = 87%
2- For diesel
η m = 80%
3- For Pilot Fuel
η m = 0.817 = 81.7%
N.G Diesel Pilot
ηm 87% 80% 81.7%

(58)
3.2.1.c. The Indicated Efficiency and Specific Indicated Fuel
Consumption.
The indicated efficiency ηi is the characteristic of the extent of the fuel
heat consumption in an actual cycle to obtain useful work. It represents
the ratio of heat equivalent to the indicated cycle work to the overall
amount of heat admitted to the cycleinder with the fuel.
For 1kg of fuel
ηi = Li / Hu
where
Li is the heat equivalent to the indicated work in MJ/kg;
Hu is the lower heat of fuel combustion in MJ/kg.
Therefore, the indicated efficiency accounts for all heat losses of an-actual cycle.
With automobile and tractor engines operating on a-liquid fuel;
ηi = Pi Lo α /( H u ρ k η v )
where
Pi is in MPa;
Lo is in kg of fuel;
Hu is in MJ/kg of fuel;

(59)
* The indicated η i
η i = Pi − Lo α / ( H u Sc ηv )
3- For N.G
η i = 0.867*17.39*1.4/55-1.2*0.85
η i = 39%
4- For diesel
η i = 0.66*1.7*14.45/43*1.18*0.75
η i = 0.355 = 35.5%
5- For Pilot Fuel
η i = 36.4%
N.G Diesel Pilot
ηi 39% 35.5% 36.4%
(60)
To determine brake thermal efficiency (η b )
η b = η m *η i
1- For N.G
η b = 0.87*0.39 = 34%
2- For diesel
η b = 28.4%
3- For Pilot
η b = 29.7%
N.G Diesel Pilot
ηi 34% 28.4% 29.7%

(61)
To determine B.S.F.C.
*** b.s.f.c. = 3600/Hu*η b
1- For N.G
b.s.f.c. = 3600/55*103 *0.34
b.s.f.c. = 192.5 g/kW hr
2- For diesel
b.s.f.c. = 3600/ 43*103 *0.284
b.s.f.c. = 294 g/kW hr
3- For Pilot
b.s.f.c. = 228 g/kW hr
N.G Diesel Pilot
b.s.f.c. 192.5 294 228
g/kW hr

(62)
N.G Diesel Pilot
Cf 12 12 12
ηm 87% 80% 81.7%
ηi 39% 35.5% 36.4%
ηb 34% 28.4% 29.7%
b.s.f.c. 192.5 294 228
g/kW hr